United Nations


International Covenant on Civil and Political R ights

Distr.: General

8 March 2023

Original: English

Human Rights Committee

137th session

Summary record of the 3959th meeting

Held at the Palais Wilson, Geneva, on Wednesday, 1 March 2023, at 10 a.m.

Chair:Ms. Abdo Rocholl


Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 40 of the Covenant (continued)

Fifth periodic report of Egypt (continued)

The meeting was called to order at 10 a.m.

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 40 of the Covenant (continued)

Fifth periodic report of Egypt (continued) (CCPR/C/EGY/5; CCPR/C/EGY/Q/5; CCPR/C/EGY/RQ/5)

At the invitation of the Chair, the delegation of Egypt joined the meeting.

The Chair invited the delegation to continue replying to the questions raised by Committee members at the previous meeting.

A representative of Egypt said that, with respect to the comment made the preceding day by Mr. El Haiba regarding his Government’s cooperation with the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, he would like to note that, in its report, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances had welcomed the level of cooperation shown by Egypt with the Working Group. His delegation would provide the Committee with a copy of that report.

The National Human Rights Commission had conducted 12 visits to correctional and rehabilitation centres in 2022. During those visits, it had examined the various centres’ records and verified that all inmates were being treated properly. The State Council had monitored the health of the inmates in such centres throughout the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic through on-site visits and other means and had ensured that all prisoners were vaccinated. Inspections were performed to investigate all complaints and on other occasions as well in order to verify that detainees were being treated in line with international human rights standards and that staff at the centres had undergone the necessary training. In October 2019 the State Council had introduced a new system of prison visits under which representatives of governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), including foreign experts, were permitted to visit the country’s prisons. In addition, 2 new prison complexes had been built to replace 15 existing prisons, and many of the inmates transferred from the old prisons had since been pardoned or placed on conditional release.

A representative of Egypt said that the case that had been reported concerning the alleged harassment of 28 persons because of their sexual orientation had actually involved a group of persons who had gathered to sell drugs. The police had been called to the scene and the disturbance had later escalated when some of the suspects had begun brandishing bladed weapons.

With regard to the question posed by Mr. Gómez Martínez regarding the independence of the Attorney General and the Public Prosecution Service, he would like to note that, in accordance with the Constitution, all judges, including the Public Prosecutor, were independent and irremovable. The Public Prosecutor was the head of the Public Prosecution Service, which was responsible for investigating criminal cases. The Public Prosecutor was selected from among the assistant public prosecutors and the sitting members of the Court of Cassation and the appellate courts. A general attorney, who reported to the Public Prosecutor, was appointed to each appellate court. The Supreme Judicial Council was responsible for overseeing all appointments and promotions.

A panel of serving judges within each appellate court was responsible for assigning cases – such as terrorism offences – to the appropriate specialized circuit courts. Those courts, while specialized, were ordinary tribunals, and the judges were competent to handle all types of offences. Defendants tried in specialized courts enjoyed all the usual due process and fair trial guarantees.

The Public Prosecution Service monitored all correctional and rehabilitation centres. Its records showed no deaths as a result of torture.

Mr. Marwan (Egypt) said that the death penalty was applicable only to the most serious criminal offences, not financial or unpremeditated crimes. It was compulsory only in certain cases and, when pronounced, had to be a unanimous decision of all members of the judicial panel hearing the case. Accused persons had the right to a lawyer and to present a defence. Confessions obtained under duress or through torture were inadmissible in court. The Grand Mufti was always consulted on such penalties. The Public Prosecution Service appealed all death sentences before the Court of Cassation, even if no appeal was lodged by the person who had been convicted. The Ministry of Justice also referred all such cases to the President, who had the authority to order a lesser penalty.

The death penalty could not be applied to persons who had been under the age of 18 at the time of the offence, pregnant women or mothers who had given birth within the preceding two years. Executions were carried out by hanging and in private. Convicted persons could meet with their families and with religious leaders on the day of their execution, and their lawyers must be permitted to attend the execution and read the execution order. Records were kept on all executions and included the condemned person’s final words and a copy of the death certificate signed by a forensic doctor. Executions could not be performed on national or religious holidays, and the cost was covered by the State, unless the family decided otherwise.

Mr. Soh said that, given the excessive use of pretrial detention in the country, he would welcome disaggregated data on the number of cases in which non-custodial measures had been used in the preceding three years. In addition, he wondered why no public record was kept of the number of persons held in detention pending investigation or trial.

It would be interesting to know whether the State party had thoroughly investigated allegations regarding the continued use of the practice known as “rotation” (tadweer) – in which detainees who had been granted release were immediately charged under a new case and returned to detention – and regarding the reported interference by the National Security Agency in the release of political prisoners and in the personal lives of former prisoners.

He wished to know how the State party guaranteed the right to conscientious objection to military service, including by providing non-discriminatory and non-punitive alternative community service options. He would be interested to find out what was being done to address the lack of legal rights for religious minorities and to amend laws and practices that discriminated against persons who did not belong to one of the three religions recognized in the Constitution.

Ms. Kpatcha Tchamdja said that it would be useful to learn what judicial and administrative procedures were in place for processing asylum cases in Egypt and what measures had been taken to identify persons in need of international protection at border crossing points. She would also appreciate the State party’s comments on reports that asylum-seekers, especially those from Eritrea, were being detained for long periods in inhumane conditions without access to adequate medical care or legal representation and that many of those who had been deported to Eritrea had subsequently been subjected to enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention, torture and ill-treatment. It would be useful to receive disaggregated data on the number of asylum-seekers currently in detention and on the length of time for which they had been detained.

She would welcome information on the mass trial of more than 700 individuals on 8 September 2018 in relation to the events of 14 October 2013, during which at least 900 anti-government protesters had been killed. She wished to know whether law enforcement officers had been held to account in relation to those events and what the Government’s response was to allegations that the trial had constituted a violation of article 14 of the Covenant. She would also appreciate information on the investigations carried out into the deaths of at least 281 protesters that had occurred on 5, 8 and 27 July and on 16 August 2013.

Mr. Gómez Martínez said that he wished to know for what crimes civilians could be tried by military courts, how many civilians had been tried by such courts in 2021 and 2022 and whether the military courts were fully independent and impartial.

It would be interesting to learn more about the appointment process for judges and public prosecutors, whether that process involved public examinations or an initial training period and whether there was a judicial school. Given that the heads of judicial bodies were appointed directly by the President, he wondered how the State party avoided the politicization of the judiciary and whether appointments were made on the basis of seniority and in line with the recommendations of the Supreme Council for Judicial Bodies and Entities. He would like to know whether all members of that Council were selected by the President and, if so, how such an approach was compatible with international standards on the independence of the judiciary and whether the principle of the irremovability of judges was fully respected.

He would welcome disaggregated data on the number of cases still pending before the Emergency State Security Courts, including the nature of the criminal offences involved in each case. Furthermore, he wished to know whether Alaa Abdel Fattah, Mohamed al-Baqer, Mohamed Ibrahim, Hoda Abdel Moneim, Aisha al-Shater and Mohamed Abo Horiera were awaiting trial or had already been tried by such a court and, if so, whether any of them had been convicted. He would like to know whether it was true that, on 15 January 2023, 82 persons arrested in connection with the 2019 and 2020 protests had been convicted by an Emergency State Security Court and had been sentenced to prison for periods ranging from five years to life. He would be keen to learn what statute governed those courts, what their terms of reference were and what the procedure was for appointing judges to them.

Lastly, he wished to know what the Government’s response was to allegations that lawyers had been subjected to harassment, intimidation, unlawful pretrial detention and other forms of arbitrary detention, torture, ill-treatment and enforced disappearance; what measures had been taken to protect lawyers from attempts to intimidate them and to punish persons who sought to do so; and what the outcome of the cases of Islam Salama and Ibrahim Metwally had been.

Ms. Tigroudja said that, while she appreciated the delegation’s response regarding the alleged harassment of 28 persons because of their sexual orientation, she would welcome further clarification, given that the victims had reportedly been arrested on charges of debauchery, not drug-related offences, and had been subjected to anal examinations.

She would also appreciate information on measures taken to step up efforts to identify victims of trafficking in persons and of sexual and economic exploitation, to provide them with support and to shield them from prosecution. She also wished to know what progress had been made in the construction of the new reception centres for such persons.

It would be useful to know what measures had been taken to guarantee the independence and impartiality of the Political Parties Committee and ensure that it was able to fulfil its role in upholding the principle of democratic pluralism and preventing the repression of opposition parties. She wondered whether all rejected applications to establish or dissolve a political party were reviewed by independent and impartial judicial entities and whether the Government planned to amend the country’s laws on the establishment, registration and dissolution of political parties in order to fully prohibit the discriminatory and excessive restriction of the democratic expression of ideas.

Mr. El Haiba said that he wished to know how the legislative restrictions on the freedoms of expression, association and assembly – in particular those that allowed news websites to be blocked and that set out extensive administrative formalities to be completed before journalists could publish certain types of information – were compatible with article 19 of the Covenant. He would also like to hear the State party’s views on reports that it controlled the majority of the media and that it was censuring independent online media outlets.

Further information on Act No. 143 of 2019, which governed the establishment of civil society organizations, and on subsequent amendments of that law would be useful. He wished to know how many persons detained on charges relating to non-violent offences had been released since the adoption of that law and what measures were in place to ensure that all attacks on the life and dignity of human rights defenders were investigated and that human rights organizations were able to operate freely.

It would be useful to know whether citizens who wished to organize a public meeting were obliged to obtain authorization and whether the provisions of Act No. 107 of 2013 governing the right to public assembly were compatible with the Committee’s general comment No. 37. In the light of the State party’s assertion that the use of lethal force by security forces against peaceful protesters was justified as a legitimate form of defence, he wondered whether that conclusion was the result of a judicial investigation. It would be helpful to know whether investigations had been carried out into other allegations of the disproportionate use of force in the preceding five years, especially in connection with the protests of 20 and 21 November 2019, and, if so, whether those investigations had led to any criminal proceedings or convictions.

Ms. Kran said that she would appreciate information on the rationale behind the charges of offending members of Parliament lodged against three women journalists who worked for Mada Masr, especially as those charges appeared to be an attempt to stifle those journalists’ voices in violation of the right to freedom of expression.

The meeting was suspended at 11.05 a.m. and resumed at 11.25 a.m.

A representative of Egypt said that the State had conducted numerous studies on the grave problem of violence against women. Schoolchildren were taught about human rights, including women’s right to freedom of choice and protection from harassment. Training programmes were available for Muslim and Christian women who were preparing to enter marriage, and family-focused camps were organized to support positive child-rearing approaches.

The Government was training religious leaders to conduct door-to-door awareness-raising campaigns throughout Egypt with the aim of combating violence against women. More than 6,000 leaders had received the training thus far. By the end of 2022, some 4.4 million doorstep visits had been conducted. The Government was also working with mosques and churches to promote respect for women and to encourage religious leaders to denounce domestic violence during their sermons.

A bill had been drafted that would broaden the scope of the offence of domestic violence, strengthen the existing penalties, set out additional protections and provide for further awareness-raising activities and rehabilitation and support services. Performance arts were used extensively as part of current awareness-raising campaigns, and innovative programmes had been introduced to promote the economic empowerment of women. Customary reconciliation sessions had been replaced by family reconciliation sessions.

A representative of Egypt said that the Government did not target journalists, human rights defenders or lawyers. Persons working in those professions enjoyed special protection under the Constitution, and public prosecutors investigated crimes committed against such persons. Journalists, lawyers and human rights defenders did not have criminal immunity, however, and the law provided for prison sentences for offences such as the publication of content that was discriminatory or that incited violence.

Military conscription was essential to the survival of the State and the protection of its people. By law, only men over the age of 18 could be conscripted into the military. Regulations were in place to ensure the physical and mental safety of persons performing military service, and exemptions and deferrals could be granted. In certain cases, men who had not completed their military service could perform community service as an alternative.

The Supreme Council for Judicial Bodies and Entities did not play a role in litigation or interfere in cases; rather, it worked to ensure the smooth operation of the courts and the independence of the judiciary by, among other things, defining the rules and conditions for judicial appointments and disciplinary action.

Military judges were independent members of the judiciary. The heads of the military court system were themselves judges. Military judges were subject to the same conditions and legal guarantees as those presiding over civilian courts, including with regard to their irremovability, as well as additional decency and service requirements. Sessions of the military courts were always public. The channels for appeal were equivalent to those available in civilian courts. Human rights violations were not tried by military courts.

The seniority principle was applied in the appointment of head judges, except in the event of medical incapacity. Judges could serve until the age of 70 years. The procedure for nominating candidates to appeals courts and the special general assembly of the State Council guaranteed the independence of the judiciary. The law set out the conditions and requirements for the appointment of judges and public prosecutors, and all staff members of the Public Prosecution Service were required to complete a six-month basic training course.

A representative of Egypt said that article 64 of the Constitution specified that freedom of belief was absolute, while article 53 established that discrimination and incitement to hatred were crimes punishable by law. Pursuant to article 161 bis (a) of the Criminal Code, discrimination on the basis of religion or creed, among other grounds, was punishable by imprisonment and/or a fine.

On 4 February 2017, the Supreme Constitutional Court had ruled that freedom of belief was an inherent freedom that could not be suspended or curtailed. In 2009, the Supreme Administrative Court had found that all citizens had the right to obtain official documents, including birth certificates and national identity cards, without disclosing their religion. Members of the Baha’i community had their own cemeteries.

Under Act No. 80 of 2016 on the construction and restoration of churches, it was a crime to prevent the performance of religious rites in places of worship. The Supreme Council of Antiquities was restoring places of worship across the country, including churches damaged by the Muslim Brotherhood. Steps were being taken to monitor the implementation of the National Human Rights Strategy, which promoted tolerance and respect for all religions.

A representative of Egypt said that domestic workers who entered the country legally on the basis of an employment contract were issued residence permits and were helped to return to their countries of origin if they so wished. Complaints of abuse filed by domestic workers were handled impartially, with no discrimination as to nationality. Labour inspections were carried out throughout the year to monitor working conditions. Act No. 64 of 2010 on human trafficking was in line with the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.

Crimes could be reported through hotlines operated by the National Council for Human Rights, the National Council for Women and the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood. A mechanism was in place for the referral of cases to the competent authorities. There were nine shelters for women victims of violence in the country, and the President had ordered the creation of seven more. A special shelter had been opened for trafficking victims, who received psychosocial support from trained professionals. Funds had been set up to provide various forms of support to migrants, including assistance with their voluntary return to their home country, and to trafficking victims.

The third National Anti-Trafficking Strategy, which covered the period 2022–2026, had been launched in September 2022. The Government ran multilingual media campaigns to raise awareness of the risks of trafficking in persons, shared relevant information with international organizations and had signed cooperation agreements with civil society organizations working to combat trafficking in persons.

A representative of Egypt said that there were an estimated 9 million migrants, asylum-seekers and refugees in the country, accounting for 8.7 per cent of the total population. Their average age was 35.2 years, roughly 52 per cent were men, they stayed for an average of 11 to 11.5 years, and most were from the Sudan, the Syrian Arab Republic, Libya or Yemen. The number of asylum-seekers and refugees stood at 290,000, including 21,000 from Eritrea. The Government endeavoured to create the conditions necessary for their safe and dignified return to their home countries.

An asylum bill was being drafted with the aims of registering all asylum-seekers and providing them with appropriate services. The registration system had been digitized. Refugees and asylum-seekers were never held in detention centres and were entitled to freedom of movement, equality before the law and free education and health care, including sexual and reproductive health services. Egypt abided by the principle of non-refoulement. Asylum-seekers and refugees who entered the country illegally were not punished, provided that they promptly registered and cooperated with the authorities. Special assistance was provided to vulnerable groups such as unaccompanied minors. The Government liaised with foreign embassies and other government agencies to arrange for the return of migrants who had entered Egypt illegally.

A representative of Egypt said that safeguards were in place to ensure the appropriate use of pretrial detention, which could be ordered only for persons accused of offences punishable by imprisonment of at least 1 year who were considered to be a flight risk or a threat to public safety and security. It could be imposed for an initial period of 3 months, extendable for up to 1 year. The length of pretrial detention depended on the reason for its imposition and the gravity of the alleged crime. Legal alternatives to pretrial detention included an obligation to report to a police station twice a day and house arrest. The cases of persons already being held in pretrial detention had to be reviewed in order for a second spell of detention to be imposed. Pretrial detention ordered by courts of first instance could not exceed one third of the maximum period of imprisonment prescribed for the alleged crime. In cases in which the death penalty was applicable, pretrial detention could last for a renewable period of 45 days. In Egypt, no one was held in pretrial detention for longer than the periods prescribed by law. As for allegations of “rotation” (tadweer), it should be noted that all court decisions could be appealed. Persons could be released and rearrested immediately if, for example, they were implicated in multiple cases. The Government cooperated with civil society organizations that received reports of abuse concerning persons being held in pretrial detention.

The President had established a national committee to gather evidence concerning the events of 30 June 2013, which had led to thousands of deaths and injuries. The committee had published its first report on 27 November of that year. The Office of the Public Prosecutor had cooperated with other legal bodies to conduct investigations and identify perpetrators of abuses.

The case involving clashes between protesters and the military at the Republican Guard headquarters in Cairo on 8 July 2013 had been referred to a military court, given that the headquarters was a military facility. The Office of the Public Prosecutor had launched an inquiry into the events of 14 August 2013 at Rabaa and al-Nahda Squares. The Office of the Public Prosecutor had authorized the dispersal of the al-Nahda Square sit-in by the security forces, during which 1 police officer had been killed and 6 others had been injured, along with 18 soldiers. For their involvement in the unrest, 17 persons had been sentenced to life imprisonment and 23 had been sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment.

On 31 July 2013, 739 protesters had been arrested and 79 of them had later been convicted of various offences, including complicity in gangs that had murdered civilians, police officers and soldiers, illegally detained 19 police officers, ransacked and destroyed public institutions and private property, and used firearms and explosives.

On 11 September 2018, following public trials, the Cairo Criminal Court had sentenced 75 persons to death, 47 to life imprisonment and 43 to 10 years’ imprisonment. On appeal, a majority of the sentences had been upheld, but 41 individuals had been acquitted.

The Office of the Public Prosecutor had investigated the events surrounding the mass protests held in September 2019 and had subsequently ordered the release of several persons who had been held under provisional arrest. In the case in which the editor-in-chief and three journalists of the media platform Mada Masr had been accused of defamation and spreading false news, the defendants had been questioned in the presence of their lawyers before being released and granted compensation. After a period of pretrial detention, Mohamed El-Baqer had been sentenced to 4 years’ imprisonment on 20 December 2021 for spreading false news that undermined national security and for involvement in terrorist networks. Alaa Abd El-Fattah, who had previously been on parole, had been convicted of the same offences and sentenced to 5 years’ imprisonment. In July 2022, he had been transferred to a different detention centre. To date, he had received eight family visits. The Public Prosecutor himself had conducted inspections of Mr. Abd El-Fattah’s detention conditions, most recently in November 2022. Asked if he had any complaints, Mr. Abd El-Fattah had refused to answer certain questions and had requested a watch, television and Internet access. He had undergone a medical examination, which had revealed no signs of ill-treatment or torture. Lawyers had confirmed that all legal requirements had been satisfied during the proceedings against Mr. Abd El-Fattah.

The arrest of the 28 men on suspicion of debauchery had followed an argument over excessive noise coming from an apartment during which the apartment owner had been attacked. The police officers who had intervened had concluded that the apartment was being used for illegal acts and had found large quantities of drugs and pornographic material. The Public Prosecution Service had ordered medical examinations of the persons arrested to ensure that they were free of communicable diseases.

A representative of Egypt said that the Emergency State Security Courts, whose jurisdiction was set out by law, were presided over by judges from the ordinary courts and followed the same rules of procedure, with some exceptions regarding the right to appeal. While they would continue to hear cases that had already been referred to them in order to deliver justice swiftly, cases that fell under their jurisdiction but that had not yet been referred to them would now be heard in the ordinary courts. The Emergency State Security Courts had followed due process and delivered fair trials; 62 per cent of the more than 53,000 cases that they had heard had resulted in acquittals.

A representative of Egypt said that the Government endeavoured to build a relationship of trust with civil society; as part of that effort, it had adopted Act No. 149 of 2019 on the pursuit of civil work, which addressed the shortcomings of previous legislation and guaranteed civil society’s rights under the Covenant. Civil society had submitted more than 1,100 proposals through the National Dialogue Initiative, during which representatives of foreign NGOs, donor agencies and foreign embassies had highlighted problems with existing legislation and shared best practices from other countries. Administrative and financial obstacles faced by civil society had been eliminated by, for example, ensuring that State intervention in the establishment of civil society associations was minimal. All custodial sentences for offences relating to the activities of civil society organizations had been replaced by fines, and the grace period for regularizing the status of such organizations and NGOs had been extended. Those types of organizations were now allowed to receive funds from abroad, which they must report within 60 days of receipt.

A consultative committee comprising 25 civil society representatives had contributed to the formulation of the National Human Rights Strategy, which had also been the subject of consultations with the National Council for Human Rights, the House of Representatives, trade unions and think tanks. Civil society had also participated in the universal periodic review midterm reporting process and in meetings with the secretariat of the Supreme Standing Committee for Human Rights. Proposals to improve the role of civil society had been made via a dedicated platform for dialogue between civil society and the State, and government funding for civil society initiatives had risen significantly. Attacks on any human rights defender were a crime, and all reports of such attacks were duly investigated and the guilty parties prosecuted.

The law upheld the integrity and independence of the press. The Egyptian Press Syndicate had more than 9,000 members. Journalists were not required to reveal their sources and, if they were suspected of having acted with ill-intent, their homes and offices could be searched only with a warrant. A balance had been struck between ensuring freedom of expression and preventing hate speech and the incitement of extremism. Legislation on cybercrime balanced freedom of opinion and the right to privacy while combating illegal uses of the media. The Government provided statistical and other information through, for example, the Official Gazette, websites, social media and documentation units within all administrative and government offices. Records were kept in physical and digital formats, and communication with the public concerning the Government’s activities and budget allocations had been improved.

Mr. Soh said that it would be useful to know whether any of the 12 visits made to prisons in 2022 had been unannounced and whether inspectors had been able to conduct confidential interviews with detainees of their choice. He wished to know whether there had been any complaints of the deliberate medical neglect of prisoners; whether political prisoners were subject to punitive measures such as prolonged solitary confinement; and in what capacity, and on what grounds, the National Security Agency could block the release of political prisoners, even when they had been acquitted.

Ms. Tigroudja said that she would be interested to know whether there was a proactive policy on the identification of trafficking victims and how many shelters for victims of that crime there were. The case involving the arrest of the 28 men – reportedly solely on grounds of debauchery rather than the possession of drugs or pornography – constituted the biggest mass arrest linked to sexual orientation in Egypt in the last 20 years. The Committee had received information that those persons had been subjected to forced anal examinations, which constituted torture and was therefore banned under the Covenant.

Mr. Gómez Martínez said that he would like to know whether all the members of the Supreme Judicial Council were appointed by the President and whether there had been a resolution of the tense situation that had reportedly arisen between the President and the Council because of the President’s failure to respect the principle of seniority when appointing court presidents. It would also be useful to know whether the State intelligence services were controlled by a judicial authority or another body that was independent of the Government.

A representative of Egypt said that an independent judicial committee considered applications for the registration of political parties, whose aims and activities must not contravene the Constitution or be intended to further any agenda relating to religion, geography or sexual orientation. Parties must not have links to military or paramilitary bodies or be branches of foreign political parties. That committee could request the court-ordered dissolution of a political party should any of those conditions not be met. In 2022, civil society had proposed 32 amendments to human rights legislation.

A representative of Egypt said that the 12 prison visits mentioned previously had been carried out by the National Council for Human Rights. The Public Prosecution Service also undertook periodic unannounced inspections of all prisons, and the resulting reports were sent to the Service’s Human Rights Department, which took any necessary action. The Public Prosecution Service also received reports on prisoners’ medical conditions and could adopt a number of measures in response, including their release on medical grounds. Prisoners received medical treatment when needed. Solitary confinement of up to 30 days could be used to punish violations of prison regulations.

Mr. Marwan (Egypt) said that the Committee’s recommendations would be followed up by the Supreme Standing Committee for Human Rights, which would also monitor the implementation of the National Human Rights Strategy. The necessary action was being taken to address the isolated cases of violations of Covenant rights that were committed, along with measures for dealing with the numerous economic and political challenges facing the country, all of which only gave greater impetus to the Government’s commitment to cooperation with the Committee and other international human rights organizations. The Committee’s input would be of great assistance to the Government as it strove to guarantee the right to decent lives for the Egyptian people.

The Chair said that the Committee had noted the commitment to the reporting process displayed by the delegation and the State party’s efforts to implement the Covenant, particularly in such areas as enforced disappearance, the situation of women and girls, and non-discrimination.

The meeting rose at 1 p.m.