Statistical data collection
1.The Czech Statistical Office (hereinafter referred to as “CSO”) regularly publishes the yearbook titled “Focus on Women and Men” which contains summary statistical data from various areas of social life structured by gender. The yearbook is published in English and Czech versions on the website of the CSO. In order to broaden collection of statistical data structured by gender, an initiative of the Government Council for Gender Equality (hereinafter referred to as “Council”) to unify the method of assessing impacts on gender equality in the Rules of Procedure of the Government, the Government Legislative Rules, the General Principles for Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) and to collect statistical data structured by gender was approved by Government Resolution No. 542 of 8 July 2015. On the basis of this Resolution, the government members were imposed, inter alia, the obligation to begin preparing the necessary measures to structure all data collected in collecting statistical systems of the individual ministries that relate to natural persons structured by gender and providing them to the CSO as of 1 January 2016.
2.The Ministry of the Interior (hereinafter referred to as “MI”) collects statistical data on the number of expulsion (stating genders of expelled and endangered persons) and the number of reported crimes related to domestic and gender based violence (especially the criminal acts of cruelty to a person living in the same household, rape, stalking, etc.). These data are structured by gender. The Ministry of Justice (hereinafter referred to as “MJ”) collects statistical data on the number of crimes related to domestic and gender based violence in which, inter alia, gender of convicted persons is monitored. The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (hereinafter referred to as “MLSA”) collects statistical data on the number of revealed cases of domestic violence where children were present and that were examined by the respective social and legal child protection bodies. Statistical crime surveys are available on the website of the Police of the Czech Republic. Statistical crime yearbooks (crimes) are available on the website of the MJ. Aggregate statistical data from the area of domestic violence are regularly published in the Summary Report of Implementation of the National Action Plan for Prevention of Domestic Violence for the years 2011-2014 or, in the future, in the Summary Report of Implementation of the Action Plan for Prevention of Domestic and Gender Based Violence for the years 2015-2018.
Access to justice
3.The Czech Government has paid attention to the issue of unlawful sterilization since the opinion of the Ombudsman was delivered in 2005. In 2009, building up on this opinion, the Government expressed regret for the individual errors in sterilizations contrary to the applicable laws and undertook to take steps to avoid such conduct in the future. In addition to the various steps in the methodology of medical care, education and public awareness of doctors and professionals, it was primarily the adoption of new legislation on providing health services, including sterilization, in 2011. This legislation ensures that sterilization is carried out only with the free and informed consent of the patient being aware of all the relevant information. The period between such information and the surgery of minimum 7-14 days provides sufficient time for consideration (see chapter “Health”). Thus, legal safeguards have been strengthened in order to avoid any misconduct that occurred in the past.
4.Unlawfully sterilized persons could appeal to courts and take an action for compensation for non-pecuniary damage. Such compensation may be provided in non-monetary (e.g. apology) or monetary form. While the non-pecuniary entitlement to an apology does not lapse and may be enforced at any time, the entitlement to monetary compensation as a pecuniary claim is subject to a limitation period as commonly applied in civil law. The limitation period is three years from the occurrence of the harm. The truth is that in some cases, this rule could have led to excessive hardness, e.g. if a woman did not know about sterilization before to the expiry of the limitation period. Taking into account the objection of limitation, the court must consider whether its enforcement conforms to good morals and whether its application would not be too hard to the person not responsible for the lapse. Then, on the contrary, this objection cannot be recognized by the court. The Supreme Court has applied this in cases of unlawful sterilization in two judgments of 2011 and 2014. The judicial practice, therefore, shows that in cases where the application of the limitation objection would have led to very harsh consequences, the courts disregarded it and awarded compensation to the unlawfully sterilized persons.
5.Based on the opinion of the Ombudsman and the recommendations of international bodies, the Czech Government also considered establishing a mechanism that would allow the state to compensate persons for unlawful sterilization on an extrajudicial basis. These opinions were based on the fact that unlawfully sterilized persons had effective remedies and that it was their responsibility whether they apply such remedies properly and timely. The possible establishment of an additional indemnification mechanism would only be an ex gratia act, i.e. a favourable act exceeding the international obligations of the Czech Republic against unlawfully sterilized persons who either failed to use the available effective remedies or used them too late. After a very careful consideration and evaluation of all relevant circumstances, the Czech Government finally decided not to establish this special indemnifying mechanism. The Government particularly took into account the fact that assessment of the individual cases, often coming from distant past, would also be difficult and problematic because of the possibility that medical records or other documents have been destroyed. Unlawfully sterilized persons could have thus been exposed to long and complicated procedures with no compensation. The Czech Government, therefore, came to a conclusion that the extrajudicial mechanism would most likely not have been an effective complement to the existing remedies for individual misconduct in the form of sterilization that occurred in the past. Therefore, taking a legal action is a possibility how to award compensation to victims of unlawful sterilization. Some unlawfully sterilized persons staked their claims successfully which proves that the possibility of judicial protection in practice has shown and shows its effectiveness.
6.The factual intention of the Act on Free Legal Assistance is planned to be submitted by the MJ to the Czech Government by the end of 2015. Subsequently, on the basis of the approved factual intention, the respective draft Act will be prepared. The aim of the proposed legislation is to streamline legal assistance in the Czech Republic. There should be created a system of legal assistance provided to persons who, because of their material need, cannot use legal services to enable them to exercise and protect their rights properly.
7.The current legislation (the provisions of Section 51a, Act No. 141/1961 Coll., on Criminal Procedures (Criminal Procedure Code), as subsequently amended) states that if the aggrieved person, who is a particularly vulnerable victim pursuant to the Act on Crime Victims, proves that he/she does not have sufficient funds to pay the costs incurred due to hiring an attorney, the judge that presides the proceedings at first instance and the pre-trial judge should decide, on his/her proposal, that he/she is entitled to legal assistance provided by the attorney for free or at a reduced price. A particularly vulnerable victim [the provisions of Section 2, paragraph 4, letter (c) and (d), Act No. 45/2013 Coll., on Crime Victims and amending certain Acts (Act on Crime Victims), as amended by Act No. 77/2015 Coll.] means, inter alia, a victim of trafficking and victim of criminal offenses against human dignity in sexual area or crimes that involve violence or threat of violence, if there is an increased risk of causing secondary damage in a particular case, in particular with regard to age, gender, race, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, health status, intellectual maturity, ability to express, current life situation or with respect to the relationship with the person suspected of committing such a crime or dependence on such a person.
8.Furthermore, victims may ask for expert assistance under the Act on Crime Victims (Act No. 45/2013 Coll.) which, inter alia, includes legal assistance and legal information. Entities registered in the register of providers of assistance to crime victims are obliged to provide expert assistance without undue delay, free of charge, upon request of a particularly vulnerable victim who needs such help. According to the Act on Victims, legal information may be provided by entities accredited to provide legal information and the Probation and Mediation Service; legal assistance to victims under this Act may only be provided by attorneys for a fee. The register of providers of assistance to crime victims kept by the Ministry of Justice is publicly available.
9.Non-contentious civil proceedings have been, following the recodification of civil law, newly regulated by Act No. 292/2013 Coll., on Special Court Proceedings, as subsequently amended (hereinafter referred to as “SCP”). This Act came into force on 1 January 2014. The SCP pays special attention to the issue of domestic violence; Chapter V, Section 2 contains special legislation of preliminary proceedings in the matters of protection against violence. The main purpose of the preliminary proceedings is to provide persons affected by domestic violence with an extended period during which they could decide, in absence of the violent person, how to resolve the situation in the future. Therefore, the preliminary proceedings concerning protection against domestic violence bring new tools for protection against domestic violence, consisting in e.g. imposition of a duty to leave the common household or to refrain from meeting the person endangered by domestic violence. The court must decide on a motion to issue a preliminary injunction within 48 hours of the application. The experience of non-governmental organizations (hereinafter “NGOs”) associated in the Committee for Prevention of Domestic Violence and Violence against Women shows a positive impact of this new institute.
National machinery for the advancement of women
10.The agenda of gender equality was shifted for three times at the national level in the years 2008-2014. More precisely, as from 1998, the agenda was based at the MLSA and in 2009, the Czech European Union Presidency caused that the agenda was shifted from the MLSA to the Office of the Czech Government (hereinafter referred to as “OCG”). In 2012, the agenda was shifted back to the MLSA and in 2014, along with the new position of the Minister for Human Rights, Legislation and Equal Opportunities, it was returned to the OCG where it has been since then.
11.These changes, however, have never meant a complete cessation of this agenda. Changes in the institutional framework and reduction of the number of jobs in the Gender Equality Unity, however, resulted in limitation of the agenda of gender equality to the necessary minimum. This had an impact on, for example, the creation of necessary strategic documents for the advancement of gender equality, the regularity of meetings of the committees of the Council and the Council itself, or on the consistent monitoring of gender mainstreaming application in materials submitted to the Czech Government.
12.With support from the European Social Fund (hereinafter “ESF”) and the Norwegian Funds, the Gender Equality Unit has managed to maintain around ten employees since 2012. Since July 2014, the Gender Equality Unit has been permanently under the authority of the Minister for Human Rights, Equal Opportunities and Legislation at the OCG. Currently, the preparations for the implementation of the subsequent project funded by the ESF, through which the staffing capacity of the Gender Equality Unit will increase, are being finalized. The Gender Equality Unit is a national manager of the gender equality policy and is also responsible for monitoring the implementation of the Convention. An important step is the adoption of the Government Strategy for Equality of Women and Men in the Czech Republic for 2014-2020 (hereinafter referred to as “Government Strategy”) which provides the necessary framework for the advancement of the gender equality agenda, including its adequate staffing. We hope that there will be no further restrictions on the activities of the Gender Equality Unit.
Temporary special measures
13.The MI drew up a draft amendment to the Election Acts which included the rules of representation of men and women on list of candidates for elections to the Chamber of Deputies and regional councils. The initiator and co-manager of the draft Act was the Minister for Human Rights, Equal Opportunities and Legislation. The subject of the implemented measure was the fact that when there are 2 or 3 candidates on the list of candidates, there must be at least 1 man and 1 woman. If the list of candidates includes more than 3 candidates, there must be at least 1 man and 1 woman among the first three candidates; at the same time, there must be at least 40 per cent men and women represented on the list of candidates. If the list of candidates does not meet these requirements due to its personnel structure, the Act on Associating in Political Parties and Political Movements imposes a sanction on the political party, political movement or coalition, providing that they won at least one seat at the election, reducing the contribution to the mandate of deputy or member of regional council by 30 per cent. On 1 July 2015, the draft Act was discussed by the Czech Government which, however, did not approve the Act.
14.In order to support equal representation of women and men in the state administration, the Council adopted a recommendation on the implementation of the +1 Strategy on 13 May 2013. This recommendation focuses on increasing the representation of women (or men) at the managerial level by one woman (or one man) within one year using targeted measures if the representation of women or men at this managerial level is less than 40 per cent. The recommendation applies to the individual ministries, other central state administration bodies and commercial companies with majority state capital participation. These institutions may, at their discretion, use a range of measures aimed at increasing the level of equal representation of women and men in their managerial activities. These include, for example, calling for tenders for senior positions, using a gender-sensitive language in job advertisements, supporting the under-represented sex to participate in tenders or extending offers of flexible forms of work. The recommendation on the implementation of the +1 Strategy should be submitted to the Czech Government by the end of 2015.
15.Together with the recommendation on the implementation of the +1 strategy, the Council also adopted the Action Plan for Equal Representation of Women and Men in Decision-making Positions for the years 2015-2018 (hereinafter referred to as “APER”). Implementation of the measures provided in the APER should mainly bring gradual equalization of representation of women and men in decision-making positions in the public administration and other institutions of public interest, in politics and in commercial companies and in the labour market, removing barriers to equal representation of women and men in decision-making positions in the aforementioned areas, streamlining and improving activities to support and advance equal representation of women and men in decision-making positions for the coming years, increasing the transparency of selection procedures for managerial positions and ensuring more diverse and better-working teams at senior levels that could better respond to the needs of society and its current development. The Action Plan builds, inter alia, on recommendations of international organizations (United Nations, Council of Europe, European Union, OECD). The Action Plan should be submitted to the Czech Government by the end of 2015.
Stereotypes and harmful practices
16.Act No. 40/1995 Coll., on Advertising Control, prohibits advertising that is (Section 2, paragraph 3) contrary to good morals; in particular, such advertising must not contain any discrimination resulting from race, gender or nationality or assault religious or national feelings, jeopardize morals in a generally unacceptable manner, reduce human dignity, contain elements of pornography, violence or elements based on fear. Compliance with the Advertising Act is supervised by regional trade offices. For the purpose of methodical unification of processes applied by regional trade offices in the assessment of sexist advertising, the Ministry of Industry and Trade (hereinafter referred to as “MIT”) prepares, following the Updated Measures of Priorities and Procedures of the Government in Implementing Equality for Women and Men, approved, by Government Resolution No. 930 of 12 November 2014, a methodology to recognize and sanction sexism in advertising. Representatives of both the MIT and the Office of the Minister for Human Rights, Equal Opportunities and Legislation met during the preparation of the methodology on 27 October 2015. At this meeting, the objectives and general contents of the methodology were defined. The methodology should be drawn up by the end of 2015.
17.The Office of the Minister for Human Rights, Equal Opportunities and Legislation in cooperation with non-governmental organizations also supports activities aimed at increasing social awareness of the issue of sexist advertising. The Minister for Human Rights, Equal Opportunities and Legislation participated in the preparation of the Women Congress which took place in Prague on 20 June 2015. The subject of the Congress was women and the media. The Office of the Minister for Human Rights, Equal Opportunities and Legislation held a seminar entitled “Sexism as a form of gender based violence” and “The image of Romani women in the Czech media” at the Women Congress.
18.In relation to gender stereotypes in the labour market, the MLSA is preparing a project entitled “Gender equality in the labour market focusing on (un)equal remuneration of men and women — 22 per cent TO EQUALITY.” Between 2016 and 2020, within this project, a public campaign should be launched (inter alia); the campaign should mainly focus on remuneration discrimination between men and women but its aim will also be to highlight other topics related to gender stereotypes in the labour market (namely the lack of women in decision-making positions, the lack of men in the nursing field, the lack of opportunities to balance work, private life and family, gender-correct advertising, etc.). Within the project, the MLSA is going to launch a website with the subject topics, also prepare street posters, radio spots, flyers, etc. There will also be several conferences of international importance and two press conferences. The project will be co-financed by the ESF.
19.Labour inspection bodies pay attention to control of discrimination and unequal treatment before entering into an employment relationship. In this context, inspectors monitor job offers, focusing mainly on the fact whether they are discriminatory offers, offers contrary to law or contrary to good manners. Monitoring compliance with the obligation of equal treatment and non-discrimination when exercising the employment and work right was one of the main tasks of the State Labour Inspection Office in 2014 (like in the previous years). In 2014, labour inspection bodies carried out a total of 4,026 inspections on the basis of complaints; 6,944 errors were found. These included 124 cases of findings in the area of discrimination and equal treatment. Of this total, 67 per cent of the inspections found violation of the principle of equal treatment. In response to these findings, regional labour inspectorates imposed a total of 16 fines amounting to CZK 134,000 in total in the monitored period, while in 2015 there are 33 more fines amounting to approximately CZK 213,000 pending. Compared to the previous years, this is an increase of inspections and cases of violation of equal treatment which is probably connected with more intense public debate on prohibition of discrimination and activities of the Ombudswoman who pays special attention to this issue. Labour inspection bodies closely cooperate with the Office of the Ombudswoman in the field of prohibition of discrimination.
Violence against women
20.The National Action Plan for Prevention of Domestic Violence for the years 2011-2014 (hereinafter referred to as “NAPDV”) has brought a number of positive steps in the area of prevention and control of this form of violence. The Committee for Prevention of Domestic Violence and Violence against Women (hereinafter referred to as “Committee for Prevention”) at the Council was the supervisory body monitoring compliance with the NAPDV. According to the conclusions of this Committee, mainly the development of interdisciplinary cooperation, deepening the level of education of police and judicial bodies, adopting the Act on Criminal Victims, applying the expulsion institute effectively and deepening cooperation with non-governmental organizations can be assessed as positive. On the other hand, persisting challenges include particularly the areas of availability of shelters for people endangered by domestic violence, system basis for work with violent persons and lack of expert analysis.
21.These challenges are addressed by the Action Plan for Prevention of Domestic and Gender Based Violence for the years 2015-2018 (hereinafter referred to as “APPDGBV”) which was approved by Resolution of the Czech Government No. 126 of 23 February 2015. The APPDGBV contains a total of 70 measures divided into 7 strategic areas (support to persons endangered by domestic and gender based violence, children endangered by domestic and gender based violence, work with violent persons, education and interdisciplinary collaboration, society and domestic and gender based violence, analyses and data collection, legislation). Compared to the NAPDV, the APPDGBV covers not only domestic violence but also other forms of gender based violence in accordance with the definition of the Convention of the Council of Europe on Prevention and Control of Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (hereinafter referred to as “Istanbul Convention”), particularly rape, sexual harassment or stalking. Experts in the issues of domestic and gender based violence working in this field from non-governmental organizations, state administration, justice and representatives of intervention centres and other relevant social service providers participated in the preparation of the Action Plan. The preparation of the APPDGBV was carried out within the Committee for Prevention which is also the supervisory body.
22.The lack of analyses in the area of domestic and gender based violence is addressed by the project of the Norwegian Funds implemented by the Office of the Minister for Human Rights, Equal Opportunities and Legislation. In the first half of 2016, a total of 9 analyses were planned to be performed in this area, focusing, inter alia, on the availability of specialized social services for victims of domestic violence, the incidence and latency of gender based violence in Czech society, the effectiveness of programmes for work with violent persons or the media image of gender based violence.
23.Regarding the definition of the crime of rape, this criminal act is regarded as committed when the offender forces another person to sexual intercourse violently, under threat of imminent violence or a different severe injury or when the offender misuses his/her vulnerability for such an act. Vulnerability is understood as a state of the victim in which he/she is unable to express his/her will or, as the case may be, resist. According to case law and expert interpretations, these include states caused by alcohol, drugs, sleep, hypnosis or similar. The Decision of the Supreme Court, ref. No. 7 Tdo 995/2010, states, inter alia, that the crime of rape can be committed in two forms. The first alternative is an act when the offender forces another person to sexual intercourse or other similar sexual activities violently or under threat of imminent violence. The second alternative is an act when the offender misuses vulnerability of another person in order to have sexual intercourse or other similar sexual activities. Violence or threat of imminent violence is not a common feature of both alternatives but it is only a sign of the first alternative. Therefore, to misuse vulnerability, violence or threat of violence is not necessary to fulfil the factual crime of rape. Moreover, the truth is that marital status (existence of marriage) is not decisive for the assessment of the facts of the crime of rape. Therefore, rape that occurs in a marriage or registered partnership is also regarded as crime.
24.The intention to sign and ratify the Istanbul Convention was declared by the Czech Government in Resolution No. 808 of 12 October 2015. By this resolution, the Czech Government approved the commencement of preparation for execution of the Istanbul Convention and instructed the Minister of Justice, in cooperation with the Minister of Foreign Affairs, to process materials for the purpose of execution of the Istanbul Convention and to submit such materials to the Czech Government by 31 December 2015. It also sets the deadline for submission of the Istanbul Convention to the Czech Parliament for consent with ratification by the end of June 2018.
25.The legal regulation ensuring elimination of corporal punishment of children is mainly Act No. 89/2012 Coll., Civil Code (hereinafter referred to as “Civil Code”). Although it does not contain an explicit ban on all types of corporal punishment of children, it is necessary to recognize that the Czech Republic does not regard corporal punishment of children as an adequate educational tool, not even within the family. To the Civil Code states that until the child becomes fully legally competent, the parents have the right to direct him/her using educational tools as appropriate with respect to his/her developing capacities, including restrictions concerning protection of morals, health and rights of the child as well as the rights of other persons and public order. Moreover, it is also stipulated that educational tools may only be used in the form and to the extent that is reasonable under the given circumstances, does not endanger child’s health or development and does not affect child’s human dignity. This regulation is based on the Convention on the Rights of the Child, particularly Articles 16 and 19. Article 16, paragraph 1 states that no child shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his/her private life, family, home or correspondence or unlawful attacks on his/her honour and reputation. Although the Civil Code does not ban corporal punishment, it is necessary, with regard to the mental and physical integrity of the child as any other human being, to interpret the possible use of corporal punishment by parents in the way that the dignity and physical integrity of the child is protected. Inadequate physical punishment of children may be, as the last resort of protection of the child, a reason for restriction or deprivation of the parental rights. In case of intentional infliction of health consequences, the sanction for the crime of bodily harm, which implies a stricter sanction for causing harm to children under 15 years, comes into question. In extreme cases, it may also be assessed as the crime of abuse of persons under guardianship, which means ill-treatment with persons under guardianship characterized by a high degree of brutality and cruelty which this person perceives as heavy injustice.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
26.In 2014, according to police statistics, a total of 67 victims of human trafficking were identified. The programme for Support and Protection of Trafficking Victims of the MI (hereinafter referred to as “Programme”) involved a total of 43 probable victims from Romania, Bulgaria, the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic. All of these cases involved human trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation. In 2014, the Programme was allocated a total of CZK 1,152,448. To keep the Programme functional, it is important to apply wider preventive and educational measures. Every year, with the financial support of the MI, there are extensive preventive and informative activities on human trafficking performed. One of such preventive activities of the Programme is social counselling aimed at potential victims of trafficking provided through low-threshold counselling offices specialized in non-governmental organizations. Expert advice was provided to a total of 44 people, to some of them repeatedly. There were 33 men and 11 women. The largest group comprised 25 people from Bulgaria, 10 people from Romania and 3 persons from Ukraine. In recent years and especially in 2014, we managed to increase awareness of the Programme through field trips and to allow more victims to access specialized services within the Programme. A total of 37 field trips were supported for the purpose of finding and informing potential victims throughout the country. During the field trips a total of 471 persons were contacted, one third of which were women. The bulk of the approached people were citizens of the European Union, mainly from Bulgaria and Romania.
27.In the context of international cooperation, in addition to joint investigative teams and other already used tools, the Czech-British conference on human trafficking held in March 2015 by the MI in cooperation with the Embassy of the United Kingdom in Prague can be used as an example of good practice. The conference was held in response to the growing number of Czech victims trafficked to the United Kingdom and also in response to the current challenges in this field.
28.High latency of sexual violence and trafficking in women, low availability of services to victims of such forms of violence and low awareness of the possibilities of social services for victims of these forms of violence — these are the goals of the Dignity and Integrity of Women and Men section of the approved Government Strategy.
29.The Committee for Petitions of the Chamber of Deputies issued a negative resolution on the draft Act on Regulation of Prostitution on 9 October 2014. On the basis of this resolution, the Committee for Petitions calls for a draft Act that would define the rules for prostitution, taking into account the requirements to maintain public order, to minimize health risks and to protect providers against forced prostitution and exploitation, and would determine the authority of municipals to set restrictive measures.
30.In the area of non-legislative measures, we can mention activities of non‑governmental organizations. The Rozkoš bez rizika organization, for example, provides online counselling to women providing sexual services. The Jako doma non-profit organization focusing on homeless woman, has been implementing, along with other organizations, the “Women to Women” project since 2013; this project aims at developing tools for work with homeless women who are experiencing violence. The project brought, for example, the so-called Legal Information Package, i.e. a publication containing advice and contact details for women in difficult situations. Moreover, a file of basic solutions and recommendations was created to facilitate implementation of programmes supporting institutions to arrange meetings of women who share the experience of homeless life, with various forms of violence and providing paid sexual services. The Rozkoš bez rizika organization has data on the number of women who have visited their counselling centres or have used their medical, social or therapeutic services. On the national level, there is only an estimated number of women providing paid sexual services which, according to Rozkoš bez rizika, ranges between 10-13 thousand women. Women start working online, under multiple profiles, and, therefore, it is difficult to obtain the exact data. However, there are data on the number of identified victims of the crime of procuring which was, for example, 21 women in 2013.
31.On 1 August 2014, an amendment to the Criminal Code, which was primarily adopted for the purpose of proper transposition of European Directive No. 2011/36/EU on prevention of trafficking, control and protection of victims, Directive No. 2011/93/EU on control of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography, and Directive No. 2012/1/EU on the right to information in criminal proceedings came into force in Czech law. Elements of pornography in advertising are prohibited by Act No. 40/1995 Coll. on Regulation of Advertising and amending Act No. 468/1991 Coll., on Radio and Television Broadcasting.
32.Schools have their minimum preventive programmes aiming at prevention of risky behaviour of pupils. Preventive programmes focusing on various topics (prevention of drug addiction, preventive and intervention programmes focusing on school climate and relationships in the classroom, prevention of risky behaviour — bullying, sexual abuse, etc.) are usually performed by non-profit organizations or educational care centres.
33.Protection against child pornography is contained in general educational programmes for educational sections such as Human Health (sex education), Human World (ethics education), Informatics (cyber bullying). In the area of child pornography, the Czech Republic does not have any measures aimed specifically at girls but at children in general.
34.Reducing the latency rate and incidence of other forms of violence in public spaces (especially stalking and cyber bullying) by strengthening the cooperation of all participants, improving the protection of victims and raising awareness of this issue are also targets of the approved Government Strategy. Activities performed by non-governmental organizations include, for example, the campaign of the Gender Studies organization named Stop Cyber Bullying in Women and Men.
Participation in political and public life
35.We have identified a positive trend in the area of women’s participation in decision-making positions in the state administration in recent years. On 31 December 2014, 3 women out of 17 members of the Government were represented in the Czech Government. There has, therefore, been an increase in women’s representation in the current Government compared to the previous Government, namely from 6.7 per cent to 17.6 per cent. As of 31 December 2014, there were 27 out of 107 positions of deputy ministers occupied by women. On this level of control, in comparison with 2013, the representation of women has increased from 14.1 per cent to 25.2 per cent. The representation of women on the level of directors of departments was 136 women out of 455 people, which corresponds to 29.9 per cent representation of women, and at the level of managers of departments, a total of 541 women out of 1,241 people which corresponds to 43.6 per cent representation of women on this managerial level.
36.In May 2014, there were elections to the European Parliament. The Czech Republic elected a total of 21 deputies. There were 39 political parties participating in the elections with 622 men and 227 women on the lists of candidates (which corresponds to 26.7 per cent representation of women on the lists of candidates). A total of 16 men and 5 women were elected. The representation of women in the European Parliament on behalf of the Czech Republic thus constitutes 23.8 per cent. On 10 and 11 October 2014, there were elections to the Senate of the Czech Parliament in 27 constituencies. In the 2nd ballot of the Senate elections a total of five female senators were elected. The representation of women in the Senate of the Czech Parliament increased from 17.3 per cent to 18.5 per cent in 2014 (15 female senators in total). In 2014, there were also elections to municipal councils with a total of 157,191 men and 76,284 women. The representation of women among the candidates thus constituted 32.7 per cent. A total of 45,264 men and 16,857 women were elected and the representation of women among the candidates elected to municipal councils, therefore, constituted 27.1 per cent.
37.One of the main strategic areas of the Government Strategy is the Equal Representation of Women and Men in Decision-making Positions. In this area, the target of the Czech Government is to reach the rate of representation of women in decision-making positions in both public and private sectors to at least 40 per cent by 2020. The specific targets of this area include: (i) adoption and implementation of positive measures for more equal representation of women and men in decision-making positions in both public and private sectors; (ii) preparation and submission of the Action Plan for Equal Representation of Women and Men in Decision-making Positions to the Czech Government; (iii) determination and implementation of objective and transparent rules to occupy decision-making positions in both public and private sectors; (iv) systematic increasing of women’s competencies for decision-making positions. On 12 November 2014, following the Government Strategy, the Czech Government approved by Resolution No. 930 the Updated Measures of Priorities and Procedures of the Government in Implementing Equality for Women and Men which include, inter alia, the task to continue supporting equal representation of women and men in government bodies and senior positions in the state administration by measures in accordance with Section 16, paragraph 3, Labour Code, and other measures; representation of both genders should be monitored and supported in all state-owned enterprises and joint-stock companies with majority state share in their boards of directors and managing and supervisory boards equal.
38.As higher rate of representation of Romani women in decision-making is supported by the Office of the Czech Government through, inter alia, a grant programme named Support of Purposeful Activities of non-governmental organizations in the area of gender equality. In 2015, one of the supported projects was a project of a non-governmental organization named Slovo 21 which aims at broadening Manushe, a Romani women’s group, and motivating Romani women to participate in decision-making.
39.In order to deepen the discussion on measures for supporting participation of women from minority groups in public life, the Czech Republic held a seminar entitled “Participation of Women from Minority Groups in Public Life” at the 59th session of the Commission on the Status of Women in March 2015. Besides the representatives of the Office of the Czech Government, Virginia Velasco (Bolivian Minister of Justice), Martina Horváthová (representative of Slovo 21, a Czech non-governmental organization) Yalila Castro and Barbara Jakobsen (both from Alternatives til Vold, a Norwegian organization) also spoke at the seminar. The Office of the Minister for Human Rights, Equal Opportunities and Legislation also held a seminar entitled “The Image of Romani Women in the Czech Media” at the Women’s Congress in June 2015.
40.The measures for supporting equal representation of women and men in decision-making positions in the private sector are included in APER (see paragraph 15).
41.The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (hereinafter referred to as “MEYS”) has had the Working Group for Gender Equality established since 2007; this group coordinates compliance with gender equality in education and science and initiates measures for compliance with this equality. When performing the plan of its activities, the Working Group initiated, for example, education for teachers in the area of “eliminating gender stereotypes in education for girls and boys in all types of schools. Currently, the MEYS is preparing an analysis of curricular documents in order to implement the gender issues in all general educational programmes with an appropriate terminology, with emphasis placed on gender equality and elimination of gender stereotypes. The MEYS has prepared draft criteria for the assessment of textbooks in terms of gender equality, and also a manual for elementary schools titled Gender-motivated Career Guidance on Study and Work Fields for Girls and Boys Based on Their Individual Qualifications and Interests. The MEYS provides a systematic education to teachers of the relevant subjects and educational counsellors to interact with pupils in the area of gender non-stereotyped career choice. The gender issue is included in the systematic monitoring of work of schools through school inspections.
42.The MEYS adopts measures to increase the number of girls employed in the fields of engineering, science and IT. Meetings with prominent personalities of science and technology days when pupils are introduced the possibilities and types of occupations in which they can be employed regardless of their gender and established stereotypes are held by kindergartens, elementary schools and secondary schools. The National Institute for Further Education holds online courses for young people from which they can learn more information on certain disciplines when communicating with an instructor compared to schools. The topics include, for example, the following: men and women in terms of neurophysiology, astro and modelling, geography, programmable automatic machines, etc.
43.Since 2001, the Czech Republic has had the National Contact Centre — Women and Science (hereinafter referred to as “NCC — Women and Science”) as an advisory body of the MEYS. The NCC — Women and Science has been involved in an international network of organizations supporting women in science since its establishment and has been an associated member of the European Platform for Women in Science since 2007. The NCC — Women and Science has been developing its activities following two main lines since its establishment. The first line focuses its activities on increasing awareness of the issues of roles of women in science (through conferences, workshops and seminars, through a regular newsletter), introduces successful researchers, and debating at the level of makers of policy on the role of women in science. In the second line, the NCC — Women and Science contributes to creation of a knowledge base concerning the issues of roles of women and young people in science. Through its participation in research projects, both domestic and foreign, the NCC — Women and Science is gradually building a foundation for understanding the functioning of gender mechanisms in creation of educational pathways and participation of young people in research, and also in the area of functioning of research institutions, roles of women in science and gender dimension in production of knowledge. Findings obtained from the aforementioned areas are used as a basis for preparation of proposals for measures to improve the roles of women and young people in science. One of the main tasks of the NCC — Women and Science is also to create programmes to increase the interest of girls and young women in technical sciences, engineering and natural sciences. In 2015, the cooperation between the Office of the Minister for Human Rights and the NCC — Women and Science has been strengthened, particularly through the representation in the Government Committee on Institutional Gender Equality. On the basis of this cooperation, a Council Resolution was approved by which the Council called on the Czech Government to pay greater attention to the issues of gender equality in science and research.
44.In 2015, the issue of gender equality has been addressed by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (hereinafter referred to as “TACR”), both inside the institution and towards the public. On 6 October 2015, the TACR published its gender policy which adheres to equalization of opportunities in men and women for their careers in research and development, the principles of non-discrimination and diversity in research and development, and the responsibility to reflect the gender dimension in research and development programmes.
45.The National Action Plan for Inclusive Education was revised by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in 2012. The result of the revision was the approved Action Plan named “Equal Opportunities” for execution of the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in the case of D. H. and others vs. the Czech Republic which was approved by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. The document is in full compliance with the strategic documents of the MEYS — the Educational Policy Strategy of the Czech Republic until 2020 and the Long-term Plan for Education and Development of the Educational System of the Czech Republic for the period 2015-2020. Based on the Educational Policy Strategy of the Czech Republic until 2020 and the Long-term Plan for Education and Development of the Educational System of the Czech Republic for the period 2015-2020, a targeted action plan (implementation plan) for inclusive education for the period 2016-2018 was drawn up in 2015, including the measures to support equal opportunities and equal access to high-quality education, including the measures of prevention, remedy and intervention of dropouts from the area of education in the endangered target groups. The educational system of the Czech Republic does not distinguish between genders or for any other reasons when including people in the educational system, including lifelong learning courses.
46.The tool of the Czech Government ensuring the process of social integration in municipalities is the Agency for Social Inclusion (hereinafter referred to as “Agency”), one of the departments of the Human Rights section of the Central Committee of the Czech Republic. Agency’s mission is to connect local entities to work together in social inclusion. The Agency supports the beyond-ministries approach and interconnection of the state administration with non-governmental organizations. Education is one of the key priority areas of the Agency. One of the key measures used in the area of education in children from socially excluded environments is the concept of inclusive education. Unlike integration, it is about creating different conditions for different children so that they all get an environment which would develop them optimally, while they can work in a common, performance-heterogeneous social group. In this context, the Agency implements a project entitled “Implementation of System Tools for Social Inclusion in Socially Excluded Localities” which is co-financed by the ESF.
47.Activities performed by non-governmental organizations include, for example, the organization named Slovo 21, and its Romani women group Manushe. In recent years, the group has been, inter alia, performing activities to inform Romani parents about the differences between individual elementary schools and the potential impacts associated with incorrect allocation of children to elementary practical (special) schools.
48.Education aiming at responsible sexual behaviour (reproductive health) is part of the General Educational Programmes. The General Educational Programme for elementary education includes sex education as part of the educational area of Human World at primary schools and Human Health at secondary schools, the educational area of Health Education. Due to the individual and social dimensions of health, the educational area of Health Education is closely connected with the cross-curricular subject of Personality and Social Education.
49.The curriculum of the human body, sex differences between men and women, biological and psychological adolescence, partnership, parenthood, basic sex education, intimate and mental hygiene, HIV/AIDS transmission methods, safe behaviour (including safe use of the Internet), protection against sexual abuse, etc. helps in achieving the expected results at primary schools, taking into account the age specifics. The aforementioned curriculum is further elaborated for secondary schools where the emphasis is placed on puberty and reproductive health, especially the issue of early sexual experience, teenage pregnancy and parenthood, gender identity disorder, protection against venereal diseases and hidden forms of violence. The content is shared by girls and boys. Schools may, at their discretion, teach some topics separately.
50.Health and lifestyle are included in the educational area of Human Health in the General Educational Programme for Elementary Schools which includes the educational areas of Health Education and Physical Education. The educational area of Health Education includes interpersonal relationships education. It focuses on health protection against risks in everyday situations and emergency situations. One of the goals is to respect the importance of sexuality in relation to health, ethics, morals and positive life goals. On that basis, every school creates its own school educational programme which elaborates on these topics in the individual subjects.
51.As mentioned above, the MLSA has started the preparation of the “22 per cent TO EQUALITY” project which will mainly be focused on elimination of inequalities between women and men in the labour market. In the years 2016-2020, the following activities should be performed within this project: (i) an in-depth analysis of the current difference in remuneration between of men and women in the Czech Republic, including identification of the causes of such differences at the level of individual sectors, jobs, etc., and its comparison with selected European Union countries; (ii) creation of a methodology for the implementation of legislation in the area of remuneration (in cooperation with/for the State Labour Inspection Office); (iii) creation of a website for the issue of gender equality in the labour market, including the Manual for Negotiations on Wages and the online Wage and Salary Calculator; (iv) annual educational events connected with the Day of Equal Pay at the national level; (v) a national public campaign; (vi) a proposal for specific measures, incl. legislative changes, to increase the transparency and reduce the difference in remuneration between men and women in the Czech Republic in the form of a strategic Action Plan to reduce the difference in remuneration between men and women in the Czech Republic until 2022 (provisional title).
52.In the area of labour relations and conditions, there is a total of 144 inspectors in labour inspection bodies, 16 (+1 guarantee in the State Labour Inspection Office) of which specialize in inspections of equal treatment in the workplace which is, due to the high number of labour-law areas, within the competence of labour inspection bodies (such as remuneration, working hours, employment and contracts for work outside employment, compensation, paid leave, etc.) a relatively high number. Inspectors of such labour inspection bodies specialized in discrimination and unequal treatment are being regularly acquainted with the subject issues at seminars and meetings where inspectors exchange their knowledge and analyse problematic cases. Specialized inspectors also quite often use the opportunity to consult issues with the guarantee of the State Labour Inspection Office who subsequently shares its findings of the inspections and the relevant experience with other specialists. In order to increase the efficiency of control of discrimination in the area of remuneration between men and women, it has also been decided, for the year 2016, that inspections in the area of equal remuneration of women and men should be inspected on the basis of a methodological document drawn up by the working group and an expert seminars by 28 February 2016. The pilot inspections will take place at the individual regional inspectorates in the period of March-May 2016. The inspections will be assessed by the State Labour Inspection Office in June and July and then discussed within the working group. Based on the practical experience resulting from these inspections, the respective methodical document will be finalized. The inspections will continue until the end of 2016 according to innovated methodological instructions.
53.In the context of negotiations conducted between the MLSA and the Ombudswoman, it has also been decided that the State Labour Inspection Office should publish a press release in January 2016 informing the public about the upcoming inspections in the area of equal remuneration of men and women which should also include information intended for employers, employees and the general public aiming at broader awareness in this area. Labour inspection bodies cooperate with non-profit organizations focusing on discrimination of different population groups as well as with non-profit organizations focusing on exploitation and human trafficking and, in relation to this area, the representatives of labour inspection bodies also attended international meetings of labour inspectorates from the other member states and social partners.
54.In order to reconcile work and private life, Act No. 247/2014 Coll., on Provision of Childcare Services in Children Groups and amending the related Acts (hereinafter referred to as “Act on Children Groups”) was adopted. The Act on Children Groups determines the basic legal framework for providing childcare services on a non-commercial basis which should be an alternative to educational care provided to children within the system of preschool education in the country. The Act on Children Groups came into force on 29 November 2014. In order to increase the availability of children groups, projects focusing on establishment of these facilities will be supported within the Employment Operational Programme. On 1 October 2015, a call named “Supporting Children Groups for Companies and the Public — Grants for Creation and Operation” was announced with a total allocation of CZK 882 million.
55.Hygienic limits for heavy load manual handling are regulated by Government Regulation No. 361/2007 Coll., determining the conditions for occupational health. These limits are lower in women than in men; according to the Ministry of Health, this is based solely on the physiological differences between men and women. This legislation is primarily based on the European Union law in the area of occupational health and safety and implements all the related fundamental guidelines. The aforementioned legislation respects the principle pursuant to Article 1, paragraph 3, Council Directive of 12 June 1989 on Implementation of Measures to Improve Health and Safety of Employees at Work (89/391/EEC) which explicitly states that “this Directive shall not affect any current or future regulations of the member states and the Community which are more favourable to health and safety of employees at work”; this also applies to different hygienic limits for heavy load manual handling which the Czech Republic has had in force since the 80s of the last century, and which is also based on the Community Strategy for Occupational Health and Safety. The Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic builds on the assumption that neither gender is limited by the differences in the hygienic limits in employment and occupation equality but only limit one type of activity which may occur at work in a different way. The binding character of the limits for physical activity as one of the activities in selected occupation or employment, therefore, does not eliminate their choice but lawfully determines the objective conditions of work which, in this case, attribute a greater level of protection to women, however, only by virtue of their biological difference.
56.Regarding the measures to support participation of men in childcare and household, the MLSA is planning to introduce paternal postnatal care (by 1 January 2017 at the latest). The aim is to introduce a new health insurance benefit enabling fathers to participate in care of a newborn baby at the time shortly after birth, to create conditions for strengthening the relations between the child and both parents in the early weeks of child’s life and to support and encourage fathers to become involved in early child care. The purpose of this benefit will be to offset the income which the insured losses due to interrupted employment as a result of joint care of a newborn baby by the mother and the father. Moreover, the MLSA is planning to further adjust the parental allowances with the aim to introduce more flexible drawing of parental contributions and earlier return to the labour market.
57.Although the rate of utilization of flexible forms of work and part-time employment is gradually increasing, it is still true that they are used less in the Czech Republic compared to the European Union average. In the 2nd quarter of 2015, for example, the proportion of women working part-time was 10.2 per cent in the Czech Republic while the European Union average was 32.7 per cent. Support in balancing work and private life, including the motivation to offer and use flexible forms of work, is therefore one of the targets of the project of the Norwegian Funds which is being implemented by the Department in the years 2013-2016. Within this project, a methodology for practical possibilities of support in balancing work and private life will be created for public administration bodies and other employers. The project will also bring a media campaign aimed at supporting flexible forms of work.
58.According to Act No. 373/2011 Coll., on Specific Health Services, prior to sterilization for health or other non-medical reasons, the attending doctor is obliged to inform the patient on the nature of the respective medical procedure, its permanent effects and potential risks. The exact content of such information is not specified in any legal regulation, however, doctors may follow the sample of informed consent which was published in Bulletin of the Ministry of Health No. 8/2007. It is also necessary to take into account the intellectual maturity of the person who the information is communicated to. Information should be communicated in the presence of a witness — a medical professional. If the patient requires the presence of another witness, at her discretion, the provider should allow it. A record proving communication of such information should be signed by the attending doctor, the patient, the witness, or other witnesses (as the case may be); such a record is part of the medical records of the patient. There must be a reasonable period between providing the information and granting the consent; in case of sterilization for health reasons, the period must be at least 7 days; in case of sterilization for non-medical reasons, the period must be at least 14 days. The patient thus has sufficient time to consider whether or not she wants to undergo the respective surgery. Sterilization may be performed only if the patient or the legal representative or guardian of the patient grants her/his written consent immediately prior to its commencement.
59.By the Act No. 373/2011 Coll., on Specific Health Services, sterilization means a medical procedure that prevents fertility without removing or damaging the gonads. Sterilization can be performed for health reasons or for other non-medical reasons. Health reasons mean diseases or defects with a high probability of serious health or life risks as a result of pregnancy or childbirth or the healthy development of the foetus or the health or life of the future child. The informed consent is regulated in the § 15 of the Act No. 373/2011 Coll. (also see chapter No. 58)
60.When giving the caesarean birth, it is possible to perform planned shutting of oviducts in order to protect from pregnancy, or, in particular cases, to perform hysterectomy (removal of the uterus). But hysterectomy is not usually used as a form of sterilization. If it is approached to sterilization procedure, in most of the cases it is at the same time from the reason of a pre-existing disease of the uterus. If hysterectomy is planned immediately after the caesarean section, the same procedure as in any other sterilization is applied. Thus, the attending doctor informs the patient about the nature of the respective medical procedure and after the statutory deadline (at least 7 days, resp. 14 days), the patient may grant her consent to the surgery.
61.But when giving the caesarean birth, there can happen the situation, when doing hysterectomy is necessary because of the urgent indications (serious uterus bleeding, e.g., which does not react to conservative therapy and is life threatening). If hysterectomy is performed due to an urgent indication, such as life-threatening bleeding, then it is regarded as emergency treatment. According to Section 38, paragraph 3, letter (a), Act No. 372/2011 Coll., on Health Services and Conditions (Act on Health Services), the patient may be provided emergency care without her consent if her condition does not allow to do so; this does not affect the previously expressed wish according to Section 36 of the Act on Health Services.
62.The previously expressed wish is governed by Section 36, Act No. 372/2011 Coll., on Health Services and Conditions. The patient may, if she gets into such a state of health that will not allow her to approve or refuse health services and the way such services are provided, express such an approval or disapproval in advance. Previously expressed wish, however, cannot be respected if it, inter alia, encourages practices resulting in an active cause of death.
63.The Ministry of Health is averse to the possibility of home birth, however, recognizes the right of mothers to choose who the birth is led by, whether by a doctor or a midwife. As of 1 January 2014, health insurance may cover care provided by a midwife who leads physiological childbirth without the presence of a doctor (only with his/her supervision) in a place technically and materially equipped and staffed in accordance with the implementing regulations to Act No. 372/2011 Coll. on Health Services and Conditions. The doctor is called to birth in case of complications which satisfies women in labour who do not wish to have a doctor present to the childbirth. A woman in labour has the right to choose providers of health-care services that meet her health needs as well as the right to choose medical facilities that meet her requirements for care.
64.The general provisions concerning the protection of patients’ rights are contained in Act No. 372/2011 Coll., on Health Services and Conditions, as subsequently amended, however, this legislation applies to all forms of health care, i.e. not just to inpatient care provided by hospitals. In response to this preliminary question it must be stated that the legislation concerning the protection of patients’ rights at hospitals, especially if they are women and girls, is not covered comprehensively by the legal order of the Czech Republic but fragmented through various legislative provisions in the area of health services which apply to health services provided by hospitals.
65.All women in the Czech Republic, including those from disadvantaged groups, are entitled to free preventive examinations covered by the public health insurance. According to the Act on Public Health Insurance, insured persons are those with registered permanent residence in the Czech Republic as well as persons without registered permanent residence in the Czech Republic, providing that they are employed by an employer with a registered office or permanent residence in the Czech Republic. The scope and time frame of such examinations are stipulated in Decree No. 70/2012 Coll., on Preventive Examinations. Moreover, people registered as unemployed are insured within the public health insurance, i.e. the insurance is paid by the state.
66.There are no statistics showing the extent to which disadvantaged groups, particularly Romani women, have been affected by unlawful sterilizations. Monitoring of ethnic data is not legally possible in the Czech Republic, i.e. all medical diagnoses are reported without any ethnicity records.
Disadvantaged groups of women
67.By Resolution No. 127 of 23 February 2015 the Czech Government approved the Romani Integration Strategy until 2020. The Romani Integration Strategy until 2020 builds on the previous conceptual materials, in particular the Romani Integration Concept for 2009 –2013 and proposes measures for the period ending in 2020. The Romani Integration Strategy until 2020 is also based on the Recommendation of the European Union Council on effective measures in the area of integration of Romani people in the member states which was adopted by the European Union Council on 9 December 2013. The interconnection to the policies implemented or coordinated at the European Union level and to international initiatives, particularly within the Council of Europe, following the initiative named The Decade of Romani Inclusion and the recommendations of United Nations control mechanisms is an integral part of the Romani Integration Strategy until 2020. The purpose of the Romani Integration Strategy until 2020 is to create a framework for measures to be implemented by 2020 to reverse the negative trends in the situation of a significant part of the Romani men and women in the Czech Republic in the areas of education, employment, dwelling, health and welfare, to start and accelerate positive changes which will gradually remove unjustified and unacceptable differences between the situation of the significant part of Romani people and the majority population, to ensure effective protection of Romani men and women against discrimination, to secure coexistence and encourage the development of Romani culture, language and participation of Romani people. The proposed measures should open a larger space for self-fulfilment in Romani men and women and enable them to resolve issues that have a significant impact on the Romani minority.
68.The specific goals of the Romani Integration Strategy until 2020 include, inter alia, increasing access of Romani children to high-quality pre-school education, removing segregation of Romani children in education at all levels, supporting Romani men and women in achieving secondary and tertiary education, supporting self-employment in Romani men and women, helping and protecting victims of discrimination, protecting Romani men and women against extremism and racially motivated crimes, supporting the involvement of representatives of the civil society in decision-making processes at local and regional levels and supporting creation of capacities of organizations of the Romani civil society. These goals pay special attention to Romani women who often face multiple discriminations.
69.In order to increase employment in women (living in rural areas), the Updated Measures of Priorities and Procedures of the Government in Implementing Equality for Women and Men contain the task to ensure support to self-employed women, including women running business in the field of agriculture and social entrepreneurship under targeted programmes within the grant policy. In connection with the fulfilment of this task, the Ministry of Agriculture has prepared the Rural Development Programme for the years 2014-2020 whose purpose is to set a strategy, priorities and measures for efficient and effective use of the funds of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in the Czech Republic. The Rural Development Programme includes, inter alia, measures supporting women who run business in agriculture to a greater extent. They are the measures of Activities Performed by New Young Farmers; the measure does not support entrepreneurs purposefully, however, the statistics show that almost 1/3 of the total number of supported applicants were women. Moreover, as to the measure of Tourism Support, mainly agricultural entrepreneurs involved in the area of agro-tourism building accommodation capacities in farms are involved.
70.The Czech Republic has not identified any barriers inhibiting women living in rural areas from loans or other financial instruments.
Marriage and family relations
71.In 2015, the National Economic Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic drew up, in cooperation with the Office of the Minister for Human Rights, Equal Opportunities and Legislation and the MLSA, the Analysis of Economic Consequences of Divorce Affecting Both Spouses. Its aim is to compare the economic situation of divorced and married households, quantify partial impacts of divorce on men and women and propose recommendations to reduce the negative economic impacts of divorce on women or men. A comparison of the economic activities of divorced couples, married couples and single people indicates a significant level of the so-called family division of work in the Czech Republic. Married men are rather engaged in market forms of work (employment and business), married women focus on non-market forms of work (care of children, relatives and household). The family division of work in case of divorce contributes to the negative economic impacts on women, since women face many obstacles in the labour market after divorce because of their career interruptions in connection with the care of children, relatives and household. The recommendations arising from this analysis include, inter alia, ensuring the availability of pre-school care facilities, supporting the use of flexible forms of work, establishing alternative alimony, motivating men to higher participation in care of the family and household or establishing common pension insurance for spouses. These recommendations comply with General Recommendation No. 29 (2013) of the Committee on Elimination of Discrimination against Women.