United Nations


Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Distr.: General

17 January 2019

English only

Committee against Torture

Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Italy


Information received from Italy on follow-up to the concluding observations *

[Date received: 21 December 2018]

1.In accordance with para. 48 of the Committee’s Concluding Observations contained in UN Doc.CAT/C/ITA/CO/5-6, dated December 18, 2017, we are in a position to provide the following follow-up responses.

Paras. 20 and following

2.The migrant, of any nationality, who applies for international protection in Italy, accesses the relevant procedure, consisting of a first administrative phase (Territorial Commissions) and a possible second one of a jurisdictional nature.

3.The principle of non-refoulement is therefore already widely considered and guaranteed under this procedure. Moreover, at the time of issuing an expulsion measure, an assessment exercise is made by the office concerned with regard to the relevance of the case under consideration vis-à-vis the aforementioned principle, in accordance with Article 19 of Legislative Decree No. 286/1998.

4.The position of the migrants is assessed individually and, under no circumstances, collective returns are carried out.

5.The Italian legal system envisages the possibility for the migrant, to apply for and obtain the suspension of the effects of the measure of refusal of international protection.

6.With regard to the Memorandum of Understanding signed by Italy and Libya on February 2, 2017, its Article 5 expressly refers to the respect for human rights. Moreover, it should be also noted that the document describing the project “Support to Integrated Border and Migration Management in Libya”, annexed to the Delegation Agreement, signed by the Central Directorate on Immigration and Border Police of the State Police Department of the Ministry of Interior and the European Commission to acquire the financing from the latter, expressly provides for the absolute respect for the fundamental rights of migrants by the competent Libyan authorities, in line with international standards, as a cross-cutting objective of the various activities to be implemented.

7.In this regard, all the training activities of Libyan personnel, employed in search and rescue activities or more generally destined to operate on boats to be returned to the country, always include modules dedicated to the protection of fundamental rights. A similar consideration can be made for the pilot project, which is being jointly developed by Frontex, Guardia di Finanza, the Italian Ministry of the Interior and Eubam-Libya.

8.During the three-week long course, for the benefit of operators of the General Administration for Coastal Security of that Ministry of Interior, specific modules will be developed with regard to the respect for fundamental rights, with a specific focus on the procedures to be followed during the search and rescue operations.

9.Lastly, with regard to the need to monitor the implementation activities of the aforementioned capacity-building project, it is to be underlined in this context the sending of personnel of Italian Police and Coast Guard that, in addition to carry out on-the-job training assistance, will be able to meet this specific need.

10.In the same vein, the imminent posting at the Italian Embassy in Tripoli of an expert on immigration of the above Central Directorate, whose formal decree of appointment is currently being finalized, is of a great importance.

11.The refusal to fingerprinting by migrants has been overcome since long time, by photo-reporting (foto-segnaletica) the landed migrants: the result is the achievement of a percentage equals to 100%.

12.Against this background, it is important to highlight the meaningful information-related contribution made in this context by the International Organizations at the Centers under reference. Of particular relevance, in this context, appears to be the role of cultural mediators.

13.All activities related to the acquisition of fingerprints are carried out in full respect of human dignity and fundamental rights of the individual, as well as in accordance with the provisions of Item B.7.2.c of the Standard Operating Procedures for Italian Hotspots.

14.The staff of the Police Forces, employed in the supervision of the Centers and in the protection of the security within the facilities, is the recipient of specific operational training, including periodic updates.

15.The staff of the Immigration Offices in charge of administrative management, including the first identification of migrants, receive specific training on legislation on immigration and international protection, including through participation in training events organized by Organizations, such as UNHCR, EASO, IOM: Human rights is a cross-cutting subject to all the training cycles organized for the sector concerned.

16.Starting from February 1, 2018, under the aegis of the Frontex Agency and with the coordination of the above Central Directorate, the joint patrol operation called Themis has been organized. As part of the aforementioned Operation, the above Central Directorate organizes a monthly operational training, which takes place over two consecutive days, dedicated to the activities of the Sea Border Sector and the Risk Analysis Unit.

17.Representatives of the Frontex Agency, foreign and Italian experts (forming the so-called Task Force) participate in the above Training, under which they play the role of Team Leaders. Therefore all this personnel, as duly trained, is employed in the various “landing” places, to carry out the interviews with the migrants, as well as to coordinate the various activities linked to the management of the phenomenon.

18.Moreover, with regard to the lack of clear guidelines and procedures, as well as a clear division of responsibility in identifying vulnerable persons, in addition to the allegation about the lack of comprehensive information on ongoing procedures for the timely identification of victims of torture and trafficking among asylum-seekers and migrants, mention has to be made of the following:

19.The European Commission, by the emergency-related resources of the Internal Security Fund, financed the SAVE project (Support Action for Vulnerability Emergence), with: the Department for Civil Liberties and Immigration as the leading Authority; and with the Ministry of Health, the National Institute for the Promotion of the Health of Migrants and for the Fight against Poverty-related Diseases (acronym in Italian, INMP), the National Federation of Social-Care Workers (acronym in Italian, FNAS), and the Regions of Calabria, Sicily and Apulia, respectively, as partner Institutions.

20.The project, launched on July 1, 2018, has a twofold objective: the former is to integrate the services provided for in the Hotspots, through interventions aimed at facilitating the timely identification of vulnerabilities already at the moment of the transition of migrants in the Centers at the landing sites; the latter is to ensure the implementation of the necessary actions aimed at ascertaining the age of unaccompanied minors – in case of doubts – when cases are not clear at Hotspots, thus allowing subjects to undertake appropriate protection and reception programs in the field.

21.As regards the information-related activity, within the framework of an ongoing specific project financed by the FAMI Fund (ADITUS project), the IOM provides migrants and applicants for international protection arriving by sea, at the landing places, the Hotspots and reception centers, with information on the early identification of victims of trafficking and labour exploitation and the risks associated with irregular immigration.

22.Finally, the National Commission for the right to asylum and the UNHCR elaborated for the Territorial Commissions for the recognition of international protection, specific Guidelines on the identification of victims of trafficking among asylum-seekers and referral procedures.

23.It should be also noted that the year 2018 has been marked by a consolidation of the decrease in the migratory flow – as registered from the second half of the year 2017.

24.The National Guarantor/National Authority for the Rights of Persons Detained or Deprived of Personal Liberty has free access to any facility of deprivation of personal liberty, and is regularly involved in monitoring the repatriation procedures, either by charter flights or by commercial flights. The findings of the aforementioned Authority are promptly communicated to the offices involved and are subject to careful analysis and verification.

25.The office of the National Guarantor of the rights of persons detained or deprived of personal liberty is also involved in training courses for personnel specialized in accompanying services by air transportation for the purpose of repatriation.

26.Furthermore, humanitarian Organizations, involved in various capacities, in the migration phenomenon, are authorized by the Department for Civil Liberties and Immigration, to access the Centers under reference.

27.More specifically, with specific regard to the need to ensure that the National Guarantor of the rights of persons detained or deprived of personal liberty has access to all centers of deprivation of personal liberty, this Authority (established by Decree-Law of 23 December 2013, No. 146, converted, with amendments, by Act dated February 21, 2014, No. 10) monitors that all forms of deprivation of personal liberty are implemented in accordance with the Constitution, the international conventions on human rights ratified by Italy, laws and regulations.

28.To this end, this Guarantor monitors all the places of deprivation of liberty. Among these, mention has to be made of the so-called points of crisis established pursuant to Article 10-ter of Legislative Decree No. 286/1998, in light of the recent regulatory change that provides for the possibility of retaining migrants up to 30 days, to ascertain their identity or citizenship (Law Decree No. 113/2018, currently under conversion). This Authority has free access to all places of deprivation of personal liberty, at any time, without any authorization and prior prompt notification to the Prefecture. The Guarantor also has access to the information and the persons with whom he can carry out confidential interviews without any visual or auditory control.

29.Article 19, paragraph 3, of Law Decree No.13/2017, as converted into Act No. 46/2017, also provides that the provisions of Article 67 of Act No. 354, dated July 26, 1975 (“Norms on the penitentiary system and the execution of measures depriving and restricting liberty”) apply in CPRs (Italian acronym, standing for Centres of Permanence for Repatriation), and the Guarantor of the rights of persons detained or deprived of personal liberty exercises all the powers of verification and access referred to in Article 7, paragraph 5, letter e), of Law-Decree dated 23rd December 2013, No. 146, converted, with modifications, by Act dated 21 February 2014, No. 10 (“Urgent measures concerning the protection of the fundamental rights of detainees and controlled reduction of the prison population”).

30.Pursuant to Article 6 of the Regulations containing criteria for the organization of the identification and expulsion Centers approved by Ministerial Decree dated 10 October 2014, upon prior authorization by the Prefecture, access of the Regional Guarantors for the protection of detainees’ rights is also permitted.

31.In connection with the provisions of recommendation No. 15, lett. b), concerning the effective follow-up and implementation of the recommendations by the National Guarantor for persons deprived of personal liberty under its monitoring activity, after the visits, the Guarantor draws up a Report with observations and recommendations, which he sends to the Authorities responsible for the facilities which have been visited. As per its own tradition, the Department for Civil Liberties and Immigration ensures attention to the indications that come from the Guarantor, by inviting the Prefectures to put in place the necessary interventions aimed at improving the management and livability standards.

32.In addition to the main prerogatives of the Guarantor for persons deprived of personal liberty (as further acknowledged by Article 19, paragraph 3 of Legislative Decree No. 13/47), pursuant to Art.7, para. 2 of Legislative Decree No. 142/2015, in the Centers of deprivation of personal liberty it is also “allowed access to the representatives of the UNHCR or to the organizations that operate on behalf of UNHCR, on the basis of agreements with these Organizations, the representatives of the bodies of protection of the holders of international protection with a consolidated relevant experience, as well as the other subjects indicated in the directives of the Minister of the Interior as adopted in accordance with Article 21, paragraph 8, of Decree of the President of the Republic, dated 31 August 1999, No. 394, and in accordance with the modalities contained in the same directives” (In addition to those representatives entitled in their respective capacity as members of the Government and of the national and European Parliament (who have the right to be accompanied by their own assistant), the magistrates in the exercise of their functions, may be authorized by the Prefecture also: journalists and cameraman/camerawomen; clergymen at the request of the foreigner; spouse, children and family members of the foreigner concerned; staff of the diplomatic or consular representation of the country of origin, at the request of the foreigner himself/herself; and other subjects upon motivated request).

33.As part of monitoring activities, the project called ADITUS is also to be mentioned. Financed with the resources of the FAMI Fund, according to which IOM, in the wake of an experience that goes back to previous years, regularly visits retention Centers pursuant to Article 14 of Legislative Decree No. 286/1998; it conducts interviews with foreigners, and reports to the Prefectures any critical issues detected.

34.With regard to the recommendation regarding the authorization of non-governmental organizations and other civil society actors to carry out monitoring activities in reception centers for asylum-seekers and migrants, pursuant to Article 10, para. 4, of Legislative Decree No. 142/2015, it is granted access to the reception centers of the subjects referred to in Article 7, paragraph 2, as well as to the other subjects provided for in the regulation referred to in Article 38 of Decree dated 28 January 2008, No. 25 (mayors, presidents of the province, presidents of the regional executive or regional council and the subjects who, because of their institutional role in the region or local authority where the center is located, have a motivated interest; representatives of duly identified media bodies, save the limitations justified by the need to ensure order and safety of the places and of applicants present in the centers).

35.As for the monitoring of these Centers, the Prefectures are in charge of supervising the correct payment of the services offered by the managing bodies of the reception. The Department on Civil Liberties and Immigration ensures the unity of the system, through the coordination and support action, by means of the dissemination of guidelines and structured methodologies, also based on the use of specific monitoring tools, as well as by the use of ministerial personnel for the inspection activity, so as to guarantee the necessary sharing, between the Center and the territory, of the verification procedures.

36.Monitoring by the Prefectures is also carried out through ad hoc inspection units with the participation, according to the territorial specificities, of the Police, Fire Brigades, and, more generally, representatives of other Administrations involved (i.e. Local Health-Care Centres, local Authorities, labour inspectorate), with a view inter-institutional collaboration that is more suitable for guaranteeing a broad and in-depth evaluation of the various areas concerned.

37.The Department for Civil Liberties and Immigration (DLCI) of the Ministry of the Interior has agreements in place with UNHCR, IOM and Save the Children, etc., to deliver trainings to and support reception shelters’ staff dealing with UAMs, including training on the identification and referral of vulnerabilities (e.g. human trafficking and exploitation).

38.In the Italian legal system, the retention of the irregular migrant is only one of the possible procedural alternatives aimed at repatriation, which is used only when the conditions for voluntary repatriation do not exist. The retention has the sole function of allowing the completion of the alien’s identification procedure and, therefore, its duration is strictly connected to the collaboration by the consular authorities concerned. Nevertheless, the great majority of foreigners retained has a criminal record and police charge.

39.The retention of the migrant asylum-seeker takes place in cases strictly required by the Law, only, as connected in particular to the evident pretext behind the related application or to the social danger of the applicant.

40.The measure of retention is, in any case, subject to the validation by the competent judicial authority.

41.As earlier mentioned, the personnel of the Police Forces, employed in the supervision of the Centers under reference and in the protection of safety within the facilities, receive specific operational training, including periodic updates.

42.The staff of the Immigration Offices in charge of administrative management, including the first identification of migrants, receive specific training on legislation on immigration and international protection, including through participation in training events organized by organizations, such as UNHCR, EASO, IOM. The subject of human rights is cross-cutting to all the training cycles organized in the sector concerned. The office of the National Guarantor of the rights of persons detained or deprived of personal liberty is also directly involved in training courses for personnel specialized in accompanying services with air transportation for the purposes of repatriation.

Paras. 38 and following

43.The activity of conducting preliminary investigations for any type of crimes belongs to the prosecuting magistrate of the public prosecutor’s office who, like the judge (sitting judge), enjoys full independence (Article 105 of the Italian Constitution) and is irremovable (Article 107 of the Constitution).

44.The registered criminal offence (in Latin, notitia criminis) that is the notice about a crime which has or would have been committed, is the indispensable prerequisite for a proceeding or criminal trial of cognizance (processo penale di cognizione), to begin.

45.The purpose of preliminary investigations is outlined in Article 326 of the code of criminal procedure, for which the public prosecutor office and the judicial Police perform, within the scope of their respective competence, the investigations necessary for the determination of the exercise of the prosecution (penal action).

46.The functions performed by the public prosecutor are summarized in Articles 73 and 74 of the law on the judiciary system (Act No.12 of 1941), as follows: S/he oversees the observance of the laws, the prompt and regular administration of justice, the protection of the rights of the State, of juridical persons and of the incapable; promotes the repression of crimes by carrying out the necessary investigations to decide whether to request the committal for trial/indictment or the dismissal of the charges; exercises the criminal prosecution when the investigations reveal suitable elements to support the committal for trial. S/he ensures the enforcement of the verdicts and any other judicial measures, in the cases established by law.

47.In particular, in the criminal proceedings, the public prosecutor acts as a public party representing the general interest of the State: s/he avails herself/himself of the judicial Police (Article 109 of the Constitution) and, pursuant to Article 112 of the Constitution, s/he has the obligation to exercise criminal action/prosecution and thus institute criminal proceeding.

48.By virtue of his/her position, the public prosecutor has the duty of procedural loyalty: in fact, s/he must not limit herself/himself to seeking evidence favourable to his/her accusatory reconstruction, but, according to Article 358 of the Italian Penal Procedural Code, must also investigate facts and circumstances in favour of the person under investigation.

49.The mandatory prosecution/penal action therefore ensures two fundamental principles:

Principle of equality, if the injured person/victim has no economic possibility, this must not prevent the crime from being prosecuted;

Principle of legality: it can only be the law that determines who should be punished and who should go free of punishment. This cannot depend on a choice of political opportunity.

50.As far as the protection of victims of crime is concerned, this is already implemented during the investigations phase, when, after the request for dismissal formulated by the public prosecutor, the victim (persona offesa), who has been informed, can use the mean of opposition/challenge to the aforementioned request, in order to demand the continuation of the preliminary investigations by indicating “the subject of the additional investigation and the related evidence”. The victim (persona offesa) who is also injured by the crime, moreover, can always exercise at the time of the opening of the criminal trial, the civil action aimed at obtaining compensation for the damage that resulted from the crime and the condemnation to pay the Court’ costs by the alleged offender.

51.From the entry into force of the law introducing the crime of torture, it is to be reported as follows: at Palermo and Turin Courts, the registration of one proceeding on torture (Article 613 bis of the penal code), each; at Rome’s it is reported the registration of no proceeding for the aforementioned crime; and Naples’ it is reported the registration of three proceedings, two of which have already been defined.

52.With regard to public order-related issues, the Ministry of Interior (Public Order Unit of the Public Security Department) is in a position to provide, as follows:

The provisions of the penal code, the penal procedural code and the Service Regulations strictly regulate the duties and responsibilities of Police officers;

The normative and regulatory frameworks, as well as the set of Directives issued in the field of public order clearly define tasks, functions and levels of responsibility of Security Actors, for the governance and management of measures and services to protect public order;

In this context, specific attention has been paid since long time to training, specialization and updating of staff in order to enhance the role of the Police operator as “Security professional”.

53.For years, the Department of Public Security (Central Directorate for Educational Institutes) has been paying the utmost attention to training in the protection of human rights, prevention and combating of discriminatory acts, providing specific training modules in the curriculum of the basic training courses for cadets and trainee deputy inspectors, in the field of general and sectoral professional updating of all the personnel of the State Police.

54.The training objective pursued with the basic training courses is that of providing the users with the knowledge necessary for the optimal performance of the functions, duties and tasks to the different roles of the State Police.

55.The teaching methodology of the courses foresees the synergic and interdisciplinary development of the different teachings (typically divided by areas), which are permeated by a “value pathway”, cross-cutting to all subjects, as carried out for the duration of the course, with continuous references to values expressed by the Constitution, the European Code of Ethics for Police, recommendations and international documents on the relevant subject, professional ethics and the importance of a correct institutional communication.

56.Among the relevant teachings, mention has to be made of: constitutional law, with specific focus on constitutional principles relevant to Police activity; criminal law, with specific attention to discriminatory crimes and those committed to the detriment of vulnerable groups; the criminal procedure, with in-depth examination of specific Institutions such as the apprehension and arrest by the judicial Police, and judicial Police measures; the Administration of Public Security, with specific regard to the delicate balancing between individual rights and security in its various forms.

57.More specifically, in the areas mentioned above, we highlight:

The centrality and sacredness of human life, respect for human dignity, ethics in the Police service, the right to equality and protection against discrimination; inner aspects of the Police service: responsibility, correctness, impartiality, professionalism, authority and balance, the culture of service and the quality of services, the value of image and communication;

In criminal law – special part, the deepening of rights of the person; the abuse of authority against the person put under arrest and the detainees, arbitrary searches and personal inspections, persecutory acts and the crime of torture, crimes related to the sexual exploitation of minors; the legitimate use of weapons and other means of physical compulsion;

In the Public Order, ethics in the service of Police operators, by inter alia watching relevant movies.

58.The training offer also includes modules for in-depth analysis on issues of management of public order, intervention in the area of services of territorial control, human rights, Police ethics in the various operating contexts, discriminatory crimes, gender-based violence, discrimination, racism and prejudice, with a view to providing useful tools to recognize and combat hate crimes and raising awareness among learners about issues related to diversity and the responsibilities of law enforcement.

59.Also the teachings included in the training area are constantly permeated by the above mentioned ethical values and aim at the acquisition by the students of technical skills and know-how that allow them to face in the most appropriate way, critical situations in which they may find themselves when carrying out specific institutional tasks.

60.As regards second-level training courses and, in particular, those reserved to border Police operators, the related curriculum includes “Deontological profiles of the Border Police service: ethical values and fundamental rights”, as well as the main international instruments for the protection of fundamental rights, the common European standards concerning asylum and international protection; humanitarian and subsidiary protection; specialized services for the assistance and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings; non-discriminatory ethnic “profiling”; cases of discriminatory “profiling”.

61.Furthermore, at the Training Center for the Protection of the Public Order in Nettuno (a Municipality nearby Rome), “Refresher courses on the governance and management of the public order” are held and mainly address the staff on duty of the patrol teams, within which the ethical aspects of public order services are highlighted with specific regard to – as for the issue of immigration – the use of the above Teams and the operational scenarios at CPRs.

62.As regards the professional updating of staff already on duty, the goal is constantly pursued, including the one of achieving an effective awareness-raising action by the State Police operators in the field of human rights, thus contributing to raising the level of professionalism in different operational contexts.

63.In this regard, as part of the updating on issues of general interest for all the personnel of the State Police, for the year 2018 a training day on Ethics and the Values of the State Police has been scheduled, with the publication of specific modules on the IT platforms dedicated to lifelong learning.

64.On the same platforms, for the updating of the sector, modules are also available on Discriminatory Crimes, International protection and trafficking in human beings; Ethics and professional deontology in public order services; Prevention and contrast of acts of discrimination and hate crime (hate crimes); Observatory for security against discriminatory acts (OSCAD), racial ethnic profiling, intervention in crimes with vulnerable victims; victimology, attention to the victim of crime.

65.Although Torture-related issues do not fall within the training offer by OSCAD, in light of the commitment made by the Government to organize training courses on the respect for human rights, for Police forces, this Observatory – in charge inter alia of training for Police forces, in the field of prevention and fight against hate crimes, has intended to further improve its training offer. In particular, State Police continues to deepen its knowledge in the field of human rights and a complex revision and optimization plan has been designed, which is currently under finalization, in agreement with the Central Directorate for educational Institutes of the Ministry of Interior.

66.Within the framework aimed at the continuous improvement of training activities for State Police, OSCAD:

Agreed with the Central Directorate for Educational Institutes to revise the curricula for the personnel from the various roles of the State Police, by dedicating increasing attention to the issues of prevention and fight against hate crimes and respect for human rights. In this context, in the study plan of the tenth course for deputy inspectors (ongoing), it has been included the module, entitled “Intercultural Pedagogy, human rights, discriminatory crimes”, which are taught through 27 periods (whereas in the past, the standard OSCAD module was made in 6 modules). Also under the-soon-to-be-launched 204th course for cadets, an increase in the OSCAD related modules from 6 to 10 modules is to be provided;

Is attentively considering the formalisation of collaboration with Amnesty International-Italy with regard to training (as launched in 2012), through the signature of a specific MoU;

Concluded the elaboration of online training modules for the prevention and fight against hate crimes within the project “Facing all the facts!”, at p. 8 “Online training proposals: 3) CEJI”, as annexed to a specific Note of last October 2018.

67.The modules under reference will be made available for the personnel of the State Police (SP) and Carabinieri Corps (CC), at the E-learning Inter-Forces Platform, called “SISFOR”, in the coming months.


68.The Observatory for Security Against Discriminatory Acts (OSCAD) is an inter-agency/inter-force body set up, by decree of the Chief of Police in September 2010, to respond operationally to the demand of security by people belonging to “vulnerable categories”, by systematizing and giving further impetus to the activities carried out by the State Police and the Carabinieri Corps, on preventing and combating acts of discrimination and hate crimes (so-called hate crimes, namely crimes motivated by prejudice which the author nourishes against one or more “protected characteristics” of the victim: ethnic or “racial” origin, religious convictions, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ...).

69.OSCAD, within the Department of Public Security – Central Directorate of the Criminal Police, is chaired by the Deputy Director General of the State Police – Central Director of the Criminal Police, and is composed of representatives of the State Police, Carabinieri Corps and the departmental branches, which are competent by subject.

70.The priority objectives of OSCAD are:

Facilitate complaints of discriminatory acts that constitute a crime, so as to overcome the phenomenon of under-reporting and, therefore, encourage the emergence of discriminatory offenses;

Activate effective monitoring of discrimination phenomena;

Contributing to the definition of appropriate prevention and contrast measures;

Sensitize/train/update constantly the Police forces operators.

71.To this end, the Observatory carries out the following activities:

Receives the reports that Institutions, associations or private citizens, even anonymously, forward to the dedicated email address oscad@dcpc.interno.it;

Forward the reports received, as well as those ones received from the media, to the competent offices of the State Police or the Carabinieri Corps, by asking for further information on the matter and/or targeted interventions;

Receives from the Police and the Carabinieri, the reports of which they have received information through the local territorial bodies;

Follows the evolution of complaints submitted directly to the Police Forces;

Feeds a specific IT system to monitor the reports received and the activities consequently implemented;

Updates the dedicated web spaces on the institutional websites of the State Police and the Carabinieri Corps.

72.Training has been always of particular importance within the framework of the actions carried out by the OSCAD secretariat. Only through a careful planning of the training activities, thus, is possible to realize a more effective and widespread work of raising awareness among Police personnel on the issues of respect for human rights, the prevention/contrast of acts of discrimination and hate crimes.

73.In full harmony with the consolidated guidelines of all national, European and international bodies that deal with anti-discrimination in their various capacity, by constituting the staff of the Police Forces – being the first and most sensitive front-office of the Institutions towards the victims belonging to groups at risk of discrimination (so-called minority groups or “minority social groups”) –, it is essential to increase the sensitivity and the competence of the operators in the field, in order to increase the capacity for operational response to the phenomenon and – above all – to transmit, unequivocally, the message about the culture of respect for human rights and the prevention and combating of crimes of a discriminatory nature.

74.In this regard, relations with Institutions and Associations active in the anti-discrimination area have been activated and intensified more and more, particularly with: UNAR, the LGBT Service of the Municipality of Turin, leading “Ready Network”, “Amnesty International”, “Polis Aperta”, “Rete Lenford”, and “Cospe”; and the joint training activities have been strengthened.

75.In particular, it should be noted that OSCAD collaborates on the training for State Police personnel, through the provision to staff of all roles, of seminars on discrimination and hate crimes, while the Carabinieri Corps is involved in specific European/international projects.

76.As of October 30, 2017, from within the various OSCAD initiatives, the figure of about 10,000 units (9,950) is to be mentioned.

77.The proposed training package has been gradually enhanced. Following the first pilot activities carried out in 2012/2013, in collaboration with UNAR, save the year 2014, they also involved: Amnesty International-Italy, for the focus on Human Rights; and the Lenford Network-NGO, for the issues related to LGBTI people.

78.The “basic module”, which, of course, is from time to time “adapted” to the specific context and, in particular, to the “level of the participants”, it is structured as follows:

OSCAD, hate crimes and anti-discrimination legislation;

Ethnic-racial profiling;

Stereotypes, prejudices and discrimination;

Human rights;

LGBTI people and the activities of Police Forces;

The operational management of cases with vulnerable victims (legal, psychological and operational aspects), by presentation of practical cases and indications on the procedures to be adopted.

79.A summary of the initiatives implemented so far is reported below.

Basic training (State Police)

80.In 2017:

117 participants from the then State Forestry Corps transited into the State Police (Institute for Inspectors – Nettuno (RM); March 8);

Total units trained: 117.

81.In 2017:

348 cadets of the 195th Course for the role of officers of the State Police (Alessandria, May 16);

200 cadets // (Brescia, May 17);

63 cadets // (Peschiera del Garda (VR), May 18);

380 cadets // (Trieste, May 19);

66 cadets // (Campobasso, May 24);

240 cadets of the 196th Course for Cadets Agents of the State Police (Vibo Valentia, September 26–27);

101 cadets // (Campobasso, September 29);

99 cadets // (Peschiera del Garda (VR), October 2);

61 participants in the 32nd Course for Executives of the State Police (Superior School of the Police, Rome, November 28);

93 Police commissioners of the 105th Course for Commissioners (//, December 14);

Total units trained: 1651.

82.In 2015:

99 Commissioners of the 104th Course Commissioners (Superior School of Police, Rome, December 9th);

67 participants of the 31st Management Course (//, October 23rd);

180 cadets of the 193rd Course for Cadets of State Police (Piacenza, 2 and 3 September);

160 cadets // (Peschiera del Garda, 24 and 25 September);

131 cadets // (Campobasso, 17 and 18 September);

180 cadets // (Vibo Valentia, 15 and 16 September);

345 cadets of the 192nd Course for cadets of the State Police (Trieste, from 16 to 18 June);

381 cadets of the 191th Course for cadets of the State Police (Alessandria, from 13 to 16 April);

106 cadets // (Brescia, 17 April);

Total units trained: 1649.

83.In 2014:

67 participants of the 30th Executive Course (Superior School of the Police, Rome, 11 December);

100 Commissioners of the 103rd Course for Commissioners (Superior School of Police, Rome, 9–10 December);

242 cadets of the 191 ° Course for cadets of the State Police (Trieste, 12 June);

180 cadets of the 189th Course for cadets of the State Police (Campobasso, 4 June);

205 cadets // (Vibo Valentia, 27–28 May);

120 cadets // (Peschiera del Garda (VR), May 16th);

90 cadets of the 188th Course for cadets of the State Police (Brescia, May 15th);

180 cadets of the 189th Course // (Piacenza, May 14);

360 cadets of the 188th Course // (Alessandria, 12–13 May);

340 deputy superintendents of the 25th Course (Spoleto, 4–6 March);

Total units trained: 1884.

84.In 2013:

94 participants in the 29th Executive Course (Superior School of the Police, Rome, November 25);

180 cadets of the 186th Course for officers of the State Police (Peschiera del Garda (VR), June 28);

180 // (Brescia, June 27);

210 // (Piacenza, June 26);

421 // (Alessandria, June 25);

310 // (Nettuno, June 19);

360 // (Spoleto, June 18);

180 // (Campobasso, June 14);

180 // (Caserta, June 13);

240 // (Cesena, June 11);

302 // (Trieste, May 24);

180 // (Vibo Valentia, May 21);

Total units trained: 2837.

85.In 2012:

77 participants of the 28th Executive Course (Superior School of Police in Rome, November);

98 Commissioners of the 101st Course for Commissioners (//, September 26);

78 participants in the 27th Executive Course (//, January 28th);

Total units trained: 253.

Refresher courses (State Police)

86.Within the planning of activities relating to the professional permanent training for the personnel of the State Police, in the years 2012 and 2017, the OSCAD related subjects (namely prevention and fight against crimes motivated by discrimination and the role of the Observatory), in agreement with the Central Directorate for the Institutes of Education have been included in the so-called issues of general interest for the whole personnel of the State Police.

87.Moreover, OSCAD organized the following activities:

88.In 2017:

40 units of the Inspectorate of the State Police at Holy See – (May 30, June 30, September 28, October 30);

Total units trained: 40.

89.In 2016:

52 cadets of the 70th Course of the Border Police (Cesena, December 12–13);

28 cadets of the 9th Refresher Course for staff belonging to the Sporting Groups of the Police – Golden Flames (Institute for Inspectors – Nettuno (RM), December 22);

Total units trained: 80.

90.In 2015:

30 participants of the 69th Course for Border Police (Cesena, December 15);

30 participants of the 8th Refresher Course for staff belonging to the Sporting Groups of the Police – Golden Flames (Institute for Inspectors – Nettuno (RM), November 26;

35 participants of the 7th Refresher Course for staff belonging to the Sporting Groups of the Police – Golden Flames (Centro polifunzionale in Spinaceto Rome, February 23);

Total units trained: 95.

91.In 2014:

40 participants of the 68th course for Border Police (Cesena, November 26);

130 participants so divided: 36 units from former athlestes of Golden Flames; 56 units of deputy technical reviewers and technical nurses; 18 units from technical operators, children of victims fell when on duty; 20 units from the permanent executive staff) (Institute for Inspectors – Nettuno (RM), April 8);

Total units trained: 170.

92.In 2012:

80 units between the interforce staff (State Police, Arma dei Carabinieri and Guardia di Finanza) on duty, at the “Polo Anagnina” (5 December);

60 units for the personnel of the Presidential Office of the State Police (Rome, 28 November);

300 units among the staff of the State Police in service at the “Polo Tuscolano” (Central Directorate of Specialties, Central Directorate of Immigration and Border Police, Central Anti-Crime Department, Central Directorate of Prevention Police) (Rome, 25 October, November 15th and 22nd);

30 units, according to the training of trainers modality, for officials and inspectors of the Rome Police Headquarters, who subsequently re-presented the contents learned to the operators in service at the Police Headquarters (Questura in Rome, May 23rd and June 13th);

Total units trained: 47.

Inter-Forces Activities

93.In 2017:

September 12–13 in Milan, TAHCLE (Training Against Hate Crimes for Law Enforcement): training activity to fight hate crime, for the Police Forces, carried out in collaboration with OSCE-ODIHR and Cattolica del Sacro Cuore University, reserved to Inspectors/Superintendents;

Total units trained: 25 (13 State Police and 12 Carabinieri Corps).

Year 2016

94.As part of the collaboration started with COSPE, on 24 and 25 February 2016 in Rome, at the premises of the Central Directorate of the Criminal Police, and on March 16 and 17 in Florence (at a location made available by COSPE), two inter-force seminars were held, during which a total of 20 Police officers and 20 more ones of the Carabinieri Corps were trained (10 SP operators and 10 CC, for each location). This initiative is part of the European project “Increasing the capacity of law enforcement authorities to tackle racist crime, hate crime and homophobia through experiential learning (Experience Crime)”, which provides for upgrade pathways for lawyers, Police officers, magistrates, to improve understanding and response to the hate crimes phenomenon, by using participatory and experiential learning techniques and group-work.

95.The objectives of the training were:

Provide participants with the knowledge necessary to recognize and investigate hate crimes;

Sensitize the participants on the needs of the victims;

Increase participants’ awareness of the need to combat hate crimes, as part of the responsibility of law enforcement to protect all citizens;

Sensitize participants on issues related to diversity.

During the seminar, some “practical cases” concerning discriminatory crimes were discussed, illustrated by the investigators who dealt with the related investigations;

Total units trained: 38 (18 SP and 20 CC).

Year 2015

96.From 27 to 29 October 2015, as part of the European project “PRISM”, of which OSCAD is a partner, a training seminar was held in Rome for members of Police Forces and jurists, aimed at increasing the sensitivity and skills of Police officers for the purposes of preventing and combating discrimination and, in particular, discriminatory crimes: hate crimes and hate speech (Hate Speeches). About 20 operators (Arma dei Carabinieri and Polizia di Stato) were trained in this seminar.

97.Total units trained: 17 SP and CC.

98.81 Officials attending the “21st Postgraduate Course” and the “55th Application Course” held a training seminar on the theme “Observatory for Security Against the Acts of Discriminations” at the Official School of the Carabinieri (Rome, April 16th).

99.Total units trained: 81 CC officers.

Year 2014

100.Adhesion of the Department of SP to the OSCE-ODIHR training program, called TAHCLE.

101.In this context:

Half-day training seminars were held in February, in favor of 100 SP commissioners (of the 103rd course) and 60 CC officers (45 of the 191st course of the normal role and 15 of the 54th course of the special role) 160 units;

In July, a three-day seminar was held, according to the training of trainers, for 15 SP officials and 15 CC officers on duty, at the educational institutions of the respective Administrations;

Total units trained: 190 between SP and CC.

Years 2014–2015–2016

102.Realization – within the National LGBTI Strategy implementing Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers CM/REC (2010) 5, coordinated, at a national level, by UNAR – of a detailed plan of inter-agency training activities (defined in collaboration with the LGBT Service of the Municipality of Turin) to be supplied to the personnel of the Police Forces, by two training courses (“Training of trainers”), in favor of 28 SP officials and 28 CC officers, who subsequently proceeded to transfer the contents learned in their respective working areas; and eight more training seminars, lasting half a day, for SP and CC operators (30 operators for each course, for a total of 240 units), according to the following schedule:

2/3 and 14/15 April 2014, in service at educational institutions and at offices/operational departments of the entire national territory (Rome, School of specialization for Police Forces);

29 and 30 June 2015: Naples (regional level);

28 and 29 September 2015: Palermo (regional level);

21st and 22nd October 2015: Naples (for Naples and the province);

28 and 29 January 2016: Milan (regional level);

Total units trained: 296 (between SP and CC).

Other Training Activities

In 2016

103.On April 7, staff of the OSCAD Secretariat proposed a module, entitled “Crimes of hatred, fight against discrimination and ethnic profiling: the role of OSCAD” within the framework of the Master in “Peace studies” organized by Amnesty International-Italy, in collaboration with Roma Tre University (15 participants approximately).

104.Total units trained: 15.

In 2015

105.From 18 to 20 February, the Department of the School, Childhood and Equal Opportunities of Roma Capitale Municipality in collaboration with the Department of Psychology of the University of Bologna organized a series of training activities on LGBTI-related issues, with particular reference to prevention and contrast homophobic and transphobic hate crimes, targeting municipal administration personnel. As part of this project, training seminars were organized, aimed at 42 operators of the various roles of the local Police of Rome Capitale, within which the staff of the OSCAD secretariat contributed by proposing a focus on the activities carried out by the Observatory.

106.Total units trained: 42.

On-line training proposal

1.Superintendents Module

107.As part of the overall training program prepared according to the e-learning method, for the 7563 deputy superintendents of the State Police, being winners of the related internal competition, OSCAD produced two modules, concerning:

Activities and expertise of the Observatory, Italian criminal law on discriminatory crimes, European sources on the prohibition of discrimination;

Ethnic/racial profiling and proper management of vulnerable victims.


108.Within the activities foreseen by the programming National Operational Programme 2007/2013 (subsequently P.A.G. – Youth Security Action Plan and Legality), jointly between the Central Directorate of the Institutes of Education of the State Police, the General Command of Carabinieri Corps, Guardia di Finanza, ANCI (for local Police), it was developed the SISFOR project (on-line law enforcement training system), whose objective is to provide training material to support the operational activities of the Police forces and local Police, also in view of a possible standardization of operating procedures and of the relating forms. In this context OSCAD has developed a training module “Discriminatory crimes “in the field of prevention and combating of hate crimes. The planning, originally reserved to the so-called “Objective convergence regions” has been, subsequently extended to the whole national territory.


109.As of 2016, OSCAD participates as a co-beneficiary partner in the “Facing all the facts” project aimed at creating online training modules on Hate Crimes for Police Forces. Leading partner of the project is “CEJI – A Jewish contribution for an inclusive Europe” NGO.

110.As pertaining to Penitentiary Administration Department, the legitimate use of force and its regulation are a specific subject of teaching in the initial training courses and in those of professional updating reserved for prison police personnel.

111.In particular, it should be noted that, in the training of newly hired staff, classified in the roles of Penitentiary Police Agents, the teaching of the global self-defense method is envisaged. This is a technique aimed at neutralizing the aggressor and causing him the least damage possible, with a view to safeguarding the safety of the staff and the most vulnerable subjects inside the prison, without resorting to unnecessarily violent and excessively damaging techniques against the aggressor.

112.The skills in the use of the technique described above are assured during the professional career of the staff in service at the detention sections, through targeted professional refresher courses.

Paras. 44 and following

113.The Department of Public Security pays specific attention to preventing and combating gender-based violence, by implementing specific own strategies, in line with the principles set by the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence and in the wake of the system of governance envisaged by the Plans against violence.

114.Always considered of fundamental importance for an effective contrast of the criminal phenomena that revolve around gender-based violence, inter-institutional collaboration has been encouraged in order to intervene in wide-ranging sectors, thanks to the collaboration agreements with the Department for Equal Opportunities. Also at the local level, according to directives to the Quaestors issued by the Chief of Police – Director General of Public Security, since in 2013, the Quaestors have been giving impetus to the interinstitutional collaboration activities.

115.In this regard, on 25 November 2016, the “Memorandum of understanding for the prevention and combating of gender-based violence” was signed between the Minister of the Interior and the Minister with delegation for Equal Opportunities in favor of the State Police, which provides for an implementation-related “Agreement” between the Chief of Police – Director General of Public Security and the Head of the Department for Equal Opportunities, to regulate the implementation modalities.

116.The Agreement, signed on 27 December 2017, aimed at the dissemination of listening-related settings (currently, protected listening rooms are available in 43 Police Headquarters), so as to create listening modalities of vulnerable victims as homogeneous as possible, on the national territory. In addition, initiatives are planned to develop training programs for Police officers and the dissemination of risk assessment methods. This program, which is ongoing, will end in 2019.

117.Aware of the relevant “obscure number” constituted by the unreported violence, useful tools were prepared for the emergence of this phenomenon within the “first intervention” activities, which could be also result in an impulse to Police activities aimed at preventing the escalation of violence, by always taking into account the need for a correct approach of the operators towards the victim.

118.The “EVA Project” is meant to highlight, in cases of intervention for the so-called “Family querelles”, the recurrence of incidents of violence in order to allow, consequently, Police officers, to adopt precautionary measures against the abuser and appropriate measures for the protection of victims.

119.This project originates from the collaboration of the Central Anti-Crime Department of the State Police and the Department of Psychology of the University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”. Initially implemented by the Milan Police Headquarters in 2014, since January 2017 it has been disseminated throughout the country.

120.The information related to the EVA Project is gathered by the Territorial Control Service of the Central Anti-Crime Department of the Police that coordinates this initiative.

121.In one year time, between January 2017 and January 2018, the EVA Protocol allowed to manage and analyze 5,137 reports and to adopt 98 arrests in flagrante delicto, 144 complaints, 41 expulsions from the family house, 5 warnings from the Quaestor.

122.From the data concerning the persons involved in the interventions, it appears that the aggressors are predominantly males (4.386, compared to 751 females), aged about 42. The victims, on the contrary, are mostly females (4,229 compared to 908 males), with an average age of 41. Both the abusers and the victims are predominantly Italian citizens.

123.From January 2018, the EVA Protocol has allowed to manage and analyze 2,344 reports, to adopt 139 denunciations to the Judicial Authority and 23 removal orders from the family home.

124.On 17 September 2018, the Liana Project has been launched on the national territory, for the computerization of the EVA Protocol.

125.In order to facilitate the emergence of the phenomenon and aware that it is not enough to act only when the crime has been perpetrated, but it is necessary to intervene first through a meaningful action of information and support for a gender-based culture, the State Police has left from the offices to carry out information and awareness-raising campaigns that have been added to the “historical” campaigns of legality education in schools.

126.The “CAMPER Project – the Camper of Police against gender-based violence” was launched in July 2016, coupled with the information campaign “THIS IS NOT LOVE ...”, and is still ongoing. It was conceived to favor a careful approach to the user, by offering victims the support of specialized staff present in the camper, to inform and help above all, to bring out situations of violence, trying to give the necessary support to those who have need to come out into the open.

127.The “Camper” team consists of: a doctor/psychologist of the State Police or Anti-Violence Centers, experienced operators of the Investigative Teams, the Anti-Crime Division and/or the UPGSP, by a representative of the local Antiviolence Network, as well as, possibly, by other representatives from organizations and associations that are particularly active on the ground.

128.This initiative in 2016 involved, in more stages, 22 Police Headquarters and was then extended, from 2017 onwards, to all the Police Headquarters, raising interest among the citizens, also thanks to the effectiveness of the information campaign and to the “proactive” approach.

129.The results obtained were positive: by recording from July 2016 until August 2018, over 75,000 contacts, with a peak of almost 7,000 ones on the occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women (25 November). The types of approach mainly concern the request for information, but there were also reports of crime and requests for an in-depth analysis, which followed the “on-road” contact.

130.The “This is not love” campaign that accompanied the Camper Project also included the publication on the official website of the State Police, informational articles, a downloadable flyer in several languages, and a booklet containing information (downloadable). In addition, a brochure entitled “This is not love ...” has been compiled by the Anti-Crime Central Directorate of the State Police, containing useful information on the phenomenon and on the tools for preventing and combating violence, as already disseminated in 2017 on the occasions of the events organized by the State Police, for the celebrations of November 25th. This brochure “This is not love ...” has been updated with new information, to be disseminated by the Police Headquarters (Questure) on November 25, 2018.

131.Within the Agreement with the Department for Equal Opportunities, the dissemination of the risk assessment method is also envisaged through a simplified handbook, so as to be easily accessible to all operators.

132.In terms of risk assessment, the SASCIA Project is also underway, in collaboration with the Department of Psychology of the Luigi Vanvitelli University of Naples, conducted by researchers led by a full-time Professor of Social and Legal Psychology. This project aims to learn the effectiveness and the impact of the warning from the point of view of the victims of stalking:

People who request a warning are invited to join the project and subsequently contacted for interviews by researchers;

From the results available so far, it emerges a positive feedback in terms of approach by the operators, even if there is still to be improved in the so-called follow-up, the steps following the adoption of the above measure.

133.The awareness that in situations of violence we often witness a vicious circle in which the victim becomes more and more victim and fails to denounce, either due to shame or fear of being judged, fear of suffering repercussions, fear of being isolated or even for lack of confidence in the Institutions, has determined the dissemination of indications to the Police headquarters (Questure).

134.On 21 May 2018, the State Police Anti-Crime Central Directorate provided the Questure with useful indications on the new operational practices to be implemented as part of the activities to prevent and combat gender-based violence, by changing the rules and principles of criminal intervention in all circumstances in which the Police operator approaches the victim under particular vulnerable conditions, also in the light of the “Resolution on guidelines on organization and good practices for dealing with cases relating to crimes of domestic and gender-based violence” adopted by the Superior Council of Magistracy, by deliberation dated May 9, 2018.

135.Therefore, in relations with the victim, it will be necessary:

To provide comprehensive and analytical information on the administrative and criminal instruments envisaged by the relevant legislation to which the victim can access;

To establish, within the offices, priority criteria in the management of the relevant procedures that ensure a “preferential pathway” for treatment;

To take care of the victim in a suitable environment through highly qualified personnel, with ability to get the narrative of all the episodes of violence (or connoted by a dangerousness coefficient), while avoiding attitudes of minimization of the reported conduct;

To keep constant contacts with the victim, even after the first contact, by being an active part in maintaining relationships also to acquire further information on the evolution of the situation reported;

To activate the anti-violence network to implement the most appropriate forms of integrated intervention with social services and anti-violence centers active on the ground;

To activate the E.V.A. Protocol whenever it is necessary to register the victim, if the system does not expressly provide for it.

136.It is to be recalled that the State Police continues its efforts to strengthen the multidisciplinary training of operators, a crucial point in any intervention strategy and sector as specifically managed by the Central Anti-Crime Department, which has also set up an Investigation School in Nettuno.

137.In 2018, upon the input of the Central Anti-Crime Department, specialization and refresher courses continued with regard to investigative techniques, judicial Police and scientific Police, including modules dedicated to the issue of gender-based violence, for the operators of the investigative Offices of the Police Headquarters (Investigative units, Digos, Scientific Police Cabinets) and some Specialties (Judicial Police units of the Traffic Police and Railway Police), as well as the relating central offices of the Department of Public Security.

138.The e-learning modules on gender-based violence have been also developed and will be used in the coming months for the training courses foreseen by the Directives on “Police re-organization” of the State Police.

139.Finally, within the framework of the Agreement with the Department for Equal Opportunities, a training course for trainers will be held in 2019, in agreement with the Superior Police School.

140.For some time now, the State Police has been contributing to the prevention and combating strategies against trafficking in human beings, thanks to its specialized Offices, at both the central and territorial levels.

141.In 2001, the “Foreign Crimes Sections” were set up within the investigative units at the Questure whereas the Immigration Offices have been entrusted with the task of ensuring all the administrative activities concerning the entry and stay of foreigners.

142.At a central level, within the Central Anti-Crime Department of the State Police, the Central Operational Service and the Central Anti-Crime Service perform action of impulse and coordination of investigative activities and of analysis and monitoring of the phenomenon, respectively, without neglecting the participation in the interinstitutional collaboration initiatives and in training of operators.

143.A recent training initiative is the “Training Course with Live Simulation to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings in the context of mixed migratory flows” organized by the Central Anti-Crime Department of the State Police in collaboration with the OSCE, at the COeSPU in Vicenza, for the personnel of the State Police – having an investigative profile.

144.This collaboration originates from the strategy adopted in the Control Room for the fight against trafficking in human beings (as part of the National Anti-Trafficking Plan), which requires tackling the phenomenon through a holistic approach and that has already seen among the stakeholders, the Director of the Anti-Crime Central Service.

145.An educational seminar took place in January 2018. A new training course at the COeSPU in Vicenza, also attended by personnel of the State Police, was scheduled by the OSCE in early December 2018, as part of the project “Combating trafficking in human beings along the migratory routes”.

146.The specific modality of this “Simulation” can be considered aunicumin the framework of the training activities and has the purpose to develop a proactive approach, based on the multi-agency work, which has to be human rights-oriented and, in which the participants had to ensure that all activities (simulations) are carried out in compliance with international human rights standards, by respecting the principle of non-discrimination, adopting a specific gender perspective in the interventions and taking due account of the age of the victims, with particular observance of the principle of the best interests of the child and taking into primary consideration the safety of the presumed and identified victims as well as their informed consent, consistently with ongoing activities and data protection.

147.Main objectives of this program are:

To define/use key indicators for identifying victims of trafficking in human beings among mixed groups of people;

To apply a multi-agency human rights-oriented approach to identifying cases of trafficking in human beings and identifying victims;

To apply standard operating procedures in reporting presumed or identified trafficked victims, to care and support services;

To use financial investigations as well as international judicial and Police cooperation.


CCCarabinieri Corps

CPRsCentres of Permanence for Repatriation

SPState Police

UAMsUnaccompanied (Foreign) minors