Municipal Councils



Women by %









Deputy Mayors








Greenland Parliament




Women by %





Since the 2005 election, one female Member of Parliament has resigned and has been replaced by a man.

Management of the Central Government Executive Administration

There are currently a total of seven ministries in Greenland . One (1) minister – The Minister for Health and Family - is a woman, which equals 14.3%.

Management of Ministerial Agencies and Institutions (ISIIN)

There are 7 departments in all in the central administration of the Greenland Home Rule Government. Of the 7 Heads of Department (deputy ministers) 3, i.e. 42.85 %, are women.

There are 17 government-owned companies with 15 women out of a total of 87 board members, equalling 17.2%.

Management of Juridical Agencies and Institutions

The judicial area in Greenland is placed under the authority of the Ministry of Justice in Denmark . The leading authorities in Greenland are the High Commissioner of Greenland, the Ombudsman of the Greenland Parliament and the district judges. The High Commissioner of Greenland is a man and the Ombudsman of the Greenland Home Rule Parliament is a woman. There are currently a total of 10 district judges. 6 of the 10 are women, which equals 60 %.

The Faroe Islands

Since 2005, the Government of the Faroes has allocated significant resources in an effort to combat the identified low participation of women in the political decision-making process in the Faroes, cf. Art 7 in Appendix B of CEDAW/C/DEN/7 for a further description of the measures taken to increase the participation of women in political decision-making.

A measurable result of these efforts can be seen in the outcome of the general elections in January 2008, where the share of women in the Faroese Parliament increased from 9.4% to 21.2%. Furthermore, the share of women in the Faroese Government increased from 0% to 37.5%.

In November 2008, after the CEDAW report was submitted, municipal elections were held in the Faroes. Again there was a clear improvement in the participation of women in the political decision-making process at the local level. This improvement can be traced both in terms of the number of women on the ballots as well as women ’ s share of the seats on municipal councils, cf. below.

Municipal Councils 1992-2008

1992 1996 2000 2004 2008

Share of women on ballots 20% 23% 30% 32% 39%

Share of women elected 15% 16% 23% 23% 31%

Thus, the results of the general and municipal elections as well as the public debate clearly indicate that there is a change in attitude in the Faroes with respect to the importance of gender equality in political and public forums.

The Faroese Parliament

Year Members Women Women by %

2008 33 7 21.2%

2004 32 3 9.4%

2002 32 4 12.5%

1998 32 4 12.5%

The Faroese Government

Year Ministers Women Women by %

2008 8 3 37.5%

2004 7 0 0%

2002 9 1 11%

1998 8 1 13%

Women in high-level positions in the civil service

Women serve as the senior administrator in 19 of the 76 government and public institutions (i.e. 25%).

Furthermore, of the eight current government ministries in the Faroes only one has a female Permanent Secretary (12.5%). However, the Permanent Secretary to the Faroese Parliament and the Ombudsman to the Faroese Parliament are both women.

The Faroes also maintain diplomatic missions in Copenhagen , Brussels , Reykjavik and London , and the mission in Reykjavik is the sole mission to be headed by a woman (25%).

Women in high-level positions in the judiciary

There are currently a total of 7 judges and deputy judges. 2 of the 7 are women, which is equal to approximately 30 %.

Women in senior positions in the private sector

While women participate on equal terms in the Faroese private sector, there is clear under-representation of women in senior positions. A mere 20.1% of registered Faroese companies have a female CEO or managing director, women hold 19.7% of the total seats on Faroese corporate boards, and 14.2% of the registered Faroese companies have a woman as chair of the board (September 2007 figures).

Stereotypes and education

Response to question 8:

Mainstreaming action plans

In autumn 2006, the action plan was evaluated externally by Rambøll Management Consulting, a private consulting company, and the conclusion was clear: “The inter-ministerial gender mainstreaming project has placed gender mainstreaming on the agenda, and, at the same time, it has developed methods and tools that have been crucial in getting many of the ministries started on implementing the strategy. It must be concluded that the inter-ministerial gender mainstreaming project has been a prerequisite for getting the ministries well underway.” At the same time, the report concludes that only a few of the ministries are “ready to fly”, an d that assistance from an inter ‑ ministerial project and from the Department of Gender Equality will continue to be necessary. Another primary conclusion in the evaluation is that there is a need for inter-ministerial collaboration to move away from the project phase towards actual implementation and embedding in the ministries, just as there is a need for increased ownership among management.

The new action plan 2007-2011 follows the recommendations from the evaluation so that the future work of gender mainstreaming in the mini s tries will be differentiated. While the first action plan primarily focused on the development of new tools in the areas of legislation, data and statistics, the new action plan for inter-ministerial collaboration focuses on implementation, embedding, differenti a tion and management. Another key difference from the first action plan is that, based on the principle of proportionality, every ministry should, as far as possible, formulate mainstreaming initiatives that incorporate:

1) A gender equality policy in their own core area, with gender equality po l icy objectives

2) Specific objectives for implementing and building comp e tency in gender mainstreaming

3) Specific activities that are to be gender mai n streamed.

The first results have already emerged. In 2008 all ministries formulated gender equality policies and in 2009 an e-learning course was launched. See this link:

Women in rural areas

An example of gender mainstreaming from the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, which in terms of gender equality policies focuses on incorporating woman in rural areas in planning and administration:

There should be focus on promoting gender equality in the rural district programme, and information about gender aspects must be embe d ded in the programme.

More women must hold seats in agricultural decision-making and counselling forums.

To utilise the innovative power generated in agriculture and fisheries and to retain people in the sectors, the Ministry of Food is dedicating work in its policy area to reducing gender segregation in these se c tors.

Response to question 9:

Primary and Secondary Education

The objectives of the Folkeskole (primary and lower secondary school) Act include the specific a tion that schools are responsible for “preparing pupils for participation, sharing responsibility and their rights and obligations in a society based on freedom and democracy. The basis of the teaching and daily life of the school therefore is inte l lectual freedom, equality and democracy.”

In addition, it is prescribed in the binding objectives for teaching in primary and secondary educ a tion that pupils must learn, for example, ”to reflect on the importance of their own and other persons ’ rights and obligations in a democratic society”, ”reflect on the implications of their own and other persons ’ stereotypical views of various groups” and ”present examples of international organisations and conventions to which De n mark is a party and discuss the roles of the United Nations and NATO in conflicts and collaboration in the world”.

In addition to the binding objectives, the Ministry of Education oversees the preparation of a key curriculum, the use of which is optional and can be substituted with one chosen by the schools. According to the ministerial curriculum the pupils will identify gender specific similarities and differences in gender roles in school, family and social environments, examine and discuss gender roles and stere o types in different cultures, in generations and in the media, compare and form an opinion regarding alternative ways of behavior for the individual and communities, and acquire an understanding of cultural d i versity.

One of the primary learning goals of the Folkeskole Act is, furthermore, that the te a ching is to create understanding of other countries and cultures, and the binding objectives for several subjects require that children learn about the everyday life and norms of other cultures, the transformation of cultures and the values that form the basis of different religions.

The objectives are currently under revision but focus is maintained on the culture, values and norms of cultures different from that of the ethnic majority in Denmark .

Danish municipalities, schools and teachers have great autonomy in the choice of curriculum, teaching materials and teaching methods but the overall objectives must be met. The Danish Government is aware of the need to continuously strengthen the intercultural competencies of teachers to ensure cultural understanding among students and respect for the values and norms of minority groups, and this has been reflected in the latest revision of the teacher training programmes.

Vocational education and training

Vocational education and training (VET) plays an important role in achieving the overall political goal of ensuring the integration of immigrants in Danish society.

The VET system is organised to motivate young people regardless of ethnic background to be trained for later employment in the public as well as the private sector. VET offers a variety of programmes which, besides training for a profession, contribute to developing the young people ’ s interests in and ability to actively participate in a democratic society.

The Danish Vocational Education and Training System is an inclusive system, ensuring the integration of imm i grants and weak learners, and hereby contributing to social cohesion and coherence. In this respect, the system constitutes an important el e ment of integration and social policies, the implementation of which is ensured by the curricula of the various training colleges.

Young men and women still make gender stereotyped education choices, and this applies to students of Danish origin as well as to students with other ethnic backgrounds. In the VET system some areas such as welfare and health care appeal mostly to women, whereas construction, industry, trade, technology and communication and mechanics are male dominated.

In order to break down the gender-divided choice of education, the Danish Ministry of Education, however, has:

Established a group of role models in order to promote non-specific ge n der choices of education and vocational training.

Ensured that all teachers and guidance counsellors have learnt how to break down gender-based choices of education.

Mainstreamed gender in the education on entrepreneurship in order to inspire more girls to become entrepr e neurs.

University students

Between 2002 and 2006 a total of approximately 87,000 students commenced their studies for a bachelor degree at Danish universities, and student intake has in general risen over this period. As figure AA shows, the total intake was higher in 2006 compared to 2002 for both genders as well as for ethnic groups. This is despite the fact that the size of the relevant age group (19-23 year olds) decreased between 2001 and 2005 (Statistics Denmark).

Figure AA . Student intake at universities (bachelor-level) in numbers, divided by gender and ethnic origin. 2002-2006.

Figure AA shows that by far the largest part of the student intake consists of people of Danish origin. The figure also shows that in absolute figures the intake is higher for ethnic Danish girls than boys, and that the trend towards increased intake from 2002 to 2006 is somewhat more significant for girls than boys. This trend cuts across ethnic groups. It should, however, also be noted that the population in Denmark is ethnically homogeneous and that the actual number of young people of non-Danish origin is limited. The figure, accordingly, shows a student intake that reflects the relatively small number of immigrants and descendants in Denmark .

Figures BB . Student intake at universities (bachelor-level) divided by faculties and gender. Per cent. 2002-2006 .

Danish origin

Immigrants and descendants

Source: Statistics Denmark

Figure BB shows the distribution across faculties divided by gender and ethnic origin. The most significant difference is the gender gap in the humanities (including arts and theology), health and technical science. Nearly twice as many girls as boys choose the humanities and the health sciences - and the reverse is true for the technical sciences. More boys than girls also favour natural and social sciences. These differences cut across both ethnic groups.

Response to question 10:

In order for more young people to complete a vocational education and training programme the D a nish Ministry of Education has launched the following:

A project called “Fastholdelseskaravanen” (The stay-on-track-caravan) in close cooperation with the Danish Ministry of Refugee, Immigration and Integration Affairs and with selected vocational training colleges. The project f o cuses on how to keep young men with an immigrant background in particular on the educational track by means of outreach dialogue.

A national vocational experience campaign in cooperation with the trade and industries ’ institution, “Da n ske Erhvervsskoler”. This to ensure that young people can get trainee service, which is a precond i tion for being admitted to a VET programme.

Prostitution and trafficking

Response to question 11:

The status report from March 2008 on the implementation of the September 2006 strategy for reinforced police action against criminals who control prostitution states that implementation in 2007 has been successful. A report for 2008 will be issued in spring 2009.

In 2007 the focus was on implementing the organisational arrangement of the work, mapping the prostitution env i ronment, regular control in the environment and assistance from the National Police for the police di s tricts.

The strategy outlines that by 2007 the police districts are to have appointed leading contact persons responsible for coordinating the work to combat prostitution in the various districts, including cooperation with local authorities, institutions, NGOs and the National Police. That has been accomplished. The National Police have been informed about how the work is organised and the co n tact persons who have been appointed.

The implementation of the strategy has provided the police with a comprehensive view of the prostitution environment. The information gat h ered by the police districts has been forwarded to the National Police Investigative Support Centre (NEC) as part of the systematic police-monitoring scheme. NEC has used the information to prepare strategic and operational analyses at national level, and briefs for specific invest i gative steps against the criminals who control prostitution have been prepared in c o operation with the police districts.

Furthermore, a classified manual has been drawn up by the National P o lice in cooperation with the Director of Public Prosecutions. The manual contains, for example, a detailed exposition of investigative considerations rel e vant in cases against the criminals behind the prostitution.

The National Police have also provided assistance to the police districts to coordinate police actions across the police districts and in relation to international cooperation partners.

As part of the implementation of the strategy, in coo p eration with th e National Police and the local / social authorities and institutions the police districts have conducted systematic outreach work and extended regular co n trol in the prostitution environment.

The National Police have set up a group comprising representatives of the social authorities, the health service, the immigration authorities, the Danish Anti-Trafficking Centre, NGOs, the taxation authorities and the National Police. The group constitutes the frame for regular dialogue b e tween the police and the other authorities, organisations etc. The group also discusses how to develop and optimise the cooperation.

In 2007 charges were brought in 23 cases regarding trafficking, which is an increase compared to 2006, and 33 charges were brought in cases r e garding procuring prostitution etc.

In 2008 the implementation was intensified with focus on the proactive and targeted investigations against the criminals who control prostit u tion.

As mentioned in the seventh periodic report, the strategy is based on 10 main points. The prosecution of the criminals behind prostitution, which is one of the points, also i n cludes prosecution of the pimps and the traffickers.

The rehabilitation of victims of trafficking is a part of the Gover n ment ’ s plan of action to combat trafficking in human beings. Therefore the police must also ensure that women encountered in prostit u tion circles are informed about the social rehabilitation programmes. The police must also, upon request, assist the women to contact the relevant authorities and organis a tions.

If a woman is arrested, the police will automatically contact the relevant social authority or organisation, which will then arrive at the police station and offer relevant support programmes.

As far as possible, the police strive to have representatives of the relevant authorities and/or organisations present at planned police actions.

In order to promote and facilitate the cooperation between the police and social authorities and organisations, a social anthropologist has been e m ployed by the National Police in agreement with the Ministry of Welfare and Gender Equality.

Response to question 12:

As the overall outcome of the project ‘ A new life ’ , the national Competence Centre for Prostitution was established in January 2006 and three regional branches were set up in Aarhus, Odense and Copenhagen . The regional branches have field staff and a training team based in the three cities.

Bridge- building activities

A number of formal and informal networks between the local authorities and the local administration are the result of close cooperation with the regional branches and the Competence Centre for Prostitution that has primarily advised on how to offer prostitutes care and support.

The fieldworker is a key person in the prostitute ’ s contact with the authorities and institutions, providing guidance and advice. The fieldworker assists the prostitute to explain his/her situation to the authorities and helps in “translating” how the system works.

The fieldworker, furthermore, advises the authorities/ social workers on what prostitution entails and the consequences of being in the profession, thereby increasing case officers ’ understanding of prostitution. This procedure has moved Denmark closer to the goal of achieving holistic, qualified casework by the individual local authority.

In the period 2006-2008, local authorities/social caseworkers provided bridge building for prostitutes, including meetings at social centres, job centres and children and youth centres. A total of 168 interviews/meetings, primarily focusing on social, health or labour market issues were arranged. The main part of the bridge-building activities aimed at supporting the women to leave prostitution and/or improve their social and health conditions. A number of meetings involved the Danish Customs and Tax Administration and focused on registration of income from prostitution and other types of assistance aimed at legalising the women ’ s income from prostitution; other meetings involved job centres and trade unions.

In 2008, the Competence Centre for Prostitution assisted in 38 interviews with job centres and 26 with the Danish Customs and Tax Administration.

Of the meetings related to health, an increasing number have involved hospitals: 26 in 2007 and 54 in 2008. Other meetings focused on treatment for abuse and many involved the network group “Svanerne”(The Swans) and the NGO “Reden” (The Nest) in Copenhagen , Odense and Aalborg .

Massage parlours and prostitutes

The Competence Centre for Prostitution has screened 96 of Denmark ’ s 98 municipalities for massage parlours. In 60 of the 96 municipalities massage parlours were identified and in 36 municipalities none were found.

Fieldworkers registered 1,340 contacts with massage parlours in the period 2006-2008. The figure comprises single as well as repeated contacts and unsuccessful visits. The visits were paid to 401 parlours. Statistics compiled by the National Board of Social Services estimate the total number of massage parlours in Denmark at minimum 800.

In the period 2006-2008 fieldworkers, furthermore, had 1,035 interviews with a total of 327 prostitutes. The interviews focused on problems related to prostitution and on the prostitute ’ s social and mental condition. Seventy-two per cent had only one interview with the Competence Centre for Prostitution. Eleven per cent had two interviews, while the rest were with prostitutes having from three to 42 interviews.

An evaluation of the Competence Centre for Prostitution from December 2008 concludes that as a result of the fieldwork, the prostitutes feel comforted by knowing that help is available if needed. The evaluation, furthermore, concludes that future focus should be on activities based on evidence and appropriate methodology.

The Competence Centre for Prostitution can offer psychological assistance to former prostitutes to prevent them from returning to prostitution as well as to adolescents to curb/prevent prostitution-like behaviour. A total of 55 people have been granted psychological help for 11 sessions, but no young people below the age of 18 have accepted the offer. The Competence Centre for Prostitution assumes one reason to be that power of attorney from a parent is required to gain access to the psychological help.

Su pplementary training activities

The Competence Centre has also been involved in preventive work, having arranged amongst other activities 26 “theme” days on prostitution for residential homes, socio-pedagogical facilities and local authorities. Individual courses have lasted from one to three days. In addition, the Competence Centre held courses for seven shelters, a group of local authority staff and one residential home.

The staff at the centre also started the first part of a two-year psychotherapist training programme in 2007. The aim is to improve the employees ’ ability to forge relations and communicate openly, thus enhancing their options in social work settings. The Competence Centre has also expanded its supplementary training programme for staff working with disadvantaged young people at residential homes. The supplementary training programme is free and targeted at individual institutions, residential homes, foster families, etc.

During the summer of 2007, 20 local authorities{1><1} were contacted on training and received material. To date, the contacts have yielded positive responses from six of them . Several local authorities have responded positively to the training material, stating, however, that they are too busy and would prefer to postpone the activities.

The Competence Centre has concluded a partnership agreement with the City of Copenhagen , featuring a special training programme for selected employees at Copenhagen ’ s social centres, counselling centres and the fieldwork units who in their work will at some level come into contact with adolescents or adults in prostitution.

To enhance the qualifications of municipal social administrations, residential homes and other employees in contact with the area of prostitution, the Competence Centre has prepared a professional handbook: “Aspects of prostitution - professional tools for caseworkers and other professionals.” The handbook is scheduled for publication in spring 2009.

Escort services/private prostitution

In 2007, the Competence Centre realised a pilot project on contacts with women in escort services and private prostitution, aimed at disseminating awareness of the Competence Centre for Prostitution. Preliminary experience indicates that the themes debated (on the phone) with the women engaged in massage parlours, escort services and private prostitution generally coincide. But a direct comparison cannot be made, as the activities targeted at the escort profession have solely aimed at disseminating awareness of the Competence Centre for Prostitution, while the activities targeted at massage parlours also aimed at establishing personal relations with the prostitutes.

Another pilot project launched in 2008 focused on prostitution via the Internet, finding 51 advertisements and sending out questionnaires. This mini study revealed that 75% of the “Internet prostitutes” are male prostitutes selling sexual services to other men.

Help lines

The Competence Centre for Prostitution handles two anonymous help lines, one for prostitutes and one for customers. Each telephone advisory service has its own number and both lines are open twice weekly for six hours. Few prostitutes use this help line, probably because prostitutes rarely ask for help, but must be motivated to receive it. In contrast, the customers actively seek support to handle their misuse.

The statistics for the help line services in 2007 show 37 calls to the “prostitution line” (31 from prostitutes, 1 from a former prostitute and 5 from relatives of prostitutes). The “customer line” shows a total of 274 registered calls.

A question-and-answer page has been set up on the Competence Centre for Prostitution website. In 2007, 23 questions were submitted. Since its establishment in February 2006, a total of 56 questions have been submitted. 12 questions came from prostitutes, 24 from customers, 9 from relatives of prostitutes or customers and 11 from students.

To improve knowledge of and forge relations to the less accessible areas of prostitution, the Competence Centre is currently conducting a pilot project in which fieldworkers are active in chat rooms. To save resources and to target activities, fieldworkers will be making use of the Internet to a much wider extent. In addition to fieldwork performed through chat rooms, the Competence Centre is contemplating advertisements on the Internet via webmasters, contacts created through massage parlour websites, and the distribution of monthly newsletters both digitally and in print.

Danish Anti-Trafficking Centre

As supplier to the Anti-Trafficking Centre (see below for more information on the Anti-Trafficking Centre) , the Competence Centre for Prostitution is involved in the action plan against human trafficking. Fieldwork has been extended to cover trafficked women and men in prostitution, and in partnership with the NGO, the Nest International, the Competence Centre for Prostitution has set up a meeting place for trafficked women and men. The target group encompasses massage-parlour and street prostitutes who are victims of human trafficking as well as foreign prostitutes.

The Competence Centre for Prostitution also provides staffing for the 24-hour hotline and will be represented at police stations when the police raid massage parlours.

In 2008, DKK 3.1m was allocated to the Competence Centre for Prostitution to cover the activitie s related to trafficked women.

Response to question 13:

The minimum number of prostitutes for whom the action plan is made, is based on available data on prostitutes advertising prostitution services. Further, the calculations include information from the police, social institutions and private organisations involved in outreach work. Outreach work has been launched on the Internet as a pilot project (see answer to item 12). This project is expected to throw light on the large number of covert prostitutes.

The activities only focus on “visible prostitution”, i.e. legal prostitution, which does not include, for instance, trafficked prostitutes. Instead, trafficked prostitutes are covered by the Government ’ s 2007 action plan against trafficking in human beings.

Response to question 14:

The scope of human trafficking

The target groups for the assistance, as outlined in the new Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings, are all potentially trafficked individ u als in Denmark . The largest group has until now been women trafficked into pro s titution. The latest updated figure on the scope of human trafficking from 2008 shows that social organisations were in contact with approximately 256 women who were considered potential victims of trafficking. In 2008 the Danish Anti-Trafficking Centre (more on the centre below) assisted 72 women who we assessed to be victims or potential victims of trafficking.

In 2008 the Danish Red Cross identified 14 unaccompanied minors in Denmark with indications of being victims of human trafficking. Out of the 14, nine were girls and five boys: six from Romania , three from Bulgaria , and one from China , Hungary , Algeria , Lithuania and Guinea , respectively. Most of the unaccompanied minors were trafficked into crime.

The National Police state there were seven convictions for traffic k ing in human beings in 2008.

Composition of the Danish Anti-Trafficking Centre

The Danish Anti-Trafficking Centre was officially established in September 2007. The centre manages the social dimensions of the national Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking 2007 - 2010, and has three executive goals:

To improve the social assistance offered to victims of human trafficking

To coordinate collaboration between social organisations and other public authorities

To collect and convey knowledge in the field of human trafficking

The centre is organised under the National Board of Social Services and reports to the Department of Gender Equality in the Danish Ministry of Social Welfare and Gender Equality. The Anti-Trafficking Centre is staffed with a coordinator, a social worker consultant and three consultants who address other various assignments within the department ’ s subject areas of prostitution and abuse.

A wide variety of support assistance is offered to victims of human trafficking, including:

The identification of victims of human trafficking through outreach work.

Healthcare, including medical, psychological and dental care.

Legal advice, including information regarding legal rights and o p portunities, as well as assistance during police raids.

Various skills-training courses.

Up to 100 days ’ accommodation in a shelter or protection centre.

Arranged repatriation of victims of human trafficking in cooperation with organisations in the countries of origin, including information on the possibilities available in the country of origin, the preparation of travel documents, accompaniment during travel, cooperation with an organisation/NGO in the home country upon arrival, help regar d ing accommodation, treatment and implementation of an alternative livelihood.

In 2008 a number of activities have been initiated:

The establishment of a “drop-in” centre targeting foreign women in prostitution.

Training of students at the National Police Academy to ensure early identification of victims of trafficking etc.

Awareness raising and capacity building among social workers at the Danish Red Cross and contact persons in different police districts.

Launching of a new website for the Danish Anti-Trafficking Centre:

Research on the au pair situation in Denmark to discover whether there are any indicators of trafficking in human beings in this field.

Contact with different companies in order to provide alternative support for individuals with legal stay in Denmark .

A pilot project with a mobile health clinic in the South of Denmark.

Besides the above-mentioned tasks, the Anti-Trafficking Centre is respons i ble for organising and coordinating the social work in connection with victims of trafficking. For this purpose local, regional and national contracts with a variety of different NGOs and social organisations in Denmark have been made; such as the Competence Centre for Prostitution, the Nest Intern a tional, PRO-Vest, the Danish Red Cross and Save the Children Denmark. The Competence Centre for Prostitution and the two regionally based organis a tions, the Nest International and PRO-Vest, are being funded by the Government to do outreach work in the sex trade industry, including identifying and cou n selling victims of trafficking and running a safe house. The Danish Red Cross and Save the Children focus on possible child victims of trafficking and co l lect figures in this field.

Composition of regional and national reference group

The Anti-Trafficking Centre implemented a National Referral Mechanism in 2008 including a national reference group and 6 regional reference groups covering Denmark nationwide. The groups function as cooperation and dialogue platforms to ensure cross-sectoral exchange of experience between the national and the regional level and between different actors in the area, such as the police, social organisations, authorities etc. The objective of the referral mechanism is, among other things, to ensure the implementation of guid e lines and procedures for identifying victims of human trafficking.

Violence against women

Response to question 15:

The data for the reports on the national indicators on violence against women is gat h ered from numerous sources, e.g. the Danish National Patient Register, the Central Crime Register, the Causes of Death Register and the National Health Interview Surveys.

The Danish National Patient Register and the Criminal Statistics include information about both victim and offender that may document the extent and the scale of partner violence (domestic violence) and other forms of violence against women. Since 2000 the national health interview surveys include data about exposure to physical and sexual violence that facilitate analyses of correlations between social factors, health problems and the risk of violence. These statistics are produced on an annual basis. Another main data source for the Danish statistics, the National Health Interview Surveys from 2000 and 2005, will be repeated in 2009/2010 and will once again i n clude questions on violence against women.

The descriptions of victims and perpetrator profiles are based mainly on three data sources: population surveys, national registers (Central Crime Register, Causes of Death Register, and National Patient Register) and stati s tics from shelters, centres for rape victims and initiatives for treatment of the male perpetrator.

It is important to mention that the numerous data sources present various aspects of violence against women. Therefore the extent and the nature of the violence as reported by the women themselves in questionnaire surveys di f fer significantly from the extent of the violence reported to the police or registered contacts with emergency departments. Women who contact shelters are mainly battered women with social problems. As a result of these factors, differing profiles of the victims as well as of the perpetrators will emerge, depending on whether their description is based on a population survey, re g ister data or other sources.

One of the indicators describes the current prevalence of violence against women and describes the relationship between victims and perpetrators, vi c tims ’ age and marital status, ethnicity and other social factors. During one year, about 4 % of adult women experience some form of physical violence (approximately 70,000 women aged 16-64). In about half of the cases the physical violence is relatively moderate, but every year about 32,000 women are victims of severe physical violence. During the course of one year, 6,000 women consult an emergency department due to lesions from interpe r sonal violence and about 5,500 women report cases of violence to the police.

Young women (16-29 year-olds) have a six times higher risk of violence than middle-aged women. Married women have the lowest risk of violence. C o habiting women have a higher risk than both married and single women.

During the last 5-6 years, the prevalence of intimate partner violence has decreased.

Further to the information alrea dy given in the CEDAW report, the following can be added for clarification of the trends in violence against women during 2000-2007 in Denmark :

The prevalence in exposure to physical violence

3.7% of all adult women (16 + years) reported at least one form of physical violence in 2000, and 3.9% in 2005. The difference is not statistically significant.

Severe physical violence (kicked, hit with fist or object, pushed into furniture or down staircases, strangled or attacked with weapons) was reported as 1.5% in 2000 and 1.6% in 2005.

It is estimated that during one year 70,000 women aged 16-64 are exposed to some form of physical violence – and 32,000 to severe violence.

In 2000, a former or current partner was the perpetrator in about 66% of all cases, and in 2005 in 40% of the cases.

Partner violence among 16-64 year-olds, has thus decreased from about 42,000 women who were victimised in 2000 to about 28,000 in 2005.

The percentage of work-related violence among all incidents of violence against women was 10% in 2000 and had increased to 20% in 2005, corresponding to 15,000 women being exposed to violence from a colleague, a client or other person at work.


During the period 1990-2001, 25 women on average were victims of homicide annually.

In 2006, the number of homicides of women was relatively low, 18 in all.

Emergency departmen t (ED) contacts due to violence

The number of registered ED contacts among women aged 15 and older increased from almost 5,000 in 2000 to 6,000 in 2005 .

The increase is most pronounced among young women: 115% among 15-19 year-olds and 73% among 20-29 year-olds during the period 1995-2005.

Intimate partner violence is characterised by head and neck l e sions occurring in a residence. The number of ED contacts due to such lesions decreased during the period 2003 to 2006. In the same period, the number of ED contacts due to violence occurring outside a residence increased. The trend in ED contacts ind i cates a decrease in intimate partner violence.

Violence reported to the police

During the period 2002 to 2006, the annual number of cases of physical violence and threats of violence among women aged 15 or older reported to the police increased from 4,985 to 5,338.

The increase is mainly related to women reporting moderate violence.

The incidence of violence against female authorities also i n creased.

The number of reported attempted homicides and severe, p o tentially fatal violence decreased.

Partner violence

Register data concerning violence against women reported to the police were linked to Statistics Denmark ’ s registers, which contain information about household and other factors that may be used to identify whether the victims and the perpetrator (the alleged aggressor) were living in the same household during a well-defined period. If so, the case is defined as “partner violence”.

During 2004-2005, cases defined as partner violence const i tuted 14% of all cases of violence against women reported to the police, compared to 26% during 2001-2003. Hence, the pr o portion of partner violence among all reported incidents of violence against women has decreased by almost 50%.

Partner violence appears to be more severe than other form of violence against women; the percentage of ED contacts among victims of partner violence was higher than among f e male victims of other form of physical violence.


Report and database about Men ’ s Violence against Women 2007:


Report and database about Men ’ s Violence against Women 2004:

Full report:


In addition to the above reports on statistics on violence against women, the following can be stated: Since 2001 Statistics Denmark has annually published information on the age and gender of victims of violence. This statistics include reported o f fences only. According to the latest statistics, 5,908 women age 15 and above became victims of violence or threats of violence in 2007.

Population-based surveys on violence victimisation were conducted in Denmark in 1995-1996 and since 2005 they are conducted on a regular yearly basis. These surveys show a very stable trend in the number of women victims of violence: Around 1.2 per cent of the women report that they have been victims of violence within the last 12 months. More than one third of the victims have been victimised at their work place or at their school/university. Around one forth have been victimised in their home on at another private place, while most of the remaining victims have been victimised on the street or in places open to the public.

For further elaboration of the above development, please see the response to question 17.

Response to question 16:


From a legal point of view the Ministry of Justice in Denmark , which includes the police force, is the responsible authority in the area of protecting women against violence in Greenland . There are, additionally, various social measures established by the municipalities.

The day-to-day tasks handled by the police include initiatives and actions relating to women, for which reason no separate statistics or documentation for initiatives focusing directly on women are kept.

But it should be mentioned that report n o . 1442/2004 on t he Legal System in Greenland recommends that a Crime Prevention Council for Greenland should be established. When the Council convenes, it would be an obvious opportunity for it to focus on the field of assaults on women, among other things.

Shelters have been established in many towns for women, who can get help in critical situations. From January 1st, 2005 men have also been permitted to use these shelters.

The first Crisis Centre in Greenland was established in 1983 in the capital, Nuuk. The Crisis Centre offers women (and men) who have suffered abuse shelter and social, legal and psychological help and guidance.

In 2008, there were shelters in 7 of 17 communities, 556 women, 95 men and 400 children stayed at the shelters in 2007. Men are usually only allowed into a shelter for crisis dialogue but some are allowed to stay. The Greenland Home Rule Government and the local municipalities fund the Crisis Centres equally.

The Greenland Home Rule gives grants to the Crises Centre Association, a shared consultant for the Crises Centre Association and participation in Nordic conferences for the leaders of the Crises Centres.

As part of a social programme many towns have established Family Centres and Family Folk High Schools . In 2008 there were Family Centres in 8 of 17 communities and 3 new centres are on the drawing board. 12 of 17 communities have organised Family Folk High Schools in 2008.

In 2009, the Greenland Home Rule Government plans to hold a conference on domestic violence in Ilulissat. Domestic violence is an also important priority for the Equal Status Council of Greenland, and is high on the agenda for the coming period from 2008-2011.

The Faroe Islands

All acts of violence against women are prohibited under the Criminal Code of the Faroe Islands .

Furthermore, the police have internal rules according to which a case is generally opened if the police bec ome aware of domestic violence, even if the victim does not request it. When necessary, the police also help women get housing at the Crisis Centre for women suffering from domestic violence.

Several associations that promote women ’ s rights receive a large proportion of their funds from the Faroese authorities. Funding of DKK 950,000 is e.g. provided for the Crisis Centre for women suffering from domestic violence. The crisis centre offers housing, psychological help and counselling and is staffed by two full-time and one part-time employees.

Furthermore, an advisory team, which provides counselling services free of charge, also receives funds to the amount of DKK 509,000 per year. The objective of the team is to offer free counselling services to e.g. low-income providers, pregnant women, and women contemplating abortion.

According to the Child Welfare Act of 2005, while paying specific attention to the needs of the child, municipalities are responsible for implementing initiatives which help parents receive and complete treatment relating to illness, substance abuse or other personal afflictions, as well as offering different kinds of family-based treatment options.

With regard to the activities performed, the Crisis Centre has provided the following statistics on the number of reports of spousal violence and the number of stays at the centre:

Crisis Centre Statistics:

2007 2006 2005

Reports of domestic violence: 119 116 1 38

Lodgers, women 17 13 18

Victims of domestic violence 12 11 16

Lodgers, children 14 13 24

According to the Crisis Centre, the number of reported incidents of violence against woman (per capita) is roughly equivalent to that of neighbouring countries.

Response to question 17:

Government Action Plans

The objectives in the action plans to combat violence against women and children are:

1. To give the necessary support to the victims

2. To prevent the violence by offering treatment of the perpetrator

3. To strengthen cross-sector efforts among the relevant authorities

4. To reinforce information-gathering regarding violence

Both action plans have been externally evaluated. The information below stems from the evaluations.

Regarding victim support: it is assessed by the evaluator that victims in recent years have become more aware about their rights and access to su p port. It is likely that the initiatives in the action plans have contributed to this development. In addition to awareness and knowledge of the existing su p port, a range of new support initiatives have been implemented under the action plans.

Regarding the perpetrators: there has been more focus on the possibilities for treatment, both among the perpetrators themselves and among professionals. As a result of this, more men than before have participated in the treatment programmes. As the initiatives in the action plans form a major part of the initiatives aimed at the perpetrators, it is regarded as likely that the action plans have contributed to the focus on treatment and to the higher number of men participating in the treatment programmes.

Regarding the strengthening of the authorities ’ efforts: it is assessed that professionals and authorities have a need for further knowledge regarding domestic violence. It is also necessary to maintain the focus on strengthening cooper a tion among professionals in and between sectors with respect to combating domestic violence.

Finally, it is assessed that the collection of knowledge and information on domestic violence has been intensified during the implementation of the action plans and that this knowledge and information has been disseminated among professionals and authorities. It is important to mention that national public campaigns have been implemented under the action plans, which has contributed to breaking the silence about domestic violence.

The overall evaluation is that during recent years a change has taken place in public attitudes concerning violence against women. This form of vi o lence is no longer regarded as a private matter but as a problem that authorities, politicians and citizens should actively combat and clearly deem u n acceptable. This change in attitude is most likely part of the reason for the significant decrease in the number of women victims of intimate vi o lence.


Action plan to stop men ’ s domestic violence against women and children 2005-2008:

The Danish Government ’ s action plan to stop violence against women 2002-2004:

Response to question 18:

According to section 19 (1) of the Danish Aliens Act, the Danish immigration authorities can revoke or refuse to extend a time-limited residence permit, if the basis for the permit is no longer valid. This may be the case if a residence permit has been issued according to the rules on spousal reunification and the spouses subsequently d i vorce or end co-habitation.

In cases concerning revocation of or refusal to extend a residence permit, the immigration authorities must consider if the revocation may be assumed to be particularly burdensome o w ing to the alien ’ s personal circumstances, or if the applicant will suffer injury or harm in his or her country of origin, cf. section 26 (1) of the Aliens Act.

If the residence permit has been granted on the basis of marriage or marital co-habitation, and this basis is no longer present, the authorities must, furthermore, pay special regard to whether the marriage or co-habitation has ended as a consequence of the alien concerned having been exposed to outrages, abuse or other ill-treatment, etc., by the spouse, cf. se c tion 19 (8) of the Danish Aliens Act. The Danish immigration authorities follow this particular area very closely and f o cus on any need for adjustment.

For further information on the Aliens Act, please see:

Since 2002 administrative practice on the area has been as follows:

The alien must substantiate the invoked abuse. The assessment of whether the abuse is substantiated is based on a specific, individual assessment of the information given by the parties in the case and any documentation provided, for instance reports from the police, emergency rooms, statements from doctors, statements from women ’ s safe houses, court judgments regarding the abuse, etc. If the Danish imm i gration authorities find the invoked abuse substantiated, the authorities make an assessment of whether the abuse has been the cause of the cessation of cohabit a tion.

In cases where the abuse is substantiated and is assessed to be the real cause of the ce s sation of cohabitation, the immigration authorities will decide whether revocation or refusal must be assumed to be particularly burdensome owing to the alien ’ s personal circu m stances. The authorities will, furthermore, decide whether the applicant will face a risk of i n jury or harm on return to his or her country of origin. This decision is made on the basis of a specific, individual assessment of the circu m stances in each case.

According to administrative practice, foreigners who have had approximately two years of residence in Denmark and who leave their spouses due to abuse, cf. above, before receiving a permanent residence permit are – depending on their connection to Denmark – in general allowed to stay in Denmark.

Government ’ s Action Plan

The “Seventh Periodic Report by the Government of Denmark on the Implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women” d e scribes the Government ’ s “Action Plan to Combat Mens Domestic Violence against Women and Children 2005 - 2008”.

The Action Plan includes initiatives specifically targeted at combating violence against fo r eign women and targeted at providing support services for them. The Seventh Periodic R e port mentions several initiatives, including:

an information campaign running at language schools and a d dressed to ethnic minority women

information films addressed to battered ethnic minority women about their rights and opportunities for assistance

a nationwide service including aftercare/networks for battered women run by the Danish Red Cross and with special focus on ethnic minority women

training for employees and volunteers at the shelters regarding methods, e.g. in the work to help battered women with ethnic minority bac k grounds.

Moreover, the Government is in the process of implementing a new four-year “National Strategy to Combat Violence in Close Relations”. The strategy will also include specific initiatives aimed at foreign women.

Employment and reconciliation of work and family

Response to question 19:

The Danish Government continues to work on securing equal opportunities for men and women on the labour market. The Danish Government has taken a number of steps to rectify the situation.

For instance, as of 1 January 2007 major enterprises, both public and private, are required to prepare gender-divided wage statistics. The statistics will indicate whether the companies have equal pay for men and women. The result is to be analysed at the end of 2009.

Other initiatives by the Danish Government include:

Various pamphlets including an equal pay guide that aims to promote the enterprises ’ work on gender equality and equal pay. The guide gathers knowledge and points of view and presents practical advice on how enterprises, union representatives and employees can take part in the work on equal pay.

A website ( ) summarizing knowledge and information on equal pay.

Equal pay seminars on a regular basis where researchers, experts and practitioners discuss various gender equality topics.

The Danish Government does not apply temporary special measures p ursuant to article 4, paragraph  1, of the Convention on the Elimination of All Form of Discrimination against Women on equal pay.

Response to question 20:

In November 2008 the Danish National Centre for Social Research published an updated version of a report on wage differences between men and women, first published in 2004.

The 2008 report analyses the wage differences between men and women in the period 1996-2006. The first report from 2001 concluded that men on average earn 12 to 19 per cent more than women, depending on the method applied. The 2008 report finds that this wage gap has not changed during the 10 year period.

The report analyses the wage gap with a statistical model which seeks to explain the gap by a number of factors, e.g. sector, branch, working function, length of training/education, experience as well as individual characteristics such as age, marital status and geographical location of the work place.

The model explains about 70 to 80 per cent of the wage gap between men and women. This does not mean that the remaining 20 to 30 per cent of the wage gap can be explained by discrimination between men and women but merely indicates that the model does not explain the entire wage difference. Personal performance in particular cannot be measured.

The value of the explanation of the model has decreased in the period 1996-2006. The report explains this result by an increasing part of the wages being determined locally. Local negotiations on wages mean that objective factors can explain less on a macro level.

Response to question 21:

In 2007 there were more women than men who worked less than 37 hours per week. In contrast there were more men than women who worked 37 hours or more. But part-time employment among women is decreasing. In 2006 the average weekly working hours for women were 33.2 hours whereas men worked 38.6 hours a week on average. For both women and men the number of working hours is increasing.

In most parts of the labour market, part-time work is curr ently possible, although in cer tain sectors – for example construction and transport – there is no general access to part-time work. In other parts of the private labour market, the possibilities for part-time work are also limited, for example in the form of provisions stating that the number of full-time employees must not drop because a part-time position is established. Different forms of part-time employment exist. Part-time employment may, for example, be agreed for a limited period, and part-time employees always have the possibility of transferring to full-time work.

In the private labour market, many of the collective agreements contain provisions about part-time work, and the initiative and competence to use such possibilities are subject to agreement at enterprise level. Part-time work is also a possibility in the government and county authority sector.

In summer 2007 the Government concluded a Tripartite Agreement with the public employers and the unions. The focus of the Agreement was the employees as the pivotal point for good public service in modern welfare society.

One item in the Agreement was the common objective that part-time workers who so desire should have the possibility of increasing their number of working hours. The public employers committed themselves to working for that scope, which is especially relevant for a number of female-dominated types of jobs in the social and health sectors.

As a follow- up to this Tripartite Agreement, from January 2008 the regions and the municipalities have implemented an obligation for the local regional and municipal employers to offer vacant full-time jobs or vacant hours to those already employed in part-time-jobs who wish to increase their rate of employment and who fulfil the qualification and flexibility requirements for the job.

It is not possible to evaluate the impact of the measures taken. In 2008 Denmark has been characterized by a very high rate of employment and a scarcity of labour – especially in the social and health sectors. Thus the employers have in any case had a strong interest in using the potential manpower reserve represented by part-time employed women.

Response to question 22:

In 2008 an analysis of female entrepreneurs was carried out. The analysis was afterwards presented at meetings held with female entrepreneurs in the five regions where problems and challenges encountered by female entrepreneurs were discussed. The women were content with the initiative and wanted focus on the subject to continue. A fairly large number of the women, however, stated that they did not want special “treatment” or initiatives directed towards them as a special group.

As an appetizer for the Global Entrepreneurship Week (week 47 2008), a campaign with role models was arranged. Successful female entrepreneurs were interviewed in different national media. A number of conferences for female entrepreneurs took place on the Wednesday – the “female entr epreneurship-day” of GEW-week.

As a result of these activities an action plan is now being developed with initiatives vis-à-vis female entrepreneurs. The initiatives will presumably be:

A special website for women entrepreneurs. The website will be arranged as a sub site of the national entrepreneur – start-up – website ( ). The site will contain relevant informat i on and material about subjects and challenges that women especially experience.

Network and mentor arrangements for women entrepreneurs should be easier to locate. The initiative will be anchored in the five regional “growth houses”.

To ensure that more women become interested in entrepreneurship, special campaigns for girls and young women should be carried out during their school and university education.

As a number of entrepreneurs – of both genders – are known to use other strategies for developing their enterprises than hiring employees and nurturing it in a traditional way; these different strategies should be mapped. An analysis will be conducted regarding these alternative ways of developing enterprises.

Successful women entrepreneurs are to act as role models. Therefore, different events and initiatives will be arranged to make the role models more visible – e.g. during the annual Global Entrepreneurship Week (week 47).

To ensure continuing focus and visibility on women entrepreneurs, annual gender-disaggregated statistics on entrepreneurs will be published in week 47.

In recent years there has been positive development regarding employment of ethnic minority women. The labour market participation rate among ethnic minority women from western and non-western countries has increased from 45 per cent in 2001 to 51 per cent in 2007 – an increase corresponding to 22,662 more ethnic minority women entering employment.

In order to increase ethnic minority women ’ s participation in society, in 2007 the Government launched an initiative targeting women with ethnic minority background. The initiative is to run from 2007 till 2011 and aims at enhancing networking, employment and entrepreneurship among women from ethnic minorities at the same time as strengthening the development and integration of their children.

In recent years a great number of projects and initiatives have been launched aiming at bringing more women with an ethnic minority background into employment. An example of such a project is the “Gribskov Model”.

An analysis of immigrant and ethnic minority entrepreneurs has been planned and is expected to be published in summer 2009. The analysis will also look into gender differences.

Finally, a report is under way from the Danish Ministry of Refugee, Immi gration and Integration Affairs and the Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs. The report contains recommendations regarding tasks, target groups and the organisation of a centre for ethnic entrepreneurship, which is expected to be agreed upon in 2009.

Response to question 23:

Over the last 10-15 years, preventive health and health promotion have been given a higher priority in Denmark . This is due to recognition of the fact that lifestyle related diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases dominate the pathological picture today. Only a limited part of total preventive health care and health promotion lies within the health sector and thus with the central health authorities.

Policies and initiatives either supported or put forward by the Government have been part of the Government ’ s public health and disease prevention programme “Healthy throughout Life” since 2002. The programme is based on the targets of the former government ’ s programme and will maintain a clear focus on the risk factors – tobacco, alcohol, accidents, eating habits and too little physical activity – but will, furthermore, broaden the scope to also include preventive treatment of the major preventable diseases, e.g. asthma, allergies, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis.

An indicator programme is being presented in connection with “Healthy throughout Life”. Trends in the indicators will be updated regularly on the website of “Healthy throughout Life”, . Gender is a key aspect among many of these indicators, e.g. prevalence of daily smoking is measured according to gender and age. The purpose of the catalogue of indicators is to ensure the continued, clear monitoring and documentation of trends based on a relevant selection of the great quantity of statistics and data that are produced. Gender aspects play a central role in this monitoring.

One of the aims of the programme is enhanced quality of life, also for the elderly and for people with chronic diseases. The programme stresses the responsibility of the individual, but also underlines that the individual must be able to make well-informed choices. The programme enhances the role of civil society – the social networks, the workplace, private organisations etc.

With its extensive reorganisation of the public sector and the new health legislation, the Government has given the municipalities the primary responsibility for preventive health and health promotion from 2007. The Government is thereby aiming to use the already established close contact between the municipalities and the general public as well as the large volume of knowledge about local conditions to make preventive health and health promotion more effective.

As part of the new Government platform 2007, the Danish Government planned for two new large initiatives to follow up on “Healthy throughout Life”.

Firstly, in January 2008 the Government appointed a committee consisting of experts in the field of health promotion and disease prevention, health economics and representatives from both the public and private sector. At the beginning of 2009, the committee is to submit its recommendations on how health promotion and disease prevention in Denmark can be carried out even better than previously.

Secondly, the Government will publish a new public health promotion strategy in 2009 that includes clear aims for the future effort.

Response to question 24:

In 2002, an Act prohibiting tobacco advertisements came into force. On the basis of an EU directive, legislation on manufacture, presentation and sale of tobacco products also came into force in 2002. This Act includes limit values for the tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide content in cigarettes and rules on the labelling of tobacco products including health warnings. In 2004, it was prohibited by statute to sell tobacco and alcohol to persons under the age of 16.

In May 2007, the Danish Parliament adopted the Smoke-Free Environments Act. The purpose of the Act is to promote smoke-free environments with the aim of preventing harmful health effects from passive smoking and involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke.

The Act applies to all public and private workplaces, institutions for children and adolescents, educational institutions, indoor facilities to which the public has access, including means of public transport (the public space) and hospital establishments. As a general rule, smoking is not permitted indoors at these premises.

The Act includes a wide range of exceptions. In general, it is permitted to establish smoking booths and special rooms for smoking at workplaces, educational institutions, in the public space, at hospital establishments etc. In addition, there are exceptions for: workrooms that serve as a workplace for one person only, small restaurants with a license to serve alcohol, a serving area of less than 40 square metres, drop-in centres for the socially vulnerable, accommodation or rooms for residents at nursing homes and the like.

In 2008, the age limit for selling tobacco to persons was raised to the age of 18. These legal changes have been accompanied by a number of public campaigns to prevent smoking and encourage smoking cessation. Local tobacco addiction treatment clinics have been established in many municipalities.

A large-scale campaign against tobacco use is planned in 2009 using the successful Australian campaign concept, ”Every cigarette is doing you damage”.

Response to question 25:

In January 2009 a County Court for the first time passed a sentence in a criminal case for a violation of section 245 A of the Danish Criminal Code that concer n s female genital mutilation. In the case the parents of three girls were charged with violation of section 245 A of the Code and attempt hereon, partly by cooperating in bringing the two ol d est girls to Sudan where an unidentified person living in Sudan pe r formed a female circumcision on both of the girls, and partly by planning on travelling to Sudan with their third and youngest daughter with the intention of cooperating in having her circu m cised as well. The plan to bring the youngest daughter to Sudan did not succeed as both parents were arrested before d e parture.

The father of the two girls was acquitted but the mother was convicted of contributing to the circumcision of the two oldest girls and acquitted of the matter concerning the youngest daughter.

The mother was sentenced to imprisonment for 2 years, whereof the execution of 1 year and 6 months was suspended with a period of prob a tion of 3 years.

Furthermore, the mother was ordered to pay compens a tion to the amount of DKK 25.000 to each of her daughters.

Response to question 26:

The Ministry of Refugee, Immigration and Integration Affairs has decided to update its data on marriages and couples among ethnic minority groups.

A new research project has been launched focusing on the impact of the rules on family reunification valid from 2002 and onwards in relation to marital patterns and family reunification among ethnic mino r ities. In connection with this, the research will also look at the development in the scope and risk of forced marriages, including non-registered marriages conducted inside as well as ou t side Denmark . The results of the research project, conducted by SFI (The Danish National Centre for Social Research) are expected to be published in September 2009.

Response to question 27:

In Denmark , the legal property r e gime of a marriage is community of property but the spouses may agree to have separate property, entirely or pa r tially.

A community of property is dissolved by divorce or legal separation. In most cases the spouses make an agreement about the distribution of their property. Such an agreement does not need approval by the courts or other public author i ties.

If the spouses cannot reach an agreement, they may submit the question of the distribution of the property, including in their comm u nity of property, to the courts.

Under Danish law a community of property includes all types of assets, i n cluding intangible property.

However, the rules concerning community of property are only applic a ble to rights that cannot be assigned and to rights closely connected to one of the spouses to the extent this is consistent with the legislation concerning such rights. Such rights include, inter alia, certain types of insurance and intangible pro p erties.

Danish law also contains special rules on the distribution of pension funds i n cluded in a community of property.

Danish law does not provide for distribution of future earning capacity or h u man capital, except for the value of “goodwill” linked to a company belonging to one of the spouses.

The rules mentioned above also apply to registered partnerships between two pe r sons of the same gender.

Danish law does not recognize the establishment of community of pro p erty based on non-marital cohabitation, but to some extent the law recognizes the establis h ing of joint ownership of property officially owed only by one party to such a relatio n ship.