* Adopted by the Committee at its fifty-seventh session (10 - 28 February 2014).
Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Cameroon *
1.The Committee considered the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Cameroon (CEDAW/C/CMR/4-5) at it 1189th and 1190th meetings, on 12 February 2014 (CEDAW/C/SR.1189 and 1190). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/CMR/Q/4-5 and the responses of Cameroon are contained in CEDAW/C/CMR/Q/4-5/Add.1.
2.The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for its combined fourth and fifth periodic reports, which were received on time. The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for its oral presentation and for the written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by the Committee’s pre‑sessional working group.
3.The Committee commends the State party for its high-level delegation, which was headed by the Minister of Women’s Empowerment and the Family, Marie-Thérèse Abena Ondoa, and included representatives of the Office of the President, the Prime Minister’s Office, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Justice and the Permanent Mission of Cameroon to the United Nations at Geneva. The Committee appreciates the constructive dialogue that took place between the delegation and the Committee, although some questions were not fully answered.
4.The Committee welcomes the adoption of Act No. 2011/024 of 14 December 2011 against trafficking in and smuggling of persons.
5.The Committee notes with appreciation the adoption of policies aimed at eliminating discrimination against women, including:
(a)The national strategy to combat violence against women, in 2012;
(b)The governmental action plan on trafficking in persons;
(c)The National Strategic Plan to Combat HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (2011-2015).
6.The Committee notes with satisfaction that in 2013 the State party ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict.
C.Principal areas of concern and recommendations
7. The Committee stresses the crucial role of the legislative branch in ensuring the full implementation of the Convention (see the statement on the relationship of the Committee with parliamentarians submitted at the forty-first session of the Committee, in 2008). The Committee invites the parliament, in line with its mandate, to take the necessary steps regarding the implementation of the present concluding observations between now and the next reporting period under the Convention.
8.The Committee welcomes the ongoing revision of discriminatory provisions of the Penal Code and the Civil Code and the drafting of a code of the person and the family. The Committee is concerned, however, about the very long delay in finalizing these legislative reforms and about the discriminatory provisions that remain in the domestic legislation and in the draft bills. The Committee is also concerned that the supremacy of international conventions over national legislation, foreseen in article 45 of the Constitution, is not efficiently implemented given the many discriminatory provisions contained in the legal system and its coexistence with common law, statutory law, customs and traditions.
9. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Finalize within a clear time frame and as a priority the process of legislative reform, including the ongoing revision of the Penal Code and the Civil Code and the drafting of a code of the person and the family, with a view to bringing its legislation in conformity with the Convention and ensuring that all discriminatory provisions are repealed;
(b) Ensure consultation and collaboration with civil society on the drafting of new legal provisions to eliminate discrimination against women.
Access to justice
10.The Committee welcomes the activities undertaken by the State party to increase women’s legal literacy and the adoption of Act No. 2009/004 of 14 April 2009 on the organization of legal aid. The Committee remains concerned, however, about: (a) the lack of effective access to justice for women due to multiple factors, including women’s continued lack of legal literacy; (b) the number of decisions taken by customary courts applying discriminatory customs and traditions and the inefficiency of the existing control mechanism; and (c) the very limited implementation of Act No. 2009/004 of 14 April 2009 on the organization of legal aid.
11. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Conduct awareness-raising activities in order to increase women’s legal literacy;
(b) Enhance its efforts to ensure that the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendations are sufficiently known and used by the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the government and that they are made an integral part of the capacity-building programmes for judges, lawyers and prosecutors;
(c) Undertake targeted awareness-raising activities to ensure that customary court officials are familiar with the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendations so that their rulings do not discriminate against women, especially in land and property rights disputes and issues related to the person and the family;
(d) Consider conducting a study on the number and percentage of decisions made by customary courts that are appealed and on the number and percentage of decisions overturned by statutory appeals courts on the ground that they discriminate against women;
(e) Ensure the effective implementation of Act No. 2009/004 of 14 April 2009 on the organization of legal aid, including by raising awareness among the population on the existence of the act and on how to apply for legal aid.
National machinery for the advancement of women
12.The Committee takes note of the development of a national gender policy. It is concerned, however, about the delay in its adoption and the lack of adequate resources allocated to the national machinery for the advancement of women.
13. In accordance with its general recommendation No. 6 and the guidance provided in the Beijing Platform for Action on the conditions necessary for the effective functioning of national mechanisms, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Significantly increase the financial, technical and human resources of the national machinery for the advancement of women at the central and local levels;
(b) Adopt without delay the national gender policy, ensure consultation and collaboration with civil society organizations in its implementation, incorporate a results-oriented approach, including specific indicators and targets to measure outcomes and progress achieved in its implementation, ensure systematic and regular monitoring and reporting, and provide it with sufficient funding;
(c) Assess the implementation and impact of the 1999 National Plan of Action on the Integration of Women in Development and adopt corrective measures, including the development of a new plan, if deemed necessary.
Temporary special measures
14.The Committee welcomes the measures taken to promote women’s political participation. It is concerned, however, that no other temporary special measure has been introduced or is being planned as part of a necessary strategy to accelerate the achievement of substantive equality of women with men in areas where women are underrepresented or disadvantaged.
15. The Committee encourages the State party to use temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and in line with the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 on temporary special measures, in all areas covered by the Convention where women are underrepresented or disadvantaged. To that end, it recommends that the State party:
(a) Implement temporary special measures in various forms, such as outreach and support programmes, quotas and other proactive and results-oriented measures aimed at achieving substantive equality of women with men in all areas, including for the empowerment of rural women, and encourage their use both in the public and private sectors;
(b) Raise awareness among members of parliament, government officials, employers and the general public about the necessity of temporary special measures, in particular as regard the empowerment of rural women.
Stereotypes and harmful practices
16.The Committee expresses its deep concern that the State party has not taken sufficient sustained and systematic action to eliminate stereotypes and harmful practices that discriminate against women, including child and forced marriages; female genital mutilation; breast ironing; the stigmatization of widows and widowhood rites; and the kidnapping of children, especially young girls, for the sale of organs or magic/religious practices. The Committee is also concerned about the lack of legal provisions specifically criminalizing female genital mutilation and breast ironing and about the limited impact of awareness-raising campaigns undertaken by the State party to reduce harmful practices.
17. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Put in place, without delay and within a clear time frame, a comprehensive strategy, in conformity with articles 2 (f) and 5 (a) of the Convention, to eliminate stereotypes and harmful practices that discriminate against women, such as child and forced marriages; female genital mutilation; breast ironing; the stigmatization of widows and widowhood rites; and the kidnapping of children, especially young girls, for the sale of organs or magic/religious practices; and, in collaboration with civil society, the media, health, education and social systems and other relevant professional groups, and traditional leaders, raise awareness about the adverse effects of harmful practices, targeting women and girls as well as men and boys at all levels of society;
(b) Undertake an assessment of the impact of the measures taken in order to identify shortcomings and improve them in a clear time frame;
(c) Ensure the effective implementation of article 356 of the Penal Code criminalizing perpetrators of forced or early marriages; adopt legal provisions specifically criminalizing female genital mutilation, breast ironing and discriminatory widowhood rites; and include adequate sanctions for perpetrators of such acts;
(d) Arrest, prosecute and punish perpetrators of kidnapping of children, including young girls, for the sale of organs or magic/religious practices.
Violence against women
18.The Committee welcomes the adoption of a national strategy to combat violence against women, the ongoing survey on violence against women and awareness-raising activities. The Committee nevertheless remains concerned about:
(a)The persisting high prevalence of violence against women, including rape, and the limited number of investigations and prosecutions in such cases;
(b)The pervasive levels of domestic violence, the use of mediation in cases of domestic violence and the lack of protection orders against perpetrators;
(c)The absence of a comprehensive law on violence against women; the lack of legal provisions specifically criminalizing domestic violence, including marital rape; the lack of legal provisions prohibiting sexual harassment; and the existence of a legal provision exempting rapists from punishment if they subsequently marry the victim;
(d)The policy on “indecent dressing”, which may threaten women’s freedom to make personal choices and may expose them to abuse and violence in the course of its implementation.
19. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To ensure the effective implementation of the national strategy to prevent and combat violence against women;
(b) To effectively investigate all cases of violence against women and prosecute and adequately punish perpetrators;
(c) To adopt a comprehensive law on violence against women; ensure that domestic violence, including marital rape, is criminalized; prohibit sexual harassment at school and in the workplace and provide for adequate sanctions; and repeal the legal provision exempting rapists from punishment if they subsequently marry the victim;
(d) To ensure that women victims of domestic violence have full access to protection orders and legal remedies instead of mediation;
(e) To provide assistance to victims of gender-based violence, including medical and psychological support, as well as shelter, counselling and rehabilitation services, throughout the territory of the State party;
(f) To remove the policy on “indecent dressing”;
(g) To provide training for the police and other law enforcement officials, health and social workers, and the judiciary on the application of legal provisions aimed at combating violence against women.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
20.The Committee welcomes the adoption of Act No. 2011/024 of 14 December 2011 against trafficking in and smuggling of persons, the establishment in 2011 of an inter-ministerial committee to combat trafficking in persons, the development of a governmental action plan on human trafficking and various measures undertaken for the protection and rehabilitation of women and girls who are victims of trafficking. The Committee is concerned, however, about:
(a)The lack of effective implementation of the act and the plan of action;
(b)The limited number of prosecutions and convictions of perpetrators of trafficking in persons;
(c)The reported abduction of babies from public hospitals for illegal adoption and the limited number of investigations undertaken in that regard;
(d)The insufficient knowledge and awareness among women on the risks of trafficking and on the exploitation of migrant women, including “Internet brides”;
(e)The absence of comprehensive measures to address the issue of prostitution, including measures to discourage the demand for prostitution; the lack of exit programmes, as well as of rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for women wishing to leave prostitution; and the criminalization of women engaged in prostitution (art. 343 of the Penal Code).
21. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Carry out, without delay, a study to investigate the extent and causes of trafficking in human beings, particularly women and girls, and forced prostitution, including through the collection and analysis of data on trafficking and on the exploitation of women in prostitution;
(b) Ensure the effective implement ation of Act No. 2011/024 of 14 December 2011 against trafficking in and smuggling of persons and of the governmental action plan on human trafficking;
(c) Ensure the investigation, prosecution and punishment of perpetrators of human trafficking;
(d) Effectively investigate allegations of abduction of babies in order to ensure that perpetrators are brought to justice and ensure the systematic and swift registration of newborns to prevent such abductions;
(e) Raise awareness about the risks of trafficking and of the exploitation of migrant women, particularly among women who wish to leave the State party, including “Internet brides”;
(f) Increase international, regional and bilateral cooperation with countries of origin, transit and destination to prevent trafficking through information exchange and harmonize legal procedures aimed at the prosecution and punishment of traffickers;
(g) Review the Penal Code with a view to decriminalizing women engaged in prostitution; adopt measures aimed at discouraging male demand for prostitution; address the root causes of prostitution; provide women with alternative income opportunities and provide assistance, rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for women and girls exploited in prostitution, as well as exit programmes for women wishing to leave prostitution.
Participation in political and public life
22.The Committee welcomes the adoption of Act No. 2012/001 of 19 April 2012 requiring political parties to consider achieving a gender balance in preparing their electoral lists, the adoption of a strategic gender and elections plan in June 2012, the establishment of the Parliamentarians’ Network for Gender Advancement, the increase in the percentage of women members of the National Assembly from 13.8 per cent to 31.1 per cent and the 2020 strategy document for growth and employment, which sets a target of 30 per cent for the participation of women in the public service. The Committee remains concerned, however, about the low participation of women in the government (14 per cent in ministerial positions), the Senate (20 per cent), the judiciary (24 per cent) and the civil service.
23. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Promote women’s equal representation in political and public life at the national, provincial and local levels, including in the government and in decision-making positions, in the parliament, in the judiciary and in the civil service;
(b) To that effect, adopt temporary special measures, in line with article 4 (1) of the Convention and with the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25, such as a law establishing statutory quotas;
(c) Conduct awareness-raising campaigns for the general public, in particular for rural women, about the importance of women’s participation in decision-making, including the importance of the participation of rural women, and develop targeted training and mentoring programmes on leadership and negotiation skills for women in the public sector.
24.The Committee is concerned that:
(a)Articles 17, 18 and 32 of the Nationality Code provide for different conditions for women and men as regards the acquisition, transmission and retention of Cameroonian nationality;
(b)Many girls, in particular in the Bakassi zone, are not registered at birth owing to the lack of legal literacy, financial barriers and long distances to civil registration offices, which prevents girls from obtaining personal documents, from accessing social security, health-care education and, eventually, formal employment, and from benefiting from accurate age-verification mechanisms to curtail child marriages.
25. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Revise the Nationality Code in order to ensure that women and men have equal rights to nationality, in particular with regard to the acquisition, transmission and retention of nationality;
(b) Ensure that women and girls in rural and remote areas, including in the Bakassi zone, are aware of the procedures and requirements for birth registration and that they do not face financial and other barriers in obtaining birth registration.
26.The Committee welcomes the increase in the enrolment of girls in primary education and the measures taken by the State party to promote girls’ education, reduce their dropout rates, improve the quality of teachers and develop its informal educational activities. The Committee remains concerned, however, about:
(a)The high rate of female illiteracy;
(b)The continued low enrolment rate of girls, at all levels of education, and the regional disparities in this regard owing to economic and cultural barriers to women’s and girls’ access to education such as school fees, lack of infrastructure, domestic responsibilities and cultural and religious traditions;
(c)The high dropout rate among girls, owing, inter alia, to child marriage and early pregnancy;
(d)The lack of education facilities and qualified teaching professionals, especially in rural areas;
(e)The difficulties faced by indigenous girls and boys in attending school owing to the insufficient flexibility of the school system, which does not adapt to indigenous culture in general and to nomadic culture in particular.
27. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Strengthen adult literacy programmes, especially for women in rural areas;
(b) Ensure that girls and young women have de facto equal access to all levels of education and retain girls in school, including by eliminating the direct and indirect costs of schooling, as well as child marriage, enabling young women to return to school after giving birth, providing incentives for parents to send their daughters to school and building appropriate sanitary facilities in existing and new schools;
(c) Raise awareness among communities, families, students, teachers and decision makers, especially men, about the importance of women’s and girls’ education;
(d) Allocate adequate resources to education to increase the number of teachers, improve the quality of teacher training and upgrade school facilities, especially in rural areas and for indigenous children;
(e) Pursue efforts to develop special educational projects for indigenous girls, including nomadic girls, such as the adoption of adapted school calendars and instruction in and of indigenous languages.
28.The Committee welcomes the draft reform of the social protection system extending social protection to persons working in the informal sector, as well as the increase in women’s access to microcredit. The Committee remains concerned, however, about:
(a)The right of a husband to oppose his wife’s employment pursuant to article 74 of Order No. 81-02 of 29 June 1981, on the organization of civil status;
(b)The persistent gender wage gap;
(c)The concentration of women in the informal sector without legal and social protection or other benefits and the delay in adopting the reform of the social protection system;
(d)The continued difficulties faced by women in accessing microcredit to engage in income-generating activities.
29. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Repeal article 74 of Order No. 81-02 of 29 June 1981 on the organization of civil status, which allows a husband to oppose his wife’s employment;
(b) Reduce the gender wage gap, including by addressing the occupational segregation of women and guaranteeing equal pay for work of equal value;
(c) Finalize without delay the reform extending social protection to persons working in the informal sector;
(d) Expand women’s access to microfinance and microcredit at low interest rates so as to enable them to engage in income-generating activities.
30.The Committee is deeply concerned about:
(a)The exploitative and hazardous conditions of work faced by women and girls working in plantations and in the mining sector;
(b)The exploitation, abuse and deprivation of liberty of women domestic workers and the lack of legislation specifically protecting domestic workers;
(c)Reported cases of women kept in hereditary slavery by traditional chiefs;
(d)The exploitation of girls in the context of foster arrangements.
31. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Protect women and girls working in plantations and in the mining sector, as well as women working as domestic workers, from exploitative and hazardous conditions of work, through the regulation and monitoring of their working conditions, increased inspections and the imposition of fines for employers of persons working in exploitative and hazardous conditions;
(b) Consider ratifying International Labour Organization Convention No. 189 (2011) concerning decent work for domestic workers;
(c) Collect information on reported cases of women kept by traditional chiefs in hereditary slavery;
(d) Raise awareness among the general public about the negative impact of the exploitation of girls in the context of foster arrangements and prosecute and punish perpetrators of such exploitation.
32.The Committee welcomes the adoption of the 2014-2020 National Strategic Plan for Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, the launching of the Campaign on Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa in 2010, the 2011-2015 National Plan of Sanitary Development, which includes a component on family planning, and the 2011-2015 National Strategic Plan to Combat HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, as well as the various measures taken by the State party to combat HIV/AIDS. The Committee remains concerned, however, about:
(a)The persistent high rate of maternal mortality, partly due to the shortage in blood supplies and the lack of effective implementation of the 2003 law on blood transfusion;
(b)The lack of access to basic health-care services, including essential obstetric care, in particular in rural areas;
(c)The limited availability and accessibility of comprehensive education on sexual and reproductive health and rights, including on responsible sexual behaviour, and of family planning services, and the low rate of contraceptive use;
(d)The conditions under which abortion is legally available, which do not include instances of incest;
(e)The disproportionately high number of women living with HIV/AIDS and the delay in adopting the draft law on the protection of persons living with HIV/AIDS.
33. In line with its general recommendation No. 24 on women and health, the Committee calls upon the State party:
(a) To ensure the effective implementation of the 2014-2020 National Strategic Plan for Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and eliminate the causes of high maternal mortality, including by ensuring the effective implementation of the 2003 law on blood transfusion;
(b) To increase access for women and girls, in particular rural women, to basic health-care services, including by increasing the funding allocated to health care, the number of health-care facilities and the number of trained health-care providers;
(c) To widely promote education on sexual and reproductive health and rights, including by undertaking awareness-raising campaigns about available contraceptive methods;
(d) To increase access to safe and affordable contraceptive services throughout the State party and ensure that women and girls do not face barriers in accessing information on family planning;
(e) To consider broadening the conditions under which abortion can be legally available, including in instances of incest;
(f) To intensify measures to reduce the disproportionately high rate of HIV/AIDS among women, ensure the effective implementation of the 2011-2015 National Strategic Plan to Combat HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases and adopt without delay the draft law on the protection of persons living with HIV/AIDS.
34.The Committee takes note of the measures taken by the State party to address the situation of rural women and to increase their participation in decision-making processes. The Committee remains concerned, however, about:
(a)The precarious situation of women living in rural areas, who account for the majority of women in the State party and who are disproportionately affected by the lack of participation in decision-making processes, and the lack of adequate health services, education, economic opportunities and social benefits;
(b)Land grabbing from indigenous people and small-scale farmers, which denies them the means to earn a livelihood, and obstacles to obtaining land titles, including prohibitive land transaction fees, which disproportionately affect women.
35. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Continue and increase its efforts to address the needs of rural women and ensure that they participate in decision-making processes, including at the community level and in development planning;
(b) Ensure that rural women have access to basic services and infrastructure, including health services and education, as well as economic opportunities, on an equal and equitable basis with men and with their urban counterparts, including through the adoption of temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25;
(c) Guarantee the right of indigenous women and women small-scale producers to ancestral and community lands and ensure that they can secure a livelihood for themselves;
(d) Ensure that obstacles to land ownership are removed, including by accelerating land reform, and that domestic courts, including customary courts, apply the Convention, particularly in relation to women’s land and property rights disputes.
Disadvantaged groups of women
36.The Committee is concerned about the lack of adequate protection and assistance for disadvantaged groups of women such as:
(a)Women belonging to the Pygmy and Mbororo communities and mountain and island populations;
(b)Women albinos, girls living in the street, older women and women with disabilities who are victims of stigmatization;
(c)Lesbian, bisexual and transgender women who are victims of discrimination and criminalization (art. 347 bis of the Penal Code);
(d)Women refugees and internally displaced women who face difficulties in accessing basic services.
37. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure that women facing intersectional forms of discrimination have access without discrimination to basic services, including health, education, adequate water and sanitation. In particular, it should:
(a) Ensure that women of marginalized communities such as the Pygmy and Mbororo communities and mountain and island populations have equal access to microcredit facilities for income-generating activities and land;
(b) Raise awareness among the population with a view to eliminating the stigmatization of women albinos, girls living in the street, older women and women with disabilities and ensure that these women and girls have access, without discrimination, to support for income-generating activities;
(c) Raise awareness among political, traditional and religious leaders, as well as members of civil society, about the possible withdrawal of article 347 bis of the Penal Code;
(d) Ensure that refugee women and internally displaced women do not face discrimination and consider ratifying the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention).
Marriage and family relations
38.The Committee is concerned about:
(a)The existence of discriminatory legal provisions, including those relating to polygamy, the husband’s role as the head of household (art. 213 of the Civil Code), the choice of residence by the husband (art. 215), the administration of family property and of the wife’s property by the husband (arts. 1,421 and 1,428) and the lower minimum age of marriage for women than for men;
(b)The discriminatory definition of adultery, which is broader for women than for men;
(c)Discriminatory customary practices with regard to the retention of land, as married women must abandon their family property to their brothers and other blood relatives.
39. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Repeal all discriminatory provisions relating to marriage and family relations, including those relating to polygamy, the role of the husband as the head of household (art. 213 of the Civil Code), the choice of the place of residence by the husband (art. 215), the administration of family property and of the wife’s property by the husband (arts. 1,421 and 1,428) and the lower minimum age of marriage for women than for men; and raise the legal minimum age of marriage to 18 years for girls, to be equal to that for boys;
(b) Repeal the discriminatory provision applying a broader definition of adultery to women than to men;
(c) Raise awareness among traditional leaders about the importance of eliminating customary practices that discriminate against married women with regard to land retention;
(d) Carry out awareness-raising and education programmes directed at both women and men, in cooperation with civil society organizations, on the elimination of discrimination against women in marriage and family relations.
40.The Committee is concerned about the general lack of updated statistical data. It notes that updated data disaggregated by sex, age, nationality, geographical location and socioeconomic background are necessary for an accurate assessment of the situation of women, to determine whether they suffer from discrimination, for informed and targeted policymaking and for the systematic monitoring and evaluation of progress achieved towards the realization of women’s substantive equality in all areas covered by the Convention.
41. The Committee calls upon the State party to develop a gender indicator system to improve the collection of data disaggregated by sex and other relevant factors necessary to assess the impact and effectiveness of policies and programmes aimed at mainstreaming gender equality and enhancing women’s enjoyment of their human rights. In this regard, the Committee draws the State party’s attention to the Committee’s general recommendation No. 9 on statistical data concerning the situation of women and encourages the State party to seek technical assistance from relevant United Nations agencies and enhance its collaboration with women’s associations that could assist in securing the collection of accurate data.
Amendment to article 20 (1) of the Convention
42. The Committee encourages the State party to accept, as soon as possible, the amendment to article 20, paragraph 1, of the Convention concerning the meeting time of the Committee.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
43. The Committee calls upon the State party to use the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in its efforts to implement the provisions of the Convention.
Millennium Development Goals and the post-2015 development framework
44. The Committee calls for the integration of a gender perspective, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, into all efforts aimed at the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and into the post-2015 development framework.
Dissemination and implementation
45. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement the provisions of the Convention. It urges the State party to give priority attention to the implementation of the present concluding observations and recommendations between now and the submission of the next periodic report. The Committee therefore requests the timely dissemination of the concluding observations, in the official language of the State party, to the relevant State institutions at all levels (national, regional and local), in particular to the Government, the ministries, the parliament and the judiciary, so as to enable their full implementation. It encourages the State party to collaborate with all stakeholders concerned, such as employers’ associations, trade unions, human rights and women’s organizations, universities and research institutions and the media. It further recommends that its concluding observations be appropriately disseminated at the local community level, so as to enable their implementation. In addition, the Committee requests the State party to continue to disseminate the Convention, its Optional Protocol and jurisprudence and the Committee’s general recommendations to all stakeholders.
Ratification of other treaties
46. The Committee notes that the adherence of the State party to the nine major international human rights instruments would enhance the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee therefore encourages the State party to consider ratifying the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, to which it is not yet a party.
Follow-up to the concluding observations
47. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps undertaken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 17 and 19.
48. The Committee recommends that the State party avail itself of international cooperation, including technical assistance, to develop a comprehensive programme aimed at the implementation of the above recommendations as well as the Convention as a whole. The Committee calls upon the State party to strengthen further its cooperation with specialized agencies and programmes of the United Nations system.
Preparation of the next report
49. The Committee invites the State party to submit its sixth periodic report in February 2018.
50. The Committee requests the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents ( HRI/MC/2006/3 and Corr.1).