Committee against Torture
Concluding observations on the third periodic report of Jordan *
1.The Committee against Torture considered the third periodic report of Jordan (CAT/C/JOR/3) at its 1374th and 1377th meetings (see CAT/C/SR.1374 and 1377), held on 20 and 23 November 2015, and adopted the present concluding observations at its 1390th meeting, held on 3 December 2015.
2.The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for accepting the simplifiedreporting procedure and submitting its periodic report based on the procedure, as it improves the cooperation between the State party and the Committee and allows for a more focused dialogue with the delegation.
3.The Committee appreciates the opportunity to engage in a constructive dialogue with the State party’s high-level delegation, and the responses provided to the questions raised during the dialogue.
4.The Committee welcomes the adoption of the following legislative measures taken by the State party in areas of relevance to the Convention:
(a)The Juvenile Act No. 32, in 2014;
(b)The Independence of the Judiciary Act No. 29, in 2014;
(c)The Constitutional Court Act No. 15, in 2012;
(d)The increased penalties introduced in the amendment to the Penal Code, in 2011, for crimes of physical and sexual violence such as rape (art. 292), indecent assault (arts. 296-298), abduction (arts. 302-303) and sexual harassment (arts. 304-307).
5.The Committee notes the amendments to the Jordanian Constitution in 2011, notably to article 8 (2), which prohibits torture and deems that statements obtained by torture or use of harm or threats, invalid.
6.The Committee welcomes the following:
(a)The establishment of the national register of cases of torture in the public prosecution office;
(b)The adoption of the National Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking (2010-2012);
(c)The holding of two international conferences on combatting torture and alternatives to pretrial detention, organized by the Ministry of Justice at the Dead Sea, in 2013 and 2015.
7.The Committee commends the State party for admitting more than 1.2 million refugees and asylum seekers, many of whom are Syrians fleeing the armed conflict in their country.
C.Principal subjects of concern and recommendations
Pending follow-up issues from the previous reporting cycle
8.The Committee notes with regret the State party’s lack of compliance with the follow-up procedure, as well as the incomplete responses provided by the delegation during the dialogue with regard to the Committee’s recommendations in paragraphs 10, 11, 18 and 31 of its previous concluding observations (CAT/C/JOR/CO/2).
Definition of torture
9.While noting the information provided by the delegation about the ongoing legal reform aimed at bringing the State party’s Penal Code into line with the Convention, the Committee remains concerned that the definition of torture in the Penal Code (art. 208) is not in line with articles 1 and 4 of the Convention. In particular, the Committee is concerned that torture is considered a misdemeanour and that punishments are not commensurate with the gravity of the acts and are subject to amnesty as well as to statutes of limitations. The Committee is also concerned that punishment is limited to individuals who order or carry out acts of torture and does not extend to individuals who are otherwise complicit in such acts (arts. 1 and 4).
10. The Committee urges the State party to adopt a definition of torture that covers all the elements contained in article 1 of the Convention and to ensure that torture is considered a crime and the penalties for torture are commensurate with the gravity of th e crime , in accordance with article 4 ( 2 ) of the Convention, and not subject to amnesty or pardon. The State party should also ensure that the scope of the definition o f torture is extended to anyone who commits acts of torture, who attempts to commit torture, or who instigate s , consents to or acquiesces to the commission of such acts . In th at regard, the Committee draws at tention to its general comment N o. 2 (2007) on the implementation of article 2 by States parties, in which it states that serious discrepancies between the Convention’s definition and that incorporated into domestic law create actual or potential loopholes for impunity (para. 9) . The Committee recommends that the State party take steps to include in its Penal Code a provision on the non-applicability of statut es of limit ations to the crime of torture.
Absolute prohibition of torture
11.The Committee is concerned that there is no clear provision in the State party’s legislation to ensure that the prohibition of torture is absolute and non-derogable. While noting that article 61 of the State party’s Penal Code stipulates that a person shall not be held criminally liable while obeying an order issued by a competent authority that must be obeyed by law, unless that order is illegal, the Committee expresses its concern about the lack of information on whether mechanisms or procedures for protecting subordinates from reprisals exist so as to enable subordinates to refuse to obey illegal orders in practice (art. 2).
12. The State party should ensure that the principle of absolute prohibition of torture is incorporated in its legislation and that it is strict ly appli ed , in accordance with article 2 ( 2 ) of the Convention. The State party should also ensure that an order from a superior -ranking officer may not be invoked as justification of torture and , to th at end , establish a mechanism for the protection of subordinates who refuse to obey such an order, and ensure that all law enforcement officers are informed of the prohibition against obeying unlawful order s and made aware of the protective mechanisms put in place.
Refugees and non-refoulement
13.While appreciating the State party’s efforts to host an exceptional number of refugees fleeing armed conflict in neighbouring countries, the Committee expresses its concern about the living conditions in refugee camps that may amount to ill-treatment. It also notes the delegation’s statement that the principle of non-refoulement is being practically applied, however, it remains concerned at reports of inconsistent border policies. In that regard, the Committee notes with concern the State party’s policy not to admit Palestinian refugees fleeing the conflict in Syria. It also notes several cases of refoulement of such persons to Syria, without the necessary individualized procedures. The Committee is also concerned at reports indicating the State party’s involvement in “extraordinary renditions” in the context of the war against terrorism (arts. 3, 12 and 13).
14. The State party should :
(a) Take effective measures to enhance living conditions in refugee camps;
(b) Strengthen its domestic legislative framework by adopting a comprehensive law on asylum that is consistent with international standards and in accordance with article 3 of the Convention;
(c) Abolish its policy not to admit Palestinian refugees fleeing the conflict in Syria and refrain from deporting them to Syria, if they cross the borders;
(d) Ensure procedural safeguards against refoulement and effective remedies with respect to refoulement claims in removal proceedings, including review of rejections by an independent judicial body;
(e) Ensure that no one under its control at any time becomes the object of an “extraordinary rendition” ; conduct effective, impartial investigations into any and all cases of “extraordinary rendition” in which the State party may have played a role ; and bring to light the facts surrounding such cases. The State party should also prosecute and punish those responsible for such renditions and compensate the victims;
(f) Consider ratifying the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees , the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness.
Withdrawal of nationality or national identification number
15.Notwithstanding the explanations provided by the delegation, the Committee remains concerned about reports indicating arbitrary revocation of citizenship or withdrawal of national identification numbers from Jordanians of Palestinian origin, thus subjecting them to the risk of unlawful expulsion and compromising their rights to, inter alia, education and health care (arts. 3 and 16).
16. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation (CAT/C/JOR/CO/2, para . 24) to put an end to the arbitrary withdrawal of national identification numbers from Jordanians of Palestinian origin . The State party must also ensure that decisions concerning revocation of nationality are taken by a competent authority and meet relevant international criteria, including the right of persons concerned to be heard and to challenge such decisions.
Fundamental legal safeguards
17.The Committee notes the procedural safeguards set out in articles 100 and 113, among others, of the Code of Criminal Procedure. However, it regrets the absence of an explicit provision on the right to access a lawyer immediately upon arrest; that articles 63 (2) and 64 (3) of the Code of Criminal Procedure allow the interrogation of detainees without the presence of a lawyer “in case of urgency”; and that article 66 (1) of the same Code allows the public prosecutor to prohibit communication with a detainee for a period of up to 10 days, which is renewable. The Committee is concerned at the State party’s failure to ensure the application of these and other fundamental legal safeguards to prevent torture and ill-treatment. In that respect, the Committee is concerned about consistent reports that detainees, in particular those held in facilities of the General Intelligence Directorate and the Public Security Directorate, are frequently deprived of timely access to a lawyer and a medical doctor, as well as of their right to notify a person of their choice. It is also concerned by allegations regarding the failure to adhere to the 24-hour limit for bringing detainees before a competent authority and to ensure the confidentiality of client-lawyer consultations (art. 2).
18. The State party should ensure that all detainees are afforded, by law and in practice, all fundamental legal safeguards from the very outset of their deprivation of liberty, including the right to be assisted by a lawyer without delay; the right to have immediate access to an independent medical doctor, regardless of any medical examination that may be conducted at the request of the authorities; to be informed of the reasons for the arrest and the nature of any charges against them , in a language that they understand; to be registered at the place of detention; to promptly inform a close relative or a third party of their arrest; to be brought before a judge without delay; and the right to confidential consultations with lawyers.
19.The Committee is concerned about the high number of people placed in pretrial detention. It is also concerned that, as a result, on-remand inmates are not systematically separated from convicted prisoners, nor children from adults (arts. 2, 11 and 16).
20. The Committee recommends that the State party intensify its efforts to reduce the number of people placed in pretrial detention, including by resorting to alternatives to imprisonment. The State party should also ensure the separation of pretrial detainees from convicted prisoners and minors from adults , in all places of detention .
21.The Committee is highly concerned at the continuous recourse to administrative detention by the State party under the Crimes Prevention Act (1954), which allows for detention without charge and raises issues about the separation of powers between the executive and judicial branches. It is particularly concerned at the increasing number of persons held in administrative detention and for long periods, during which detainees are deprived of procedural guarantees. It is also concerned that administrative detention is used in particular against women and girls who are victims of violence, under the pretext of protecting them, as well as against migrant workers fleeing abusive employers (arts. 1, 2, 11 and 16).
22. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation (CAT/C/JOR/CO/2, para . 13) to abolish the practice of administrative detention, including and in particular the holding of women and girls who are victims of violence in “ protective custody ” as well as migrant workers who are fle eing abusive employers. It should also ensure that guarantees exist regarding all fundamental procedural safeguards for all detainees. The State party should take immediate measures to amend the Crimes Prevention Act with a view to bringing it in to compliance with international human rights standards and with the State party’s obligations under the Convention; alternatively, the State party should aboli sh the Crimes Prevention Act.
Reports of torture and ill-treatment
23.The Committee is concerned about consistent reports of widespread torture and ill-treatment of suspects by security and law enforcement officials, especially in detention facilities run by the General Intelligence Directorate as well as at the Criminal Investigations and Drugs Combating Departments of the Public Security Directorate, primarilyto extract confessions or information to be used in criminal proceedings (arts. 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, 13, 15 and 16).
24. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendations (CAT/C/JOR/CO/2, para . 16) to place all State security departments, in particular the General Intelligence Directorate, under civilian authority and oversight and to limit the powers of the Directorate. It further urges the State party to:
(a) Ensure that all instances and allegations of torture and ill-treatment are investigated promptly, effectively and impartially, and that perpetrators are prosecuted and convicted in accordance with the gravity of their acts, as required by article 4 of the Convention;
(b) Continue to i nstall and maintain video recordings of all interrogations and to install video surveillance in all areas of custody facilities where detainees may be present, except where detainees’ right to privacy or to confidential communication with their lawyer or doctor may be violated. Such recordings should be kept in secure facilities and be made available to investigators, detainees and lawyers on request ;
(c) Unambiguously reaffirm the absolute prohibition of torture and issue a public warn ing that anyone committing acts of torture or otherwise complicit or acquiescent in torture will be held personally responsible before the law and will be subject to criminal prosecution and appropriate penalties.
Death in custody
25.The Committee is alarmed at the several cases of death of inmates in custody in 2015, namely the death of Ibrahim Abdullah El-Kadri, Omar El-Naser and Abdullah El-Zoabi. It is also concerned that the case of Sultan Alkhatatbi, who died in Jandawil detention facility in 2013, is still pending despite the lapse of time since it was referred to the Police Court (arts. 2, 11 and 16).
26. The State party should expedite the investigations into all cases of death in custody, in accordance with international standards of investigation, bring the perpetrators to justice and punish them accordingly , if convicted .
Reports of attacks against journalists
27.The Committee is concerned at reports of excessive use of police force in dispersing demonstrations, including and in particular against journalists, which may amount to ill-treatment or torture. The Committee is concerned that investigations into the use of force against journalists by police and security forces in relation to demonstrations that took place in April and in July 2011 were carried out by the Public Security Directorate that employs the alleged perpetrators, and that the investigations resulted in only disciplinary measures being taken against perpetrators in relation to the July 2011 demonstration, but none of the alleged perpetrators in either the April or the July 2011 events was prosecuted.
28. The State party should:
(a) Carry out prompt, impartial, thorough and effective investigations into all allegations of excessive use of force, including torture and ill-treatment, by law enforcement officials and ensure that those suspected of committ ing such acts are immediately suspended from their duties for the duration of the investigation, while ensuring that the principle of presumption of innocence is observed;
(b) Prosecute persons suspected of committ ing torture or ill-treatment against journalists in the above-mentioned events;
(c) Take immediate measures to eradicate all forms of harassment and ill-treatment by law enforcement officials during demonstrations and ensure that law enforcement officials are trained in professional techniques , in particular not to use force unless it is strictly necessary and to the extent required for the performance of their duty.
29.The Committee is also concerned that the vague definition of “terrorist act” in the Anti-Terrorism Law (No. 55), including the charge of “harming relations with a foreign country”, and the existence of restrictive provisions in the Penal Code on the freedom of the media and of publication, have resulted in substantial constraints on the work of journalists, many of whom were subject to arbitrary detention in the absence of procedural guarantees and face criminal charges before the State Security Court for allegedly violating the above-mentioned laws (arts. 2, 12, 13 and 16).
30. The Committee recommends that the State party remove the obstacles affecting the work of journalists, including by introducing the necessary amendments to the Anti- T errorism Law and the Penal Code, and provide effective protection against arbitrary arrest and detention of journalists, including by prosecuting and punishing those responsible for such acts.
Monitoring detention centres
31.While noting that article 10 of the Law on Societies (No. 51) empowers the National Centre for Human Rights to visit all correctional and rehabilitation facilities, the Committee is concerned that the Centre is unable to make unannounced visits to detention facilities run by the General Intelligence Directorate, and that, in reality, only a limited number of visits to the Directorate were carried out by the Centre during the period under review. It further regrets the lack of information on steps taken by the State party to follow-up on visit reports as well as on measures taken to implement the recommendations put forward by the Centre. The Committee is also concerned at the limited resources allocated to the Centre. Finally, the Committee is concerned that non-governmental organizations are not granted access to correctional and rehabilitation centres (arts. 2, 11 and 16).
32. The State party should ensure that the National Centr e for Human Rights is granted access to all detention facilities and is able to carry out unannounced and regular visits to all such facilities. Alternatively, the State party should establish an independent monitoring mechanism with the mandate to carry out regular and unannounced visits to all places of detention. The Committee calls on the State party to closely study the recommendations put forward by the Centr e following its visits to detention facilities and to take appropriate steps to implement the recommendations, including and in particular where allegations of torture or ill-treatment are raised in the reports. To th at end, the State party should increase the resources allocated to the Centr e so as to enable it to discharge its role effectively. The Committee encourages the State party to grant NGOs access to places of detention. It also invites the State party to ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention.
Complaint and investigation mechanisms
33.The Committee is concerned about the State party’s continuous failure to establish an independent mechanism to investigate ill-treatment and allegations of torture. In that regard, it is concerned that existing complaints mechanisms, such as submitting a complaint to the Director of the prison or to the Legal Affairs Department or the Grievances and Human Rights Office of the Public Security Directorate, lack confidentiality and fail to protect complainants and witnesses, while existing investigation bodies, principally the public prosecutor, lack the necessary independence as they are in the same structure that employs the alleged perpetrators. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned about reports that inmates and prisoners are pressured not to not lodge complaints or to withdraw their complaints, otherwise complainants risk being subjected to reprisals. The Committee is also concerned that only a few complaints of ill-treatment or torture have led to prosecution and none has resulted in a conviction (arts. 2, 12, 13 and 16).
34. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Establish an independent complaint and investigation mechanism that complies with the requirement of institutional independence in order to avoid conflict of interest in the investigation of complaints by peers;
(b) Ensure that all complaints of torture or ill-treatment are promptly investigated in an impartial manner and that suspected perpetrators are duly tried and, if found guilty, punished in a manner that is commensurate with the gravity of their acts;
(c) Ensure that the authorities conduct investigations on their own initiative , whenever there are reasonable grounds to believe that an act of torture or ill-treatment has been committed;
(d) Ensure that alleged perpetrators of torture and ill-treatment are immediately suspended from duty for the duration of the investigation;
(e) Ensure that complainants are protected against any ill-treatment, intimidation or reprisals as a consequence of their complaint and that appropriate disciplinary or , where relevant, criminal measures are taken against law enforcement officials for such actions.
35.The Committee is concerned that the amendments introduced to the Anti-Terrorism Law No. 55 in 2014 broadened the already vague definition of terrorist acts and expanded the jurisdiction of the State Security Court to hear cases that allegedly disturb the public order (arts. 2 and 16).
36. The Committee urges the State party to review the Anti-Terrorism Law and ensure that the definitions of terrorism and terrorist act are concise and compatible with the State party’s obliga tions under the Convention.
37.The Committee is concerned about the continued existence of special courts in the State party, including the Police Court and the State Security Court. While noting the information provided by the delegation regarding the integration of civil judges in the Police Court and the amendment of the Public Security Law, in 2015, stipulating the establishment of a Police Appeal Court, the Committee remains concerned about the reported lack of independence and impartiality of those courts, which hinders the full enjoyment of human rights, such as the prohibition of torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment. The Committee is further concerned that, in reality, although only a very limited number of cases concerning torture or ill-treatment have been referred to the Police Court, judicial processing of such cases is very slow (arts. 2, 11 and 12).
38. The Committee recommends that the State party rectify this long-standing issue by transferring the jurisdiction for try ing personnel of the P ublic S ecurity D irectorate to the regular courts and thus prosecut e officials suspected of torture and ill-treatment through the regular civil courts. The Committee also urges the State party to abolish the State Security Court, in line with the recommendation of the Human Rights Committee in 2010 ( see CCPR/C/JOR/CO/4, para . 12).
39.The Committee, while noting the information provided by the delegation on the draft law on protection against domestic violence, is seriously concerned that gender-based violence, including domestic violence and crimes committed in the name of “honour”, remains widespread in the State party. While noting the information concerning the ongoing legal reform carried out in the State party, the Committee remains concerned about the continued existence of articles 98, 99, 308 and 340 of the Penal Code, which exempt rapists from criminal liability if they marry the victim, and allow for reduced sentences in certain circumstances for perpetrators of crimes committed under the pretext of family “honour”, thus allowing perpetrators to escape punishment. The Committee further regrets the lack of information on the outcome of court cases relating to gender-based violence, including the sentences and punishments (arts. 1, 2, 4, 12 and 16).
40. The State party should:
(a) Intensify its measures to combat all forms of violence a gainst women and ensure that all such cases are thoroughly investigated, perpetrators are prosecuted, and victims provided with redress, including fair and adequate compensation;
(b) Finali z e the enactment of the draft law on protection against domestic violence and take effective measures to ensure its implementation in practice, including by issuing the necessary implementation mechanism and raising awareness among law enforcement personnel, the judiciary, prosecutors, lawyers and social workers about the new law;
(c) Repeal without further delay any mitigating and exculpatory provisions in the Penal Code concerning rape and “honour” crimes and promptly take measures to end impunity for rape , so - called “ honour ” crimes and other gender-based violence;
(d) Provide detailed information in its next periodic report on the number of complaints, investigations, prosecution s , convictions and sanctions in relation to cases of gender - based violence.
41.While taking note of the information provided by the delegation on existing training programmes on anger management and torture prevention organized by the Public Security Directorate, the Committee remains concerned about the limited information on the effectiveness of that training. The Committee appreciates the information provided by the delegation about the new guidelines for prosecutors that include the Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Istanbul Protocol), however, it regrets that no specific training is provided to law enforcement officials, judges, prosecutors, forensic doctors and medical personnel dealing with detained persons on how to detect and document physical and psychological sequelae of torture (art. 10).
42. The State party should:
(a) Develop and apply a methodology for assessing the effective ness of training programmes in reducing the number of cases of torture and ill-treatment and in ensuring the investigation of those acts and prosecution of the perpetrators ;
(b) Ensure that all relevant staff, including medical personnel are specifically trained to identify cases of torture and ill-treatment, in accordance with the Istanbul Protocol.
Conditions of detention
43.The Committee is concerned that despite some measures taken to improve detention conditions, including through the establishment of new correctional and rehabilitation centres, serious challenges persist in detention facilities, in particular, overcrowding, poor sanitation, shortage of medical and health care, as well as a shortage of blankets and adequate food (arts. 11 and 16).
44. The S tate party should :
(a) Continue its efforts to alleviate overcrowding in detention facilities, including through the application of alternative measures to imprisonment, as indicated by the delegation during the dialogue, and the increase in budgetary allocations to develop and renovate the infrastructure of prisons and other detention facilities;
(b) Take effective measures to improve sanitation, quality of food, and the health services and facilities avai lable to inmates and prisoners;
(c) Ensure the application of the standard minimum rules for the treatment of prisoners , in line with relevant international human rights standards .
Women migrant workers
45.The Committee is concerned at the ongoing economic and physical exploitation of women migrant workers, especially domestic workers, coupled with insufficient regular inspection visits to monitor their working conditions. It is also concerned about the lack of information concerning prosecution of abusive employers (arts. 12, 13 and 16).
46. The Committee recommends that the State party step up its measures to address the situation of women migrant workers, including by ensuring effective implementation of labour laws and increasing inspection visits to the workplaces and dormitories of migrant workers . The State party should also facilitate access to justice by victims , thoroughly investigate all complaints , bring perpetrators to justice and , if they are conv icted , punish them accordingly.
Redress and rehabilitation
47.While bearing in mind article 256 of the Civil Code, which enables plaintiffs to seek damages for injuries suffered from perpetrators, the Committee is concerned about the lack of explicit provisions in domestic legislation that provides for the right of victims of torture and ill-treatment to fair and adequate compensation, including the means for as full rehabilitation as possible, as required by article 14 of the Convention. Apart from one court case in 2014, in which the court ordered compensation for the plaintiff who had been unlawfully detained, the Committee regrets that the delegation failed to provide other information on reparation and compensation measures ordered by the courts or other State bodies since the entry into force of the Convention in the State party. The Committee also regrets the lack of information regarding treatment and social rehabilitation services and other forms of assistance, including medical and psychosocial rehabilitation, provided to victims (art. 14).
48. The State party should review its legislation to include explicit provisions on the right of victims of torture and ill-treatment to redress, including fair and adequate compensation and rehabilitation and to ensure that victims may , inter alia, seek and obtain prompt, fair and adequate compensation, including in cases where the civil liability of the State party is involved, in accordance with article 14 of the Convention. The State party should, in practice, provide all victims of torture or ill-treatment with redress, including fair and adequate compensation, and as full rehabilitation as possible . Furthermore , the Committee recommends that the State establish a rehabilitation programme, including appropriate medical and psychological assistance, for victims and allocate the necessary resources for its effective implementation. The State party should provide the Committee with statistical data on cases in which it has provided compensation to victims of torture or ill-treatment, as well as the amount of the compensation. The Committee draws the attention of the Stat e party to its general comment N o. 3 (2012) on the implementation of article 14 by States parties, which clarifies the content and scope of the obligations of States parties to provide full redress to victims of torture.
49.While noting the legal safeguards enshrined in the Jordanian Constitution, which establish the inadmissibility of evidence obtained through torture, and in article 159 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, which invalidates evidence or proof obtained by means of physical or moral coercion, the Committee is concerned that, in practice, coerced confessions or statements are still used as admissible evidence in courts. The Committee remains concerned about the apparent failure to investigate those allegations and about the lack of information on the prosecution and punishment of the officials who allegedly extracted such confessions (art. 15).
50. The State party should adopt effective measures to guarantee that coerced confessions or statements are inadmissible in practice, except when invoked against a person accused of torture as evidence that the statement was made. The State party should also ensure that law enforcement officials, judges and lawyers receive training on how to detect and investigate cases in which confessions are obtained under torture. Furthermore, it should ensure that officials who extract such confessions are brought to justice, prosecuted and punished accordingly.
51. The Committee requests the State party to provide, by 9 December 2016, information on follow-up to the Committee’s recommendations on fundamental legal safeguards, administrative detention, special courts and coerced confessions (see paras . 18, 22, 38 and 50 above) . In th at context, the State party is invited to inform the Committee about its plans for implementing , within the coming reporting period, some or all of the remaining recommendations in the concluding observations.
52. The Committee encourages the State party to consider making the declaration under article 22 of the Convention, recognizing the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from individuals subject to its jurisdiction.
53. The Committee invites the State party to ratify the core United Nations human rights treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of T heir Families and the International Convention for the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
54. The State party is requested to disseminate widely the report submitted to the Committee and the present concluding observations, in appropriate languages, through official websites, the media and non-governmental organizations.
55. The State party is invited to submit its fourth periodic report by 9 December 2019. To that end, and in view of the fact that the State party has agreed to report to the Committee under the simplified reporting procedure, the Committee will , in due course , transmit to the State party a list of issues prior to reporting . The State party is also invited to submit its common core document in accordance with the requirements contained in the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties (HRI/GEN.2/Rev.6).