Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography on her visit to Japan* **
A.Programme of the visit3
A.Scope of sexual exploitation and sale of children.4
B.Root causes and risk factors6
III.Measures to combat and prevent the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography7
C.Policies and programmes to address the sale of children, child prostitution andchild pornography10
IV.Conclusions and recommendations18
A.Programme of the visit
1.The Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography visited Japan, at the invitation of the Government, from 19 to 26 October 2015. The objective of the mission was to assess the extent of the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography and to evaluate the national child protection system with a view of making recommendations to prevent and eradicate all forms of sexual exploitation and sale of children.
2.The Special Rapporteur visited Tokyo, Osaka, Kawanishi and Naha. At the national level, she met with representatives of the Cabinet Office, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the National Police Agency. She also met with representatives of the Supreme Court and with members of the National Diet. At the prefectural level, she met with representatives of the office of the ombudsperson for children’s rights of Kawanishi City, and the prefectural government (Youth, Child and Family Guidance Division) and police of Okinawa.
3.In addition, the Special Rapporteur met with representatives of the business sector, including representatives of Internet service providers and the Japan Association of Travel Agents. She visited the Internet Hotline Centre, and met with representatives of the Internet Content Safety Association and the Safer Internet Association.
4.The Special Rapporteur also met with representatives of civil society and non-governmental organizations working on child protection issues, members of women’s organizations and child rights experts. She met with youth victims of sexual exploitation in Tokyo and with junior high school students in Kawanishi. Lastly, the Rapporteur met with the Japan Committee for the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
5.The Special Rapporteur visited a support centre for high school girls, a sexual assault crisis healing intervention centre, a foster home, a child consultation centre and a youth house. She also conducted monitoring visits to areas of the sex and entertainment industry in Tokyo and Naha.
6.The Special Rapporteur thanks the Government of Japan for facilitating the meetings with authorities at the central and prefectural levels. She also thanks members of civil society and non-governmental organizations, the Japan Committee for UNICEF, the United Nations Information Centre in Tokyo, the Japan National Press Club and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights for their assistance before, during and after her mission.
7.According to data provided by the Government, Japan has a population of 127 million, of which 20,310,400 are children under the age of 18 and 5,389,400 under the age of 5. The global financial crisis of 2008 resulted in Japan going through several periods of recession, which were compounded by the earthquake and tsunami of March 2011. Japan has the third-largest gross domestic product in the world. The current rate of child poverty is 16 per cent. In Okinawa, the overall poverty rate has been increasing and is nearly double the national average. In 2012, it was 34.8 per cent, while the child poverty rate was 37.5 per cent.
A.Scope of sexual exploitation and sale of children
8.According to official statistics, prostitution of children has decreased, although exploitative forms related to child abuse material have increased. While no official analysis or research has been conducted to explain the decrease in child prostitution, the increase in the dissemination, sale and purchase of child abuse material is dueto the development of the Internet and new technologies. Girls continue to account for the majority of victims.According to information gathered from different stakeholders who deal with child victims of sexual abuse and exploitation, however, the Special Rapporteur understands that there are also boy victims, who are reluctant to report abuse and seek assistance owing to fear, stigma or lack of access to gender-sensitive complaint and referral mechanisms.
1.Prostitution of children
9.The Special Rapporteur noted with concern trends and activities that facilitate or lead to sexual exploitation. Of particular concern is the phenomenon of “joshi-kosei business” (or “JK business”), which refers to a variety of commercial activities carried out by school-aged girls. “JK business” can take a variety of forms that do not necessarily lead to sexual contacts. The Special Rapporteur learned, however, of cases in which girls had fallen – despite the efforts of the police to crack down on “JK business” – victim to sexual exploitation, such as prostitution. Joshi- kosei osanpo or “JK osanpo” (high-school girl walking date) is one of the forms facilitated by commercial establishments that connect high-school-aged girls with men to go on excursions together in exchange for money. “JK business” is managed by various types of establishments, such as “JK satsueikai” (high-school girl photo session) establishments and “JK rifure” (high-school girl reflexology) shops. Some of the establishments allow men to be alone with girls to conduct activities that often lead to sexual contact or acts. While “JK business” can involve a variety of management forms, e njo kosai (compensated dating)is a practice whereby a man, without the intervention of a broker or an intermediary, offers money or gifts to a young woman or a girl whom he finds attractive in return for companionship. Although e njo kosai does not necessarily involve sexual acts, dates often lead to some form of sexual contact or acts.
10.“JK business” is not infrequent among some junior and senior high-school-aged girls (aged from 12 to 17 years), who consider it a part-time job with prestige. The girls are hired through job advertisements and recruiters. Once in the business, they often find themselves coerced into providing sexual services by their employers or customers. Since “JKbusiness” is conducted in a grey zone, it is difficult to grasp the full scope of the phenomenon. The Special Rapporteur met with victims of “JK business” and prostitution. Some had escaped sexual abuse at home and ended up into prostitution as a means of survival. They all wished for “JK business” to disappear, and stressed that children and young adults should be warned about its consequences to prevent them from falling victim to it.
11.The Special Rapporteur did not receive any official statistics on the scope of “JK business” in Japan. She noted, however, that it is a worrying trend and a lucrative business thatcan easily lead to the sexual exploitation of children, in particular girls. Consequently, she called upon the Government, in cooperation with civil society, the business sector and non-governmental organizations, to conduct comprehensive empiric research to determine the scope of the phenomenon, including by producing accurate and up-to-date statistics, the push and pull factors, and its impact on child victims, with the ultimate goal of informing effective prevention and protection strategies that will also address the demand factor (namely, the offenders).
2.Child abuse material
12.In recent years, the State has tightened its control over the production, dissemination and sale of child abuse material (namely, child pornography). Nevertheless, statistics marked a new high in 2014. Through new technologies, child abuse material produced in Japan is distributed worldwide and viewed by a global audience. In particular, Japan has been singled out as a major producer of sexually exploitative representations of virtual children in subgenres of manga comics, anime (cartoons), computer graphics and video and online games that contain depictions extreme child pornography.
13.Despite the toughening of legislation, child abuse material can still be accessed and purchased in Japan, in for example stores at entertainment industry districts, such as Akihabara.One category of child abuse material that is easily accessible in entertainment and sex industry areas is chakuero or child erotica, consisting in photographs and other material depicting elementary-school-agedchildren (agedfrom 7 to 12 years) in sexually provocative poses. The material is considered legal because the children are not naked, despite a clear focus on their sexual parts, which could arouse sexual feelings for minors.
14.On the Internet, child pornography is available on video streaming sites. Advertising for the sites assures viewers that viewing streamed child abuse material is not punishable by law (which only punishes the downloading of data). Despite the fact that blocking and deleting measures taken by a public and private partnership (see para. 42 below) have made accessing child abuse material online more difficult, keyword searches for “elementary school idol” and “junior idol” on an online search engine can easily result in access to child pornography.
15.Another issue of concern is forced pornography, in which victims, primarily women and girls aged from 17 to 20 years, are manipulated and forced to have sex on camera. Predators approach girls under 18 years of age, who are more easily deceived; once the girls reach legal majority, they are forced to sign a contract that obliges them to participate in pornographic shootings or filming, under conditions of deceit, duress or coercion. Once trapped in the pornography business, victims who try to break the contracts are threatened with disproportionate compensation claims. The existence of a contract discourages investigations and makes prosecution difficult.
16.“Revenge porn” and “sextortion” are also worrying trends in Japan, which are the result of the risks associatedwith new technologies. “Revenge porn” refers mainly to the posting of sexually explicit images of targeted individuals online as a way of harassing and diminishing the victim. In the case of “sextortion”, children who meet people on live “chat” applications are asked to share their naked pictures or videos, then blackmailed into sending more material under the threat of releasing it.
3.Other forms of sexual exploitation, and the sale of children
17.Since the first World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children,held in Stockholm in 1996, Japan has made considerable progress in combating child sextourism by Japanese men, in particular in South-East Asian countries. Japanese men continue nonetheless to generate significant demand for child sextourism.A dedicated committee has been promoting the adoption of the Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism. Japan is also a destination country for victims of trafficking in persons. Fraudulent marriages and employment are used by traffickers to bring their victims into Japan and to coerce them into sexual exploitation.
B.Root causes and risk factors
18.Gender roles and discrimination, the sexual commodification of children, and social tolerance, impunity and poverty are among the root causes of various forms of sexual exploitation of children in Japan. Consumerism acts as a pull factor for sexual exploitation of children, for example, in “JK business”. Push factors include lack of job opportunities, a highly competitive society and the poor human relationships and social skills of children. These multifaceted factors render children and youth vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Okinawa prefecture, for instance, is particularly affected by poverty, and has higher unemployment, divorce and teenage pregnancy rates; the economic hardship endured and the consequent weakening of families render children particularly vulnerable to sexual exploitation.
19.The Special Rapporteur noted with concern that children are treated as sexual commodities in the entertainment industry, as shown by the phenomenon of “junior idols”. These are children who pursue a career as photographic models, and appear in sexualized attire in photobooks and image DVDs. Some “junior idols” eventually enter the adult pornographic industry. They are popular with some teenagers and constitute a large market. Social tolerance of this type of commercial activity involving children is a major enabling factor of sexual exploitation. The Special Rapporteur regrets that the demand side of sexual exploitation of children is overlooked and that the focus is placed on the child victims and their families, even in well-intended public prevention campaigns. The Special Rapporteur urged the authorities concerned to shift the focus to the private sector that makes business out of the sexual commodification of children.
III.Measures to combat and prevent the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography
20.Japan has ratified key child rights instruments, such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Optional Protocol thereto on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, International Labour Organization Convention No. 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour, and the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime. Japan has signed but not ratified the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocol thereto to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, nor has it ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure.
21.The Act on the Regulation and Punishment of Acts Relating to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and the Protection of Children (1999) is a national law focused on criminalizing the sexual exploitation of children in Japan.The Special Rapporteur welcomed the adoption of the amendment to the Act by the National Diet in June 2014, which brought national legislation closer to international human rights norms and standards by criminalizing, inter alia, the simple possession of child pornography. The amendment was the result of arduous negotiations that lasted almost a decade, as well as the advocacy efforts of civil society and non-governmental organizations, teachers and parents, the Japan Committee for UNICEF, theprivate sector and certain political parties. International pressure also played an important role in favouring the amendment (see CRC/C/OPSC/JPN/CO/1).
22.The amendment does not criminalize so-called “virtual” child abuse material, namely pornographic material that depicts realistic images of minors engaging in sexually explicit conduct (for example,manga, anime and games which contain extreme child abuse material). Opponents argued that the criminalization of such material would be a violation of the right to freedom of expression enshrined in article 21 of the Constitution. They contended that virtual child abuse material (or “visual depictions of non-existent persons”) did not harm real children and that no causal link had been established. Opponents also warned of the risk of excessive police intervention against artistic freedom that could be labelled as “dubious”, and recalled that “obscenity” is already criminalized by the Criminal Code. They also contended that the purpose of the law was to protect real children, and that efforts should focus on combating the sexual exploitation of real children. Opponents also criticized the attempts made to place stronger restrictions on visual media, which would have a particular impact on manga and anime culture, which is unique to Japan.
23.Stakeholders in favour of criminalizing the production, offering, distribution, procurement and possession of virtual child abuse material argued that, according to international human rights law, the said material constituted child pornography and a violation of the rights of the child. They contended that children were harmed by the representation of violent sexual abuse contained in certainmanga, anime and games, and reflected a culture that tolerates child sexual abuse. Even if there is no real harm, virtual child abuse material fosters social tolerance of the exploitative acts that are depicted, contributing to the sexual commodification of children.
24.The Special Rapporteur is aware of the importance of strikingthe right balance between freedom of expression and the rights of the child; the latter should not however, be sacrificed at the expense of powerful and lucrative businesses. According to international human rights norms and standards, any pornographic representation of a child, regardless of whether the depicted child is real or virtual, constituteschild pornography.The aim is to provide protection against behaviour that, while not necessarily doingharm to the child depicted in the material, might be used to encourage or seduce children into participating in such acts, and hence form part of a subculture that favours child abuse.In suchcases, restrictions to the freedom of expression and to the right to privacy are based on grounds of morality and the prevention of harm to others.The ultimate goal is to achieve a society that does not tolerate acts that turn children into sexual objects of desire, which is a violation of the rights of the child. Nevertheless, the Special Rapporteur acknowledges that, in certain cases, a difficult and delicate balance must be achieved to prevent the prohibition of virtual child abuse material from affecting the right to artistic expression, even though decisions on such matters should be subject to judicial review.
25.During the negotiations on the draft amendment to the law, discussions were held to include a request for scientific research on the impact of virtual child abuse material on potential victims and perpetrators. Opponents argued that it was outside the scope of the law, that it could affect the right to privacy of persons, and even that, if it demonstrated a causal link, it hadnot been proventhat the criminalization of virtual child abuse material would reduce crime. In addition, they feared that the inclusion of such a provision would provide legal status to the outcome of the research. Owing to the strong opposition, supporters of the research abandoned the proposal in order to reach an agreement on the adoption of the amendment banning simple possession.
26.The Amendment of June 2014to the Act on the Regulation and Punishment of Acts Relatingto Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and the Protection of Children criminalized simple possession of child pornography (art.7, para.1). This provision entered into force in July 2015, giving those in possession of child abuse material one year to dispose of it. Articles 2 and 3 of the amendment also modified the definition of child pornography. While items (i) and (ii) of the article remained the same, item (iii) was expanded to criminalize any pose of a child wholly or partially naked and“whosesexual body parts (genital organs or the parts around them, buttocks or busts) are exhibited or emphasized” and arouse or stimulate the viewer’s sexual desire. Despite the modification, item (iii) is considered ambiguous, since material that would fall under this category (for example, child erotica) is considered legal. Moreover, the legal requirement common to the two last types of child pornography(“which arouses or stimulates the viewer’s sexual desire”) is interpreted in a restrictive way, and hence applied in extreme cases. The Special Rapporteur notes that this definition is narrower than the one contained in article 2 (c) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.
27.Despite the amendment, other aspects of child pornography are not criminalized, such as viewing and accessing child abuse material online.“JK business” should also be regulated. Aichi is the only prefecture that has prohibited “JK services” by ordinance, establishing fines for owners and managers of stores that offer “JK services”. Even though these regulatory measures at the local level are important to address loopholes in the national child protection framework, the Special Rapporteur notes that they do not have the same impact as a comprehensive law at the national level.
28.Other national laws also contain provisions related to the sexual abuse and exploitation of children, such as the Criminal Code (for example, article 175 on obscene material, article 177 on rape, article 176 on forcible indecency or assault, and article 178 on quasi forcible indecency and quasi rape). The Child Welfare Act defines a child as any person under the age of 18. The age for sexual consent is set at 13 years, which constitutes a major difficulty in the prosecution of sexual crimes against children. The Civil Code sets legal adulthood at 20 years, which creates a social protection gap for persons who are 18 or 19 years of age, who are not protected by the Child Welfare Act. Despite certain prohibitions contained in the Act (such as in article 34), it does not protect children from child erotica, “JK services” and the phenomena of “junior idols” as commercial activities that are harmful for children, and should be amended accordingly. Similarly, the protection of children would be strengthened by amendments to the narrow definition of child abuse and potential perpetrators of the Child Abuse Prevention Act (arts. 2 and 3).
29.Other laws that regulate aspects relating to the sexual abuse and exploitation of children, in particular facilitated by information and communications technology, include the Act on Development of an Environment Providing Safe and Secure Internet Use for Young People, the Act on Regulation on Soliciting Children by Using Opposite Sex Introducing Service on the Internet, and the Law on Control and Improvement of Amusement and Entertainment Businesses. Article 22.3 of the latter law (which prohibits amusement traders engaging persons under 18 in jobs involving entertaining guests) is not applied to “JK business”, since not all forms of “JK business” are considered to be part of the amusement business.
30.The Cabinet Office of the Government is in charge of the design and coordination of interministerial policies on children and youth, such as the Vision for Children and Young People and the Comprehensive Measures to Eliminate Child Pornography. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is in charge of monitoring the implementation of labour laws, including those affecting children, by, for example, conducting labour inspections. In 2009, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications supported the establishment of the Japan Internet Safety Promotion Association, which conducts child pornography prevention programmes and supports the efforts of the business sector to report and eliminate online child abuse material. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Education conducts awareness-raising and training activities for schools counsellors and social workers to strengthen early detection and to facilitate the referral of cases of child abuse. The Special Rapporteur took note of the creation of the National Council for Promoting the Dynamic Engagement of All Citizens, and encouraged its involvement in prevention and protection activities aimed at combating sexual abuse and exploitation of children. She observed that the coordination of policies within the Government and with the prefectures needed to be improved, since coordination was often limited to information-sharing and capacity-building.
31.Institutional coordination against trafficking in persons has been ensured through the establishment in 2004 of the Interministerial Liaison Committee for Trafficking, which has resulted in more comprehensive assistance to victims of trafficking. The Ministry of Justice has established human rights counselling offices to assist foreigners by offering them services in several languages. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has published a manual for assisting victims of trafficking in women’s consultation centres, in coordination with the police and other agencies. In 2007, the Immigration Bureau created the trafficking in persons database.
32.There are 208 child consultation centres at the prefectural level and in major cities. Child victims of neglect, abuse and violence are usually referred to them. There are no specific centres for child victims of sexual abuse and exploitation. Child consultation centres cooperate with law enforcement, medical institutions and schools. From the child consultation centre, child are either returned home or referred to an institution (for example, a children’s home) run by local communities and social welfare. Child consultation centres have been criticized for their lack of facilities and specialized staff, and for not incorporating child participation measures into their work, despite the existence of management guidelines for child consultation centres.
C.Policies and programmes to address the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography
1.Child protection policies
33.In May 2013, a ministerial meeting onmeasures against crime led to the adoption of the Second Comprehensive Measures to Eliminate Child Pornography with the objective of addressing effectively the increase of the phenomenon owing to new technologies. The measures were aimed at strengtheningthe prevention of distribution of and access to child abuse material, improving protection of child victims and enhancing international cooperation. In December 2014, Japan adopted a new plan of action to combat trafficking in persons, which has a zero tolerance policy towards child prostitution and child pornography.The plan also envisaged the publication of annual reports on measures taken by Japan to combat trafficking and statistics (the first such report was published in May 2015).
34.In 2010, the Cabinet Office adopted the Third Basic Plan for Gender Equality, which included measures to dispel stereotypical roles in the media, whichdepictswomen and children as sexual objects, and the development of strategies to preventsexual violence against children. The National Youth Development Policy adopted by the Cabinet Office in 2008 includes measures to combat the sexual exploitation of children through awareness-raising at schools, the promotion of appropriate treatment of child victims, and the involvement of the information and communications technology and entertainment industry. The Special Rapporteur welcomed the fact that young people were invited to make comments and to submit suggestionson the policy. She regrets to report, however, that the “Vision for Children and Young People” adopted by the Cabinet Office in 2010 makes a limited reference to the sexual exploitation of children, stating only that the issue would be actively investigated.
35.Despite the adoption and renewal of numerous plans and policies to address issues relating to violence against and the sexual abuse and exploitation of children, the Special Rapporteur is concernedat the lack of a comprehensive approach in combating the phenomenon. Moreover, the focus seems to be placed on tackling the proliferation of child abuse material to the detriment of efforts to combat other forms of sexual exploitation of children, such as prostitution. In this regard, she observed that the National Plan of Action against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children of 2001 has not been updated or renewed. There also seems to be a lack of coordination and complementarity among different plans and policies, and a lack of assessment of their impact and progress.
2.Investigation, prosecution and sanctions
36.The National Police Agency is in charge of adopting and coordinating measures to combat and prevent the sale and sexual exploitation of children, which are implemented by the police at the prefectural level. The Agency collects and publishes data related to child prostitution and child abuse material, allocates the budget for criminal investigations, and trains personnel.
37.The prefectural police force has a prevention and protection role vis-à-vis child victims of sexual exploitation. It is an essential element in the identification process of child victims, whom it refers to child consultation centres. Child victims of crime and their families are provided with advice by experienced guidance officials and counselling specialists at juvenile support centres and police stations. The force relies on child psychologist when assisting child victims. In addition, at the prefectural level, child-friendly helplines are available for reporting cases of child abuse and exploitation; for example, the police run the “Young Telephone Corner”, where staff members receive counselling requests from children, who make them by a toll-free call or by e-mail. The Special Rapporteur stressed the importance of ensuring that child victims are able to report abuse and to seek help, beyond law enforcement channels, through child-friendly complaint mechanisms.
38.According to statistics facilitated by the National Police Agency, between 2010 and 2014, the number of child victims of pornography increased from 614 to 746, while the number of child victims of prostitution registered by the police dropped from 741 to 466. The vast majority of child victims of sexual exploitation are girls (1,130, as against 82 boys in 2014). There is no official explanation for the decrease in child prostitution; the increase in child pornography is, however, attributed to the impact of the Internet and new technologies. It is also believed that international pressure has played a role in focusing attention to combating child abuse material, to the detriment of child prostitution.
39.In recent years, law enforcement bodies have increased their efforts to combat the online sexual exploitation of children, in particular, the online dissemination of child abuse material. The National Police Agency provides guidance to prefectural police on how to tackle cybercrime. Since 2002, it has managed an automatic child pornography searching system, a central database of images used to assist in the investigation of child pornography cases. The prefectural police force conducts cybercrime patrols to identify demand and to detect victims. Aichi prefectural police and Tokyo metropolitan police were mentioned in particular by stakeholders for their success in this regard. According to the police, one of the main challenges is that children share sexual material of themselves online, including with strangers who contact them.
40.Another challenge when combating child abuse material is related to the identification of child victims. Investigators and prosecutors have been criticized for their reluctance to address cases of child pornography because victims are not always identified and their age is difficult to determine. The Special Rapporteur calls upon law enforcement and prosecutors to conduct proactive investigations and prosecutions to overcome these difficulties. Child pornography dealers often advertise their child abuse material as “child pornography” (or “child erotica”), and should be charged accordingly. With regard to the offence of child prostitution, the Special Rapporteur notes that criminal proceedings against offenders may be initiated ex officio, without the victim’s consent. She commends the efforts of the Public Prosecutor’s Office to make the justice system accessible to victims through, for example, the publication of a manual on victim protection and support, and encourages it to produce a child-friendly version for child and youth victims of trafficking and sexual exploitation.
41.According to the annual report of statistics on prosecution, in 2013, 2,331 cases were received for violation of the Act on the Regulation and Punishment of Acts Relating to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and the Protection of Children: 1,391 cases were opened for prosecution, while 567 cases were dropped. According to the annual report of judicial statistics, the number of offenders convicted by a court of first instance on charges of child prostitution and child pornography decreased from 324 in 2010 to 143 in 2014. The impact of the amendment of the Act remains to be seen in future statistics. According to data facilitated by the Supreme Court, in 2014, 141 convictions were handed down for violations of the Act; 30 of them were convictions of up to three years of imprisonment, without suspension; in 106 cases, the sentence was suspended, including 13 cases on probation. The Special Rapporteur expresses concern atthe high rate of suspension of sentences for offences involving thesexual exploitation of children. Sheconsequently urges the judiciary and the authorities concerned to ensure the full implementation of convictions in order to avoid impunity for these crimes.
3.Combating the sexual exploitation of children online: role of the business sector
42.The Special Rapporteur commends the important role played by the business sector in Japan in combating online child sexual exploitation.On its own initiative, and with the support of the Government, the business sector,in cooperation with law enforcement bodies and non-governmental organizations, has created two mechanisms to block and remove child abuse material: the Internet Content Safety Association and the Safer Internet Association. The Special Rapporteur regards these efforts as good practices that are worth replicating in other parts of the world as a means to combat child abuse material online.
43.The Internet Contents Safety Association was established in 2011 as a response to an increase in the proliferation and dissemination of child abuse material online. The Association has 93 members, including Internet service providers, mobile network operators, search engine operators and filtering service providers. It receives information on child sexual abuse material from the National Police Agency and the Internet Hotline Centre. An independent supervisory committee, comprising academics, representatives of non-governmental organizations, UNICEF, the business sector, and paediatricians and lawyers, decides which websites should be blocked on the basis of a set of criteria. Thereafter, the Association provides Internet service providers and mobile network operators with lists of Internet addresses to be blocked. The site-blocking coverage ratio offered by the Association is 75 per cent for service providers and 100 per cent for network operators. In 2015, the Association included 201 domains and 1,006 Internet addresses (namely, images) on its blocking list. Representatives of the Association stressed the need to harmonize standards and to exchange blacklists to improve coordination efforts at the transnational level.
44.The Safer Internet Association was founded in 2013 through the voluntary efforts of Japanese information and communications technology companies. It runs a hotline for reporting illegal and harmful content online. In addition, it monitors illegal content, conducts research, makes recommendations on policy and implements education and awareness-raising programmes. The Association may request both domestic and overseas providers to remove illegal contents. Its operations are based on a set of guidelines developed by an advisory board composed of independent legal experts. Reports on content that is illegal (such as child abuse material, revenge porn or online solicitation of prostitution) or harmful (such as the bullying of a minor) may be submitted by the public to the Association through its website (www.safe-line.jp). The Association then reports the offending content to the police and the Internet Hotline Centre, and requests domestic (or international provider to remove it.
45.As at July 2015, the Safer Internet Association had received and monitored 24,003 cases, 4,079 of which were found to be illegal and 3,844 were hosted on websites outside Japan. Some 62 per cent of all illegal and harmful content contained obscene expressions, 30 per cent contained child abuse material and 5 per cent revenge porn. A total of 86.8 per cent of child abuse material received or detected by the Association is posted on foreign websites. The Association sent a total of 4,254 requests for removal to site administrators or hosting providers. Unexpectedly, 96 per cent of requests for removal of child abuse material from foreign sites received a positive response. Challenges to requests for removal from a foreign provider range from differences in the definition of what constitutes illegal content to the legal obligations of providers. International cooperation is therefore essential in this regard.
46.The Internet Hotline Centre is an online reporting tool established in 2006 to allow the general public to report potentially illegal and harmful content. Managed by the Internet Association Japan, it is a member of the International Network of Internet Hotlines and funded by the National Police Agency. The Centre assesses reports received on the basis of its operational guidelines, and forwards to the police authorities the cases that might constitute criminal offences (such as obscene images, images of child sexual abuse, or inducement to prostitution). It may also send requests to domestic website owners and Internet service providers to delete illegal and harmful content. The Centre also provides filtering software companies with information in order to protect Internet users from illegal and harmful material.
47.In 2014, the Internet Hotline Centre received a total of 150,352 reports. A total of 1,806 reports received from the public and 778 reports received from the International Network of Internet Hotlines were processed through prioritized procedures. Within three days, the reports were referred to the National Police Agency and the prefectural police force, which may decide to open an investigation. If the user of child abuse material is located outside Japan, the case is referred to the Network, which then refers it to the State concerned. If the child abuse material is constitutes evidence in a criminal investigation, it may be deleted by the Internet service provider only once authorized by the police.
48.Information and communications technology companies in Japan actively contribute to the fight against child sexual abuse and exploitation online by providing funding, know-how and technology. The business sector considers that there is room for improvement with regard to law enforcement and prosecution, namely, by means of more proactive intervention to address the scourge of sexual exploitation of children online, in particular, by publishers.
4.Care, recovery and reintegration of child victims
49.The Special Rapporteur visited various public and private institutionsprovidingchild victims of sexual abuse and exploitation with different types of assistance. All of her interlocutors pointed out, however, that the number of shelters and facilities available to child victims is very limited. Moreover, the services provided are not suited to their needs, and attending staff are specialized or sufficiently trained. Child victims of sexual exploitation are often stigmatized and treated like juvenile delinquents. Their condition as victims is often ignored, resulting in denial of access to appropriate support. The Special Rapporteur stressed the need to establish early identification of victims and their referral to comprehensive support in order to achieve the goal of effective recovery and reintegration of child victims.
50.The Special Rapporteur visited the child consultation centre of Naha, one of the two centres operating in Okinawa prefecture. It provides consultation services to child victims of abuse, children in a vulnerable situation (for example, due to poverty or a broken family) and children with a disability, illness or demonstrating problematic behaviour (“juvenile delinquents”). Cases may be received from the family of the child, a hotline or the police. When confronted with cases of child sexual abuse (in 2013, 6.9 per cent of all cases, or 24 cases), the centre refers the child to hospital for treatment. A case worker and a psychologist hold an interview with the child and the family, and make a final decision on the most appropriate form of support (for example, whether the child should remain with the family or be placed in a temporary child welfare institution, with foster parents or with a foster family). If the child victim or the parent decides not to file a complaint, the centre may report the case to the police. Most offenders go unpunished, which is one the main challenges faced by staff at child consultation centres.
51.Child consultation centres at the prefectural level are overwhelmed by cases of domestic child abuse. Care workers are not specialized or sufficiently trained to assist child victims of sexual abuse and exploitation, and there is no system to select staff members. Lack of specialized training of care workers affects their ability to gain the trust of children, who as a result might refuse the support services of consultation centres. Moreover, child consultation centres are not open 24 hours a day and at weekends to respond to cases. Temporary shelters run by child consultation centres are often full. Children under 13 years of age are accepted as a priority, to the detriment of child victims who are older.
52.The Special Rapporteur highly commended the immediate support services provided by the Sexual Assault Crisis Healing Intervention Centre of Osaka. The Centre, which opened in 2010 as the country’s first one-stop centre for women and girl victims of sexual assault, provides comprehensive, immediate assistance to victims, supporting their choices and recovery. It is run by a non-profit organization funded through donations, and its staff includes professionals and trained volunteers.Services include psychological support, provided by a 24-hour hotline and permanent staff; 24-hour emergency obstetrics and gynaecological medical care, including follow-up; and safety and medical care, afforded by a network of counsellors, lawyers, case workers, psychiatrists, paediatricians, forensic scientists, police officers and women’s and child consultation centres. Victims of sexual abuse and exploitation have access to the centre through the 24-hour hotline or referral by the police or the women’s consultation centre. Immediate support is provided in Hannan Chuo Hospital; victims are subsequently referred to relevant organizations, depending on the care required.
53.Since its establishment, the Sexual Assault Crisis Healing Intervention Centre of Osakahas received more than 23,000telephone calls and 3,200 visits, 983 of which led to the opening of a medical file for victims of rape or indecent assault, sexual abuse, sexual “delinquency” or domestic violence. Approximately 9 per centof victims were under the age of 9, while 53 per cent were aged between 10 and 19 years; 239 victims of rape or indecent assault were under the age of 18. In most cases, perpetrators were male and known to the victim. The Centre provided victims with, inter alia, prescriptionsfor emergency contraceptives and tests for sexually transmitted diseases, and arranged for the collection of evidence, assistance for pregnant women, and referrals to lawyers and counselling. In 90 per cent of cases of sexual abuse handled by the Centre, the victims were minors (19 years of age or younger), and most were aged between 12 and 14. In 77 per cent, of the cases, the perpetrator was a family member;in 42 per cent of cases, the abuse had lasted from one to four years. Perpetrators were arrested in only 16 of 213 cases of sexual abuse;In the other cases, the perpetrator received a reprimand, was defended by the mother or filed for divorce. Impunity for cases of child sexual abuse is mainly the result of the reluctance of victims to initiate criminal proceedings, and of difficulties related to the admissibility of the victim’s testimony.
54.The national network of crisis centres has 129 members. The Government has issued a manual on setting up crisis centres; Osaka prefecture is supporting a research programme running them. The main challenges that one-stop crisis centresface are the development and training of support staff, the increased workload of female obstetricians and gynaecologists, challenges relating to trials, and dependence on donations. The Special Rapporteur also noted that one-stop crisis centresfocus on women, not children or girls; one-stop centres for boys are non-existent. One-stop crisis centres facilitate cooperation among psychiatrists, counsellors, lawyers, the police, child consultation centres and other relevant organizations. They do not,however, conduct forensic interviews, which is an important measure to avoid re-traumatization of victims.
55.The Special Rapporteur also witnessed the important support given by non-governmental organizations to child victims of sexual abuse and exploitation, in particular girls. COLABO, one such organization, runs a support centre that accompanies girl victims by offering a relationship based on trust in a safe and secure place. Its activities include counselling and consultation, night patrols, providing basic assistance and accompanying victims to hospitals and child consultation centres. It also manages a temporary shelter, and conducts education and awareness-raising activities to empower girl victims. Many of the girls assisted by COLABO are victims of “JK business” and prostitution. Owing to the lack of specific facilities, services and professionals, girl victims often end up returning to the sex industry.The Special Rapporteur met with some girl victims of sexual abuse and exploitation who were trying to recover and take care of themselves, and who explained that victims often suffer from mental disorders, have self-harming behaviour or attempt suicide. Sharing their experience and feelings with other survivors in settings facilitated and supported by organizations such as COLABO had helped them regain trust in adults and hope for their future.
56.The Carillon Children Centre is one of the few organizations thatprovideschild and youth victims of abuse and neglectwith long-termsupport. A social welfare foundation, the Centre runs separate shelters for boys and girls, and two homes designed toallow adolescents to live with greater autonomy. It also provides shelter for children fleeing domestic abuse or delinquency, as well as for 18-19 year olds who find themselves in a social protection gap. Three quarters of the girls assistedhave been victims of abuse; many are homeless or earn a living through prostitution. The homes for adolescents constitute the second stage of the support provided by the shelters. The aim is to prevent victims from returning to the place where they were subjected to abuse.
57.Children may contact the Carillon Children Centrethrough a helpline. After verification of a child’s case by a lawyer, the child is referred to a shelter. The lawyer who had the first contact with the child is assigned to the case for the rest of the process; he or she listens to the child and attempts to mediate with the family in order to find the best solution for the child. If the victim is under the age of 18, the case is reported to a child consultation centre to ensure coordination. Upon arrival ata Carilloncentre, the child is interviewed, a meetingis held by specialists to decide on the case, and, if considered necessary, a clinical check-up is conducted (for example, to determine referral for counselling). If criminal charges apply, the case is referred to the police. Forensic interviews are also conducted and recorded in order to avoid re-traumatization.Adolescent mothersare referred to women’s consultation centres, which may offer them protection at their shelters.
58.The Carillon Children Centre designates for each childa care worker, who is responsible for accompanying and listening to the child, and works together with him or her on the best path to follow. While the shelters are aimed at providing safety (the duration of the stay may vary from a few weeks to months), youth homes offer a longer-term residence (on average one year), where they can live a normal life, rediscover their trust in adults and plan their future. Carillon has also initiated a new project, “Carillon House”, where children can take part in leisure, cultural and sports activities. The Special Rapporteur visited Yuyake House, a home for girls run by Carillon. During their stay, the girls work and save money to live independently. Approximately 80 per cent of the budget for the project is funded by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the remainder by donations.
59.Despite the commendable support offered by the above-mentioned public institutions and private organizations, the Special Rapporteur noted that access to adequate and specialized care and specialists for child victims of sexual abuse and exploitation was limited. Moreover, the support provided was mainly focused on immediate or emergency assistance, with insufficient follow-up and/or comprehensive medium- or long-term support. A child-rights perspective and gender-sensitive approach must also be introduced in the methodologies and training of care workers.
5.Prevention, capacity-building and awareness-raising
60.The Special Rapporteur took note of the numerous education and awareness-raising activities conducted by government ministries, law enforcement bodies, the business sector, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders. She encouraged the Government to strengthen the coordination of these activities to improve their complementarity and improve their impact. Prevention efforts should focus on raising the awareness of children, in particular girls, about the risks associated with the “JK business”. Long-term education and awareness-raising strategies must address the root causes of the sexual exploitation of children, such as gender inequality, the sexual commodification of children, and social tolerance towards it.
61.The Special Rapporteur welcomes the efforts made by various ministries, law enforcement bodies, information and communications technology companies and non-governmental organizations in conducting education programmes at schools on the risks associated with new technologies. Efforts should also include training for parents and teachers on educating on and involving children in the safe use of the Internet. The Special Rapporteur took note of the child-friendly material (such as leaflets, workbooks, comics and flyers) produced by information and communications technology companies to raise awareness on these issues.
62.The Special Rapporteur also commended the preventive efforts of non-governmental organizations that were specifically aimed at combating the sexual exploitation of children. COLABO organizes talks at high schools on identifying the tactics used by traffickers and procurers to lure girls into the sex industry. It also conducts nocturnal city walking tours to entertainment areas where they explain how to identify recruiters. The Lighthouse: Centre for Human Trafficking Victims has produced a manga booklet, Blue Heart, that is aimed at raising the awareness of children and adolescents of the risks associated with sexual exploitation, including the “JK business” and “revenge porn”. End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT) /Stop Japan, together with Causevision and Not For Sale Japan, has also produced a comic book, The Sun Also Rises, to raise awareness on the risks of child sexual exploitation.
63.The Special Rapporteur noted with concern the insufficient involvement of media and advertising companies in prevention efforts, and urged the Government to engage them actively in prevention campaigns. The media should adopt codes of conduct compliant with children’s rights, and combat the sexual commodification of children and gender stereotyping.
6.Child participation and independent monitoring
64.The Special Rapporteur noted with concern the lack of involvement of children in the design and development of public policies affecting them. The positive experience of including youth representatives witnessed at the second World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Yokohama in 2001 shows that the Government can do more at the national and local levels to increase the participation of children in the design and implementation of policies to combat their sexual exploitation. In order to increase the participation of children in public life, the Government should partner with non-governmental child rights and protection organizations with experience in involving children in their projects.
65.The Special Rapporteur met with representatives of the office of the Ombudsperson for Children’s Rights of Kawanishi City, the first of its kind in Japan. The office was established in 1998 by ordinance of the city government as an organ attached to the mayor, who appoints the ombudsperson. The office is mandated to address violations of the rights of the child through advocacy, mediation and prevention. It provides counselling and mediation services, investigates complaints, conducts awareness-raising campaigns and makes recommendations to the city government to improve the protection of child rights. The office of the ombudsperson operates a helpline, and holds consultations within and outside its premises. Most of the consultations with children relate to their problems with family or friends, bullying, or verbal abuse or threats from teachers. Even though few complaints relate to child sexual abuse or exploitation, representatives of the ombudsperson conceded that their role and work methods were not adequate to tackle the phenomenon.
66.The Special Rapporteur commended the work of the Ombudsperson for Children’s Rights of Kawanishi City and the other child rights monitoring and counselling organizations located at the prefecture and capital levels (totalling 26). She encouraged them to improve coordination in conducting awareness-raising campaigns to prevent child sexual abuse and exploitation, and in sharing information on successful initiatives that contribute to the protection of children from this scourge. The Special Rapporteur noted, however, that children’s ombudspersons at the local level cannot play the role of national ombudsperson for children’s rights or a national human rights institution;consequently, she urged the Government to prioritize the adoption of the bill on human rights protection and to establish a national human rights institution in charge of monitoring and advocating for the protection of human rights, including children’s rights. Such a body would monitor, inter alia, compliance of national legislation and policies with international child rights norms and standards, including the right of children to be heard and to participate in public issues affecting them.
7.Corporate social responsibility and transnational cooperation
67.The Special Rapporteur commended the prevention and protection measures adopted since 2011 by the information and communications technology industry to combat the sexual abuse and exploitation of children online. The travel and tourism sector has also implemented voluntary measures to combat child sex tourism by Japanese nationals abroad, such as the Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism. The Special Rapporteur encouraged the Government actively to involve other stakeholders in the business sector (such as media and advertising companies, the entertainment industry, and manga and anime publishers) in combating the sexual exploitation of children through the adoption of codes of conduct in order to adhere to international child rights standards. They should also be engaged, in partnership with the Government and non-governmental organizations, in awareness-raising campaigns and prevention programmes to protect children from violence, abuse and exploitation.
68.Japan is actively involved in regional and transnational initiatives to combat the sexual exploitation of children. It hosted the second World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, held in Yokohama in 2001, and participated in the third World Congress, held in Rio de Janeiro in 2008, where participants pledged to establish robust frameworks for the protection of children and adolescents from all forms of sexual exploitation. More recently, Japan participated in the third Asian Forum on the Rights of the Child, held in Ulaanbaatar in 2014. In the outcome declaration of the Forum, participants called for, inter alia, an acceleration in the development and implementation of policies, legislation, awareness-raising activities and other measures for the prevention and prohibition of all forms of violence against children, including child abuse.
69.The National Police Agency organizes an annual conference for investigators on the commercial sexual exploitation of children in South-east Asia, where representatives of law enforcement agencies from the region exchange information on efforts to protect children from sexual exploitation. As an active contributor to the Bali Process on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime, Japan took part in the fifth Regional Ministerial Conference on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime, held in Bali on 2 April 2013. Participating States pledged to refine regional strategies to address new challenges posed by trafficking in persons. As a member of the Group of Eight, Japan provides funding for the International Child Sexual Exploitation database. It has also been active in the framework of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, including in relation to initiatives to address the sexual exploitation of children online and to foster a safer Internet environment.
70.Japan has also entered into extradition and mutual legal assistance agreements in criminal matters with other States. Between 2010 and 2014, law enforcement agencies, on the basis of the principle of extraterritorial jurisdiction, referred four cases for prosecution in relation to child sexual exploitation charges. The National Police Agency strives to arrest nationals who commit child sexual exploitation offences abroad, although they face difficulties in collecting evidence, identifying the victims, and gaining access to victims abroad. The Agency also cooperates with the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) through its own dedicated focal point, sharing information for the International Child Sexual Exploitation database, and submitting requests for judicial assistance.
III.Conclusions and recommendations
71. Japan has made considerable progress in combating the sale of children and related trafficking, child prostitution and child pornography since it hosted the s econd World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Yokohama in 2001. It has adopted legislative amendments and policy measures aimed at tackling the scourge of sexual exploitation of children. In particular, it has accrued significant knowledge and expertise in combating the sexual exploitation of children online through the initiatives of the information and communications technology sector, which constitute good practices to be replicat ed in other countries. One-stop crisis centres that offer integrated immediate assistance and support for women and girl victims of sexual crimes, including sexual abuse and exploitation, are also good practices that should be ex tended throughout the country.
72. The sexual exploitation of children online and offline is, however, still a major issue of concern in Japan. New technologies have increased the proliferation of child abuse material online, and stepping up efforts to combat it have resulted in a shift of focus from other forms of sexual exploitation, such as prostitution of girls. The sexual commodification of children and gender stereotyping, inter alia , have triggered activities and trends that facilitate or lead to the sexual exploitation of children. Moreover, these activities are socially tolerated and usually go unpunished.
73. Japan must build on the momentum created by the reform in 2014 of the Act on the Regulation and Punishment of Acts Relating to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and the Protection of Children to step up efforts to combat all forms of child sexual exploitation and gender inequality. Th e reform was an important first step towards the eradication of child sexual exploitation, but will be ineffective unless it is strengthened and accompanied by comprehensive measures. Looking ahead, the Olympic Games to be hosted Tokyo in 2020 offer a unique opportunity for Japan to take the lead in combating and eradica ting the sexual exploitation of children .
74. In order for Japan t o consolidate its achievements , overcome the remaining challenges and ensure the effective protection of children from the scourge of sexual exploitation, the Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government of Japan :
(a) Strengthen and develop a comprehensive strategy against the sexual exploitation of children, including the appointment of an entity in charge of its design, coordination and follow - up, and ensure complementarity with other existing plans and policies ;
(b) Allocate the resources necessary for the effective implementation of the above-mentioned strategy, and ensure the participation of children and youth in its design, implementation and evaluation ; a s part of th e strategy , it should :
(i) Establish a clear and comprehensive legal framework to prevent, prohibit and protect children from all forms of sale and sexual exploitation, and in particular i ncrease the age of consent for marriage of girls to 18 years of age , and the age of sexual consent of children; and expand the definition of child sexual abuse ;
(ii) Criminalize the production, distribution, dissemination, offering, selling, accessing, viewing and possession of virtual images and representations of children , or persons predominantly depicted as children , engaging in explicit sexual activities , or any representation of the sexual parts of a child for primarily sexual purposes;
(iii) Criminali z e the online viewing and accessing of child abuse material;
(iv) Ban commercial activities that facilitate or lead to the sexual exploitation of children, such as “ JK services” and child erotica;
(v) Adopt a bill on h uman r ights p rotection that , inter alia , establishes a national human rights institution and an independent children’s rights advocate;
(vi) Ratify the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocol thereto to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children , Supplementing t he United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime , and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure ;
(c) Conduct comprehensive empiric research, with reliable and up-to-date data, on the root causes, push and pull factors, scope, forms and impact of commercial activities involving children that lead to their sexual exploitation, as well as research on the impact of virtual child abuse material, in order to inform effective prevention and protection measures to eradicate the sexual exploitation of children ;
(d) Increase the establishment of child-friendly reporting, complaint and referral mechanisms for child victims of sexual abuse and exploitation, supported by staff trained on the rights of the child and the specific needs of child victims;
(e) Increase efforts to investigate, prosecute and sanction offences related to the online and offline sexual exploitation of children, including prostitution and pornography, to ensure the accountability of perpetrators and redress for child victims , and i n particular:
(i) Increase training and awareness-raising activities of law enforcement agencies on the identification of offences related to the sexual exploitation of children, and on the detection and treatment of child victims , incorporating a child-rights perspective;
(ii) Take measures to ensure child-friendly justice proceedings and the protection of child victims and witnesses before, during and after trials;
(iii) Ensure the effective application and implementation of sanctions established by the Criminal Code for offences relating to the sexual exploitation of children , namely, avoiding the suspension of sentences, as an essential means to combat impunity for the said crimes ;
(f) Establish comprehensive, rights-based and child-centred care, recovery and reintegration programmes for child victims of sexual abuse and exploitation , and i n particular:
(i) Increase the number of , fund and support one-stop crisis centres to provide high-quality and integrated care and assistance , also focused on child victims of sexual abuse and exploitation, by, for example, ensuring the availability of hotlines and permanent staff 24 hours a day ;
(ii) Improve the selection and skills of staff at child consultation centr e s, one-stop integrated support centres and related bodies to provide services suited to the needs of child victims of sexual exploitation; and offer alternatives to placement in shelters and welfare institutions ( f or example, foster parenting or youth homes ) ;
(iii) Establish procedures to ensure effective communication and coordination between , inter alia, child consultation centres , one-stop integrated support centres , law enforcement agencies , lawyers, medical institutions, schools and local governments, and strengthen partnerships with non-governmental child protection organizations ;
(iv) Invest more on follow-up care and long - term programmes for the rehabilitation and reintegration of child victims of sexual abuse and exploitation;
(v) Adopt a child-rights perspective, ensuring the right of children to be heard, and a gender approach in the provision of care and recovery for girls, boys and children who identify as LGBT ; provide support for children with disabilities and young mothers with children; and involve family members in the recovery process of children , whenever possible;
(vi) Evaluate and monitor the work of public and private institutions that provide care and support to child victims ;
(g) Take comprehensive preventive measures in partnership with the business sector ( including information and communications technology and media companies, advertising companies and the entertainment business) and non-governmental organizations , with the involvement of children and youth , and i n particular:
(i) Strengthen education programmes and awareness-raising campaigns on the risks associated with new technologies and on safe I nternet usage, targeting students, parents, teachers and carers;
(ii) Conduct awareness-raising campaigns target ing children and youth on different forms and impact of the sexual exploitation of children, and on prevention and protection measures available to them;
(iii) Implement long-term education programmes on gender equality target ing boys and girls, men and women, as an effective means of combating gender discrimination;
(iv) Address the demand factor, namely, the perpetrators and intermediaries who commit sexual crimes against children, as part of preventive efforts ;
(h) E ncourage the private sector to take the measures necessary to ensure that it does not remain or become a facilitator in the demand for the sexual exploitation of children;
(i) Contribute to the establishment of a coordinated global response to the scourge of the sexual exploitation of children through transnational cooperation and the involvement of the business sector, for example, by sharing knowledge and experience in combating the sexual exploitation of children online and increasing cooperation of law enforcement and the business sector across borders.