57.32 undocumented migrant women have been identified as THB victims in the last five years.

58.From 2011 until the end of 2020, the Commission for the Protection of Victims of Crime received 8 requests for support to THB victims and 6 of them were supported. The trial had already taken place, with the sentence being final.

Participation in political and public life

59.For women’s representation in political life see table 18.

60.Framework Law 1/2019 rose from 33 per cent to 40 per cent the minimum threshold WM in electoral lists to national and European parliament, elective bodies of municipalities and members of parish councils. Non-compliant lists are rejected.

61.The MFA is committed to further increasing the representation of women in leadership positions. Currently, in addition to the minister, the MFA is governed by two women Secretaries of State, of the four current Secretaries of State. In December 2019, Ambassador Madalena Fischer became the first female Director-General for Foreign Policy and, in 2018, ended the term of Ambassador Ana Martinho as the first female Secretary-General for Foreign Affairs. Women were allowed to join diplomacy only after 1974 and today represent 30 per cent of diplomats.

62.The Director-General for the Administration of Justice and the deputy directors are women. At the Institute of Registries and Notaries the President of the Board of Directors is a woman, as well as in the Institute of Financial Management and Justice Equipment, in which, besides the President, one of the members is also a woman. A similar scenario exists at the National Institute of Industrial Property. In higher judicial courts, since 2015 there is a considerable increase in the number of female judicial magistrates and prosecutors. The difference is still significant at the level of the first instance judicial courts, considering the presence of women magistrates in greater numbers. In the Supreme Administrative Court, the President and the Vice-Presidents are women. In the Supreme Court of Justice, there is a female Vice-President and the Plenary comprises 15 women. In the Lisbon Court of Appeal there is parity, and at the Court of Appeal of Guimarães, the number of female judicial magistrates is higher.

63.Law 49/2018 created the legal regime of “Maior Acompanhado” (accompanied adult), eliminating the interdiction and disqualification institutes. Autonomy can only be limited under the terms of the law and the ability to exercise rights and fulfil duties should be limited to the minimum necessary. With this regime, it is possible to practice personal acts such as being able to exercise the right to vote.


64.Women lead access to public higher education as shown below.

Higher education calls 2019 –20 20

1st phase

2nd phase

3rd phase



25 446

5 161


31 340


19 065

4 117


23 851

65.There is a specific budget allocation of higher education grants for financially disadvantaged students and students with disabilities.

Executed budget



Social support grants

130 739 951,83€

112 966 835,79€

Disability grants

720 950,11€

1 343 813,45€

2019 –20 20 Students

Social support grants

Disability grants


46 580





25 937





72 517

1 000

66.ROMA Educa Program grants scholarships to secondary education students, in 2019/2020 60 000€ were allocated and 49 scholarships (13 to girls) granted. The 2020/2021 edition extended scholarships to tertiary education and included a clause guaranteeing that 40 per cent of selected candidates are of the underrepresented sex.

67.OPRE Program aims ROMA higher education students. The 2019/2020 edition had a financial allocation of 124 927€ granting 38 scholarships (17 to women).


68.Regarding job applications registered, women accounted for 49.1 per cent of 23 628 candidates in November 2020, leaded by the Alentejo region (52.9 per cent). The 35–54 age group shows the highest number of job applications in all regions. There was an increase regarding the number of persons with disabilities with tertiary and secondary education (12 404) compared to 2018 (11 055) and in long-term unemployment (see tables 6 and 7). All measures for employment apply to women with disabilities. Since 2018 there has been a positive evolution in the participation of women with disabilities in training actions, which demonstrates the commitment to improve their skills for later integration into society and the labour market (see tables 8 and 9).

69.Despite the existence, since 2011, of a system with employment quotas for persons with disabilities in Public Administration, new legislation in 2019 established minimum quotas in the private sector. The measure “Inclusive Brand/Award of Merit” is a certificate distinguishing inclusive management practices developed by employers regarding persons with disabilities. In 2019, applications reached 58 653 workers, of whom 1 283 were workers with disabilities (2.19 per cent). Financial support of entities integrating persons with disabilities was increased and persons with disabilities continue to have access to facilitated employment measures.

70.COVID-19 has had an impact on the employability of persons with disabilities. Program ATIVAR.PT – Enhanced Program for Support to Employment and Vocational Training is dedicated to persons with disabilities, within the framework of the approved Economic and Social Stabilisation Program, and includes: ATIVAR.PT – Traineeships (until 30 June 2021) and ATIVAR.PT – Hiring Incentive to persons with disabilities, with plus 15 per cent and 10 per cent of the value of the social support index (IAS) respectively. It also includes the exceptional extension of the Insertion Employment contract +.

71.The number of migrants and refugees registered as unemployed indicate that since 2018 the percentage of women is always higher (see table 10). Portugal supports the integration of migrants and refugees through vocational training and employment without special measures for any gender. In 2020, the strengthening of Portuguese language and culture education by means of training for foreigners (employed and unemployed) is given in a Program called PLA – Portuguese as host language courses, which replaced the previous PPT – Portuguese for All Program. The number of persons covered by this measure has increased since 2016, with 5 675 migrant trainees covered in 2020 (see table 11).

72.In 2015, the Migrant Entrepreneur Support Office was created facilitating the integration of migrant entrepreneurs in the labour market. Migrants are also supported by the Office for Employability, Higher Education and Qualification which in 2020 assisted 2 417 individuals (36 per cent women). The Network of Migrant Professional Integration Offices had 8021 visits (56 per cent women). The Migrant Entrepreneurship Program since 2009 has promoted 142 courses “Support for Business Creation” in which 1730 women and 1004 men participated and created 235 businesses (153 created by women).

73.IEFP is preparing a training on active citizenship aiming to ensure widespread equitable access to digital technologies for the whole population. This measure is part of the INCoDe.2030 Initiative and will include the use of online public services, electronic notifications, digital security, social networks, among others, and aligned with the Dynamic Framework of Reference for Digital Competences.

74.Law 100/2019 approved the Statute of the Informal Caregiver establishing the rights and duties of the caregiver and the cared person, as well as the respective support measures, including social coverage and social contributions. Specific regulation for the Informal Caregiver was approved in 2020. Coverage and support measures depend on whether the caregiver is a full-time caregiver or not. Cash payments or transfers may be granted to full-time caregivers if they meet the conditions for entitlement, namely being part of the same household, having temporarily withdrawn from the labour market and a jointly monthly income under the financial threshold (1.2 IAS of the Support allowance for the main informal caregiver). Caregivers having withdrawn from the labour market may register in the social security voluntary scheme to be protected in old age, invalidity and death. All caregivers, irrespective of the status, have access to training in order to facilitate and help caring for the caregiver and the person cared for (training offer, mobile applications, counselling, additional information and support for professionals – formal caregivers). Caregivers benefit from counselling and psychological support.

75.All legislative measures taken in the context of the pandemic cover self-employed WM, as postponing of payment of social contributions for self-employed workers, exceptional financial support given to the family of self-employed workers who have to be absent from work to care for children at home due to mandatory closure of schools decided by health authorities, extraordinary extension of unemployment benefits and subsistence allowances, consideration of temporary incapacity for work by COVID-19 similar to a disease with hospitalization, paid at a 100 per cent rate, and the sickness benefit in case of COVID-19 not needing a qualifying period, effective period of work or waiting period.

76.As for the legislative framework aimed at improving household incomes, several measures were taken as the update of IAS (to € 438,81) which impacts on the amount of other social benefits, including old-age and invalidity pensions; rise in the financial threshold of the minimum income social benefits, such as the Solidarity Supplement for the Elderly; maintenance in 2020 of temporary measures protecting the most vulnerable groups of unemployed persons: households with children and long-term unemployed; enlargement of the parental leave mandatorily reserved to the father from 15 to 20 days, paid at 100 per cent.

77.Domestic service workers are covered by the general social security, with some material scope specificities (may or may not be covered by unemployment protection) and the contributory scheme. Like other employees they are also covered by the measures taken in the context of the pandemic and which concern either access to sickness benefit for reasons of COVID-19 or for the need for prophylactic isolation. Current legislation on domestic work is in line with the relevant aspects of the Convention concerning decent work for domestic workers, 2011 (No. 189) of the ILO.

78.Between 2012 and 2018, the average gender pay gap decreased 4.1pp in base salary (to 14.4 per cent) and 3.3 pp in gross salary (to 17.8 per cent). The 1.6pp decrease from 2015 and 2018 was mainly due to the improvement of women’s salaries, which grew more than men. In this context, minimum income rose from 505€ in 2015 to 635€ in 2020. In the second half of 2020 the Portuguese Institute for Quality created the Technical Commission for wage equality between WM (CT 216) with the purpose of elaborating a Portuguese Wage Standard, related to an Equal Wage Management System, to be adopted by public and private companies to reduce the gender pay gap. CT 216 includes public entities, academia, business sector and union representatives. One of its working groups is elaborating the national Standard by adapting the text of the Icelandic Standard “ÍST 85: 2012 – Equal wage management system-requirements and guidance” in force. The Portuguese Standard for Wage Equality is expected to be completed in 2023 and adopted by companies as an instrument for implementing good practices eradicating wage discrimination.

79.The Labour Code (Law 7/2009) protects workers with family responsibilities, namely maternity/paternity/parental leaves, absences relating with maternity, paternity and childcare, working time arrangements relating with childcare and protection against dismissal. Before dismissing any pregnant worker, any worker who has recently given birth or who is breastfeeding, or male worker during the paternity leave or parental leave, the employer must request a legal opinion to the Commission for Equality at Work and Employment (CITE). Failure to comply with these legal opinions is deemed illegal unless the court decides otherwise. In a situation of dismissal of a pregnant worker, a worker who has recently given birth or who is breastfeeding the burden of proof belongs to the employer. Employers who disagree with part-time or flexi work for male or female workers with one or more children under the age of 12 must request, in advance, a legal opinion to CITE. Employers have also to report to CITE the intention of non-renewal of a fixed-term contract of any pregnant worker, any worker who has recently given birth or who is breastfeeding for analysis assessment of evidence of discrimination. CITE is participating in the project Parents at Work to improve the protection of and combat discrimination against pregnant workers, mothers, and fathers in the workplace.

80.It was developed a practical toolkit (consisting of 6 checklists) for employers with legal information on workers’ rights in relation to maternity and paternity, namely on parental leaves, breastfeeding, flexi work, protection against dismissal of pregnant, puerperal or breastfeeding workers, childcare leave and effects of workers absences due to parenting. A Good Practices Guide with information on strategies to engage employers and a collection of good practices on pregnancy, motherhood, fatherhood and work-life balance is being developed.

81.Measure Promoting Gender Equality in the Labour Market grants additional assistance to employers hiring unemployed persons of the under-represented sex, with 2 940 persons being integrated in 2020 and 1 489 in 2019. (see table 12), reflecting an increased. Special conditions of access and increase are also promoted in support of entities integrating persons from single-parent families, which, although not only aimed at women, they benefit most from these measures. In 2019 and 2020 (provisional data) around 86.4 per cent women benefited from this increase. (see table 13).

82.As an EU member, Portugal awaits decision to ratify the Violence and Harassment in the World of Work Convention, 2019 (No.190) of the ILO.


83.The NHS offers universal access to sexual and reproductive health in primary health care centres with family doctors. When necessary, women are referred to specialists (gynaecology and obstetrics). Access is guaranteed under equal circumstances to all women irrespective of their legal status, financial situation, social background, age, disability or disease. NHS family planning appointments in primary health care centres offer a set of information and resources regarding family planning, prevention of STD, sexual education, and free screenings. NHS offers access to free and different contraceptive methods in primary health care and in hospital specialty appointments and services, including emergency contraception.

84.Law 110/2019 established the principles, rights and duties applicable in terms of protection in preconception, medically assisted procreation, pregnancy, childbirth, birth and the puerperium. This Law states that “Women and new-borns must be submitted only to the practices necessary during labour, delivery and the postnatal period, and care must be ensured based on the best scientific knowledge. In the case of delivery by caesarean section, the clinical indication that determined it must appear in the respective clinical file and in the pregnant woman’s health record. During labour, health services must ensure methods: a) Non-pharmacological pain relief, according to the preferences of the pregnant woman and her clinical situation; b) Pharmacological pain relief, such as epidural analgesia, according to the clinical conditions of the parturient and upon her express request, aware of the advantages and disadvantages of the respective use”. The Law also states that “According to the guidelines of the WHO, the following rights are recognized in terms of protection in preconception, medically assisted procreation, pregnancy, childbirth, birth and postpartum, to all women: a) The right to information, informed consent, or informed refusal, and respect for their choices and preferences; b) The right to confidentiality and privacy; c) The right to be treated with dignity and with respect; d) The right to be treated well and to be free from any form of violence; e) The right to equal treatment, and not to be discriminated against; f) The right to receive the best, safe and appropriate health care; g) The right to freedom, autonomy and self-determination, including the right not to be coerced”.

85.NHS ensures universal access with full financial support to fertility and medically assisted procreation programs according to the criteria and applicable legislation (Law 32/2006). There is no age limit for appointments. Ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination is up to 42 years and in vitro insemination and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) – 40 years. Note the existence of a Public gamete bank in which donations have a benevolent character.

86.Surrogacy is legally forbidden in Portugal.

87.NHS public mental health services assist women of all ages. The Centre for Psychological Trauma in Coimbra has a dedicated program for VDV women with mental illness. There is a protected residence for their autonomy in Viseu. A second residence is expected to open in the Alentejo region in 2021.

88.Guideline 18/2020, updated on June 5, on pregnancy and COVID 19, issued scientifically and epidemiologically based recommendations to health services to adopt conducts related to pregnancy surveillance, childbirth and the puerperium, including breastfeeding. They sought to guarantee the humanization of care to be provided to pregnant women and new-borns, respecting the rights conquered and enshrined in the legislation, namely in Law 110/2019, without prohibiting neither the presence of a companion during childbirth nor the separation of women and their new-borns.

89.Guideline 13/2020 on “Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in health professionals” determined the procedures to be adopted by health care professionals regarding occupational safety and health to minimize the risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the early identification of symptoms, their appropriate clinical referral and infection control and prevention measures. The Guideline was implemented by all Occupational Health/Health and Safety services in health facilities, including the routine systematic screening of health professionals in large hospitals for COVID-19 testing. As in other European countries, health professionals are integrated in the priority groups for vaccination against COVID-19, whether in public or private facilities. In addition, and following WHO recommendations, COVID-19 in health professionals is already classified as an occupational disease by national legislation, and the procedure for recognition of occupational disease is faster and simpler in relation to other occupational diseases.

Economic empowerment of women

90.In 2020, the 10 per cent increase the unemployment benefit or cessation activity benefit was maintained for single parent families or households with dependent descendants. Although not exclusively addressed to women, this measure supports mainly women, as single households with children are disproportionately composed by single mothers.

91.Since 2015 until the beginning of 2021, within the scope of the Portugal 2020 program, the Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation financed 2 528 business projects (including microloans). In all these projects there was at least 1 woman in a management position, accounting for 54.5 per cent of women in leadership positions of a total of 3 318 women and 2 773 men in management positions.

92.Although not exclusive for women, the following social protection measures affect them mainly because they represent a large proportion of the elderly population:

(a)Extraordinary increase from 1 May onwards of very low pensions, in line with similar measures adopted in 2017, 2018 and 2019, to recover the purchasing power lost between 2011 and 2015 in consequence of the financial crisis. Minimum amount of increase (10€ or 6€, depending on whether the pension has been updated in 2011 and 2015) per pensioner with pensions below 1.5 IAS;

(b)Improvement and simplification of access conditions to the Solidary Supplement for the Elderly;

(c)Program Social Radar to support the elderly and to strengthen home service.

Rural women

93.Although there are no factors of discrimination in access to land, various measures have been included in the 2020 rural development program to enhance support of local women’s entrepreneurship projects in rural areas. These include small investments in farms, in processing and distribution mechanisms, activity diversification projects (such as tourism) and local distribution chain projects, which allow applications submitted by women to rank higher in terms of eligibility for approval.

94.The Association of Women Farmers and Rural Women of Portugal has also developed a 77 000€ investment project financed by the 2020 rural development program with diversified strategic goals, such as to promote women’s entrepreneurship through the organization of seminars and workshops on entrepreneurship management tools and the establishment of a dedicated website to this theme.

95.In October 2020 the Council of Ministers approved the 2020–2030 Agenda for Agricultural Innovation, which tackles the challenge of the agri-food industry to raise supply to meet the growing and more diversified consumer demands. Specific support measures were also included to reinforce the role of sub-represented groups in the associative structures, such as young farmers and women, reduce pre-existing obstacles such as gender inequality or economic dependency.

96.The recognition of the Family Agriculture Status can be requested since March 2019. It allows farmers to have priority in the access to funding in specific measures such as small investments in farms, in processing and distribution mechanisms, activity diversification projects and local distribution chain projects, as well more favourable social security regimes, simplified public procurement procedures and access to specific training courses.

97.According to available statistics 30.7 per cent of self-employed farmers are women.

Disadvantage groups of women

98.Portugal recognizes the right of persons with a valid temporary or permanent residence permit to family reunification with a family member living outside Portugal, a family member that has entered national territory regularly and that live with him/her and are dependent upon him/her, whether or not the ties precede the resident’s entrance in the country. This right is also recognized for the partner, at national territory or abroad, living in a civil partnership with the resident, if the union is duly proved under the law. The family member holding a visa for family reunification, or who is in the national territory, and whose application has been accepted, is granted a residence permit for the same duration as the resident. Two years after the first residence permit has been issued and as long as family ties continue to exist or, regardless of the previously mentioned deadline, whenever the holder of the right of family reunification has underage children living in Portugal, the family members have the right to an autonomous permit, valid for three years, renewable. In exceptional cases, namely divorce, widowhood or a prosecution for the crime of domestic violence an autonomous residence permit can be granted before the two-year period has elapsed. The first residence permit granted to the spouse under the family reunification is autonomous whenever he/she is married for more than five years with the resident – valid for two years, renewable for three. Family members of children holding a residence permit are entitled to autonomous authorization.

99.A residence permit allows the holder to access education, undertaking paid employment, pursuing activities as a self-employed professional, professional guidance, training and improvement, health care and access to the law and justice.

100.The asylum seeker has the right to legal aid in all phases of the procedures. Legal aid is provided by a public entity or NGO with which an agreement has been signed to this end. Currently, the Portuguese Council for Refugees (CPR), acting in cooperation with the UNHCR’s has that responsibility. Applicants also benefit from legal support, granted by the Institute of Social Security.

101.The principle of “non-refoulement” is established in Law 27/2008 and guarantees the applicant’s right to not be returned to a country (of origin, residence or otherwise), where his/her life or freedom would be threatened if specific conditions are met and referred in the Geneva Convention and in the Portuguese Asylum Law – provided that this risk occurs “(... ) because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or opinions policies ( ... )” and should be a clear and intrinsic relation of cause and effect between the return of the applicant and the specific threat that can be targeted. The observance of the principle of non‑refoulement is intrinsically linked to the determination of refugee status, thus when it is established that an asylum application is unfounded, for not meeting any of the criteria defined by the Geneva Convention and New York Protocol in recognition of refugee status, the principle mentioned above is fully observed to that extent. The Portuguese asylum law has an additional guarantee against refoulement, by ensuring that persons who receive a negative decision can benefit from an appeal with automatic suspensive effect, meaning that cannot be removed from territory before the proper judicial decision is taken.

102.The National Support Network for the Integration of Migrants is composed of 3 National Centres/One-stop-shops created in 2004 who provide support, advice, and mediation services by intercultural mediators from different backgrounds (in 2019, they were awarded the UN Public Service Awards) and 109 Local Support Centres from a partnership between local municipalities, universities and NGOs. The National Roma Communities Integration Strategy was established in 2013 (in force until 2022), to improve the well-being and integration of Roma people, encourage mutual understanding and positive interaction and to deconstruct stereotypes.

103.There are 110 women with disabilities residing in psychiatric hospitals and 1 694 residing in social sector institutions belonging to religious orders. A process of de-institutionalization of psychiatric hospitals will start in 2021 supported by EU funds. The expansion of the long-term care network is underway allowing the autonomous life of an increasing number of patients. Several NGO’s have integrated support programs, namely ‘Housing First’.

104.The National Rehabilitation Institute (NRI), as the main institutional interlocutor to support NGOs for persons with disabilities, supported the National Federation of Social Solidarity Cooperatives in the “Project GID – Gender, Equality, Rights and Disability”.

105.The guarantee of access to information is a fundamental condition for the full exercise of the rights and duties of any citizen. Decree-Law 83/2018 defined accessibility requirements for public websites and mobile applications of public sector, especially for persons with disabilities.

Marriage and family relations

106.Law 49/2018 created the legal regime of “Maior Acompanhado” (accompanied adult), eliminating the interdiction and disqualification institutes. It guarantees “the rights to marry or to constitute situations of union, procreation, to profile or to adopt, to take care and to educate children, […]”. Thus, the rights for the custody of children and parental responsibilities are ensured for women with disabilities.

107.NRI develops training actions focused on women with disabilities and their participation in the family, society, education, employment and leisure for women with disabilities, their families, experts in the area of disability and the general public. The University of Coimbra Centre for Social Studies developed between 2012 and 2014 a study called “Intimacy and Disability – sexual and reproductive citizenship of women with disabilities in Portugal” whose publication is coming soon.

108.The Constitution establishes that spouses have equal rights and duties regarding civil and political capacity and the maintenance and education of children, which means the attribution of equal rights and responsibilities to spouses regardless of gender. This principle is in the Civil Code also establishing that family management belongs to both spouses.

109.CC establishes the joint exercise of parental responsibilities in the constancy of marriage and assigns the exercise of parental responsibilities to one spouse in the absence of the other due to impediment or death. Upon divorce, legal separation of persons and property, declaration of nullity or annulment of marriage, CC establishes that the court will define the residence of the child “and visiting rights according to his/her interests, taking into account all relevant circumstances, namely the possible agreement of the parents and the willingness expressed by each of them to promote the child’s usual relations with the other”. Criteria adopted by the court must take into account the interests of the child “including that of maintaining a close relationship with the two parents, promoting and accepting agreements or making decisions that favour ample opportunities for contact with both and for sharing responsibilities between them”.

110.Divorce by mutual consent requested by both spouses can happen at the civil registry office or in the court. Divorce without the consent of one of the spouses requires court.

111.Law 48/2018 allows the spouse’s reciprocal resignation of being each other’s legitimate heirs by a prenuptial agreement, with the agreement that the property regime shall be the separation of assets.

112.Any of the spouses can remarry without observing internuptial term. With the death of one of the spouses a number of rights arise, including the right to succeed as the legal heir of the spouse, if he/she is not separated from people and property, and the exclusive exercise of parental responsibilities over the couple’s children.

113.The de facto union results from the coexistence of two persons in conditions similar to spouses for more than two years. There is no defined catalogue of rights and duties as for marriage, nor rules to be observed in terms of asset and debt management. Like marriage, there is a heterosexual de facto union and a de facto homosexual union. Rights apply to both de facto unions, excepting Medically Assisted Procreation only applicable to couples composed of people of different sexes or by women. Law 2/2016 defines the effects of this coexistence like the protection of the family home, benefit the legal regime applicable to married people in terms of vacations, holidays, absences, leave and preference in the placement of civil servants, application of the income tax regime for persons under the same conditions applicable to married and non-separated taxable persons, social protection upon death of the beneficiary, death benefits resulting from a work accident or occupational disease, pensions due for exceptional and relevant services provided and the right to joint adoption.

114.Three marriage property regimes exist: communion of acquired property, general communion of property, separation of property. The regime of communion of acquired property is applicable by default; common property is that resulting from the work of the spouses and the one acquired during marriage, against a payment.

115.In case of divorce, CC establishes that any spouse is entitled to maintenance, regardless of the type of divorce, and sets the criteria for fixing the amount, namely the duration of the marriage, the collaboration given to the couple’s economy and the time they will have to devote, eventually, to raising common children. When the contribution of one spouse is higher than the other, that spouse has the right to demand the corresponding compensation from the other. This compensation applies unless the separation regime is in force.

116.CC establishes that each of the spouses has the administration of common property. These rules apply regardless of gender. In alienation or encumbrance of property, the civil legislator established the principle of consent of both spouses for the respective alienation or encumbrance. and to rent the family home.

Sustainable Development Goals

117.The Council of Ministers Resolution 95-A/2015 and Law 4/2018, which approves the Legal Regime of Gender Impact Assessment of Normative Acts, imposes such assessment on normative acts whether approved by the Government or by Parliament. The State Budget Law provides that “the budget for services and bodies incorporates the gender perspective, identifying the programs, activities or measures to undergo gender impact analysis in 2020”.

118.Regarding the reconciliation of family and working life the existing rules in public administration cover all workers. The flexible working hours regime includes continuous working hours, which corresponds to a reduction in the normal daily work period of never more than one hour, or the possibility of teleworking apply, among others, to parenting situations and may be required by the father or mother. The Programme “3 em Linha” aims to promote a better balance between professional, personal and family life as a condition for effective equality between WM and represents a joint Government, public and private enterprises, central and local public administration entities effort.

119.Since January 2018 it must be respected the balanced representation of WM in management and supervisory bodies in public sector corporate administrations and listed companies. Parity is established by a minimum representation of 33.3 per cent women in the management bodies of state business sector and 20 per cent in listed companies. Law 26/2019 approved the regime of balanced representation between WM in management of State direct and indirect administration bodies, public higher education institutions and public associations, such as professional associations. The appointment of such office holders and bodies shall be subject to a minimum threshold of 40 per cent balanced representation between WM. Regarding senior management posts subject to the scrutiny of a Public Administration Recruitment and Selection Committee, the 40 per cent parity is taken in the composition of the candidates list.

120.The principle of equal pay for equal work or work of equal value is also enshrined in the Constitution and in the Labour Code. In the civil service there is no wage difference according to gender, and in the case of managers the amount of remuneration depends on the position held, senior or middle management, and the grade (1st or 2nd).