United Nations


International Covenant on Civil and Political R ights

Distr.: General

27 May 2010

Original: English

Human Rights Committee

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 40 of the Covenant

Czech Republic *

Further information received from the CzechRepublic on the implementation of the concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee (CCPR/C/CZE/CO/2)

[22 March 2010]

1. On 25 July 2007, following the examination of the second periodic report (CCPR/C/CZE/2) on the application of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Human Rights Committee adopted the concluding observations (CCPR/C/CZE/CO/2). In clause 21 of its observations the Committee called upon the Czech Republic to provide within one year information on the method of their response to the observations of the Committee, contained in paragraphs 9, 14 and 16.

2. The Government of the Czech Republic approved the response of the Czech Republic to paragraphs 9, 14 and 16 on 23 July 2008 and they were sent to the Human Rights Committee on 18 August 2008. The Committee examined the response during its 94th session on 13 – 31 October 2008, found the response incomplete regarding certain issues and requested additional information to these issues.

3.The additional responses of the Czech Republic, approved by the Government on 1 March 2010, are as follows.

Additional response to observation No. 9 (a) (CCPR/C/CZE/CO/2)

4.On 23 May 2009, the Government of the Czech Republic approved a bill on the General Inspection of Security Forces. This statute introduces the united independent control of officers of the Police of Czech Republic, the Customs Service and Prison Guards Service, and facilitates the independent investigation and prosecution of criminal offences committed by their officers in keeping with the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights. The General Inspection of Security Forces is, according to the bill, a separate security corps independent of other security forces, but has the same powers as the current security forces and inspection bodies in matters of prosecution and criminal investigation. Its director is appointed by the Government and is controlled by the Security Committee of the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Parliament. Anyone may report a crime, of which a security corps officer is suspected, to the Inspection. The bill is currently being debated in the Chamber of Deputies (Parliamentary Document No 794).

5.In the present situation, crimes committed by a police officer or member of police staff are investigated by the Police Inspection, which is a service of the Ministry of the Interior. Anyone may report a crime, of which a police officer is suspected, to the Inspection. The police is obliged to provide the Inspection with necessary assistance. The Inspection is headed by a director appointed by the Government after consultation with the parliamentary committee responsible for security. The director is accountable to the Government, which has the power to suspend him from office. Crimes by police officers are also investigated by authorized public prosecutors under the Ministry of Justice who also supervise the procedure and decision-making of the police authority of the Czech Police Inspection before any criminal prosecution.

6.The Inspection also carries out tests of resistance to illegal conduct (reliability tests). Reliability tests consist mainly of evoking unlawful conduct where a police officer or employee is required by law to act against the offender, or other situations which the test person is required to address. If, during a test, circumstances are detected justifying the initiation of criminal or disciplinary proceedings, those proceedings are initiated and the test outcome is used in these proceedings. During the test, however, the person being tested must not be provoked to break the law.

7.Certain policing activities are also under the control of other competent independent authorities, such as the Office for Personal Data Protection in the handling of such data.

Additional response to observation No. 9(b)

8.As follows from the reports on internal security and public order in the Czech Republic in 2007 and 2008, the Inspection of the Minister of the Interior (from 1 January 2009 the Czech Police Inspection) was investigating 21 cases of wilful bodily harm committed by police officers. The results of the investigations are shown in the following table:

Wilful bodily harm

Outcome of criminal proceedings

Number of cases

Postponed on grounds of the legal impossibility or inexpediency of criminal prosecution


Referred for infraction or disciplinary proceedings


Conditional suspension of prosecution






Proceedings pending


9.According to information from the Inspection of the Minister of the Interior, in 2007 there were no investigations into crimes committed by police officers involving extremist, racist and xenophobic overtones. In 2008, there were two investigations into police officers suspected of crimes with extremist overtones. During the investigation, however, no extremist overtones were established and the acts were classified as rioting. In 2009, a police officer in Prague was investigated on suspicion of involvement in extremist assemblies and providing personal protection to the leaders of extremist groups for a fee; however, the initial suspicion has not been proven and the case has been postponed. In Brno, 14 police officers were investigated on suspicion of committing the crime of supporting and promoting movements aimed at suppressing the rights and freedoms of citizens under Section 261 of the Crime Act. Following the investigation, the case was handed over for disciplinary proceedings.

10.Throughout the Czech Republic, eight inspections were conducted to determine whether members of the Czech Police attended extremist assemblies or took part in other extremist activities actively or as sympathizers; the participation of police officers was not established. The “use of physical violence” and “use of coercive means” by officers from all departments within the Czech Police in 2007, 2008 and the first quarter of 2009 was also investigated. This investigation did not identify any situation where certain units of the Czech Police or certain individual officers were involved in repeated acts of physical violence or the abuse of coercive means.

11.In 2007, the Czech Police received 3,403 complaints about the activities of its departments and officers, 465 of which were found to be justified and led to criminal or disciplinary proceedings on suspicion of committing an infraction, an administrative offence or a crime. In 2008, there were 2,985 complaints, of which 350 were found to be justified. The most common cause for complaint was the inappropriate conduct and behaviour of police officers.

12.Under the current legal situation, if officers from the Czech Police break the law, a complaint may be submitted to the Police Inspection, an institution subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior which has the power to investigate crimes by police officers. In cases involving the municipal police, the municipal authority of the municipality establishing the police unit may be contacted. It is also possible to make a complaint of suspected abuse of public office (literally “abuse of the power of a public servant”, from 1 January 2010 “abuse of the power of an official person”), which also applies to officers of the Czech Police and the municipal police, or of another suspected crime. Where a police officer was acting as a law enforcement body, the complainant may also submit a complaint to the supervising prosecutor in accordance with the Rules of Criminal Procedure. Forty-one police officers were convicted of the crime of abuse of public office in 2007, followed by 42 in 2008.

13.Compensation for injury caused by a police officer may be sought in compensation proceedings against the State or a municipality on grounds of damage caused by maladministration under special legislation, i.e. Act No 82/1998 Coll. The complainant may file a request for compensation with the Ministry of Justice if a police officer was acting as a law enforcement body or with the Ministry of the Interior if a police officer was acting in other areas within his competence.

14.If a crime is committed, its victim may ask the court to order the defendant in a judgment of conviction to provide compensation for damage caused by the crime. Damages are also one of the conditions for diversion of criminal proceedings, i.e. if the defendant provides compensation for the damage caused and meets other conditions; the criminal proceedings against him are discontinued. This may also have incentive effect. Moreover, if any police intervention results in damage including damage to health, the victim may seek damages against the responsible police officer in civil proceedings. In these proceedings, claimants may also seek compensation for non-pecuniary damage to their personal rights.

15.The Police Inspection does not currently keep any records of applications for damages resulting from improper police conduct involving the use of violence or inappropriate procedure. The Ministry of Justice only keeps general statistics on compensation granted for incorrect official decisions or maladministration in the judicial proceedings; these do not provide detailed information on the number of cases associated with the activities of the police as law enforcement bodies in criminal proceedings or on criminal proceedings where the victims have been awarded damages. The activities of NGOs dealing with victims of police violence indicate that, in civil proceedings in 2008, five persons were awarded damages for personal injury and non-pecuniary damage caused by police officers in two cases. In the first case the compensation was CZK 30,000, in the second CZK 100,000. At least one other case is currently pending before the courts.

Additional response to observation No. 9(c)

16.Czech Police officers are required to undergo basic vocational training and, where appropriate, take part in other programmes of specialized lifelong learning. Basic training currently lasts for nine months. An important part of training focuses on forming police officers’ legal awareness of human rights and their powers and duties in the service to the public. An emphasis is placed on the practical handling of model situations and on learning examples of good practice. Police officers attend a basic course on Law, lasting 88 lessons, where they learn about the legal framework of their activities (constitutional law, human rights and freedoms, administrative law, police legislation). Practical actions are discussed in a course on Maintaining Law and Order (80 lessons), where police officers learn to apply their powers reasonably and lawfully. In a course on Communication and Police Ethics (38 lessons), officers learn about professional and effective communication with the public. Another specialized course – Resolving Conflict by Analysing Transactions (24 lessons) – deals with preparing officers to cope with public communication and negotiation in crises and conflicts and instructing them on the legal and effective management of such situations. Naturally, police officers also receive training in the use of coercive means (80 lessons) and service arms (70 lessons), where they are given a practical opportunity to apply legal knowledge of their powers and psychological knowledge in dealing with the public and the possible use of self-defence. Members of the Police Inspection also contribute to police training with lectures focusing on cases where police officers have committed crimes, taken excessive action, etc. The training process includes the cooperation of non-profit organizations, e.g. the “Antidiscrimination Police Training” programme organized by the Counselling Centre for Citizenship, Civil and Human Rights in 2007 was attended by nearly 900 police officers from all regions of the Czech Republic.

Additional response to observation No. 14

17.According to Act No 20/1966 Coll. on public health care, individuals may be placed in health-care facilities in principle only with their consent. Certain cases are stipulated in the Act where persons may be placed in such facilities or have their movement restricted during a stay in such facilities even without their consent. Current legislation concerning procedure on the admissibility of placement in a medical facility (detention procedure) under the Rules of Civil Procedure requires that a medical facility, whenever it is to accept a person without his consent or whenever it is to restrict the free movement of such a person, must notify this fact within 24 hours to the court of local jurisdiction. The court, within seven days, examines whether the placement or restriction is lawful. The restricted person is a party to the proceedings and is appointed a lawyer as a guardian by the court if he fails to select a representative himself. The court examines the restricted person, his/her physician and other persons where requested by the restricted person. The court’s decision is delivered to the patient (provided that he can understand its content), to his doctors and to the relevant institution.

18.If the court rules that the patient may be placed in a medical facility, it then assesses whether the patient may continue to be held there. In doing so, it examines evidence provided by an expert opinion and hears the patient and the treating physician. These proceedings must be completed within three months of the end of the proceedings on the admissibility of placing the person in the relevant facility. The court may decide that the patient may be kept in the medical facility for a maximum of one year; after this, the situation must be re-assessed and a decision taken on whether there is still legal reason to keep the patient in the facility. The patient, his guardian or other related person may apply for a review of the legitimacy of holding the patient in the facility at any time during this period, or the court may initiate proceedings itself without any such application.

Additional response to observation No. 16(c)

19.The Act No 198/2009 on equal treatment and on legal means of protection against discrimination and amending certain laws (the Antidiscrimination Act), mentioned in the Czech Republic’s previous observations, entered into effect on 1 September 2009. Under this legislation, the equality body, within the meaning of EU law, is the Ombudsman. The Ombudsman conducts research, publishes reports and makes recommendations on issues related to discrimination and is responsible for the exchange of available information with the relevant European bodies. Developments in the fight against discrimination are also monitored by advisory bodies to the Czech Government (the Human Rights Council, the Council for Roma Community Affairs, the Council for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men), as well as by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, among others.

Additional response to observation No. 16(d)

20.The Czech Republic supports the employment of the Roma in several ways. Labour offices are required to draw up an individual action plan for the unemployed who have been in their records for more than five months or who are otherwise disadvantaged; this plan is binding on the job-seeker. Specific assistance for the Roma in improving their job prospects draws on active employment policy tools implemented by labour offices, including retraining, counselling programmes, community work and social jobs. In addition, local programmes are run by municipalities in collaboration with local non-profit organizations, including field social work programmes. In 2008, there were 86 such field social workers in 46 municipalities, who helped a total of 13,144 clients to cope with their everyday problems, not only at work, but also in the social area.

21.Labour offices and NGOs help Roma improve their skills and organize counselling programmes to help them to find employment. In 2008, in cooperation with the labour offices over 3,200 Roma job-seekers found employment, a further 505 Roma job-seekers were enrolled in retraining, 1,620 took part in counselling programmes, in more than 1,600 cases employers received contributions for projects to provide community work and social jobs, and at least 986 Roma job-seekers were placed in projects of the European Social Fund to help integrate them into the labour market.

22.Under the European Social Fund’s Human Resources and Employment Operational Programme, social business grants are available that support the business operations of employers where at least 30 per cent of employees are from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds, the business operations of persons from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds, and public-service projects where at least 75 per cent of users are from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds. In these areas, the State cooperates with more than 300 different entities, of whom more than two thirds are entrepreneurs. In 2008, for example, in the Most and Ostrava regions a project entitled Assistance for the Long-Term Unemployed in the Ostrava and Most Regions assisted 3,523 Roma, of whom 2,739 attended retraining courses, 1,230 increased their computer abilities and 1,162 managed to find employment. Another almost 1,000 Roma were employed via the Human Resources Development Operational Programme.

23.The support of Roma in the labour market includes support for their training as a fundamental prerequisite for their further development. The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports aims to increase the percentage of children attending kindergartens as this will help compensate the social, cultural and language handicaps which often result in their failure at primary school. For children who cannot attend a kindergarten, preparatory classes are set up at primary schools which intensively prepare children for entry to primary school. In the 2008/2009 school year, 166 preparatory classes were set up and were attended by 2,028 children. About half of Roma children attend kindergartens and preparatory classes.

24.Pupils without primary education may attain this level of education in courses designed for these purposes. Courses are established by primary or secondary schools after consultation with the school’s founder and regional authority. These courses, held in accordance with the framework primary education programme, increase the job prospects of their participants.

25.Since 2003, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports has run a scheme to support secondary-school Roma pupils. Twice a year, 1,200 Roma pupils receive grants of up to CZK 7,000 each to cover the cost of school meals, travel, accommodation and the purchase of school supplies. Each year, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports provides CZK 10 million in such grants.

26.In the field of tertiary education, NGOs, in cooperation with higher education institutions, organize preparatory courses for university. In 2008, the Athinganoi Civic Association held language and computer literacy courses together with study consultancy and scholarship programmes. In addition, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports provided grants of over CZK 117 million to universities to support socially disadvantaged students. Importance is also attached to lifelong learning. The Slovo 21 Prague Roma Education and Employment Support Programme, focused on the lifelong learning and employment of Roma living in Prague, has helped 1,980 Roma, of whom 824 have completed training and retraining courses, 216 have found employment thanks to the project, 11 have set up in business, and 85 are studying or continuing their secondary or higher education.

27.For several years, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports has regularly run a programme to promote the integration of the Roma community, which in 2008 was thematically focused on educational activities for children and pupils from Roma communities, their parents and preschool and primary school teachers, the successful transition of pupils to secondary education, career guidance, the leisure activities of children and pupils, school preparations and research and monitoring of the situation regarding the education of children, pupils and students. In 2008, this programme received funding of CZK 15 million and supported 87 projects. In 2009, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports announced a development programme to support schools providing inclusive education and education for children and pupils from a socio-culturally disadvantaged background. This programme funds the non-mandatory components in the pay of teaching staff who practice a pro-inclusive approach to teaching at school and in extracurricular activities.

28.Many schools have set up the post of teaching assistant to work with socially disadvantaged children. In 2008, support was provided to over 400 assistants, who can help tackle the children’s problems on the spot by drawing on their knowledge of their background. In 2008, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports provided CZK 75 million for the development programme “Funding of Teaching Assistants for Socially-Disadvantaged Children, Pupils and Students”. The further development of the teaching assistant concept depends on the financial capacity of the State, local authorities and individual schools. Children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds receive also help from a number of non-profit organizations, which provide additional teaching, tutoring, or organize extracurricular activities. Another important issue is the career guidance provided to pupils finishing their primary or secondary education with a view to helping them find a suitable path to follow for their future employment. In 2008, more than CZK 14 million was channelled into these projects.

Additional response to observation No. 16(e)

29.The issue of housing is largely beyond the immediate reach of the State, as the owners of housing are either municipalities or private operators. The renting of municipal housing as the management of municipal assets is a private-law action, in which the executive cannot interfere. Under Article 4 and Article 90 of the Constitution of the Czech Republic, the protection of private rights is in the competence of courts in civil proceedings, not administrative authorities in administrative proceedings. While the Ministry of the Interior supervises municipalities, this does not cover their private-law activities, which include the management of municipally owned housing. Municipalities’ equality with other owners who are private persons means not only equal rights, but also equal responsibilities. Under article 11(3) of the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms “ownership obliges”. In tenancy relations regarding the allocation of housing and conclusion of leases, municipalities must comply with laws and regulations, including the prohibition of discrimination in the provision of housing. If these are infringed, those affected may go to court in the same way as they would in other rental housing disputes with other landlords. Furthermore, municipalities also have the statutory duty to ensure that conditions are fostered to meet the needs of their citizens, including housing.

30.Rented housing is governed by the Civil Code, which protects the tenant as the weaker party. A lease may be terminated by agreement or notice; in most cases notice is subject to judicial approval. In these instances, the tenant also has the right to replacement housing or replacement accommodation. In the absence of judicial approval, notice may be served against lessees only in cases, specified by law, entailing a serious breach of the obligations of the tenant, i.e. generally if he fails to pay rent or breaches good morals in the building – under the case-law of the Supreme Court, under a breach of good morals in the building is regarded, for example, harassment of other tenants. Tenants may contest termination of the lease by bringing a claim with a court seeking the annulment thereof within 60 days of service of notice on the lease; tenants need not vacate the property until the court reaches a verdict. When assessing any notice, the court takes into account good morals, i.e. whether the exercise of the landlord’s right to terminate the tenant’s lease is in keeping with good manners.

31.The State’s role in these matters is limited to methodological recommendations and coordination. Social exclusion, however, needs to be handled primarily preventively. The State supports municipalities and NGOs with subsidies to fund the work of field social workers who help socially excluded people address their problems and provide them with advice on housing, employment, financial matters, education, family issues, etc. The Government Council for Roma Community Affairs runs grant schemes aimed at preventing social exclusion and promoting field social work. In 2008, more than CZK 30 million was granted to 46 municipalities and 86 field social workers, along with 41 projects on the prevention of social exclusion and community work.

32.In 2007, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs published a Methodological Guide on Social Work in the Field for Social Service Providers. In 2009, the Ministry of the Interior, in collaboration with the Office of the Ombudsman, issued Recommendations for Municipalities to Prevent the Formation and Spread of Socially Excluded Localities, with an emphasis on housing needs. The aim of this material is to acquaint municipalities with problems and possible solutions, including examples of good practice. Both materials are available on the Internet and have been distributed to the relevant bodies.

33.In January 2008, the Czech Government established the Agency for Social Inclusion in Roma Localities. Since then, the Agency has operated as a pilot project at the Office of the Government and under the Minister for Human Rights. The Agency operates in 13 locations throughout the country and strives, with the selected municipalities, to implement a programme offering a comprehensive solution to the situation in excluded locations primarily by providing expert advice in the development of local strategies and concepts. Municipalities will then themselves, together with other partners (NGOs, schools, labour offices, local employers and the Roma community), implement projects in support of employment, education and improvements in the quality of housing, aimed at residents of socially excluded localities.The goal is the transformation of these sites to such an extent that they either cease to exist or at least enjoy a significantly improved quality of life.Since 2008, integrated urban development plans have been in place in many municipalities, including formerly the most problematic cities in northern Bohemia.

34.In support of housing for the Roma and other socially vulnerable tenants, municipalities and private entities may apply for assistance from the State Housing Development Fund and the Integrated Operational Programme. Between 2003 and 2007, municipalities were awarded grants by the State Housing Development Fund. Since 2009, support for the construction of social housing has been available to both municipalities and private investors. Since 2003, the Ministry for Regional Development has also granted subsidies to municipalities for the construction of subsidized units for people at risk of social exclusion. Between 2003 and 2007, the State Housing Development Fund provided grants totalling CZK 12,911 million for the construction of 8,222 rental apartments. Between 2003 and 2008, the Ministry for Regional Development provided aggregate funding of CZK 97.million for the construction of 257 subsidized units intended for persons at risk of social exclusion. Unfortunately there is no way of determining how many of these flats were used by Roma.

35.Funds from the Integrated Operational Programme can be used by municipalities for the regeneration of socially excluded sites and for integrating their residents into normal life through social services, counselling, education, environmental improvements and better housing. Municipalities prepare an Integrated Development Plan, which consists of specific projects. A special group comprises pilot projects aimed at addressing the situation of socially excluded localities; these projects receive funding for housing subject to interconnection with social inclusion activities. Currently, 41 municipalities in the Czech Republic have drawn up an integration plan, of which six are pilot projects.

Additional response to observation No. 16(f)

36.Since 2006, the Czech Government has regularly held a government Campaign against Racism, which includes the award of grants to non-profit organizations’ projects focusing on society’s education and awareness regarding tolerance of minorities and the fight against prejudice and discrimination.

37.In 2006, a project by the Multikulturní centrum Praha [Prague Multicultural Centre] civic association called “National educational and awareness-raising activities” (a campaign to promote equal opportunities in the Czech Republic) was supported. The project consisted of educational seminars on discrimination and tolerance for public officials, teachers and students of secondary schools. It also offered legal training for public administration staff and police officers on discrimination and social and cultural differences, including familiarization with the possible ways to address problems and provide help to victims of discrimination. An important part was the presentation of examples of good practice and the prevention of discriminatory behaviour, particularly in the government sector. The campaign included various brochures and awareness-raising leaflets for public sector employees and the general public, which were sent to public libraries and schools and are still available on the website http://www.diskriminace.info/. Another project was Weird Neighbour [Divnej soused] by ARCHA Theatre. This project was produced by a theatre company which prepared open-air performances involving representatives of various ethnic and cultural traditions to acquaint the majority society, in a fun and interesting way, with different ethnic groups and cultures living in the Czech Republic and with their specific problems related to coexistence with the majority. The project was aimed especially at children and youth by using modern music and media.

38.In 2007, the Czech Republic participated in the European Year of Equal Opportunities. The Office of the Government and selected NGOs worked together to implement several projects aimed at promoting issues such as equal opportunities, the fight against discrimination, knowledge of the other and culture of ethnic, religious and cultural minorities in the Czech Republic among public administration workers, non-profit sector professionals, students and the general public. For example, a project by IQ Roma Service included theatrical and film performances for students and teachers, a film festival, an exhibition of photographs by Roma children called “How do I see it” and panels with antidiscrimination procedures for public employees, and the promotional cream “For All Skin Colours”, which was distributed among the general public. The “Equality is Cool!” project by Člověk v tísni, o.p.s. focused on the production of documentaries about discrimination for the general public and follow-up discussions involving, among others, over 7,000 students from the entire country. Some films were also distributed to schools, other youth establishments and non-profit organizations. Linked to this project was the Carnival of Diversity, another platform for screenings of films and accompanying cultural events shedding light on the life of minorities in the Czech Republic. The Carnival attracted audiences numbering more than 3,500 in total. Člověk v tísni also held multicultural education courses for primary and secondary school teachers and other educational staff focusing on the Roma population, its cultural specifics and issues related to the social exclusion of Roma. The project included the production of a guide, “Tales of a Bad Neighbourhood – how to work on the theme of segregation in education and facilitate full participation in the educational process for Roma from an early age”. A specialist project by the Counselling Centre for Citizenship, Civil and Human Rights to combat discrimination continued with the further development of the information site at http://www.diskriminace.info/ and seminars for public sector staff and students.

39.In 2008, the campaign supported a project by the Romea civic association called “Do Something!”, aimed at presenting positive Roma role models to increase the initiative and commitment of the Roma themselves and show them how to improve their quality of life. The campaign was also directed at mainstream society, which was shown the lives of successful Roma. The project centred on an advertising campaign on public transport, information panels at public authorities, a television spot, and the distribution of information leaflets in Roma localities. Another project was “Don’t Watch in Black and White – Enlightenment against Intolerance” by the Czech Helsinki Committee. This project focused on raising awareness against the intolerance and activities of the far rightwing in the Czech Republic in conjunction with the elimination of prejudices against Roma communities. The project consisted of discussions for children and young people in schools, workshops for educators on teaching about racism, and the publication of professional opinions and comments related to an information campaign.

40.IQ Roma Servis ran a project called “Trample Your Prejudices” in Brno. The aim of the project was to involve the local population in combating and eliminating prejudices and stereotypes against Roma. An important feature of this project saw Roma interacting with the majority population and the introduction of positive models and opportunities in education and future life for Roma youth. Young Roma were actively involved through the Forum Theatre and published their stories on panels in public institutions, means of transport and public transport stops and stations. The public took part in workshops and events aimed at crushing and eliminating prejudice.