Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
Summary record of the 1827th meeting
Held at the Palais des Nations, Geneva, on Thursday, 28 October 2021, at 10 a.m.
Chair:Ms. Narain (Rapporteur)
Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention (continued)
Eigh th periodic report of Indonesia
In the absence of Ms. Acosta Vargas (Chair), Ms. Narain (Rapporteur) took the Chair.
The meeting was called to order at 10 a.m.
Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention (continued)
Eighth periodic report of Indonesia (CEDAW/C/IDN/8; CEDAW/C/IDN/Q/8; CEDAW/C/IDN/RQ/8)
1.At the invitation of the Chair, the delegation of Indonesia took places at the Committee table.
2.The Chair said that, at the invitation of the Committee, other members of the delegation would be speaking via video link.
3.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, introducing her country’s eighth periodic report (CEDAW/C/IDN/8), said that the strong commitment of Indonesia to the promotion and protection of women’s rights was clearly reflected in the country’s Constitution and laws. Gender mainstreaming had been incorporated into its national development strategies, and women were one of the priority groups of the recently adopted fifth National Action Plan on Human Rights. The Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection was responsible for formulating, regulating and coordinating the implementation of policies for women’s empowerment and child protection.
4.In line with its international commitments, the Government was focusing its efforts on facilitating women’s access to education and health services, protecting women from discrimination and violence by establishing task forces at the national and local levels, boosting the economic participation of women through collaboration with the private sector, and carrying out activities to raise awareness of gender equality. The country also advocated for women’s rights through international cooperation frameworks such as the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and it sought to raise the profile of women’s rights in the context of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic at international forums, including the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Ministerial Meeting on Women.
5.The COVID-19 pandemic had considerably set back progress at the national and global levels. Since March 2020, the Government had taken comprehensive measures in order to strike a balance between saving lives and mitigating the pandemic’s devastating impact on the economy. As a result of the introduction of an intensive vaccination programme in mid-2021, more than 100 million people had been vaccinated, a figure that was expected to double by the end of the year. Nevertheless, the Government maintained its cautious approach in view of the potential for new mutations of the virus.
6.The pandemic had disproportionately affected women and girls. Owing to the large number of cases and the lack of health-care facilities during the early stages of the pandemic, female front-line care workers had been particularly exposed. However, the number of fatalities had since been reduced with an intensive vaccination policy and expanded health-care facilities. Better awareness of health protocols and online medical care had also played a role. The Government had significantly increased expenditure on, and the scope of, social protection programmes, including the provision of staple foods and financial support for low-income families. Approximately 203.9 trillion rupiah (Rp) had been allocated to that end.
7.The relevant ministries, in cooperation with various stakeholders, had taken measures to promote entrepreneurship among women, including capacity-building in the form of online training. In the context of the pandemic, financial assistance had been provided to over 9 million micro-businesses as of October 2020 as part of a major stimulus package.
8.The police had stepped up efforts to address domestic violence during the pandemic by establishing special assistance desks for women and children in all provinces and providing training on the issue to female police officers. The Ministry of Law and Human Rights had issued regulations granting leave, parole and conditional release for inmates in order to slow the spread of the virus. In 2020–2021, just over 4,700 female inmates had been granted leave as part of a community reintegration programme. The Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection had set up a telephone service to allow victims and whistle-blowers to lodge complaints concerning violence against women and children. To simplify legal processes, the Supreme Court had also issued regulations to conduct trials electronically.
9.Ms. Werdaningtyas (Indonesia) said that implementation of the Convention continued to evolve, especially in response to issues such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Indonesia had made significant progress in terms of including women as part of its foreign policy and strove to ensure that the norms and values of the Convention were embedded in the work of multilateral and bilateral forums.
10.Indonesia worked to ensure protection for women migrant workers and called for efforts to advocate for universal ratification of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. The country’s commitment to promoting women in decision-making, which was instrumental especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, was reflected in the make-up of its delegations and representatives to various international bodies, including the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
11.Mr. Damanik (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the National Commission on Violence against Women was a key source of data and information in areas affecting women’s rights, such as violence, discrimination, intolerance and harmful traditional practices. It had been cited as a source in many reports by the Government and civil society organizations.
12.The National Commission on Human Rights had set up a team tasked with encouraging the Government to adopt measures to protect women human rights defenders. The Commission appreciated the efforts made by the Government in combating discrimination against women but urged it to give women’s rights greater priority in its policies and laws.
13.Much progress had been achieved in the promotion of women’s rights through cooperation with civil society and other stakeholders, including the removal of the requirement for women to pass a virginity test to be recruited into the army and the adoption of a regulation by the Ministry of Education and Culture to combat sexual violence in education institutions. However, discriminatory laws at the regional level continued to be a problem, and the National Commission on Violence against Women would assist the Ministry of Home Affairs in enhancing its mechanism for reviewing regional legislation that conflicted with national human rights laws. The Government should call upon the authorities of Aceh Province to urgently amend the provisions of the Islamic Criminal Code on rape and sexual violence, since the way in which those provisions were implemented often led to impunity and put victims at risk of reprisals.
14.The bill on sexual violence currently being debated by the House of Representatives should cover all types of sexual crime and enhance support for victims. It should also address online gender-based violence against women which, according to the National Commission on Violence against Women, had increased threefold between 2019 and 2020.
15.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that her Government welcomed the contribution from the national human rights institutions, with which it hoped to work on promoting women’s rights.
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16.Ms. Manalo said that she would appreciate an explanation of how the State party harmonized the various legislative and policy measures targeting women’s empowerment and gender equality at all levels of government.
17.Provisions of the draft new Criminal Code violated the rights of women, religious minorities and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transexual persons, along with the principles of freedom of speech and association; sex workers were also criminalized and threatened with forced marriage. In that connection, she hoped that the Government would commit to setting up an action plan to ensure the repeal of all laws at all levels of government that discriminated against women and girls and to prohibit all discriminatory policies. She would welcome an explanation of how the requirement to wear a jilbab, under hijab regulations, was being overcome, since such a requirement violated women’s human rights. She wondered what specific steps were being taken to bring an end to the virginity testing still practised by the Indonesian military on female potential recruits, since such testing was a form of gender-based violence that constituted sexual assault. She hoped that the Ministry of Health would issue a public statement condemning virginity tests.
18.There were reports, dating back to 2015, of numerous cases of intimidation, humiliation and arbitrary arrest on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity; moreover, sexual activity outside marriage was punishable by custodial sentences of 1 year under the draft new Criminal Code. Since such measures violated both the Constitution and the country’s international human rights obligations, she hoped that the Government would inform officials, the Indonesian public and the wider world that it opposed criminalization of sexual activity outside marriage and within same-sex couples.
19.Lastly, she would welcome information on the effectiveness of the National Action Plan for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection in Social Conflict in achieving its stated aims.
20.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the Government had implemented a mechanism to ensure that all local regulations were in line with national legislation and international human rights commitments. In accordance with the 1945 Constitution, the Government always promoted equality for all and protection from all forms of violence through the country’s laws and their implementation.
21.Ms. Susianawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the Constitution guaranteed all Indonesian citizens equality before the law in all aspects of national life. The Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection sought to anticipate discriminatory local regulations by means of a review process that comprised several stages, including review by the Supreme Court. In addition, the Ministry was drafting a piece of legislation on gender equality, for which it was drawing on the Gender Equality Parameters.
22.Mr. Abdi (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that, while the Constitution had been enacted in 1945, the Criminal Code had, in practice, been in force for almost a century; it was based on a text previously used in the Netherlands that had, in turn, been based on the French Criminal Code. The Government was, accordingly, looking to overhaul its criminal legislation to bring it into line with the demands of the Indonesian public and international standards. Rather than being solely focused on retributive justice, the new Criminal Code would include preventive and restorative elements. Input had been sought from various Government ministries, including the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection, and from non-governmental organizations and the national human rights institution. It was also in line with Law No.12 of 2005 on ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
23.The Ministry of Law and Human Rights was continuously reviewing local regulations that might be deemed discriminatory, to ensure that they were in line with the 1945 Constitution. The Ministry was also focusing on matters surrounding the criminalization of sexual activity outside marriage and within same-sex couples in the drafting of the new Criminal Code.
24.Ms. Suharti (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that schools could not force hijab on students, in particular non-Muslims. Students were entitled to decide what uniform they wore, in accordance with their own religion or beliefs.
25.Ms. Andriani (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that there was no virginity test for female recruits to the Indonesian National Police. However, the health examination, which involved supervision by the Indonesian Medical Association, did include a genital examination. To date, there had been no complaints of discrimination or trauma in relation to such examinations.
26.Mr. Buntoro (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the recruitment of female soldiers to the National Armed Forces involved a holistic examination that included mental and reproductive health; there was no virginity test. The test that was conducted was not intended to be discriminatory against women; rather, its purpose was to guarantee that potential soldiers were healthy in mind and spirit.
27.Mr. Notohamijoyo (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the Ministry for Human Development and Culture had, in 2012, established a working group responsible for protecting women and children in social conflict. Representatives of the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection, the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Indonesian National Police were involved in the working group, which helped to coordinate any work done by ministries and institutions in relation to protecting women and children in social conflict. First launched in 2014, the National Action Plan for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection in Social Conflict had, in 2021, been renewed until 2025. It was intended to be used by all relevant ministries in determining local regulations and was divided into components dealing with prevention, handling and participation.
28.Ms. Werdaningtyas (Indonesia) said that, in order to ensure that local regulations were in line with national law, they were subject to judicial review through the Supreme Court or Constitutional Court; to legislative review through the National House of Representatives or the Local House of Representatives; and to executive review. Those processes enabled the Ministry of Home Affairs to repeal local regulations that breached national legislation, including in respect of human rights.
29.Through a series of reviews conducted with input from relevant ministries, institutions and stakeholders, including the national human rights institution and civil society organizations, the Ministry of Law and Human Rights had identified some 85 intolerant and discriminatory local regulations that were still in force. One regulation had been revised, 8 had been revoked and 28 were still under review.
30.Ms. Manalo said that she wished to repeat an earlier question. She hoped that the Government would inform officials and the Indonesian public that it opposed criminalization of sexual activity outside marriage and within same-sex couples.
31.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that no such regulations had been enacted by the Government of Indonesia.
32.Mr. Abdi (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that, while there were community and religious laws at the local level that were very strict, they did not specifically provide for the punishment of persons who engaged in sexual activity outside marriage. Provided that such activity was consensual and lawful, he did not think that the courts would consider it, as it was a very private matter.
33.Mr. Simanjuntak (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that reports of violence against women had been declining throughout Indonesia since 2015. The most frequently reported acts of violence against women and children were domestic violence; rape; sexual harassment; and sexual exploitation, pornography and economic exploitation.
34.Ms. Chalal said that she wished to know what proportion of the human, financial and technical resources allocated to the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection were dedicated to women’s empowerment and gender equality activities, and whether the Government intended to establish a permanent body that focused exclusively on women’s rights. She would appreciate receiving information on the Bill on Gender Equality and Justice and on coordination among the many agencies working in the area of women’s rights. She wondered whether there were concerns that such a large number of agencies could dilute their effectiveness and create confusion.
35.She asked whether the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection enjoyed the support of the political authorities at all levels; whether a mechanism for monitoring and evaluation of women’s empowerment and gender equality programmes was already in place; and whether the State party gathered statistical data to measure the impact of its women’s empowerment and child protection programmes. It would be useful to know whether the State party had undertaken a study on the impact of the use of digital platforms on awareness-raising programmes, and whether it planned to strengthen the analysis and reporting mechanisms of human rights institutions in relation to women’s and girls’ rights.
36.Ms. Akizuki said that, given that just 21 per cent of the State party’s parliamentarians were women, she would welcome information on any plans to introduce temporary special measures to reach the internationally recognized target of 30 per cent in both national and local governments, as well as to ensure the participation of women, particularly indigenous women, in political life and decision-making in rural areas. She also asked whether the State party planned to introduce temporary special measures in other areas where de facto or substantive equality with men was not yet a reality, such as education, employment and health.
37.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the budget of the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection had been increased in 2021 to enable it to fulfil its function of coordinating policies across Government bodies. Responsibility for women’s empowerment and child protection did not lie with the Ministry alone.
38.Mr. Sitepu (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that financial resources for addressing violence against women and children were allocated to regional authorities and several ministries, in addition to the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection. Government budgets took women’s needs into account.
39.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection worked with the planning authorities to coordinate policies.
40.Ms. Rosalin (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that a national working group on gender mainstreaming had been established in which all Government ministries and institutions participated. Gender focal points had been appointed in all ministries and at the provincial and city/regency levels, and there were plans to introduce them in villages. The impact of ministries’ gender mainstreaming activities at the provincial and city levels was analysed, and data on gender was gathered at those levels to facilitate coordination among ministries and regional governments in the planning, budgeting, implementation, evaluation and auditing of gender mainstreaming activities.
41.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that a model woman-friendly village was being developed to further promote the empowerment, protection and rights of women and girls.
42.Mr. Sardjoko (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the Ministry of National Development Planning ensured that gender responsiveness and gender mainstreaming were incorporated into development planning. A set of guidelines had been produced to support gender responsiveness in budgets, which was also subject to evaluation, and work was being done to draft a presidential decree on budget planning that would contain provisions for monitoring and evaluation by the Ministry of National Development Planning and the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection.
43.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that online gender-based violence had increased during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
44.Ms. Susianawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that gender-based violence in general had increased significantly during the pandemic. The rise in online gender-based violence was linked to the increased use of social media platforms and had been addressed through public education measures that promoted the productive use of those platforms.
45.Ms. Rosalin (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that an assessment undertaken by a number of ministries had revealed the positive impact on gender equality of online platforms, which facilitated education for women in remote areas, helped to raise awareness of legislation among women and allowed women entrepreneurs in villages to access training. The Government was working with civil society and universities to harness those platforms.
46.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection continued to strengthen its coordination with other ministries to analyse gender mainstreaming and equality in Indonesia and to respond to the specific needs of women in line with Indonesian culture.
47.Mr. Abdi (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that a range of human rights institutions and non-governmental organizations, including the National Commission on Human Rights and the National Commission on Violence Against Women, worked to protect women and children and contributed to policies and legislation.
48.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that efforts to increase women’s political representation had been successful at all levels, and the current leader of parliament was a woman. Women’s membership of the House of Regional Representatives exceeded 30 per cent. Women’s political representation at the grass-roots level was encouraged through leadership training in villages, and increasing numbers of women were elected as village leaders.
49.Ms. Rosalin (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that a strategy was under development that would increase women’s representation in national and regional legislative bodies. Leadership training for women in villages had been strengthened in an effort to increase their representation on village consultative councils and as village leaders, and it was hoped that local and city governments would build on those efforts. Temporary special measures to increase women’s participation in decision-making included training in dedicated offices at the city and regency levels and work with regional leaders.
50.Ms. Manalo said that she would welcome information on the public perception of the Serempak and Setara interactive digital programmes and the Government’s plans for them. She asked whether the State party would increase the financial and human resources of the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection; they had last risen in 2018.
51.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the Ministry for the Empowerment of Women and Child Protection prioritized women’s economic empowerment through entrepreneurship, while also focusing on women heads of families, women survivors of natural disasters and women victims of sexual violence. Data had been gathered to inform decisions on an increase to its budget.
52.Ms. Rosalin (Indonesia), speaking via video link, said that the Serempak and Setara programmes had been included in the Government’s 2021 evaluation of all gender mainstreaming programmes in the field of development. Although gender disparity had decreased only slightly, the two programmes had been found to have had a positive impact.
53.Ms. Rana said that the Committee was concerned about the increase in the number of reported cases of gender-based violence since the previous reporting period. In 2019, the number of sexual violence cases involving girls had increased sharply, and intolerance and violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people had been rising steadily in recent years. Online gender-based violence and sexual violence, including the revictimization of victims, had been in evidence in online spaces, particularly among younger people. She would appreciate a response from the delegation regarding the Government’s efforts to address those issues.
54.Despite multiple laws and regulations related to domestic violence, incidents of domestic violence continued unabated. The State party needed urgently to confront the factors that gave rise to violence against women by adopting serious measures and policies and ensuring their effective implementation, in line with its obligations under the Convention.
55.Although the bill on the elimination of sexual violence had been prioritized in the National Legislative Program since 2016, it had not been adopted into law. She asked whether the delegation could provide a definite timeline for the adoption and full implementation of the bill. She wished to know what measures were in place to ensure that all forms of gender-based violence against women were criminalized, prosecuted and prevented, and that survivors of violence had timely access to justice and redress.
56.Gender-based violence had increased dramatically during the COVID-19 crisis, with the highest number of reports being of domestic violence, followed by online gender-based violence. The pandemic had also made it more difficult for victims to report gender-based violence. It would be helpful to have a detailed account of how the Government had formulated its COVID-19 response plan and to know whether women had been placed at the centre of the plan, as recommended in the Committee’s Guidance Note on COVID-19. She would like to know how many women were included in the task forces on the COVID-19 response and whether there had been an increase in the budget to organizations providing support services, such as shelter services and psychosocial counselling.
57.Indonesia was one of the top three countries with the highest rates of female genital mutilation, and 49 per cent of girls up to the age of 11 had been circumcised. Although the Ministry of Health had banned health personnel from performing female circumcision in 2006, that practice had continued. She asked what steps the State party planned to take in order to enact and implement the law to fully prohibit and criminalize all forms of female genital mutilation. She would welcome information on its plans to conduct widespread awareness-raising campaigns on the negative impacts of female genital mutilation, and on gender stereotyping, particularly programmes to engage with men and boys and religious leaders.
58.The conversion therapy that was practised against transgender persons and the counselling thrust upon members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex community were matters of concern. She wished to know what efforts the State party had made to prohibit such practices and to abolish the laws under which they were carried out. She asked how much of the hearing of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in 2018 had been related to conflict-related sexual violence.
59.Ms. Gabr said that she would like to know whether the Government might consider increasing the budget for victim protection and the national task force on trafficking in persons. Victim protection services were provided through the Ministry of Social Affairs and local centres for women and children in all 34 provinces. She asked how the centres were managed and funded; what level of cooperation they engaged in with civil society and international organizations; whether victim services were available in rural areas; and whether they were coordinated at the local level.
60.She wished to know whether laws at the national and subnational levels were translated into practical guidance to facilitate their implementation. She asked what steps the parliament and the Government were taking to promote the adoption of the bill on protection of domestic workers, and what was being done to formulate rules and regulations that focused on women migrant workers in implementation of Law No. 18/2017 on Protection of Migrant Workers. She would welcome further information on Government efforts to protect women migrant workers returning to Indonesia as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic from all forms of exploitation, as well as details of the main objectives, programmes, activities and level of coordination among various Government entities related to the National Action Plan on Human Rights 2020–2024.
61.She would appreciate receiving information on the protection that would be provided to the estimated 16,000 children who had become homeless in 2020 in the wake of natural disasters and who were at risk of being trafficked. In particular, she wished to know what measures the State party proposed to take to eliminate the scourge of sex trafficking of female children. The Committee had received reports of tourists coming to Indonesia and paying sums as high as $700 in order to contract marriage with girls or women, which it considered to be a form of trafficking under the guise of marriage. She wished to know whether there were any awareness-raising campaigns to combat that form of trafficking or programmes to assist families living in poverty who were often the targets of such practices. What efforts was the Government taking to limit the demand for prostitution and to combat the exploitation of prostitution?
62.Ms. Mualti (Indonesia) said that the Ministry of Health had prepared a set of guidelines on female circumcision that had been disseminated to provincial and local governments.
63.Ms. Werdaningtyas (Indonesia) said that the Government had adopted a National Action Plan on Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism 2020–2024 to address the kinds of violence that could lead to acts of terrorism. One component of the National Action Plan addressed the increasing radicalization of women and girls.
64.Ms. Darmawati (Indonesia) said that she would prefer to supply answers in writing to the questions posed by Ms. Rana and Ms. Gabr, since they required detailed responses.
65.Mr. Mandalika (Indonesia) said that the bill on domestic workers had not been ratified because some challenges had arisen with regard to traditional customs that affected the employer/employee relationship. The minimum wage did not apply to domestic workers because the work performed by domestic workers differed in scope from that of formal workers.
66.Ms. Putri (Indonesia) said that Law No. 18/2017 on Protection of Migrant Workers was also aimed at protecting such workers from trafficking in persons. The National Task Force to prevent trafficking in persons coordinated efforts at the provincial level, carried out awareness-raising programmes in various regions and provided technical assistance to all Indonesian embassies abroad to disseminate the new regulations on the prevention of trafficking in persons.
67.A policy published by the National Police aimed to protect people from becoming victims of contract marriages. The policy included concrete steps to provide women’s empowerment training at the regional and national levels.
68.Mr. Abdi (Indonesia) said that the Ministry of Law and Human Rights, through the Director General for Immigration, made efforts to prevent contract marriages by extensively questioning foreigners arriving in Indonesia. Other measures included setting up a team to monitor foreign tourists’ activities and imposing penalties under the national immigration law.
69.Ms. Rana said that she wished to know whether the national action plan on the implementation of United Nations Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security had been renewed; whether the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearing in 2018 had included conflict-related sexual violence; and how the Government planned to counter such violence.
70.On the issue of female genital mutilation, the State party had both a policy and guidelines, but they were not being implemented. She would appreciate the delegations’ comments on the Government’s efforts to raise awareness of the problem in order to change the mindsets of religious leaders and men and boys.
71.Ms. Gabr said that she would like to know whether the domestic worker protection bill had been included in the parliamentary agenda for endorsement in an expedited manner; whether the Government was taking steps to tackle the root causes of prostitution, including poverty; and what role was played by labour inspectors with regard to preventing labour exploitation.
72.Ms. Manalo, noting that the Government had issued a new regulation prohibiting all medical practitioners from conducting female circumcision and had also taken other measures to eliminate that practice, asked whether any scientific research or formal studies had been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of those measures.
73.She wished to know what steps were being taken to deal with the factors that gave rise to violence against women. She would also like to hear examples of the coordination carried out by the Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection in the areas of sexual and gender-based violence, harmful practices such as female genital mutilation, and torture or degrading treatment of Indonesian women.
74.Ms. Dettmeijer-Vermeulen, referring to the fact that Indonesia was a country of origin for domestic workers, said that she would like to know what measures were taken by the State party to prevent those women from being placed in exploitative situations. Furthermore, what measures were taken in the countries where the exploitation and trafficking occurred in order to protect such women, such as by helping them to come back to Indonesia or to get the unpaid wages that they were due?
75.Ms. Akisuki said that she would welcome receiving disaggregated data on the number and proportion of women employed in government bodies and the judiciary, especially at the decision-making levels, broken down by age, ethnicity, geographical location, migration status, disability or other relevant factors. She wished to know what specific measures were being taken to increase the representation of women at all levels of government, including national and local legislatures, the judiciary, and academia, especially at the decision-making level.
76.She would be interested to know whether the State party had conducted a qualitative evaluation of the political education or rural women’s leadership training activities that it had organized. It would be useful to learn how the State party was able to observe the impact of its training and whether it had detected any behavioural changes in men and women in leadership roles. She asked whether there were any capacity-building programmes on women’s participation in decision-making, and what kind of awareness-raising measures were conducted for the general public with a view to eliminating discriminatory stereotypes of the role of women and men in public and political life.
77.She would welcome further information on legal mechanisms to promote the participation of women human rights defenders in civil society and to protect human rights defenders, including those advocating rural women’s rights, as well as details of women appointed at the international level and in senior positions in the foreign service.
78.Ms. Dettmeijer-Vermeulen said that Law No. 23/2006 on population administration still contained some flaws related to the time limit for parents with different nationalities to make a declaration of Indonesian nationality on behalf of their children born before 2006: article 41 of that law gave them only four years to do so. The children of parents with distinct nationalities were entitled to dual nationality until they reached the age of 18; however, the 2006 law failed to stipulate the status of children having dual nationality once they reached the age of 18 years or the maximum of 21 years, in the event that they did not explicitly state their intention to retain one of the nationalities. How did the State party envisage making that procedure more transparent and removing those hurdles?
79.Ms. Manalo, noting that the State party report had indicated that there were eight female ministers in the current cabinet, said that she would be interested to know, for comparison purposes, how many male ministers had been appointed to that body. She asked what was being done to rectify the fact that the 30 per cent quota for women’s representation in parliament at the local level had not yet been reached.
The meeting rose at 12 . 55 p.m.