Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Visit to Tunisia undertaken from 11 to 14 April 2016: observations and recommendations addressed to the national preventive mechanism
Report of the Subcommittee * , **
II.Legal framework of the national preventive mechanism4
III.Provisional and long-term operation of the national preventive mechanism5
IV.Coherence of the torture prevention system7
V.Relations with civil society8
VI.Measures to raise awareness of the national preventive mechanism andincrease its visibility9
List of persons met by the Subcommittee11
1.The Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment undertook its first visit to Tunisia between 11 and 14 April 2016, in accordance with the provisions of the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.
2.The delegation was composed of the following members of the Subcommittee: Hans-Jörg Viktor Bannwart (head of delegation), Suzanne Jabbour and Gnambi Garba Kodjo. The Subcommittee members were assisted by three staff members from the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), including a security officer, and by two local interpreters.
3.The main purpose of the visit was to support the establishment of the National Authority for the Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, which is the national preventive mechanism, and to provide advice and technical assistance to the Government of Tunisia and to the appointed members of the mechanism, so as to ensure the mechanism’s effective and independent functioning as soon as possible. This report sets out observations and recommendations to the mechanism, in accordance with article 11 (b) (ii) and (iii) of the Optional Protocol.
4.During its visit, the Subcommittee held two private meetings, on 13 and 14 April 2016, with members of the mechanism elected by the Assembly of People’s Representatives,at which it considered issues related to the mechanism’s effective establishment, provisional and long-term operation, mandates, independence, visibility and relationship with other national and international bodies involved in preventing and combating torture and to the objectives of torture prevention, such as the modalities for visits and the recommendations to be issued following visits. The Subcommittee wishes to thank them for their cooperation and for the valuable information provided.
5.The Subcommittee also met representatives of the Government of Tunisia, in particular from the Ministry for Relations with Constitutional Bodies, Civil Society and Human Rights, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Social Affairs, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of National Defence and the Ministry of Public Health; the Chair of the Electoral Commission of the Assembly of People’s Representatives, the first President of the Tunis Court of Appeal and representatives of Tunisian judges and lawyers; representatives of the High Committee on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, which is the national human rights institution, the Truth and Dignity Commission and the Administrative Ombudsman in the Office of the President; representatives of international organizations, including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the European Union and the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces; the chief of the OHCHR office in Tunis; and members of civil society organizations.
6.In this report, the Subcommittee presents to the mechanism its findings and recommendations concerning the prevention of torture and ill-treatment of persons deprived of their liberty in the State party. It uses the generic term “ill-treatment” to refer to any form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
7.In accordance with the mandate conferred upon it in article 11 (b) (iv) of the Optional Protocol, the Subcommittee has sent the State party authorities a confidential report separate from this report, presenting them with recommendations.
II.Legal framework of the national preventive mechanism
8.The Subcommittee notes with satisfaction the legislative framework establishing the National Authority for the Prevention of Torture. It also welcomes the fact that the definitions of deprivation of liberty and places of detention under article 2 of Organic Act No. 2013-43 of 23 October 2013 comply with article 4 of the Optional Protocol. In addition, it notes with satisfaction the provisions giving the Authority the right, inter alia, to carry out regular and unannounced visits to places of detention, to interview detainees in private and to make specific recommendations to the Government. The Subcommittee remains concerned, however, about a number of gaps and shortcomings in the Act. It highlights in particular:
(a)The fact that places of detention under the jurisdiction or control of the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of National Defence, particularly police stations and military prisons, are not explicitly mentioned in article 2 of the Act, which may give rise to restrictive interpretations of the powers of the mechanism and may directly undermine its mandate and its work;
(b)The fact that the current normative framework does not guarantee the full independence of the mechanism, in accordance with article 18 of the Optional Protocol, since the criteria for the independence and impartiality of members of the mechanism, as referred to in article 6 of the Act, remain unclear and poorly defined; and possible conflicts of interest that could arise from the appointment to the mechanism of public officials, including a serving judge and an official of the child protection service of the Ministry for Women, Family and Children;
(c)Reports that the procedure for selecting and appointing members has not been sufficiently transparent or participatory;
(d)The fact that the eligibility criteria listed in article 6 of the Act do not refer to the expertise and competencies of the mechanism’s members in the field of torture prevention, which has reportedly resulted in the election of a number of candidates who do not have the skills and knowledge required to carry out their functions effectively;
(e)The fact that the authorities can, under article 13 of the Act, refuse requests for access to a place of detention by invoking national defence and security interests or the existence of a natural disaster or “serious disorder” at the place of detention in question.
9.The Subcommittee urges the mechanism, in accordance with article 3 (5) of Organic Act No. 2013-43 of 23 October 2013 and article 19 (c) of the Optional Protocol, which mandate it to issue opinions on existing legislation or draft legislation on the prevention of torture, to advocate for the legal framework under which it was established to be strengthened. In so doing, the mechanism should make recommendations for amendments to the Act to bring it fully into line with the Optional Protocol, the Guidelines on national preventive mechanisms (CAT/OP/12/5) and the Principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (Paris Principles).
10. More specifically, the mechanism should encourage the competent State party authorities to:
(a) Make the necessary amendments to the Act so that it fully complies with the provisions of articles 4 and 20 of the Optional Protocol and ensure that the mechanism has unhindered access to all places of detention, including those under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of National Defence;
(b) Ensure that future members of the mechanism are appointed through a fully transparent, participatory procedure on the basis of publicly announced criteria that are in compliance with article 18 of the Optional Protocol;
(c) Take all necessary measures to ensure the independence of the mechanism and its credibility with the general public and, in particular, with victims, notably by ensuring that all its members, including those from civil society, are able to serve on a full-time basis in order to avoid any real or perceived conflict of interest;
(d) Make the necessary resources available to develop and implement as soon as possible initial and continuing training programmes so as to ensure that the members of the mechanism possess the competencies and knowledge necessary in the field of torture prevention to exercise their functions effectively, both individually and collectively. In that regard, the Subcommittee and OHCHR are available to provide all necessary support to strengthen the capacities of the members in question;
(e) Revoke article 13 of the Act in order to ensure that it will not be interpreted in such a way as to impede access by the members of the mechanism to certain places of detention and thereby prevent them from effectively carrying out their mandate.
III.Provisional and long-term operation of the national preventive mechanism
11.The Subcommittee can only welcome the fact that the mechanism was established through the adoption of legislation, which to an extent guarantees its stability and independence. It also welcomes the appointment by the Assembly of People’s Representatives, on 29 and 30 March 2016, of 16 members of the National Authority for the Prevention of Torture, making Tunisia the first country in the region to establish a national mechanism for the prevention of torture. In that connection, the Subcommittee will pay particular attention to the effective establishment of the mechanism and the launch of its activities, and it may consider an early visit to follow up on the measures taken by the mechanism to implement the recommendations made.
12.The Subcommittee notes with satisfaction that the main tasks assigned to the mechanism, defined under article 3 of the Act, are consistent with article 19 of the Optional Protocol. Its members are responsible, inter alia, for carrying out regular and unannounced visits to all places of detention, for making recommendations to the relevant authorities with the aim of preventing torture, for providing advice on the texts of draft laws and regulations related to the prevention of torture, for conducting awareness-raising campaigns, for carrying out training programmes, for preparing and publishing research, studies and reports in their fields of competence, and for receiving and considering complaints and reports of possible cases of torture. The Subcommittee also welcomes the varied make-up of the mechanism, which comprises six representatives of civil society, two university lecturers, a child protection specialist, two lawyers, two judges (one of whom is retired) and three doctors (including a psychiatrist).
13.The Subcommittee notes with satisfaction that the formalities called for in Organic Act No. 2013-43 have been carried out. Specifically, the mechanism has held its first meeting to elect its Chair (art. 8); its members have been designated, with the publication of their appointment in the Official Gazette; and they have sworn their oaths of office before the Head of Government (art. 9).
14. The mechanism needs to be able to develop its organizational structures and its rules of procedure, in accordance with article 17 of the Act, and to adopt its strategy and action plan independently so that its functional and operational independence is guaranteed. In this regard, the mechanism should encourage the Government of Tunisia to adopt the corresponding implementing decrees as soon as possible.
15. The Subcommittee encourages the mechanism to assess the gaps that exist in respect of torture prevention, particularly as regards the legislative framework and monitoring the situation in places of deprivation of liberty, and to devise a strategy for responding to its assessment in accordance with its mandate. This strategy should establish criteria for prioritizing which places of deprivation of liberty are to receive periodic inspections, based on the type and size of the facility, the seriousness of any human rights violations brought to the mechanism ’ s attention and whether the facility is accessible to other monitoring mechanisms.
16. On the basis of this strategy, the mechanism should draw up a programme of work and cooperation that gradually takes in all places of deprivation of liberty and places where persons deprived of their liberty could be held, in accordance with articles 4 and 29 of the Optional Protocol, taking care not to exclude any particular kind of institution or any geographical area.
17. In this regard, the mechanism should, in accordance with article 3 (8) of the Act, establish a secure database of places of deprivation of liberty in Tunisia so that it can plan its visits independently and fully discharge its mandate. The database should include, inter alia, the physical features of each facility, such as the overall layout, how the accommodation is arranged and the dimensions of buildings, yards and cells, and should be supplemented with information gathered during visits.
18. In addition, the Subcommittee recommends that the mechanism keep its schedule of visits confidential, as unannounced visits give a better idea of the true conditions in places of deprivation of liberty, including police custody facilities, and allow day-to-day operations to be observed.
19. In terms of making legislative and regulatory recommendations, the mechanism is encouraged to work to strengthen the normative and institutional framework for the prevention of torture and the fight against impunity, in close collaboration with the State party and its institutions, taking into account the recommendations made by the Subcommittee at the end of its visit to Tunisia and prioritizing the observations and recommendations made by the Committee against Torture in its concluding observations to the Government of Tunisia (CAT/C/TUN/CO/3).
20.The Subcommittee notes that the Government of Tunisia has undertaken to provide the mechanism with the necessary financial resources, assessed on the basis of the needs expressed by the mechanism itself, to enable it to fully discharge its mandate, in accordance with paragraphs 8, 11 and 12 of the Subcommittee’s Guidelines on national preventive mechanisms. It also notes that such financial resources must be drawn annually from “funds allocated from the State budget” and that they must be directly managed by the mechanism, in accordance with articles 15 and 16 of the Act and the provisions of the Optional Protocol. The Subcommittee nonetheless expresses its concern about the fact that the funds made available to the mechanism are not sufficient to enable it to carry out its functions properly and about the lack of an independent budget line in the overall State budget for the year 2017, which is detrimental to the mechanism’s administrative and financial independence, called for in article 1 of the Act, and therefore to its effective functioning.
21. The Subcommittee recommends that the mechanism continue lobbying the Government of Tunisia to provide it with a stable, adequate budget, separate from the government budget and available from the beginning of each year, so as to ensure the mechanism ’ s proper functioning and financial and operational independence, in accordance with article 18 (1) and (3) of the Optional Protocol. In this regard, it encourages the mechanism to use the means at its disposal to highlight the importance of a more substantial budget allocation for the year 2017, on the basis of a detailed budget of the expenses involved in launching and carrying out its annual programme of visits across the State party; in conducting its follow-up activities, as appropriate; in mobilizing and developing partnerships with agencies involved in the prevention of torture; and in meeting all logistical and infrastructure requirements for its efficient functioning, including installation costs, staff salaries, publication of reports and dissemination of awareness-raising materials.
22.The Subcommittee recommends that the mechanism take the necessary steps to recruit its staff directly in order to ensure their full independence from the Government of Tunisia, in accordance with article 18 (1) of the Optional Protocol, and have a sufficient number of qualified persons with a variety of skills to enable it to fill posts in its various administrative departments and its permanent secretariat and to fulfil its various mandates and functions. In this respect, the Subcommittee suggests that the mechanism explore creative measures to develop its human resources, such as internship programmes or partnering with universities and civil society organizations.
23.The Subcommittee is concerned about the lack of funds allocated to the mechanism for its implementation in 2016 and insufficient material resources made available for the year 2017. It also notes that it may take some time yet to adopt the government decrees establishing the mechanism’s rules of procedure and organizational structure, and also to make available the human, technical and financial resources required for the mechanism’s launch, thereby delaying its implementation and effective functioning.
24. The Subcommittee recommends that the mechanism increase its lobbying of the Government of Tunisia to provide it with initial human, material and financial resources as a matter of urgency to facilitate its implementation and the early launch of its activities. More specifically, the mechanism should use all the means at its disposal to urge the Government of Tunisia to provide it with adequate staff to form a temporary secretariat or administration, functional premises that meet security and confidentiality requirements in which to hold its first meetings, and a budget large enough to ensure that it can function, as soon as possible.
IV.Coherence of the torture prevention system
25.The Subcommittee notes with satisfaction the establishment of various institutions with mandates to prevent and combat torture, including the High Committee on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Administrative Ombudsman in the Office of the President and the Truth and Dignity Commission. However, it also recognizes the challenges posed by such a wide variety of bodies in terms of coherence, and it emphasizes the need for their work to be coordinated with that of the mechanism so as to reduce the risk of confusion among stakeholders, beneficiaries of the services offered by these bodies and the authorities. It also notes that effective coordination and cooperation among these bodies would limit the risk of disputes arising as to their competence or of conflicting activities being carried out.
26. The Subcommittee encourages the mechanism to formulate, within its mandate, a strategy for identifying guidelines for action and collaboration that will enable it to use its resources as efficiently as possible and ensure effective cooperation and coordination with the various bodies whose mandates include preventing and combating this practice, particularly the High Committee on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Administrative Ombudsman in the Office of the President and the Truth and Dignity Commission, so as to reduce the risk of confusion among stakeholders, beneficiaries and the authorities and to avoid the possibility of conflicting activities, which could weaken the national system for the prevention of torture. The mechanism should take all necessary measures to promote an appropriate division of labour among the bodies concerned and to emphasize the complementarity of their activities in order to avoid overlap and duplication in the exercise of their respective mandates. To that end, the Subcommittee encourages the mechanism to prioritize its preventive functions and to engage in dialogue with these institutions in order to encourage the establishment of a consultation framework to facilitate information exchange and coordinated action.
27.The Subcommittee notes the drafting of a bill to establish a new, independent national human rights institution fully compliant with the Paris Principles and equipped to perform the functions assigned to it in article 128 of the 2014 Constitution, including in particular promoting and protecting human rights and freedoms, drafting proposals to develop the human rights system, issuing legal opinions on draft legislation relating to its field of competence and investigating cases of human rights violations, with a view to resolving them or referring them to the competent authorities. The Subcommittee notes, however, that articles 11 and 12 of the bill would allow the institution to carry out regular and unannounced visits to all places of detention and would call upon all the authorities concerned to facilitate its activities under its mandate to prevent torture. Although articles 4 and 21 of the bill emphasize the importance of cooperation and coordination between the national human rights institution and other human rights institutions, in particular the mechanism, the Subcommittee remains concerned about the overlap between the mandates of the two bodies (both of which would have a dual function of preventing torture and dealing with complaints) and about the risk of confusion and conflicting activities that may result.
28. The Subcommittee encourages the mechanism to explore the various potential means of cooperation and coordination with the national human rights institution in order to ensure that their activities are coherent and complementary and avoid duplication, to clarify their respective mandates for stakeholders, beneficiaries and the authorities, and to enhance the effectiveness and credibility of the institutions concerned and, more generally, the national system for the prevention of torture. In particular, the Subcommittee recommends that the mechanism prioritize its preventive mandate, leaving the task of receiving and dealing with complaints of torture to the national human rights institution. The mechanism should also be able to participate in the drafting of legislation concerning that body. The Subcommittee also wishes to draw the mechanism ’ s attention to the possibility of concluding a memorandum of understanding or establishing a system of referrals between the two bodies (allowing the mechanism to refer cases of torture to the national human rights institution) or even of creating a shared database.
29.While welcoming the adoption of Organic Act No. 2013-53 in December 2013 on transitional justice and the related organizational arrangements, the Subcommittee would like to draw attention to the broad scope of the Truth and Dignity Commission’s mandate. It notes with concern that this Act gives the Commission just five years to determine the truth about violations committed over nearly 60 years, and that the Commission has already received nearly 30,000 complaints, including some 20,000 relating to torture and ill-treatment. The Subcommittee is also concerned about the fact that the budget allocated for the Commission is not sufficient to enable it to carry out its mandate.
30. The Subcommittee encourages the mechanism to lobby the Government in order to make it aware that complaints of torture and ill-treatment received by the Truth and Dignity Commission will have to be transferred, when its mandate expires, to the criminal courts specializing in transitional justice established pursuant to Decree No. 2014-2887 of 8 August 2014, so as to ensure that all perpetrators of acts of torture committed during the period covered by the transitional justice law are brought to justice and that victims have access to adequate reparation.
V.Relations with civil society
31.The Subcommittee notes with satisfaction the agreements reached between the Government of Tunisia and various national and international agencies to strengthen the monitoring of places of detention, especially those concluded with the International Committee of the Red Cross and OHCHR, in 2005 and 2011 respectively, and the adoption in December 2012 of nine memorandums of understanding on prison visits with several national human rights organizations. The Subcommittee also notes with satisfaction the election within the mechanism of four members from civil society to serve on the national monitoring team for places of detention. It is, however, concerned about information provided by the Government of Tunisia that memorandums of understanding between the Ministry of Justice and relevant civil society organizations would terminate once the mechanism was set up, which could seriously restrict access by such organizations to places of detention and compromise their role as monitors in preventing torture.
32. The Subcommittee emphasizes that it is important to have a number of parties working to prevent and combat torture and a variety of monitoring and oversight mechanisms at different levels. It recalls, however, the need to consider the ways in which the different bodies can coordinate and cooperate with one another to ensure that their activities are coherent and complementary and to avoid duplication. In this sense, the Subcommittee considers that the work of the mechanism should complement, rather than replace, the work done by the monitoring mechanisms already in place in the country, including those established by civil society. In this regard, it encourages the mechanism to support international and national human rights organizations in lobbying the Government of Tunisia to guarantee them continuing access to places of detention and to enable them to pursue their monitoring and oversight activities, notably by renewing the memorandums of understanding between the Ministry of Justice and the organizations in question.
33. The mechanism should work closely with civil society organizations in carrying out its functions, in particular by ensuring that visits to places of detention cover the entire national territory, but also by organizing awareness campaigns and training activities for the prevention of torture.
34. The Subcommittee recommends that the mechanism take all necessary measures to expand its network of potential partners relevant to its mandate of preventing torture, including civil society organizations, in order to ensure solid cooperation and coordination in their respective activities. In addition, civil society organizations could play a role as observers of the mechanism, monitoring and regularly evaluating its work in order to ensure that it properly carries out its mandate of preventing torture.
VI.Measures to raise awareness of the national preventive mechanism and increase its visibility
35.The Subcommittee is concerned about the lack of awareness-raising measures and training programmes on the absolute prohibition on torture for law enforcement officers, prison staff, officials of the justice system, gendarmes, health professionals, members of the armed forces, representatives of relevant government bodies and non-governmental organizations, and the public. Additionally, while the Subcommittee is aware that the mechanism is a recent addition among Tunisian human rights institutions, it fears that the mechanism’s potential lack of visibility could jeopardize the implementation of its recommendations by the competent authorities, as provided for in article 22 of the Optional Protocol.
36. The Subcommittee recommends that the mechanism carry out awareness-raising campaigns and participate in training for law enforcement officers, prison staff, officials of the justice system, gendarmes , health professionals, members of the armed forces, representatives of relevant government bodies and non-governmental organizations, and the public, so as to unequivocally reaffirm the absolute prohibition on torture and to publicly make it known that anyone committing such acts, complicit in them or tacitly authorizing them will be held personally responsible before the law. The mechanism should also encourage the highest State authorities to conduct a comprehensive, public zero - tolerance campaign against torture so as to break once and for all with the practices of the past.
37. The Subcommittee recommends that the mechanism lobby the State party to ensure that it is recognized as a key player in the system for the prevention of torture in Tunisia and that it is granted the appropriate institutional visibility to carry out its functions. It also recommends that the mechanism take all necessary measures to raise public awareness and inform the public about its establishment and its role, in particular by disseminating information on its mandate. In that regard, the mechanism is encouraged to produce leaflets for persons deprived of their liberty and for their families, explaining its mandate and its methods of work and giving contact details. The leaflet should also explain what informed consent is and state that reprisals of any kind should be brought to its attention.
38. The Subcommittee encourages the mechanism to finalize its communication strategy as soon as possible: the strategy should envisage the setting up of simple, accessible procedures through which the general public can provide it with relevant information. It also recommends that the strategy include participation in the activities of the Government of Tunisia that relate to the mechanism ’ s mandate, strengthening ties with national partners, and involvement in training programmes related to its field of competence.
39. The Subcommittee encourages the mechanism to work with the authorities to promptly establish a monitoring and evaluation mechanism in order to ensure that the recommendations it makes in the course of its activities are taken into account.
40. The mechanism is encouraged to take all necessary steps to ensure that its annual reports can be published and disseminated widely, as provided for in the Act, and that they are presented and discussed in the parliament, in addition to being submitted to the President of the Republic.
41. The Subcommittee considers that the mandate of the National Authority for the Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment gives it significant potential as a national preventive mechanism. Accordingly, it encourages the members thereof to review their working methods on a regular basis and to take part in training courses in order to strengthen their capacity to discharge their responsibilities under the Optional Protocol.
42. The Subcommittee encourages the mechanism to seek assistance from OHCHR in following up on these recommendations. It also encourages the mechanism to consider holding a national workshop to adopt a programme for the implementation of the recommendations made by the Subcommittee following this visit.
43. The Subcommittee encourages the mechanism to take steps to contact other national preventive mechanisms in order to identify good practices.
44. This report is being sent to the mechanism on a confidential basis, in accordance with article 16 (1) of the Optional Protocol; any decision to make the report public will be left to the mechanism ’ s discretion. The Subcommittee does, however, recommend that the report be published and requests that it be notified of the mechanism ’ s decision in this regard.
45. The Subcommittee encourages the mechanism to transmit its annual reports to it and reaffirms its readiness to do all it can to help achieve the shared aim of preventing torture and ill-treatment and to ensure that commitments are translated into action.
List of persons met by the Subcommittee
Kamel Jendoubi, Ministre chargé des relations avec les instances constitutionnelles et la société civile et des droits de l’homme
Kameleddine Ben Hassen, Ministère de la justice
Naima Jelessi, Ministère des affaires sociales
Maher Kaddour, Ministère de l’intérieur
Habib Sbouii, Ministère de l’intérieur
Bechir Ferjani, Ministère de l’intérieur
Hatem Landolsi, Ministère des affaires étrangères
Rachid Rezgui, Ministère des affaires étrangères
Abdel Bou Dabous, Ministère des affaires étrangères
Saïda Wenich, Ministère de la santé
Baderddine Abdelkafi, Président de la Commission électorale de l’Assembléereprésentative du peuple
Hedi Guediri, premier Président de la courd’appel de Tunis
Raoudha Karafi, Présidente de l’Association des magistratstunisiens
Faysal Ben Slimi, Président du syndicat des magistrats tunisiens
Mourad Massaoudi, Président de l’Association des jeunesmagistrats
Fadhel Mahfoudh, bâtonnier de l’ordre national des avocats tunisiens
Yosr Chebbi, membre du Conseil de l’ordre national des avocats tunisiens
Saboua Bra, Secrétairegénérale de l’Association des jeunesavocats
Loubna Mejri, membre de l’Association des jeunesavocats
Mohammed Ikbel Chebbi, Vice-Président de l’Association des jeunesavocats
II.Instance nationale pour la prévention de la torture et autres peinesou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants
Hamida Dridi, Présidente
Diaaddine Mourou, Secrétaire général
Mohamed Yassine Binouss
III.Comité supérieur des droits de l’homme et des libertés fondamentales
Habiba ben Ramdhrane
IV.Instance Vérité et Dignité
Imene Fourati Hadj Taieb
V.Médiateur administratif auprès de la présidence
Fatima Ezzhra Benmahmoud
Mazen Shaqoura, Bureau du Haut-Commissariat aux droits de l’homme
Ichrak Ben Ezzine, Bureau du Haut-Commissariat aux droits de l’homme
Abou Abass, Bureau du Haut-Commissariat aux droits de l’homme
Fiuppo Di Carrggna, Programme des Nations Unies pour le développement
Nabil Benbekthi, Bureau du Haut-Commissariat pour les réfugiés
William Massolin, Conseil de l’Europe
Marie-Hélène Enderlin, Union européenne
Jonathan Harder, Union européenne
Emma Ingemansson, Centre de Genève pour le contrôle démocratique des forces armées
Krissinasen Annali, Institut danois des droits de l’homme
Lamia Louise Chehabi, Dignity Danish Institute against Torture
Malek Lakhoua, Institut tunisien de réhabilitation des victimes de torture NEBRAS
Fethi Touzri, Institut tunisien de réhabilitation des victimes de torture NEBRAS
Anissa Bouasker, Institut tunisien de réhabilitation des victimes de torture NEBRAS
Charbi Rhiadh, Ligue tunisienne des droits de l’homme
Mokhtar Trifi, Organisation mondiale contre la torture
Gabriele Reiter, Organisation mondiale contre la torture
Mondher Cherni, Organisation mondiale contre la torture
Halim Meddeb, Organisation mondiale contre la torture
Rim Ben Ismail, Reprieve
Karim Abdessalem, Association pour la justice et la réhabilitation