UNITED NATIONS

HRI

International Human Rights Instruments

Distr.GENERAL

HRI/CORE/1/Add.31/Rev.118 May 2004

ENGLISHOriginal: FRENCH

core document forming the initial partof the reports of states parties

madagascar

[30 December 2003]

GE.04-41789 (E) 210604 250604

CONTENTS

Paragraphs Page

I.TERRITORY 1 - 44

A.Geography1 - 34

B.Administrative organization44

II.POPULATION5 - 95

A.History55

B.Ethnic groups and language6 - 85

C.Foreign communities95

III.DEMOGRAPHY10 - 185

A.Main demographic characteristics10 - 125

B.Distribution of the population13 - 156

C.Main demographic indicators16 - 189

IV.INFRASTRUCTURE19 - 2310

V.GENERAL POLITICAL STRUCTURE24 - 2712

VI.GENERAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK WITHIN WHICHHUMAN RIGHTS ARE PROTECTED28 - 3512

A.The Constitution2812

B.Judicial, administrative or other competent authoritieshaving jurisdiction affecting human rights29 - 3113

C.Remedies32 - 3313

D.Information and publicity34 - 3514

CONTENTS ( contents )

Paragraphs Page

VII.ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INDICATORS36 - 6514

A.Economic indicators36 - 4714

B.Social indicators48 - 6520

VIII.CULTURE AND THE MEDIA66 - 7227

A.Culture66 - 6827

B.The media69 - 7228

I. TERRITORY

A. Geography

1.Madagascar, called the Red Island because of the colour of its laterite soil, is situated in the tropical region of the southern hemisphere, between 11°57' and 25°30' south latitude and between 43°14' and 50°27' east longitude. Straddling the Tropic of Capricorn in the south‑western Indian Ocean, Madagascar is separated from the south-eastern coast of Africa by the Mozambique Channel.

2.With a surface area of 587,051 square kilometres, Madagascar, the world’s fourth largest island after Greenland, New Guinea and Borneo, is considered a subcontinent owing to its size and insular character. The island is 1,600 kilometres long, extending from Cape Sainte-Marie in the south to Cape d’Ambre in the extreme north; it measures nearly 570 kilometres at its widest point. It has a coastline of over 5,000 kilometres; in the west it is bordered by the Mozambique Channel and in the east by the Indian Ocean.

3.The capital is Antananarivo. The most important other cities are: Toliara, Mahajanga, Fianarantsoa, Toamasina, Antsiranana, Taolagnaro, Antsirabe and Morondava.

B. Administrative organization

4.Madagascar consists of six autonomous provinces, which are subdivided into several prefectures, subprefectures and urban and rural communes. The communes are composed of several districts, which are subdivided into sectors.

Table 1

Area and administrative information on each province

Autonomous provinces

Area (km2)

Number of

Regions

Subprefectures

Communes

Antsiranana

43 056

2

9

140

Antananarivo

58 283

6

19

296

Toamasina

71 911

5

18

223

Fianarantsoa

102 373

7

23

397

Mahajanga

150 023

4

21

230

Toliara

161 405

4

21

272

Madagascar

587 051

28

111

1 558

II. POPULATION

A. History

5.The first inhabitants of Madagascar were the Vazimba. Following the arrival of new immigrants from Asia (Indonesians, Malays) and Africa (East Africans, Arabs), the Vazimba moved from the coast into the interior of the island. Other population groups (Indians, Chinese, Europeans) came later. Before Europeans arrived in Madagascar, several kingdoms were established between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. France colonized the island in 1896 and occupied it until 1960, when Madagascar gained independence.

B. Ethnic groups and language

6.Madagascar’s population is composed of several ethnic groups united by the same official language, Malagasy, whose various dialects have been shaped by geography, history and culture.

7.The 18 main ethnic groups are: the Antefasy (Farafangana); the Antemoro (south-east of Manakara); the Antesaka (south-east); the Antakarana (Ambilobe, Antsiranana); the Antambahoaka (Mananjary); the Antandroy (extreme south); the Antanosy (Taolagnaro); the Bara (from Ihosy to Mandabe); the Betsileo (south of the Mania river and Matsiatra); the Betsimisaraka (from Antalaha to Mahanoro - east coast); the Bezanozano (Moramanga - Mangoro region); the Mahafaly (Ampanihy, Betioky); the Merina (Antananarivo province); the Sakalava (from Morombe to Analalava); the Sihanaka (Lake Alaotra); the Tanala or Antanala (from Ifanadiana to Iakora); the Tsimihety (the Sofia region); and the Vezo (Toliara).

8.Certain ethnic groups contain subgroups, such as the Tanalana (subgroup of the Mahafaly); the Sara (subgroup of the Vezo); the Mikea (subgroup of the Masikoro); the Zafimaniry (subgroup of the Tanala); the Betanimena (subgroup of the Betsimisaraka); and the Zafisoro (subgroup of the Antesaka).

C. Foreign communities

9.Madagascar also has a number of foreign communities: French, Italian, German, Greek, Norwegian, British, Chinese, Korean, Indo-Pakistani, African, Arab, Mauritian and Comorian.

III. DEMOGRAPHY

A. Main demographic characteristics

10.At the beginning of the twentieth century, the population of Madagascar was estimated at 2,242,000; until 1950, the growth rate was low - 1 per cent. The increase in natural growth is therefore a relatively recent phenomenon in Madagascar. Natural growth reached 2.2 per cent in 1966, and 2.7 per cent in 1975.

11.Because Madagascar is an island situated far away from major world migration flows, there have been very few population exchanges between Madagascar and the outside world. International migration is negligible.

12.The population of Madagascar, which was 6,462,000 in 1966 and 7,603,790 in 1975, was 12,238,914 in 1993, when the last General Population and Housing Census (RGPH) was held. The National Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) estimated that in 2003 the population of Madagascar was 16,441,000.

B. Distribution of the population

13.With regard to the distribution of the population, the level of urbanization was 16 per cent in 1975; it reached 23 per cent in 1993. Most of the population lives in rural areas.

14.According to the 1993 General Population and Housing Census, the average population density was 21 inhabitants per km2. This figure conceals the great disparity among regions: population density varies from 62 inhabitants/km2 in the province of Antananarivo to 9inhabitants/km2 in the province of Mahajanga.

Table 2

Population structure by sex and by area of residence;projections based on the mean variant (1993)

Area

of residence

Population by year (in thousands) a

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Madagascar

12 239

12 596

12 990

13 393

13 803

14 222

14 650

15 085

15 529

15 981

16 441

Women

6 151

6 327

6 522

6 721

6 924

7 343

7 559

7 778

8 003

8 211

7 132

Men

6 088

6 269

6 468

6 672

6 879

7 306

7 526

7 750

7 978

8 230

7 091

Urban areas

2 800

2 930

3 077

3 230

3 391

3 562

3 741

3 927

4 122

4 327

4 544

Women

1 432

1 497

1 571

1 649

1 730

1 907

2 001

2 100

2 203

2 313

1 817

Men

1 369

1 433

1 505

1 581

1 661

1 834

1 926

2 022

2 124

2 231

1 745

Rural areas

9 439

9 666

9 913

10 163

10 412

10 661

10 909

11 158

11 407

11 653

11 897

Women

4 719

4 830

4 951

5 072

5 194

5 436

5 558

5 679

5 799

5 917

5 315

Men

4 720

4 836

4 963

5 090

5 218

5 473

5 600

5 728

5 854

5 980

5 346

Source: RGPH 1993 Demographics and Social Statistics Office (DDSS)/INSTAT.

a The data for 1993 are from the General Population and Housing Census; the data for all other years are projections.

Table 3

Population structure by province and by sex from 1993 to 2003;projections based on the mean variant (1993)

Population

Population by year

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Antananarivo

Total

3 601 127

3 705 000

3 821 000

3 940 000

4 063 000

4 318 000

4 450 000

4 585 000

4 723 000

4 862 000

Men

1 803 483

1 855 000

1 914 000

1 974 000

2 036 000

2 164 000

2 231 000

2 299 000

2 368 000

2 439 000

Women

1 797 644

1 849 000

1 907 000

1 966 000

2 027 000

2 154 000

2 219 000

2 286 000

2 354 000

2 424 000

Antsiranana

Total

954 733

979 000

1 006 000

1 034 000

1 063 000

1 124 000

1 156 000

1 189 000

1 222 000

1 256 000

Men

471 409

484 000

497 000

511 000

526 000

557 000

573 000

589 000

606 000

623 000

Women

483 324

495 000

509 000

523 000

537 000

568 000

583 000

600 000

616 000

633 000

Fianarantsoa

Total

2 550 190

2 636 000

2 731 000

2 830 000

2 931 000

3 144 000

3 255 000

3 369 000

3 486 000

3 606 000

Men

1 261 640

1 305 000

1 353 000

1 402 000

1 453 000

1 560 000

1 616 000

1 674 000

1 733 000

1 794 000

Women

1 288 550

1 331 000

1 379 000

1 428 000

1 478 000

1 584 000

1 639 000

1 695 000

1 753 000

1 813 000

Mahajanga

Total

1 364 793

1 404 000

1 447 000

1 492 000

1 538 000

1 634 000

1 683 000

1 734 000

1 787 000

1 841 000

Men

681 764

701 000

723 000

746 000

7 68 000

816 000

841 000

867 000

893 000

921 000

Women

683 029

703 000

724 000

747 000

769 000

817 000

842 000

867 000

893 000

920 000

Toamasina

Total

1 995 461

2 059 000

2 129 000

2 202 000

2 276 000

2 431 000

2 512 000

2 595 000

2 680 000

2 767 000

Men

995 943

1 028 000

1 063 000

1 099 000

1 137 000

1 215 000

1 255 000

1 297 000

1 340 000

1 384 000

Women

999 518

1 031 000

1 066 000

1 102 000

1 139 000

1 217 000

1 257 000

1 298 000

1 340 000

1 383 000

Toliara

Total

1 772 610

1 820 000

1 874 000

1 929 000

1 986 000

2 105 000

2 167 000

2 230 000

2 295 000

2 362 000

Men

873 878

898 000

925 000

952 000

981 000

1 040 000

1 071 000

1 103 000

1 136 000

1 170 000

Women

898 732

923 000

949 000

977 000

1 005 000

1 064 000

1 095 000

1 127 000

1 159 000

1 192 000

S ource : RGPH 1993 - DDSS/INSTAT.

Table 4

Population structure by sex and age in 2003

Age

Total

Men

Women

0-4

2 864 081

1 451 221

1 412 860

5-4

2 509 224

1 273 040

1 236 184

10-14

1 918 155

962 297

955 858

15-19

1 582 879

799 192

783 687

20-24

1 465 226

740 200

725 026

25-29

1 315 007

645 249

669 758

30-34

1 065 063

517 926

547 137

35-39

853 742

414 876

438 866

40-44

740 342

365 319

375 023

45-49

584 626

295 175

289 451

50-54

444 248

222 024

222 224

55-59

294 818

140 967

153 851

60-64

261 931

123 540

138 391

65-69

200 973

95 089

105 884

70-74

162 058

77 408

84 650

75-79

94 296

46 494

47 802

80 and over

84 128

40 831

43 297

Total

16 440 797

8 210 848

8 229 949

Source: RGPH 1993 - DDSS/INSTAT.

Table 5

Structure by major age groups and by sex in 2003

Age

Per cent

Total

Men

Women

0-14

44.3

22.4

21.9

15-64

52.4

25.9

26.4

65 and over

3.3

1.6

1.7

Total

100.0

49.9

50.1

Source: RGPH 1993 - DDSS/INSTAT.

15.The population of Madagascar is very young: one Malagasy in two is under 20 years old (the median age of the population is 16.3).

C. Main demographic indicators

1. Birth rate, fertility rate and mortality rate

16.The various sources of data, namely RGPH 1993, the 1992 National Demographic and Health Survey (ENDS 1992) and the 1997 Demographic and Health Survey (EDS 1997), indicate that Madagascar has a high fertility rate and that fertility begins early. The total fertility rate is 6 and the number of girls between the ages of 15 and 19 who have already begun their fertile life is rather high (30 per cent according to EDS 1997).

17.The mortality rate decreased between 1950 and 1970. The most recent studies (ENDS 1992, RGPH 1993, the 1995 Multiple Indicators Clusters Survey (MICS), EDS 1997 and MICS 2000) estimate the mortality rate to be 93 per thousand.

Table 6

Main demographic indicators

Indicators

Autonomous province

Madagascar

Antsiranana

Fianarantsoa

Mahajanga

Toamasina

Antananarivo

Toliara

Population (in 2000, estimated)

1 156 000

3 255 000

1 683 000

2 512 000

4 450 000

2 166 000

15 085 000

Density (inhabitant./ km²)

26.85

31.86

11.22

34.93

76.35

13.42

25.71

Sex ratio

98.28

98.6

99.88

99.84

100.54

97.81

99.56

Prevalence rate for modern methods of contraception (%)

10.8

5.1

5.3

9.4

15.9

5.4

9.7

Age of mother at first birth (year)

18.6

19

18.4

19.9

20.4

19

19.5

Age of first sexual relations (year)

16.1

16.6

16

17.3

18.3

15.4

16.9

Total fertility rate (TFR)

5.21

6.87

6.61

5.61

5.37

6.18

5.97

Infant mortality rate (‰)

72.9

120.9

112.4

104.1

72

114.4

99.3

Demographic growth rate (%)

2.5

3.2

2.7

3

2.8

2.6

2.7

Sources: ENDS 1997. INSTAT, Projections et perspectives démographiques (RGPH), 2000. INSTAT, Inventaire des Fivondronana (1999). National Planning Office.

2. Life expectancy

18.In 1993, life expectancy at birth for Madagascar as a whole was higher for women (53.3 years) than for men (51.3 years). This indicator varies from province to province.

Table 7

Life expectancy at birth by province and by sex

Province

Sex

Men

Women

Antananarivo

56.68

59.99

Antsiranana

52.84

56.48

Fianarantsoa

43.7  

44.62

Mahajanga

52.24

54.85

Toamasina

52.02

53.02

Toliara

51.9  

53.45

Madagascar

51.3  

53.3  

Sources: Demographics and Social Statistics Office (DDSS), RGPH 1993, INSTAT.

IV. infrastructure

19.While most communication infrastructures have deteriorated, a number of them have been renovated:

(a)Main airports the operation of which was later assigned to a private company (Aéroports de Madagascar (ADEMA), since 1995);

(b)Main national roads benefiting from the State-run Road Maintenance Fund;

(c)Railway network: while the Fianarantsoa-East Coast line has benefited from Madagascar’s cooperation with technical and financial partners, its level of use has not returned to that of the 1960s;

(d)Dock work equipment: partly renovated; some vehicles have been replaced.

20.While road renovation projects are continuing, much remains to be done. The northern part of Madagascar’s national railway network (RNCFM), which was nearly inactive for a decade, was chartered to the Madarail company in July 2003. Its activities were limited to the transport of chromite and graphite ore to Toamasina. Madagascar is currently attempting to restore heavy freight transport on the Tananarive-East Coast line.

21.The semi-navigable Pangalanes canal is being maintained by the Malagasy Innovation Institute (IMI); however, in spite of its potential, the canal is little used.

Table 8

Madagascar’s road network

Administrative class

Length by class (km)

Service levels

1

2

3

4

5

6

National primary roads

2 560

2 560

National secondary roads

4 685

3 088

1 279

181

115

22

National temporary roads

4 479

1 201

1 157

1 043

908

170

Provincial roads

9 651

126

220

1 940

7 365

Unclassified roads

10 024

14

510

9 500

Total

31 399

2 560

4 289

2 562

1 458

3 473

17 057

Source: Ministry of Public Works.

Table 9

Railway network infrastructure

Tana

Moramanga

Moramanga

Vohidiala

Tana

Fianarantsoa

Moramanga

Toamasina

Ambatosoratra

Morarano

Vinaninkarena

Manakara

1. Total length of track

Main

123

250

168

19

169.3

163.4

Secondary

(Branch)

2. Structures:

Tunnels

Number

28

-

7

55

Length (m)

2 736.45

-

1 027.11

5676.05

Reinforced concrete bridges

Number

15

14

17

58

Length

297

1 876.35

1 715.4

Metal bridges

Number

70

63

8

1

Length (m)

1 925.45

595.7

55

12

Culverts and pipes

Number

898

425

252

893

Length (m)

11 661.77

4 835.58

3 220.6

11519.7

3. Maintenance and repair

Track improvement (m)

35 665

Source: Département Etudes/RNCFM MTM/SG/SST: November 2002.

22.Madagascar’s port infrastructure comprises four main ports and nine secondary ports, including one international trade port (Toamasina) and an arsenal serving as a military base (Antsiranana).

23.The airport infrastructure comprises 29 airfields with surfaced runways, including 6 international airports for regional aircraft, with the exception of Antananarivo airport, which is for international aircraft.

V. GENERAL POLITICAL STRUCTURE

24.Since the last report (1993), important political changes have taken place in Madagascar. Socialist ideology has been abandoned, political pluralism has been recognized and censorship has been lifted. The Third Republic, which is based on a parliamentary system, has been established in anticipation of the restoration of a strong presidential system.

25.The organization of the State is set out in Title III, article 41, of the Constitution, which provides that the structure of the State includes the President of the Republic and the Government; the National Assembly and the Senate; and the High Constitutional Court. The three functions of the State - executive, legislative and judicial - are exercised by the aforementioned institutions and by separate bodies.

26.The Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal and their jurisdictions, as well as the High Court of Justice, carry out the functions of the judiciary. The 1998 revised Constitution provides for the principle of separation of functions instead of the conventional separation of powers contained in the 1992 Constitution. The reason for this is that the effective exercise of judicial power was discussed at great length before it was rejected by the revised Constitution.

27.In Madagascar, the freedom and democratic nature of presidential, legislative and local elections are monitored by the High Constitutional Court, the Electoral Tribunal and the National Electoral Council. The participation of members of civil society in monitoring the regularity and honesty of the voting led to the establishment of the Election Observers Committee. Madagascar does not place any restrictions on the participation of international observers to monitor the electoral process.

VI.GENERAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK WITHIN WHICH HUMAN RIGHTS ARE PROTECTED

A. The Constitution

28.In its preamble, the Constitution of 18 December 1992 recognizes the International Bill of Human Rights, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the conventions on the rights of women and the rights of the child, which are considered to be an integral part of Madagascar’s law. In its article 40, paragraph 2, the 1992 Constitution provides that “the State shall guarantee, through the establishment of specialized bodies, the promotion and protection of human rights”. Articles 8 to 16 guarantee the protection and exercise of rights and duties without discrimination. Such protection is limited only by respect for the freedom of others and the need to maintain public order.

B.Judicial, administrative or other competent authorities having jurisdiction affecting human rights

1. Judicial authorities

29.Courts and tribunals are competent to consider human rights violations.

2. Administrative authorities

30.The administrative authorities responsible for maintaining order have the obligation to respect human rights in the performance of their functions. Article 114 of the Criminal Code of Madagascar provides that “any civil servant or government agent or official who orders or commits an arbitrary act or one that infringes on a person’s liberty or the civic rights of one or more citizens or on the Constitution shall be stripped of his or her civic rights”.

3. Other bodies

31.Two other bodies have competence in the field of human rights: (i) the Office of the Ombudsman (Médiateur), established by Ordinance No. 92-012 of 29 April 1992, and (ii) the National Human Rights Commission, established by Decree No. 96-1282 of 18 December 1996.

C. Remedies

1. Remedies

32.In accordance with article 6 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which has been ratified by Madagascar, Madagascar provides protection to everyone within its jurisdiction by including in its positive law measures to ensure the effectiveness of such protection. Articles 8, 10 and 14 of the 1992 Constitution provide for the possibility of remedies for all types of human rights violations.

2. Right to compensation

33.Any person whose rights have been violated and who has sustained damages may request compensation from the competent authority.

(a)The various international human rights instruments have been incorporated into the 1992 Constitution;

(b)Madagascar is endeavouring to bring its domestic legislation into conformity with the provisions of the conventions and treaties that it has ratified;

(c)Human rights violations may be invoked by victims before judicial and administrative bodies and must be dealt with by the competent authorities.

D. Information and publicity

34.The various international instruments have been translated into Malagasy in order to make the objectives of human rights conventions and treaties more accessible to the population. The National Human Rights Commission contributes to the drafting of Madagascar’s periodic reports in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice.

35.This core document, which supplements and amends document HRI/CORE/1/Add.31 (prepared in July 1993), and the associated periodic report submitted by Madagascar to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD/C/476/Add.1), were drafted in December 2003 by a joint committee composed of representatives of the State, representatives of non-governmental human rights organizations and representatives of civil society. The joint committee discussed the two documents at length before adopting the final texts.

VII. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INDICATORS

36.In recent years, important changes have taken place in Madagascar’s economy:  the economy has been liberalized and the State has taken steps to disengage itself from the productive sector. For example, secondary and tertiary sectors (oil, textiles, trade, transport, telecommunications, banking) have been partly or completely privatized.

37.Since 1997, these economic reforms have begun to bear fruit. For the first time in a decade, Madagascar registered a rise in its per capita gross domestic product (GDP) as well as a substantial decrease in inflation. Macroeconomic recovery has been accompanied by a slight reduction in the national poverty level. The number of Malagasy citizens living below the poverty line - defined as the amount of money needed to buy the minimum food basket containing 2,100 calories per person - decreased by 2 per cent between 1997 and 1999 (Source:  National Institute of Statistics/Household Statistics Department (INSTAT/DSM).

38.This improvement has affected primarily urban areas. By contrast, the level and depth of poverty has continued to increase in rural areas. Today, over 84 per cent of poor people in Madagascar live in rural areas.

A. Economic indicators

39.The primary sector holds a prominent place in Madagascar’s economy since it employs 80 per cent of the active population. However, this sector’s contribution to GDP is only 30 per cent.

Table 10

Gross domestic product (GDP) in nominal and real terms, and rate of inflation

Year

Nominal GDP (billions of FMG)

Real GDP (billions of FMG 1984)

Growth (%)

Inflation (%)

1989

4 005.4

1 903.6

4.1

12.0

1990

4 604.1

1 963.2

3.1

11.5

1991

4 869.4

1 839.3

-6.3

12.9

1992

5 637.4

1 861.1

1.2

14.4

1993

6 450.9

1 900.1

2.1

12.1

1994

9 131.4

1 898.8

-0.1

41.7

1995

13 478.7

1 931

1.7

45.1

1996

16 224.4

1 973

2.1

17.8

1997

18 050.8

2 045.6

3.7

7.3

1998

20 349.5

2 126.1

3.9

8.5

1999

23 352.7

2 225.1

4.7

9.7

2000

26 882.7

2 332.3

4.8

9.8

2001

29 843

2 471

6.0

7.3

2002

30 058*

2 157*

-12.7*

15.4*

Source: Economic Analysis Department (DSY), INSTAT.

* Projected.

1. Development of the economy

40.Since 1960, Madagascar’s economic history has been marked by three distinct economic policies, which correspond to three major periods: the period when Madagascar was in the free zone (1960-1971), the period of State-controlled economy (1972-1981) and the period of structural adjustment (beginning in 1982).

(a)1960-1971: economic beginnings of the new Republic

41.During this period, Madagascar was in the free zone, and its macroeconomic characteristics indicate better economic health.

(b)1972-1981: State control of the Malagasy economy

42.This period is characterized by heavy State interventionism that took the form of (i) the nationalization of almost all large (particularly colonial or multinational) enterprises, (ii) State monopoly over the marketing of basic commodities, (iii) State price-fixing and State subsidies for basic commodities, and (iv) State direct industrial investment programme, called “excessive investment” in the 1980s.

43.This policy led to the stagnation and decline of economic activities and to high inflation. This resulted in the continuous and rapid deterioration of the population’s standard of living. During this period, the average annual growth rate of constant per capita GDP was -1.6 per cent. The failure of excessive investment triggered a crisis in the balance of payments.

(c)Beginning in 1982: return to liberalism and economic recovery

44.Madagascar, with the support of its technical and financial partners, established economic recovery policies that were interrupted by two major political crises: the first in 1991 and the second in 2002.

Table 11

Subperiod performance

Subperiods

Adjustment phase

Effect of adjustment

Administrative freeze

New adjustment

Entire subperiod

1982-1987

1987-1990

1990-1991

1991-2001

1982-2001

Average growth of GDP

1.4%

3.5%

-6.3%

2.9%

2.1%

Source: INSTAT/DSY, 2003.

During this period, the foundations of economic development were laid: price liberalization, State disengagement, stabilization of public finances, and devaluation of the national currency.

45.Since 1982, the Malagasy economy has been marked by the implementation of structural adjustment measures. Such measures have had the following effects:

Slowdown in administrative operations caused by the freeze on the recruitment of civil servants, and the delay in administrative reforms;

Unemployment caused by the reduction of salaried staff in the context of the streamlining of enterprises to be privatized, and the dissolution of unprofitable public enterprises;

Rapid rise in the cost of living caused by economic liberalization;

Dropout rate and educational wastage owing to parents’ poverty;

New outbreaks of endemic diseases, including malaria, caused by reductions in the import of medicines;

Successive devaluations of Malagasy currency resulting in a currency floating system.

GrowthGDP at constant pricesDevelopment of GDP (at constant prices) and the growth rate from 1960 to 2003Source: INSTAT/DSY, 2003.

2. The economic situation

Table 12

Share of sectors in GDP

Year

Share of sector in GDP

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

1997

29.2

12.4

52.0

1998

28.1

12.5

52.5

1999

27.2

12.5

52.4

2000

31.8

12.5

48.9

2001

25.7

13.5

53.8

2002

29.8*

13.5*

51.4*

Source: Economic Analysis Department, INSTAT.

* Projected.

Table 13

Distribution of the working population by sector in the main activity (% by area)

Secondary urban centre

Rural

Total

Salaried - agricultural sector

1.6

2.0

1.8

Salaried - non-agricultural sector

23.0

7.6

12.9

Non-salaried - agricultural sector

53.1

80.2

70.9

Non-salaried - non‑agricultural sector

22.3

10.3

14.4

Total

100

100

100

Source: Calculations based on the 2001 Permanent Housing Survey (EPM 2001), INSTAT/DSM.

Table 14

Large macroeconomic aggregates

Units

1999

2000

2001

Rate of growth of GDP at constant prices

%

4.7

4.7

6.0

GDP deflator

%

9.8

7.1

7.3

GDP at constant prices (1984 prices)

Billions FMG

2 225.7

2 331.1

2 470.7

GDP at current price

Billions FMG

23 383.9

26 242.1

29 843.0

Per capita GDP at current franc

FMG

1 596 168

1 739 617

1 921 761

Per capita GDP at 2001 price

FMG

1 835 039

1 866 546

1 921 761

Rate of growth of per capita GDP

%

1.8

1.7

3.0

Per capita GDP

US$

254.0

257.0

291.7

Structure (in % of GDP)

Total consumption

%

93.1

91.4

89.2

Private sector

%

85.7

83.5

80.4

Public sector

%

7.5

7.9

8.8

Total investment

%

14.4

16.2

17.9

Private sector

%

8.0

10.0

11.2

Public sector

%

6.4

6.2

6.7

Source: Economic Analysis Department/INSTAT.

46.The political crisis in 2002 caused a widespread slowdown in economic activity that took the form of high unemployment rates and galloping inflation. The situation gradually improved in 2003 owing to the efforts of the State, technical and financial assistance from donors, and larger tax revenues.

3. External debt

47.In spite of successive agreements to reschedule external debt with the Paris Club since 1981, Madagascar’s debt problem remains unchanged. According to the Central Bank, at the end of 2000, the nominal outstanding external debt was on the order of 3 billion special drawing rights (SDRs).

Table 15

Outstanding external debt and external debt servicing from 1995 to 2000

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Outstanding external debt

In millions of SDRs

2 887

3 083

2 858

2 829

2 949

2 959

In billions of FMG

18 694

18 134

20 054

20 887

25 316

26 436

External debt servicing

In millions of SDRs

263

232

122

134

83

99

In billions of FMG

1 704

1 368

856

992

682

881

GDP

In millions of SDRs

2 082

2 758

2 573

2 755

2 723

3 002

In billions of FMG

13 479

16 224

18 051

20 343

23 390

26 242

Export of non-factor goods and services

In millions of SDRs

502

565

561

590

664

894

In billions of FMG

3 251

3 326

3 938

4 358

5 703

7 984

Fiscal revenue

In millions of SDRs

173

234

241

269

301

333

In billions of FMG

1 121

1 374

1 688

1 984

2 580

2 972

Outstanding external debt

% of exports

575

545

509

479

444

331

% of fiscal revenue

1 668

1 320

1 188

1 053

981

889

% of GDP

139

112

111

103

108

100

External debt servicing

% of exports

52.4

41.1

21.7

22.7

12.4

11.0

% of fiscal revenue

152

99.1

50.6

49.8

27.4

29.7

% of GDP

12.6

8.4

4.7

4.9

3.0

3.3

Rate of exchange FMG/SDRs

6 474

5 882

7 016

7 383

8 586

8 934

Source: Central Bank of Madagascar.

B. Social indicators

1. Household characteristics

48.In 2002, the average Malagasy family was composed of five persons.

Table 16

Average size of households

Total 2002

2001

2002

Antananarivo

4.9

4.6

4.8

Fianarantsoa

5.1

5.2

5.2

Toamasina

4.8

4.7

4.8

Mahajanga

5.0

4.8

4.9

Toliara

5.6

4.9

5.5

Antsiranana

4.4

4.4

4.5

Madagascar

5.0

4.8

4.9

Source: INSTAT/DSM, 2002.

In rural areas, 23 per cent of households have no furniture and 81 per cent have no household appliances. In the capital, three out of five households have a television set, as compared with only 7 per cent in rural areas. Less than 1 per cent of the population have an automobile, and one person in 10 owns a two-wheeled vehicle (Source: INSTAT/DSM/Permanent Household Survey (EPM) 2001).

2. Characteristics of heads of household

49.In Madagascar, 15 per cent of households are headed by women (divorced, separated or widowed).

Table 17

Distribution of heads of household by sex

Sex

Per cent

Men

84.9

Women

15.1

Source: INSTAT/DSM, 2001.

Table 18

Activities of heads of household

Socio-economic group

Per cent

Farmer

62.7

Stockbreeder/Fisherman

2.3

Agricultural entrepreneur

2.9

Trader/Services

5.9

Salaried worker

5.0

Labourer

13.5

Non-qualified rural worker

2.4

Non-qualified urban worker

1.3

Others

4.0

Source: INSTAT/DSM, 2001.

According to the 2001 Permanent Household Survey, there are 911,000 non-agricultural enterprises. Half of those enterprises are involved in trade, one fourth in the agricultural branch and one fifth in the industrial sector. The average age of the enterprises is 8.7 years.

3. Active population

50.The active population accounts for 66.5 per cent of the total population. In urban areas, it represents 55 per cent of the population and, in rural areas, over 70 per cent. Women account for 62 per cent of the labour market; men account for 68 per cent. Unemployment in the strict meaning of the International Labour Office is rather low in Madagascar: 3.6 per cent in 2001 (INSTAT/DSM). Unemployment is primarily an urban phenomenon; in urban areas, the unemployment rate is over 12 per cent.

Table 19

Unemployment rate in large urban centres

Large urban centre

Sex

Men

Women

2000

2001

2000

2001

Antananarivo

5.1

5.0

4.7

3.9

Antsirabe

7.0

5.7

7.5

4.5

Antsiranana

5.4

9.7

11.3

16.5

Fianarantsoa

8.6

5.0

5.7

4.2

Mahajanga

4.5

5.7

2.2

5.5

Toamasina

7.1

3.8

10.0

12.4

Toliara

12.8

8.5

10.4

7.1

Total

6.0

5.3

5.7

5.4

Source: Urban Employment Survey 2000, 2001.

4. Poverty

51.Macroeconomic recovery, which began in 1997, has been accompanied by a slight decline in national poverty. Between 1997 and 1999, the proportion of the population living below the poverty line decreased by 2 per cent. The effects of progress vary according to region. The provinces of Toliara, Toamasina and Antananarivo have benefited from greatest reduction in overall poverty. On the other hand, between 1993 and 1999 the poorest provinces - Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga and Antsiranana - registered an increase in the number of poor people.

Table 20

Trends in poverty, by region

Province

Change in %

Level

1993-1997

1997-1999

1999 (%)

Fianarantsoa

0.9

6.0

81.1

Mahajanga

20.6

2.2

76.0

Antsiranana

2.1

10.3

72.6

Toliara

0.9

-10.4

71.6

Toamasina

1.9

-8.5

71.3

Antananarivo

-1.6

-4.7

61.7

Source: INSTAT, DSM.

Table 21

Comparison of Madagascar’s HDI with that of other countries

Country

HDI (1998)

Rank/HDI

Real per capita GDP (PPAa)

Norway

0.942

1

29 918

Sweden

0.941

2

24 277

Canada

0.94

3

27 840

Belgium

0.939

4

27 178

Australia

0.939

5

25 693

Madagascar

0.469

147

840

Burundi

0.313

171

591

Niger

0.277

172

746

Sierra Leone

0.275

173

490

World

0.722

7 446

OECD b

0.905

23 569

Developing countries

0.654

3 783

Sub-Saharan Africa

0.471

1 690

Least developed countries

0.445

1 216

Source: World Report on Human Development 2002.

aPurchasing power parity.

bOrganisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Table 22

Dynamics of poverty in Madagascar

Change in %

Level

1993-1997

1997-1999

1999

Macroeconomic indicators

Per capita GDP (1 000 FMG)

-0.9

1.3

154      

Inflation rate

24.0

8.5

9.8   

Incidence of poverty a

National

3.3

-2.0

71.3%

Urban

13.1

11.1

52.1%

Rural

1.5

0.7

76.7%

Depth of poverty b

National

3.3

-0.8

32.8%

Urban

12.1

-8.2

21.4%

Rural

1.6

1.4

36.1%

Source: INSTAT, DSM.

aPersons whose total expenses do not allow them to buy 2,100 calories per person.

bNecessary increase in average income that would enable a poor person to move out of poverty.

52.Today, nearly 25 per cent of the population and 16 per cent of poor people live in urban areas. The incidence of poverty among urban dwellers has reached 50 per cent. However, the depth of urban poverty is only half of that encountered in rural areas. In Madagascar, poverty is more acute in rural and agricultural areas.

Table 23

Variations in poverty indicators in 2001 and 2002

Poverty in 2001

P0

P1

P2

Total

69.6

34.8

20.9

Urban

44.0

18.3

9.9

Rural

77.2

39.7

24.1

Poverty in 2002

Total

80.7

47.6

32.5

Urban

61.6

29.3

17.5

Rural

86.4

53.0

36.9

Variation 2002/2001

Total

11.1

12.8

11.6

Urban

17.6

11.0

7.6

Rural

9.2

13.3

12.8

Source: INSTAT/DSM.

5. Health

53.The health policy, introduced in 1995, comprised two major changes:

(a)Progressive decentralization of health services administered by 111 health districts; and

(b)Cost-recovery policy or the policy of users’ financial participation through users’ fees.

54.Among the poor, visits to public health facilities decrease during the soudure (period between the time when food reserves run out and the next harvest). Patients use less medicine and rely more on alternative health services. Since the introduction of users’ financial participation, patients have been making greater use of traditional practitioners and self‑medication.

55.The principal diseases affecting the population of Madagascar are malaria, tuberculosis, bilharziasis, cysticercosis, leprosy, plague, cholera (on the decline) and HIV/AIDS.

56.AIDS has become a national concern in Madagascar. Since the first case of HIV infection was discovered in 1984 by the Institut Pasteur, the disease has increased exponentially (0.02 per cent in 1985; 0.05 per cent in 1990; 0.07 per cent in 1995; 0.16 per cent in 2000); currently, the prevalence rate is 1.1 per cent.

6. Housing

57.Individual dwellings are the most common form of housing. The average Malagasy household occupies a dwelling of 32 m2. However, individual houses are generally smaller (28 m2) than modern detached houses (72 m2). The housing shortage is particularly acute in urban areas. For example, between 1999 and 2001 the proportion of renters in the capital rose from 36.1 per cent to 39 per cent.

(a)Access to water

58.The following two tables contain data on access to water for household needs, by area and by province.

Table 24

By area

Urban

Rural

Combined

1. Industrially treated water

Indoor plumbing

1.1

0.2

0.5

Indoor tap

9.0

0.4

3.5

Water vendor

2.6

0.5

1.3

Neighbour’s tap

1.5

0.4

0.8

Private outdoor tap

3.5

0.5

1.6

Public tap

23.6

10.3

15.2

2. Untreated water

River, lake, etc.

25.2

60.9

47.7

Rainwater

4.3

5.7

5.2

Neighbour’s well

5.5

4.3

4.8

Well with pump

3.1

2.9

3.0

Well without pump

17.9

13.2

14.9

Other

2.9

0.8

1.6

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

Source: INSTAT/DSM/EPM2001.

Table 25

By province

Antananarivo

Fianarantsoa

Toamasina

Mahajanga

Toliara

Antsiranana

Combined

1. Industrially treated water

Indoor plumbing

1.1

0.1

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.7

0.5

Indoor tap

7.4

1.2

1.5

3.3

1.6

4.1

3.5

Water vendor

3.6

0.4

0.4

0.7

0.2

0.1

1.3

Neighbour’s tap

1.4

0.4

0.3

1.2

0.9

0.8

0.8

Private outdoor tap

1.7

2.4

0.9

1.8

1.5

0.9

1.6

Public tap

18.6

12.7

10.0

21.3

13.8

14.7

15.2

2. Untreated water

Rainwater

4.0

2.7

7.6

12.3

5.2

0.5

5.2

Neighbour’s well

4.8

2.3

4.1

8.4

6.6

4.4

4.8

Well with pump

1.2

3.0

4.3

0.2

7.1

2.7

3.0

Well without pump

17.3

10.1

4.1

20.0

24.5

17.3

14.9

River, lake, etc.

34.4

64.1

66.3

30.6

38.3

53.3

47.7

Other

4.7

0.6

0.3

0.0

0.2

0.6

1.6

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Source: INSTAT/DSM/EPM2001.

(b)Sanitation and lighting

59.The following table provides data on these two domestic amenities.

Table 26

Sanitation and lighting

Per cent of population (%)

1. Sanitation

100   

Flush toilet

2.5

Dug latrines

50.3

Mobile latrine

7.2

Other

15.6

No toilet

24.4

2. Lighting

100   

Electricity

13.8

Individual generator

1.2

Paraffin oil

74.3

Candles

7.1

Other

3.6

Source: INSTAT/DSM, 2001.

7. Education

60.Successive Governments have always considered education as a priority sector and have allocated a considerable part of the national budget to it. However, owing to the high level of poverty in Madagascar, the efforts that have been made have not met the population’s education needs. There are shortages in infrastructure, funding and human resources, particularly in remote parts of the country, in spite of the State’s active cooperation with the private sector. In Madagascar, 54 per cent of the population over the age of 4 is literate.

61.The education system comprises:

(a)Basic and secondary education (12 years);

(b)Technical and vocational training, which is the responsibility of the Ministry of Secondary and Basic Education, the six provincial directorates and the 111 school districts;

(c)Higher education, which is the responsibility of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.

62.Basic education lasts for nine years; it comprises five years of basic education I (onzième to septième) and four years of basic education II (sixième to troisième). Secondary education lasts three years (lycée, from seconde to terminale).

63.Civic education was reintroduced in school curricula in 1992. The Office of Mass and Civic Education, a body under the Ministry of Secondary and Basic Education, was established in 2002 with a view to conducting ongoing training and awareness-raising among the entire population, particularly teachers at all levels, in civics and citizenship.

64.Technical and vocational training is the least developed field of education. In 2002-2003, enrolment in such training was only 3.17 per cent of the total enrolment of students in collèges and lycées. Higher education includes public universities, State-approved private institutes of higher learning and the National Distance Learning Centre, which is being restructured.

65.The partnership between public and private education was formalized in 1989 with the establishment of the National Directorate for Private Education within the Ministry of Secondary and Basic Education. The National Directorate later became the National Office for Private Education.

VIII. CULTURE AND THE MEDIA

A. Culture

66.Malagasy is the mother tongue of Malagasy citizens and the national language of Madagascar. Although there are regional dialects with slight variations in phonology, this does not pose an obstacle to the mutual comprehension of Malagasy in all parts of the national territory.

67.The programmes of activities of the Ministry of Culture focus essentially on the promotion of cultural identity. Such activities include:

(a)Organization of cultural dialogues in the six provinces in the context of the observance of United Nations Day;

(b)Promotion of regional cultural heritage;

(c)Establishment of the National Office for Culture and provincial art and culture centres in the main town of each province;

(d)Establishment of arts and culture sections in all of Madagascar’s missions in other countries.

68.The Ministry of Culture has taken account of the cultural dimension of development and is publishing and reissuing books in Malagasy in order to make them available to everyone. The objective is to highlight the contribution of diverse cultures and civilizations, which must also be considered in the preparation and teaching of school curricula.

B. The media

69.Censorship of the media was lifted in 1991. The media play an important role in Malagasy social life, and has been instrumental in making fihavanana (traditional moral value recognized throughout the country; it includes, tolerance, conviviality, mutual respect and solidarity) a beacon amid social disintegration and other racial or ethnic phenomena. Private initiatives have made it possible to establish many radio stations near the main towns of the subprefectures, and private television channels in large urban centres.

Table 27

Number of private radio and television stations by province in 2001

Province

Radios

Antananarivo

23

Fianarantsoa

19

Antsiranana

10

Mahajanga

11

Toliara

18

Toamasina

18

Total

99

Source: Ministry of Communication.

70.Madagascar’s main radio and television stations are listed below. The only public station is Télévision Malagasy (TVM); all the others are private.

Antananarivo

Toamasina

Télévision Malagasy (TVM)

Radio Télé FMA Toamasina

Télévision Fialamboly (TVF)

Radio Télévision Toamasina RTT

Madagascar Télévision (Ma. TV)

MBS Toamasina

Océanie Télévision (OTV)

Radio Télévision Analamanga (RTA)

Toliara

Télévision Record (RTR)

Malagasy Broadcast System (MBS)

Télévision SAY Toliary

Télévision Plus (TV Plus)

RTA Toliary

Télévision Ravinala

Mahajanga

Antsirabe

Radio Télévision Kalizy

Radio Télévision Antsirabe (RTVA)

M. 3TV/M.3FM

Fianarantsoa

Antsiranana

Radio Télévision Manakara

Top. TV

MBS Fianarantsoa

Télé Canal “9” Antalaha

71.During electoral periods or in times of social and political unrest, certain radio or television stations tend to broadcast discriminatory remarks that threaten national unity. Many daily and weekly newspapers are published regularly in the capital and are sent for sale to other regions, sometimes with a delay of several days. The main daily newspapers are Express de Madagascar, Gazetiko, La Gazette de la Grande Île, Madagascar Tribune, Midi Madagasikara and Ny Gazety Androany. The main weeklies are Dans les Médias Demain (DMD), Imongo Vaovao, Ngah (a humorous publication), Telonohorefy, Lakroan ’ i Madagasikara, Revue de l ’ Océan Indien and Ny Vaovaontsika.

72.Paradoxically, the proliferation of the media and tangible progress in the field of communication and telecommunications has not had the anticipated effect. In spite of the availability of numerous radio stations and television channels, circulation of informationamongthe population is inadequate. Daily newspapers arrive one or several days - or a week - late, even in large urban centres (except the capital). In rural areas, 81 per cent of households have neither a radio nor a television set; if they have one, they cannot buy the batteries needed to operate them (source: EPM 2001). Progress in the field of new information and communications technologies have resulted in the marginalization of remote areas or enclaves while large cities are continuing to develop in this area.

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