Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Visit to Nicaragua undertaken from 7 to 16 May 2014: recommendations and observations addressed to the State party
Report of the Subcommittee * , **
II.Preliminary considerations concerning Nicaragua3
III.National preventive mechanism4
IV.Conditions of detention5
A.Overpopulation and overcrowding5
B.Food and basic necessities6
E.Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment9
F.Situation of women deprived of their liberty11
G.Situation of children and adolescents deprived of liberty13
H.Situation of persons with disabilities deprived of their liberty15
I.Indigenous persons and persons of African descent deprived of liberty15
J.Aspects related to the legal and institutional framework for the prevention of torture and ill-treatment 16
I.List of persons with whom the Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture met19
II.List of places of deprivation of liberty visited by the Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture21
1.In accordance with articles 1 and 11 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment conducted a visit to Nicaragua from 7 to 16 May 2014.
2.The Subcommittee members conducting the visit were: Enrique Font (head of delegation), Emilio Ginés, Hans Petersen and Judith Salgado.
3.The Subcommittee was assisted by three human rights officers and two security officers from the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The delegation was also assisted by Miskito and Creole language interpreters.
4.The Subcommittee visited places of deprivation of liberty in the departments of Chinandega, Granada, Jinotega, León, Managua, Masaya and Matagalpa, as well as in the North Atlantic and South Atlantic autonomous regions, and it held meetings with government authorities, including judicial and legislative authorities, the Office of the Human Rights Advocate, officials of the United Nations system, representatives of the diplomatic community and representatives of civil society. The Subcommittee wishes to thank them for the valuable information that they provided.
5.The Subcommittee presented its confidential preliminary observations to the authorities orally at the end of the visit and submitted them in writing on 27 May 2014. In the present report, the Subcommittee presents its findings and recommendations concerning the prevention of torture and ill-treatment of persons deprived of liberty in Nicaragua. The present report uses the generic term “ill-treatment” to refer to any form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
6.The Subcommittee requests the Nicaraguan authorities to reply within six months of the date of transmission of this report, giving a full account of the actions taken to implement the recommendations. The Subcommittee urges the State party to continue the cooperative dialogue initiated during the visit should it require assistance in preparing its response to this report.
7.The present report will remain confidential until such time as the State party decides to make it public, as stipulated in article 16 (2) of the Optional Protocol. The Subcommittee firmly believes that the publication of the present report would contribute positively to the prevention of torture and ill-treatment, as the widespread dissemination of the recommendations would help to lay the groundwork for a transparent and fruitful national dialogue on the issues covered herein.
8. The Subcommittee recommends that Nicaragua request the publication of this report, as other States parties to the Optional Protocol have already done.
9.The Subcommittee wishes to draw the State party’s attention to the Special Fund established in accordance with article 26 of the Optional Protocol. Recommendations contained in Subcommittee visit reports that have been made public can form the basis of an application by the State party for funding of specific projects through the Fund.
II.Preliminary considerations concerning Nicaragua
10.Nicaragua has been identified as the second poorest country in Latin America. According to information provided by the Government, however, from 2006 to 2013 the level of spending on the prison system increased faster than the Government’s total spending (rising 2.8 times compared with 2.2 times). In 2014, the prison system budget grew by 51.4 per cent compared with the previous year. The number of prison officers increased by 60 per cent between 2006 and 2014.
11.Positive aspects observed by the Subcommittee in Nicaragua include: the absence of systems of self-governance in the prisons visited; the good reputation of the national police among the general public; and the absence of widespread institutional corruption. The Subcommittee also identified as a positive aspect the existence of the National Commission for Inter-Institutional Coordination within the Criminal Justice System, which includes representatives of the three branches of government. The Commission appears to be a flexible and effective mechanism for decision-making within its field of competence and could spearhead the implementation of many of the recommendations made in this report.
12.The Subcommittee is grateful to the Nicaraguan authorities for their cooperation and assistance during the visit.
III.National preventive mechanism
13.Through Presidential Agreement No. 4 of 2012, the Government of Nicaragua designated the Office of the Human Rights Advocate as the national mechanism for the prevention of torture, as required under the Optional Protocol. During its visit, the Subcommittee provided technical assistance as requested by the national preventive mechanism, with the aim of strengthening the Office’s capacity as the national preventive mechanism and its ability to monitor places of detention and detect torture and ill-treatment. The Subcommittee and the national preventive mechanism discussed aspects of the latter’s mode of operation. The Subcommittee also observed visits to places of detention carried out by the national preventive mechanism; it then presented its observations to the mechanism and made recommendations based on those observations. The Subcommittee wishes to thank the national preventive mechanism for its cooperation when carrying out these activities. During its visits, the Subcommittee received reports about the inaction, ineffectiveness and lack of visibility of the national preventive mechanism in places of detention. The Subcommittee trusts that, following its visit, the national preventive mechanism will be better able to fulfil the important responsibility it holds pursuant to the Optional Protocol.
14.The Subcommittee recommends that the national preventive mechanism carry out a programme of regular and unannounced visits to places of detention throughout the country, and that it should subsequently make specific recommendations to the authorities on ways to prevent torture and ill-treatment. The Subcommittee encourages the national preventive mechanism to organize activities aimed at increasing its institutional visibility and to develop a strategy for raising public awareness about its mandate and its work and providing all sectors of society with relevant information through a simple and accessible procedure. The Subcommittee also recommends that the national preventive mechanism hold conferences and workshops, proactively participate in government meetings relevant to its mandate, and publish reports. In addition, the Subcommittee recommends that the national preventive mechanism increase its contacts and cooperation with other national, regional and international stakeholders, including the Subcommittee and the national preventive mechanisms of other countries.
15.The Subcommittee welcomes the bill on the national preventive mechanism that is currently being drafted. The bill should serve to clearly define and distinguish between the functions and approaches of the national preventive mechanism (which takes a preventive approach) and those of the Office of the Human Rights Advocate (which takes a reactive approach), and to bring the activities of the former into line with the Optional Protocol and other documents related to the work of the Subcommittee. However, the Subcommittee observed that the human, material and financial resources provided to the Office of the Human Rights Advocate are insufficient for it to fully carry out its role and fulfil its new responsibilities as the national preventive mechanism.
16.The Subcommittee recommends proposing a bill on the national preventive mechanism that is in line with the requirements set out in the Optional Protocol and the Subcommittee ’ s guidelines on national preventive mechanisms, especially with regard to its functional independence, financial autonomy, methodology for visits, issuance of recommendations and cooperative dialogue with the State and civil society.
IV.Conditions of detention
A.Overpopulation and overcrowding
17.The Subcommittee is concerned about the critical levels of overcrowding, combined with the lack of natural light and outdoor exercise or any other activity for long periods of time, which were observed in all the places of detention visited except for the Legal Cooperation Directorate, the police stations in police districts 4 and 6, the juvenile cells in Tipitapa and Granada prisons, the women’s cells in Granada central prison, and the women’s cells in the police stations in police districts 1 and 2 in Managua.
18.Based on its interviews with State, judicial, police and prison officials and interviews with persons deprived of liberty and human rights organizations, the Subcommittee concludes that certain aspects of criminal prosecution policy for drug-related offences, human trafficking, money-laundering and organized crime are causing a significant increase in the prison population. For example, convictions in drug cases often result in heavy sentences and involve multiple members of the same family. The Subcommittee interviewed persons sentenced to up to 10 years’ imprisonment for possession of minimal amounts of marijuana and cocaine and persons sentenced to 10 to 15 years’ imprisonment for possession of several kilograms of these substances, which is indicative of a lack of proportionality in sentencing.
19.The majority of pretrial detentions and convictions for drug-related offences, trafficking, money-laundering and organized crime target the lower levels of criminal networks and show a clear bias with respect to social background. Criminal roles that become vacant at the lower levels are quickly filled by others (mostly by persons from urban working class communities), thus creating a permanent influx of persons into places of detention but without affecting criminal networks in any meaningful way. Thus, the criminal prosecution policy paradoxically creates new criminal opportunities at the lower levels of these criminal networks, leading in turn to the detention of yet more people. This finding was confirmed in conversations with police officers in the cities visited.
20.The restrictions placed on the rights and benefits granted to persons who are deprived of liberty either pending trial or following conviction for such offences also serve to increase overcrowding, since, among other things, they are not eligible for parole and must serve their full sentence in prison. Overcrowding amounts to a violation of the human rights of persons deprived of their liberty, including their rights to health, physical integrity and life, and, when as extreme as the overcrowding observed by the Subcommittee in some places of detention in Nicaragua, constitutes cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment.
21.Overcrowding in the prison system adversely affects the rights of detainees to participate in work and educational activities and thus to benefit from the progressive system of rehabilitation and reduce the length of their sentences. It also creates a dangerous environment and increases the risk of conflict between persons deprived of liberty and between these persons and prison guards. Moreover, it does not allow for the separation of convicted prisoners from prisoners awaiting trial.
22.The Subcommittee is concerned that, in police stations, persons deprived of their liberty leave their cells only when they have visitors or when they are being brought to trial. It is particularly concerned to see that persons who have already been convicted remain for long periods in police stations without any opportunity to engage in work or educational activities, which means that they also have no possibility of benefiting from the progressive system of rehabilitation. Overcrowding also reduces the capacity of staff and facilities to give detainees access to visits, including conjugal visits, which impedes them from maintaining links with the outside world. This is compounded by the limited time available for family visits and the lack of recreational activities.
23.The Subcommittee visited the new maximum security prison in Tipitapa, which opened in April 2014. This prison was clean and was not overcrowded. It does, however, follow an extremely strict detention regime, which involves no access to activities of any kind, little contact between detainees, a prohibition on books and restricted access to daylight, which is allowed for only one hour per week. Detainees are handcuffed and shackled as soon as they leave their cells. The Subcommittee members were told by detainees, and were able to verify themselves, that the lack of ventilation in the cells results in very high temperatures and a stifling environment. The Subcommittee is concerned about the psychological effects of this cruel treatment.
24.The Subcommittee recommends that the State party: (a) reconsider its public security policies with a view to reducing prison overcrowding; (b) review all detentions, both pretrial and upon conviction, for offences involving drugs, trafficking, money- laundering or organized crime committed by persons participating at the lower and less organized levels of criminal networks, and reduce the number of persons deprived of liberty through, inter alia, amnesties, pardons, commutations of sentences, conditional release and house arrest; (c) encourage the judicial authorities to use alternatives to deprivation of liberty, in accordance with international standards; (d) take measures to ensure that persons deprived of their liberty are held in conditions that comply with international standards, for example, applying appropriate minimum standards with respect to the cubic content of air and floor space, and establish a maximum capacity for each place of detention on the basis of these standards; and (e) ensure that remand detainees are separated from convicted prisoners.
25. The Subcommittee also urges the State party to review the operating model and architectural design of Tipitapa maximum security prison before replicating it in new facilities.
B.Food and basic necessities
26.In overcrowded conditions, communication and contact with the family are essential to achieving the social rehabilitation aims of sentencing. The Subcommittee noted that the families of persons deprived of their liberty go to great lengths to visit their family members on a regular basis and provide them with food, medicine and toiletries, which are often shared with others, in addition to clean clothing, as the overcrowding in the police and prison system exceeds, in whole or in part, the authorities’ ability to meet the basic needs of persons deprived of liberty. Despite detainees’ dependence on their families, often the latter either do not live nearby or are not able to bring supplies of basic necessities on a regular basis.
27.Persons deprived of liberty frequently complain that the food provided by the State is insufficient in quantity, monotonous, of poor quality and prepared in unhygienic conditions. When families bring food, the delivery process is unreliable; the food is handled without concern for hygiene and not of all of it reaches the intended recipients. The Subcommittee was able to verify that this was the case.
28.The Subcommittee recommends that the State party guarantee varied food in sufficient quantity and of a satisfactory quality and nutritional profile that is prepared in hygienic conditions and ensure that no person deprived of liberty has to depend on third parties to obtain food. In this connection, it recommends that the Ministry of the Interior be allocated the budget necessary to allow it to provide all persons deprived of liberty with sufficient food. With regard to the reception and distribution of food, medicines, toiletries and clothing, it recommends implementing standard procedures in order to ensure that they reach their intended recipients.
29.The combination of overcrowding and poor hygiene creates inhumane conditions that have a direct impact on the health of persons deprived of liberty. Overcrowding results in constant physical contact between cellmates and the transmission of infectious diseases. The Subcommittee received numerous reports of persons deprived of liberty suffering from diarrhoea having to use foul-smelling, dirty toilets and generally open latrines, without any way of properly washing their hands and disinfecting the toilet. In such circumstances, infectious diseases are easily transmitted and lead to disease outbreaks that put both inmates and staff at risk.
30.The Subcommittee is concerned that no mattresses are provided to persons deprived of liberty, that many of them sleep directly on the floor and that, owing to a lack of space, some sleep very close to the toilet.
31.The Subcommittee observed that the amount of water provided for bathing and washing clothes is grossly inadequate and that the water is often dirty and foul-smelling. In most of the facilities visited, water is transported to cells in dirty buckets. Drinking water is generally stored in used, worn-out plastic bottles that are shared by many inmates, including those who are ill.
32.The Subcommittee recommends that the State party establish regular cleaning procedures, particularly for sanitary facilities. It recommends adopting measures to ensure a sufficient quantity of clean water is provided . The Subcommittee also recommends that persons deprived of liberty be given clean utensils that they can use to properly serve themselves and consume food and water, so as to reduce the persistent outbreaks of diarrhoea and respiratory infections. The State party should ensure that all persons deprived of liberty are provided with their own bed and clean bedding.
Medical examinations, confidentiality and medical records
33.The Subcommittee is concerned about the absence of a routine medical consultation service for persons deprived of liberty. Most of the persons interviewed complained that their requests for health care are ignored and that, in practice, only seriously ill persons are taken to hospital. The information provided by officials and observed in individual files confirmed the scarce access to medical care.
34.In police stations, medical services are not provided and referral to a doctor is at the discretion of officers, who lack knowledge or experience in health-care matters. The Subcommittee finds it regrettable that, in Masaya police station, it encountered a young man suffering from obvious health problems. The Subcommittee asked the police commissioner to transfer the young man to a hospital immediately. However, it was reported in a news article that the detainee was not taken to hospital until the following day, and that he subsequently died. This case is a prime example of the systemic shortcomings in access to health care for persons deprived of liberty and it was reported in detail to the authorities by the Subcommittee.
35.Generally speaking, prison systems do offer some health-care services, and detainees occasionally have access to a doctor, with Tipitapa prison being the best organized prison in this regard. During interviews with the Subcommittee, persons deprived of liberty, particularly those in other prisons, expressed a lack of confidence in the medical services and complained that the supply of medicines is insufficient and that doctors’ appointments are often missed because the necessary transfers are not provided. The Subcommittee heard allegations that, when denied medical care in prisons, persons deprived of liberty resort to self-harm in order to be seen by medical personnel. The Subcommittee verified that there is a lack of records on whether doctors’ appointments are actually kept, and that, in many cases, it is up to family members to provide medicines.
36.The Subcommittee observed shortcomings in the keeping of medical records. In the case of less serious illnesses, the Subcommittee noted that no records are kept. The Subcommittee is concerned that, in the institutions it visited, with the exception of those in the Atlántico Sur autonomous region, there are no records of deaths in custody.
37.The Subcommittee noted that only limited medicines are available, and that these are mostly anti-inflammatory analgesics. In some of the facilities visited, health-care duties have been delegated to inmates, who provide nursing services including the distribution of medicines. The Subcommittee is concerned about the fact that these persons deprived of liberty have access to confidential information, which could lead to abuse and corruption among them.
38.The Subcommittee is concerned that the principle of confidentiality is being violated with respect to health-care services. According to the information received, medical staff often conduct consultations and examinations in the presence of other persons deprived of liberty.
39. The Subcommittee recommends that the State establish a framework for providing health-care services specifically for persons deprived of liberty. Under this framework, persons deprived of liberty should be examined as soon as possible after their admission and should be guaranteed access to regular medical consultations, diagnostic examinations and treatment for health problems, including access to sufficient medicines free of charge.
40.Prison authorities should ensure confidentiality with respect to the health of persons deprived of liberty. In particular, requests for medical services should not be screened by guards or other persons deprived of liberty. Guards should not be present during medical examinations, and if they are present, this fact should be recorded in the person ’ s medical file. The Subcommittee recommends that in all medical clinics in places of detention there should be a filing cabinet to which only health-care staff have access.
41.The Subcommittee noted a number of factors that hinder the full respect of judicial safeguards in criminal proceedings. In general, persons deprived of their liberty are not informed about the status of their cases. Several individuals had been taken to police stations under false pretences, having been told that their presence was required for purposes of mediation. Other persons deprived of their liberty were not clearly informed of the reasons for their arrest and the nature of the charges against them. It is therefore not surprising that the vast majority of the documents stating that arrested persons were read their rights indicate that the arrested person refused to sign the document.
42.Those interviewed said that, after their arrest, they had been prevented from communicating with their families and their access to medical assistance had been restricted. Arrested persons are often not brought before a judge within 48 hours, as is required under the Constitution and the Code of Criminal Procedure. Many interviewees appeared at the pretrial hearing without having been examined by a doctor, despite showing signs of torture or ill-treatment.
43.The Subcommittee also observed shortcomings in the legal assistance provided by the public defence service and a lack of communication with legal counsel from the moment of arrest as well as a general lack of visits inside prison cells and contact with persons deprived of liberty on the part of the sentence enforcement judge. It is concerned that detainees accept criminal responsibility without having access to clear and specific information, often in response to an offer to reduce their sentence. In some cases, there is no court-appointed counsel to pursue appeals and criminal cassation procedures.
44.Both article 178 of the Code of Criminal Procedure and article 36 of the Prison System and Sentence Enforcement Act stipulate that persons placed in pretrial detention must be held in prisons. In practice, however, the prison system does not admit persons placed in pretrial detention owing to a lack of space. Thus, in many cases these persons are detained in police cells where they do not have access to the benefits provided for in prison law, such as education, work, outdoor access or the possibility of earning credits towards a reduction of sentence.
45.Both in pretrial detention cells in police stations and in prisons, several of the people interviewed had been detained for longer than the three-month time limit for holding a trial and issuing a judgment established by the Code of Criminal Procedure. The delays experienced during the trial stage and up to the moment when a judgment is issued violate the rights of persons deprived of liberty, particularly the procedural safeguards ensuring that they are tried in a prompt, timely and immediate manner.
46.The Subcommittee received complaints that persons deprived of their liberty for offences related to organized crime, drugs and money-laundering are denied access to work opportunities through which it is possible to earn benefits such as the annulment of the sentence. This practice runs contrary to the aim of rehabilitating prisoners.
47.Failure to comply with release orders on the basis of a government decision undermines the separation of powers, legal certainty and the right to liberty. The Subcommittee observed instances in which individuals remained in places of deprivation of liberty after they had fully served their sentence. The Subcommittee is concerned about the practice whereby the executive branch reviews release orders. High-level judicial authorities recognize that this takes place and that delays in the execution of release orders may be related to, inter alia, the review of these orders by the executive branch.
48.In the case of persons deprived of liberty who belong to indigenous peoples, the Subcommittee observed an absence of interpreters and was told by the authorities that “all detainees speak and/or understand Spanish”. When interviewing indigenous persons and persons of African descent, however, the Subcommittee found that interpretation was needed.
49.With regard to adolescents, the proceedings and their rights are not explained to them in a way that they can fully understand.
50. The Subcommittee recommends that the State party take administrative measures to provide interpretation services to indigenous persons during criminal proceedings and during their imprisonment and ensure that legal aid is provided to them, free of charge whenever possible.
Registration of detention as a safeguard
51.The Subcommittee examined the registers kept in police stations and obtained information from police officers about their use. The Subcommittee noted a lack of uniformity among the registers kept by the different police units. Problems identified included the fact that some registers are kept in certain units but not in others and that, in some cases, the same registers are used for different purposes. It also noted that, in prisons, information on persons deprived of liberty is scattered among different offices and is not easily accessed or understood. The Subcommittee concludes that the current registration system is unsatisfactory and does not allow for proper monitoring of the arrival and departure of persons deprived of liberty or of respect for their rights of due process.
52. The Subcommittee recommends raising awareness among police officers and prison staff about the importance of registers as tools to help protect persons deprived of liberty and the officers themselves, and teaching them to use registers appropriately. It recommends that the State party intensify its efforts to develop a uniform, computerized register to be used throughout the country. In the meantime, it encourages the State to provide all police units and prisons with all the registers provided for in the regulations and to insist that all fields must be filled out.
E.Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
53.The persons deprived of liberty who were interviewed told the Subcommittee that the moment of arrest or detention is the time when detainees are subjected to ill-treatment, which might include being beaten with fists or batons or being strangled by police officers with their hands or their batons, in some cases by several officers at once and even after the detainee has been handcuffed or thrown to the ground. These attacks also occur, or continue, inside police vehicles and upon arrival at the police station. In one of the cities visited, the Subcommittee received repeated complaints that, after they had been arrested but before they had entered the police station, detainees were taken to the local cemetery where they were subjected to death threats, interrogated and beaten.
54.The Subcommittee received repeated and consistent complaints of various forms of ill-treatment and torture inflicted by investigators during the initial interrogations and before the detainees were handed over to the prison system. At one police station, complaints of torture with a baseball bat were corroborated when the Subcommittee found an object that matched the description of the bat in an investigator’s office. The Subcommittee is concerned about the fact that, in almost all the institutions visited, persons deprived of liberty very frequently described being subjected to ill-treatment. In some institutions, torture is used as a form of discipline. Some of the methods described to the Subcommittee constitute torture, including suspending detainees by the arms for several hours, shackling them to a pole, a tree, a chair or a table for periods of up to 48 hours without food or water and leaving them exposed to the sun during daylight hours, or stretching their limbs apart. Based on the complaints received, in two of the prisons visited the Subcommittee identified walls where rings used to shackle handcuffed persons deprived of liberty had recently been removed.
55.More commonly, the ill-treatment described to the Subcommittee consisted of being punched, kicked and hit with different instruments. In some institutions, beatings with various types of clubs were so prevalent that almost all the detainees interviewed claimed to have been ill-treated on a regular basis. The persons interviewed described in detail the instruments used, such as the colour of a baseball bat or the fact that an iron pipe had been wrapped in adhesive tape or cloth so as not to leave a mark on the victim’s skin. After hearing the complaints, in three police stations and in one prison the Subcommittee found baseball bats and other objects that matched the descriptions given in the testimonies collected in the places where the persons deprived of liberty had said they would be.
56.Generally speaking, and as normally happens in cases of torture and ill-treatment, the detainees’ descriptions of the injuries that they had suffered as a result of ill-treatment were not very specific. The Subcommittee later verified that, in some cases, the scars on the detainees’ bodies took the form of two straight, parallel lines, which clearly corroborated the claim that they had been hit with instruments such as those described by the detainees. The consistency and prevalence of the descriptions of ill-treatment, and the fact that they were corroborated by the detainees’ injuries and scars, and the discovery of instruments that could be used to beat someone in the places indicated in the interviewees’ testimonies, all indicate that torture and ill-treatment are prevalent in the institutions visited.
57.The Subcommittee noted that judges and prosecutors may order a forensic medical examination. Detainees who wish to be examined by a forensic medical examiner must make the request through a family member to their lawyer, who then submits it to the enforcement judge, who in turn may order their transfer to the office of a forensic medical examiner. In a number of institutions, the Subcommittee found that only a few of the detainees had been examined by a forensic medical examiner.
58.The medical documents reviewed by the Subcommittee did not contain information on the treatment received by detainees and any exposure to violence, including ill-treatment. Consequently, forensic medical conclusions on the validity of the complaints of ill-treatment were also lacking. The Subcommittee is concerned about the fact that these records are kept in the offices of prison officials, who thus have access to them.
59.This complete lack of confidentiality, coupled with the difficulties and delays inherent in the referral pathway, prevent persons deprived of liberty who are victims of ill-treatment from being assessed by the forensic medical examiner. Added to all this are the shortcomings in the examinations, as described above, and the widespread fear of reprisals. As a result, there is no record of cases referred to the Institute of Forensic Medicine in 2012–2013 to assess allegations of torture and ill-treatment under the Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Istanbul Protocol). This is in marked contrast with the number of cases of ill-treatment identified during the visits. The Subcommittee concludes that, of the examinations conducted by a general practitioner, by a forensic examiner and by the Institute of Forensic Medicine, none currently constitute a remedy by which to document and prevent torture and ill-treatment.
60.The Subcommittee is deeply concerned about the claim that a detainee was repeatedly raped by other detainees when a guard transferred him from his usual cell to another one as a form of punishment, and about complaints received from non-governmental organizations claiming that transgender persons are commonly subjected to sexual harassment and even repeatedly raped in places of deprivation of liberty.
61.The Subcommittee recommends that the State party guarantee and ensure that medical staff both in prisons and in hospitals promptly refer persons deprived of liberty for forensic medical examination. Forensic examinations should be carried out in accordance with the Istanbul Protocol.
62.The Subcommittee recommends restructuring the medical services in places of detention in order to ensure the independence of medical staff, especially their independence with respect to officers accused of torture and ill-treatment. Medical staff should be trained so that they may play a proactive role in the investigation of the torture and ill-treatment of persons deprived of liberty. The State should ensure that transfers of individuals for forensic medical examinations are carried out without delay.
63.Multiple reports from persons deprived of liberty indicate that ill-treatment is also carried out against their family members. Persons deprived of liberty in police stations complained that guards often tear up letters from their family members, that the time allowed for visits is not respected and is generally at the guard’s discretion, and that their visitors are subjected to verbal abuse.
64.The Subcommittee was informed that the admission procedures for visitors include invasive and humiliating body searches, especially in the case of women. The widespread practice in places of detention of searching female visitors by stripping them from the waist down, in groups and in open spaces, forcing them to squat, holding detectors up near their private parts, and removing their sanitary pads, constitute degrading and humiliating treatment in the Subcommittee’s view.
65.The Subcommittee recommends that the State party limit to exceptional cases the practice of body searching persons deprived of liberty and their visitors and ensure that, if such searches are carried out , the criteria of necessity, reasonableness and proportionality are met and the searches are conducted in suitable sanitary conditions by qualified personnel of the same sex, with respect for human dignity. Persons being searched should have the opportunity to give their consent and should not be made to fully undress. Invasive searches of a person ’ s private parts are prohibited by law. The State party should provide places of deprivation of liberty with the appropriate technology so that they do not need to conduct body searches.
66. The Subcommittee also recommends that the State party explain clearly and directly to guards their obligation to treat the family members of persons deprived of liberty humanely and with respect for their dignity, and that it issue orders for visiting hours to be respected and privacy to be ensured during family as well as conjugal visits.
F.Situation of women deprived of their liberty
67.The Subcommittee did not receive any complaints of physical abuse of women deprived of liberty in prisons. In exceptional cases, there were complaints of this type of ill-treatment at the time of arrest and during police investigations. The Subcommittee did receive widespread and consistent reports, however, of insults, ridicule and a failure to respond to various requests made by women deprived of liberty concerning, inter alia, access to health care, inclusion in activities, and visits to family members detained elsewhere.
68. The Subcommittee recommends that the prison authorities issue a booklet to inform women deprived of liberty about the procedures for making requests or submitting complaints, the established deadline for answering such requests with a reasoned reply, and the authority to which they should appeal if they receive a negative reply or no reply at all. The Subcommittee recommends that the prison supervision judges review the processing of these requests during their prison visits.
69.The Subcommittee noted overcrowded conditions in La Esperanza prison. For example, there were 120 women being detained in cell No. 4, which holds 40 beds. This meant that most of them slept on the floor, in some cases without a mattress. Overcrowding, coupled with the heat, creates a suffocating environment that is exacerbated by restricted access to water and the discretion given to the authorities regarding whether or not to allow fans to be used.
70.The Subcommittee is concerned that prisoners’ need to feed their children is not taken into account in the daily food rations provided to women deprived of liberty and that mothers must either depend on family members to provide food or give some of their own food to their children.
71.The Subcommittee recommends that alternative measures to deprivation of liberty be prioritized for pregnant women and nursing mothers. In the meantime, the Subcommittee recommends ensuring that women deprived of liberty are provided with health and nutrition counselling through a programme developed and monitored by a health-care professional and that food is provided in an adequate and timely manner to pregnant women, nursing mothers and their babies and children. The Subcommittee recommends that children living in prisons with their mothers have access to health-care services and that their development be monitored by specialists.
72.A number of women interviewed by the Subcommittee suffered from some kind of chronic illness. However, they depended on their relatives for the supply of medicines and were not guaranteed access to the special diet required to manage certain illnesses. The Subcommittee received numerous and consistent complaints about the limited health care available, the lack of access to medicines, and the inability to keep doctor appointments owing to a lack of prison guards to escort them.
73.The Subcommittee found that several older women and even some with physical disabilities are deprived of liberty in the severely overcrowded conditions described above. For instance, one woman who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and was obviously drugged was sharing the same severely overcrowded quarters with other women deprived of liberty.
74. The Subcommittee recommends conducting an updated analysis of the physical and mental health of women deprived of liberty with a view to implementing policies to prevent and treat illnesses and to provide adequate food, taking into account the factors of illness, pregnancy, breastfeeding and age. It recommends guaranteeing that doctors are present every day and that women have access to a gynaecologist and a paediatrician.
75. The Subcommittee recommends guaranteeing that women have timely access to medication and that the necessary examinations and tests are conducted . The Subcommittee recommends concluding agreements with hospitals whereby specialists can visit prisons to examine women deprived of liberty.
76. The Subcommittee recommends prioritizing alternatives to deprivation of liberty for older women, women with disabilities and women with serious illnesses.
77. The Subcommittee recommends that the Ministry of Health ensure that female health-care staff regularly visit mixed prisons where a small number of women are deprived of liberty in order to properly attend to the women ’ s specific sexual and reproductive health-care needs.
78.Many of the women deprived of liberty interviewed by the Subcommittee, both in police stations and in prisons, stated that they depended on donations and relatives for personal hygiene supplies. In mixed prisons, women have to depend on male guards or men deprived of liberty to access water, as there is no direct access from the women’s section.
79. The Subcommittee recommends that the State party ensure that women ’ s prisons provide the facilities and materials required to meet women ’ s specific hygiene needs and that a regular supply of water be made available for the personal care of children and women, in particular those who are pregnant, breastfeeding or menstruating.
80.The small percentage of women deprived of liberty who work means that the majority spend most of their time in confinement. In this context, the Subcommittee is concerned about the multiple accounts of women deprived of liberty attempting suicide or engaging in self-harm.
81. The Subcommittee recommends that all activity programmes be expanded as part of a comprehensive policy on mental health care in women ’ s prisons, and that strategies to prevent suicide and self-harm be developed and implemented.
82.The Subcommittee notes that, for mothers deprived of liberty, the situation of their children is a constant concern, especially when the children are minors, and thus are generally placed in the care of family members. In this connection, the Subcommittee welcomes the initiative taken at La Esperanza prison to establish special visiting rights for children under 10 years of age to allow them to visit their mothers. The Subcommittee is concerned, however, by the fact that, owing to family and social factors, many women deprived of liberty who come from very low-income groups are heads of households and have a number of minor children in their care, who are in a vulnerable situation.
83. The Subcommittee recommends that the State party produce updated information on women deprived of liberty, including data on the minor children who are in their care, the number of them who are heads of households, their social background, and the situation of their children and adolescents, and that it prioritize alternatives to imprisonment, amnesties and pardons for them, among other measures.
84.According to data from the authorities at La Esperanza prison, 115 women, or about 30 per cent of the prison’s total population, receive conjugal visits. However, some 40 women whose spouses are also detained in Tipitapa central prison have requested conjugal visits and meet the established requirements but have not yet been accorded this right owing to transport limitations. The Subcommittee received complaints in various prisons that suspension of conjugal visits was one of the forms of punishment used against women deprived of liberty.
85.The Subcommittee received complaints from women who had undergone permanent sterilization before being deprived of liberty, and yet, in order to have access to conjugal visits, are required to take contraceptive injections.
86.The Subcommittee noted that lesbians deprived of liberty are not allowed access to private spaces for conjugal visits, which is discriminatory.
87.The Subcommittee learned that, in certain cases, women who have changed partners are denied access to conjugal visits.
88. The Subcommittee recommends that the State party ensure that State officials refrain from any discriminatory conduct and that it train prison staff and police officers to do the same.
G.Situation of children and adolescents deprived of liberty
89.The Subcommittee recognizes that there is a system that applies to adolescents between 18 and 21 years of age who are considered to be “special cases” and are referred to the Specialized Juvenile Criminal Justice System. The Subcommittee is concerned, however, about the situation of those who are detained in police stations and prisons, and it observed that the separation of adolescents from adults is often not respected. The Subcommittee also found that deprivation of liberty is not an exceptional measure in the case of adolescents and is not applied for the shortest possible period of time. It noted with concern that clear information was not provided to children and adolescents, who were not properly informed about the judicial proceedings concerning them. It is also concerned about the lack of accountability mechanisms.
1.The Subcommittee recommends that the State party:
(a) Deprive children and adolescents of their liberty only as a measure of last resort, for the shortest possible period of time, subject to regular review;
(b) Ensure that proper legal assistance is provided to children and adolescents at all stages of the proceedings, including during police interrogations, that judges and prosecutors regularly inspect places of detention and that children and adolescents have access to an independent and effective complaints mechanism in the event of ill-treatment.
90.The Subcommittee received numerous reports of beatings and ill-treatment at the time of arrest and detention, some of which amounted to torture. The Subcommittee observed blood marks on the wall of one of the visiting rooms, as well as a loose tooth and bruises on the bodies of some of the adolescent detainees. The Subcommittee was informed that adolescents deprived of liberty who made complaints against staff members received threats that they would be transferred to an adult prison or another department and that reports of misconduct would be included in their files, and in documented cases they have received punishments that include being confined in punishment cells, being sprayed with pepper spray inside their cells and being beaten with fists and clubs while handcuffed. The Subcommittee noted the existence of punishment wings. It was able to verify that torture and ill-treatment are often part of disciplinary mechanisms, and it was informed about cases in which adolescents had remained in isolation for periods of more than six months in prison punishment cells or handcuffed in chairs for hours in police cells.
91.With the exception of Tipitapa prison for adolescents, the Subcommittee is extremely concerned about the lack of socioeducational and family counselling measures, especially in the case of adolescents convicted of an offence who are deprived of their liberty in police stations. The Subcommittee heard from a number of adolescents who had not been examined by a doctor before appearing in court. The Subcommittee noted that not all adolescents deprived of liberty have access to psychosocial care enabling them to create a personal development plan and reduce the negative impact of their deprivation of liberty. The Subcommittee identified cases in which, because they did not hold identity documents or birth certificates, adolescents who claimed to be under the age of 16 were deprived of liberty; in addition, adolescents who claimed to be under the age of 18 were being tried as adults, even though their age had not yet been verified by a forensic expert. When asked, police officers indicated that such situations were common and that the family members of adolescents who did not hold identity documents must present their birth certificate, as there is no system whereby the police can consult the civil registry.
2.The Subcommittee recommends that the State party:
(a) Take steps to shift from a punitive to a preventive approach with respect to children and adolescents;
(b) Prioritize socioeducational measures for children and adolescents deprived of liberty with a view to encouraging their social reintegration;
(c) Ensure access to daily physical exercise and outside recreation;
(d) Support and encourage parents ’ participation throughout the duration of the socioeducational measures so that adolescents will be more likely to remain in constant contact with their families;
(e) Ensure that staff working with children and adolescents in detention are trained .
92. The Subcommittee welcomes the fact that adolescents have access to conjugal visits. However, it considers that requiring parental consent in the case of those who are already of age is unnecessary.
H.Situation of persons with disabilities deprived of their liberty
93.The places of detention visited usually include in their records data on persons deprived of their liberty with disabilities being held in their facilities and the Subcommittee interviewed persons with disabilities in both prisons and police custody. The Subcommittee met persons with physical disabilities, including wheelchair users, and some who said that they had been diagnosed with an intellectual or psychosocial disability, particularly schizophrenia.
94.Persons with disabilities, like other persons deprived of their liberty, face the effects of overcrowding and other aforementioned poor conditions as well as the violation of their rights, such as accessibility, access to justice and the protection of their personal integrity. In general, there is a lack of knowledge among police and prison staff of the rights of persons with disabilities and the duty to provide the reasonable accommodations needed to ensure their effective protection during deprivation of liberty. The Subcommittee found situations in the prison system where the absence of these accommodations and appropriate assistance exacerbated conditions and violated the rights of persons with disabilities. The Subcommittee is of the view that these situations demonstrate that persons with disabilities in prison are isolated and marginalized and also vulnerable to torture and ill-treatment. Persons with disabilities do not appear to receive any assistance to meet their specific needs or reasonable accommodation to serve their detention in decent conditions.
95.In accordance with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Subcommittee recommends that the State party adopt specific legislation and guidelines to ensure the right to accessibility for persons with disabilities deprived of their liberty and make the reasonable accommodations needed to protect their rights in places of detention. In cases where it is not possible to make reasonable accommodation, consideration should be given to implementing alternatives to prison sentences.
I.Indigenous persons and persons of African descent deprived of liberty
96.The Subcommittee had the opportunity to visit places of detention in the North Atlantic and South Atlantic autonomous regions where the indigenous and Afro-descendant population of Nicaragua is concentrated. Indigenous peoples and people of African descent living in these regions face de facto discrimination – poverty is more severe in these areas – and historic challenges in relation to the recognition of their collective rights to land and territories.
97.The punitive regime for criminal matters applicable to indigenous persons is the same as for non-indigenous persons and they are affected in the same way by conditions of deprivation of liberty and exposure to torture and ill-treatment. Persons deprived of their liberty in the autonomous regions are exposed to overcrowded and unsanitary conditions exacerbated by a lack of local health-care facilities.
98.Torture and ill-treatment are a continuing violation of the integrity of indigenous persons deprived of their liberty from the moment of their arrest, during questioning by investigators and admission to detention centres and as part of the disciplinary system. Persons deprived of their liberty are treated disrespectfully by the authorities and are subject to verbal abuse that may amount to ill-treatment and torture. Their defencelessness against torture and ill-treatment is exacerbated by their poverty, which prevents them from accessing the services of lawyers, and inadequate institutional presence in such areas. As noted by the Subcommittee, indigenous persons have less contact with human rights defenders and do not have the possibility of lodging complaints and filing for remedies of protection.
99.The Subcommittee recommends that the State party establish procedures to ensure that penalties imposed on indigenous persons take into account economic, social and cultural factors and also give preference to methods of punishment other than deprivation of liberty. The State party should adopt a specific procedure for the prison admission and treatment of indigenous persons and should encourage and facilitate the provision of support and legal advice to indigenous authorities.
100.The Subcommittee observed a general fear of reprisals. Persons deprived of their liberty reported that making complaints about conditions of detention, repeatedly requesting medical attention and even talking to the Subcommittee could lead to reprisals. In all the places visited, the reprisals mentioned included loss of benefits, worse or more restrictive conditions of detention, transfers, restrictions on visits and fabricated disciplinary offences.
101.In the places of detention visited in the North Atlantic and South Atlantic autonomous regions, the Subcommittee identified a high risk of reprisals and therefore requested the urgent intervention of the national preventive mechanism. The national preventive mechanism found that reprisals had occurred and briefed the Subcommittee on the action taken.
102. The Subcommittee urges the State party to focus on the effective implementation of article 15 of the Optional Protocol prohibiting reprisals.
J.Aspects related to the legal and institutional framework for the prevention of torture and ill-treatment
1.Definition of torture in national law
103.The current definition of torture contained in article 486 of the Criminal Code is inadequate. In addition, as already noted by the Committee against Torture, it is not fully in line with article 1 of the Convention because it does not specifically refer to offences committed by, at the instigation of, or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. The Military Criminal Code does not include the offence of torture but instead refers to “ abuse of authority ” and “ causing injury ” .
104. The Subcommittee echoes the recommendation of the Committee against Torture and recommends that the State party adopt a definition of torture in line with article 1 of the Convention. The State party should also amend the Military Criminal Code to include the offence of torture and bring it into line with the Convention.
105. Pending such a reform, the Public Prosecution Service and the judiciary should use the current definition in the Criminal Code to actively investigate and punish acts of torture.
2.The problem of impunity
106.The testimonies of several alleged victims and other persons deprived of their liberty coincided in identifying police and prison staff responsible for widespread acts of torture and ill-treatment. In meetings with the authorities, the Attorney General’s Office stated that there had been no investigations into allegations of torture, the Public Defender claimed that she had not received any complaints of ill-treatment or torture, and one of the judges of the Criminal Division of the Supreme Court of Justice maintained that in the seven years that he had been in that position he had not been aware of any cases of torture. The State party does not have an official register of cases of torture and ill-treatment. The persons deprived of their liberty interviewed were not aware of the existence of administrative or judicial protection mechanisms available to them if they were the victims of torture or ill-treatment.
107.The lack of regular communication between persons deprived of their liberty and their lawyers, criminal enforcement judges and human rights protection bodies prevents cases from being brought to the attention of the authorities and from being investigated. The Subcommittee noted the lack of assistance provided to persons deprived of their liberty by public defenders from the first phase of criminal proceedings.
108.The Subcommittee found that the alleged victims of torture and ill-treatment fear reprisals if they make complaints. Remaining silent in response to torture seems to be the only way persons deprived of their liberty can protect themselves against possible reprisals. Persons deprived of their liberty reported that, when they do make complaints, their cases are ignored and there is no response in terms of reparation of damage, health care or guarantees of non-repetition. They also stated that, in the face of constant unjustified aggression from personnel in detention facilities, their only alternatives are rioting, causing a disturbance or misconduct. The perceived risk if they make a complaint and the lack of response to reported cases reduces credibility and confidence in the prison system, the police and the justice system.
109.The possibility of lodging complaints of torture and ill-treatment is similarly restricted for persons in pretrial detention in police custody. Victims must remain in detention, and in some cases serve their entire sentences, in the same place where the perpetrators are working.
110.The State party’s legislation provides for a system of disciplinary control over police and prison officials and Decree No. 51-2012, containing the National Police Disciplinary Regulations, classifies the practice of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment as a very serious disciplinary offence. However, despite the Subcommittee’s request, no information was provided on ongoing investigations. The Subcommittee considers that the disciplinary regime for cases of ill-treatment is very lax and therefore does not meet the criteria set out in the Convention. Although both police stations and prisons have offices of internal oversight, there do not seem to be any precedents for investigations of torture and ill-treatment. Oversight of conditions in prisons and police stations on the part of the judicial authorities is limited, despite the powers granted to enforcement judges. There is no judicial supervision of cells located in police stations. This lack of judicial oversight, combined with the lack of monitoring of prisons and police stations by human rights mechanisms, prevents the identification of situations that could constitute torture and ill-treatment, thus contributing to impunity.
111.This context suggests the existence of a large number of unreported cases. On the basis of testimonies of victims and organizations and interviews with high-level judicial authorities, the Subcommittee has the impression that the passive role of the Prosecutor’s Office, the Office of the Public Defender and the judiciary with respect to torture and other ill-treatment reinforces the cycle of impunity and violates victims’ right of access to justice.
112. The Subcommittee urges the State party to establish mechanisms for the prompt and impartial investigation of complaints of torture and ill-treatment and to apply the necessary penalties in order to prevent and combat impunity for such violations.
113. The Subcommittee recommends that the State party establish a confidential, independent mechanism for managing complaints of torture and ill-treatment in places of detention, taking into account the kinds of information requested by the Committee against Torture, including the type of offence, ethnic origin, sex, investigations, prosecutions, convictions and reparations.
114.The Subcommittee recommends that staff assigned to places of deprivation of liberty regularly provide information to persons deprived of their liberty on their right to lodge complaints about the treatment they receive and the channels available for doing so. Information on complaints mechanisms should also be provided to the relatives of persons deprived of their liberty.
115. The Subcommittee recommends the establishment of specific protocols in the framework of the functions of the Office of the Prosecutor for the investigation of acts of torture and ill-treatment, in accordance with the principle of confidentiality, ensuring that measures are in place for the protection of victims and witnesses against any form of intimidation or reprisals, including the suspension of the alleged perpetrators of acts of torture and ill-treatment during the criminal or disciplinary proceedings. It also recommends that the investigation of acts of torture should allow for responsibility to be identified on the basis of the action or omission of officers and their superiors.
116.The Subcommittee recommends that the State party ensure that, in the system of disciplinary control, the investigation of torture and ill-treatment is prioritized . It requests the State party to review disciplinary legislation to ensure that torture and ill-treatment are punishable by appropriate penalties which take into account their grave nature, in line with article 4 (2) of the Convention. Since the State party provides human rights training, it is requested to include staff responsible for inspections and internal oversight in such training, with an emphasis on the implementation of international standards such as the Istanbul Protocol. The State party should create a general registration system for the disciplinary records of police and prison staff.
117. The Subcommittee urges the State party to create a national assistance programme to provide redress for victims of acts of torture and to mount a prevention campaign aimed at averting the recurrence of such acts.
118.Opening up places of deprivation of liberty to civil society organizations has a positive impact in terms of torture prevention. In this regard, the Subcommittee welcomes the State party’s cooperation with some civil society organizations, including the Standing Committee on Human Rights, Terre des Hommes International Federation and Casa Alianza, which provide assistance and support to persons deprived of their liberty. However, the Subcommittee is concerned that, in practice, other civil society organizations, such as the Nicaraguan Human Rights Centre and the Sexual Diversity Initiative for Human Rights (IDSDH), have had their access delayed or impeded.
119. The Subcommittee recommends that the State party enhance its policy of collaboration with civil society organizations active in the promotion and protection of the human rights of persons deprived of their liberty and facilitate their access to places of deprivation of liberty and the work they carry out there.
Lista de personas con quienes se reunió el Subcomité
Daniel Ortega, Presidente de la República
Ana Isabel Morales, Ministra de la Gobernación
Carlos Najar, Ministro por la Ley Ministerio de la Gobernación
Orlando Gómez, Viceministro de Relaciones Exteriores
Aminta Grenara, Primera Comisionada, Directora General de la Policía Nacional
Martin Jasquin, comandante de regimiento, Subdirector DGME
Directora Migración y Extranjería
Julio Cesar Orozco, Director, Sistema Penitenciario Nacional
Glenda Zavala, Comisionada General, Policía Nacional
Juan Ramón Grádiz, Comisionado General, Policía Nacional
Evenor Martínez, MIGOB
Omar Cabezas Lacayo, Procurador para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos
Irma Dávila, Comisión de Justicia de la Asamblea Nacional
Filiberto Rodríguez, Comisión de Paz, Defensa, Gobernación y Derechos Humanos de la Asamblea Nacional
Jeanne Mercedes Palacios, Directora Nacional de Defensa
Elena del Carmen López, Procuradora Especial de Cárceles
Armando Aragón, Jefe Nacional de Planificación, Seguimiento, Ayuda y Control
Zoraya Blandón, Asesora del Procurador, Procuraduría para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos
Rafael Solís Cerda, Magistrado
Armengol Cuadra, Presidente de la Sala Penal
Zacarías Duarte, Director General, Instituto de Medicina Legal
Clarisa Ibarra, Directora, Defensoría Pública
Hernán Estrada, Procurador General de la República
Ana Julia Guido, Fiscala General
Sonia Castro, Ministra de Salud
Etelvina Salazar, Directora, Hospital Psicosocial José Dolores Fletes Valle
Julio César Chávez, Subdirector General, Sistema Nacional Penitenciario
Francisco Fonseca, Fiscal de la Junta Directiva del Patronato Nacional de Privados de Libertad
Luis Amado Peña
Magdalena Reyes González, secretaria de la Junta Directiva
Miriam Obando, primera vocal
Pablo Mandeville, Coordinador Residente del Sistema de las Naciones Unidas, Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD)
Socorro Gross, Representante de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud
Mónica Merino, Representante Residente Adjunta, PNUD
Jorge Navas, Oficial de Programa, Área de Gobernabilidad Democrática, PNUD
Álvaro Herdocia, Coordinador de Programa y Proyectos Regionales, PNUD
Rinko Kinoshita Representante Adjunta, UNICEF
Ana Lucía Silva, Coordinadora del Área de Protección, UNICEF
Otilia Morales, Oficial de Protección, UNICEF
Paivi Kovalainen, Asistente Técnica en Protección Especial, UNICEF
III.Organismos de la sociedad civil
Nicaraguan Centre for Human Rights
Standing Committee on Human Rights
Terre des Hommes International Federation
Iniciativa desde la Diversidad Sexual por los Derechos Humanos
Lista de lugares de privación de libertad visitados por el Subcomité
Centro penitenciario de Granada
Centro penitenciario de Tipitapa “La Modelo” (incluido el módulo de máxima seguridad)
Centro penitenciario de mujeres “La Esperanza”
Centro penitenciario de Chinandega
Centro penitenciario de Matagalpa
Centro penitenciario de Bluefields
Delegación policial Distrito Núm. 1, Managua
Delegación policial Distrito Núm. 2, Managua
Delegación policial Distrito Núm. 4, Managua
Delegación policial Distrito Núm. 6, Managua
Delegación policial de Granada
Delegación policial de Masaya
Delegación policial de Nindirí
Delegación policial de Bilwi (Puerto Cabezas)
Delegación policial de Bluefields
Delegación policial de León
Delegación policial de Jinotega
Dirección de Auxilio Judicial (“El Chipote”)
Albergue de Migrantes de la Dirección General de Migración y Extranjería (Managua)