Seventh periodic report submitted by Slovenia under article 18 of the Convention, due in 2021 * , **

* The present document is being issued without formal editing.

** The annexes to the present report may be accessed from the web page of the Committee.

[Date received: 22 July 2021]


1.As determined in Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Republic of Slovenia has prepared its seventh periodic report that bases on the list of topics and issues, submitted by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (document CEDAW/C/SVN/QPR/7 as of 17 July 2020) within the scope of a simplified reporting procedure. The report has been prepared by the Ministry of Labour, Family, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities (MLFSA) on the basis of contributions of all competent ministries and governmental bodies. Civil society organisations have also been informed on the report via the Expert Council for Gender Equality. The report comprises legislative, administrative and other measures to implement the Convention, adopted during the reporting period (2016–2020).

II.General information


2.In the beginning of 2020, the total population of the Republic of Slovenia was 2,095,861, with 1,044,795 women (49.85 per cent). Compared to 2015, total number of inhabitants slightly increased (by 32,987), the share of women decreased by 0.6 per cent. 55.5 per cent of inhabitants live in cities, towns and suburban areas, 44.5 per cent in the countryside and sparsely inhabited areas. In the beginning of 2020, 92.5 per cent of all inhabitants were citizens of the Republic of Slovenia, the share of women was 51.2 per cent. There are 33.5 per cent of women among inhabitants with foreign citizenship (tables 1, 2 and 3 in appendix).

B.Fertility rate

3.Data for the 2015–2019 period show that 1,313 less babies were born in Slovenia in 2019 compared to 2015. Total fertility rate slightly increased in 2019 compared to 2015 and amounted 1.61. The average age of the mother at first childbirth has risen. In 2019, the average age was 31.1 years and in 2015, it was 30.6 years (table 4).

C.Marriage and divorce

4.The number of marriages per year has remained stable in the previous years. There are most (slightly less than 90 per cent) first marriages. The average age of a bride and groom at first marriage is rising every year. In 2015, grooms were in average 32 years old, brides were 29.7 years old, while in 2019, grooms were in average 32.8 years old, while brides were 30.7 years old (table 5).

5.The number of divorces per year is also quite the same every year. In 2015, 2,432 couples divorced and 2,476 in 2019. Less than one half of the divorced couples (1,215 in 2019) had children (table 6).

D.Aging of the population and mortality

6.Data on the population age structure show that the process of ageing, typical of developed societies, has continued. The expected life expectancy at birth is also rising. In 2019, the expected life expectancy at birth for boys was 78.50 years and 84.22 years for girls. Compared to 2015, data show that life expectancy increased by 0.91 year for boys and 0.71 years for girls (table 7).

7.The mortality rate date show that the number of deceased in the past five years slightly increased (19,834 deceased in 2015 and 20,588 in 2020). Slightly more women than men died in 2019. The average age of deceased women in 2019 was 82.1 years, while the average age of deceased men was 73.9 years. The share of premature mortality in men is 22.4 per cent, and 9.8 per cent in women (2019) (table 8).


8.The number of primary school students has increased in the past five years. 190,165 pupils were admitted to primary schools in 2019/2020 school year, of which 92,465 or 48.6 per cent were girls. 72,738 pupils visited high schools, of which 35,302 or 48.5 per cent were girls (tables 15, 18 and 19).

9.Women more frequently decide for tertiary education than men. The share of women among admitted students is higher than the share of men; the share of women who conclude this level of education is also higher. 76,728 students were admitted to tertiary level education in the 2019/2020 study year, of which 57.3 per cent were women. In 2019, 16,100 students graduated at the higher and high education level, of which 60 per cent were women. Among masters of science and arts who finished their studies in 2019, 66.2 per cent were women, while their share among PhD graduates is 54.3 per cent (table 23).

F.Economic development

10.Gross domestic product per capita in 2020 amounted to EUR 22,014. Compared to 2015, when GDP p.c. was EUR 18,830, it increased by EUR 3,184.

G.Labour market

11.In 2020, the work activity rate among women from 20 to 64 years of age was 72.4 per cent, among men it amounted to 78.6 per cent. Compared to 2015, work activity rate increased with women and men (table 24). The Labour Force Survey (LFS) unemployment rate in the past years decreased from 9 per cent in 2015 to 5 per cent in 2020. With women, it decreased by 4.4 percentage points, and by 3.7 percentage points in men (table 30).

12.The labour market in Slovenia remains horizontally and vertically segregated by gender. Women prevail among employees in service sector, especially in health care and social care and in education. The fewest women are employed in construction and mining.

13.Data for 2019 show that women in average earn 7.7 percentage points less than men. The difference between the average gross salary of women and men is higher in the public sector than in the private sector.

H.Public and political life

14.At the preliminary elections to the National Assembly in 2018, 44 per cent of women were candidates and 22 women were elected MPs (among 90 MPs).

15.At the last local elections in 2018, the share of women on candidate lists was 45.7 per cent, while 33.3 per cent of municipal and city counsellors were elected. 692 men and 108 women (13.5 per cent) applied for mayors and 190 men and 22 women were elected mayors (10.4 per cent).

16.On the basis of the Local Self-Government Act, the Roma people are represented by a female or male representative in the municipal council in areas, where the indigenous Roma community and national communities (Italian and Hungarian) live on ethnically mixed areas. There were 28.3 per cent women among candidates and 10 councillors were elected (28.6 per cent).

17.For the 2019–2024 term of office, Slovenia has elected four women MPs (50 per cent) to the European Parliament.

I.Data collection and analysis

18.The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (the Statistical Office) is the main authority to implement and harmonise activities connected to Slovenian national statistical data. It does not collect and publish data by gender and other personal circumstances for all areas of work. On its website, the SiStat database publishes data on working disabled (excluding farmers) by gender, activity (SKD 2008), vocation groups (SKP-08), achieved education, five-year age groups, statistical regions and job municipalities in the public and private sectors, while data on minority status, nationality, migrants, refugees and asylum seekers are not collected, therefore, this data could not be presented. Data, separated for the urban and rural areas, are presented where possible.

19.The collection and processing of the so-called segmented personal data about personal circumstances of people (equality aspect or the simplification of statistical analysis options with regard to discrimination) from the aspect of expression of national affiliation (Article 61 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia) and the freedom of conscience and religion (the first paragraph of Article 41 of the Constitution) and equality before the law (Article 14 of the Constitution) in Slovenia, excluding some exceptions, are not possible. It is currently under discussion whether this issue can be regulated at the systemic legal level with regard to personal data protection in national legislation.

20.In autumn 2021, the Statistical Office will publish data about the first internationally comparable research on personal safety in private environment (gender-based violence) that will eliminate a huge shortage of data on gender-based violence, domestic violence etc.

21.The Statistical Office constantly strives to improve the administrative sources of data. This means that the current scope of data on reported, accused and convicted criminal perpetrators will try to include the data about victims of criminal acts (age, gender, etc.), for which the perpetrators were reported, accused or convicted.

III.Answers by individual questions

A.The impact of Covid-19 on the rights of women and gender equality

22.Legal acts to mitigate the consequences of the epidemic were passed in the National Assembly, while the measures taken to limit individual activities (closure of schools, closure of economic activities, restrictions of movement) were adopted by the Government. The decisions in the Government and the National Assembly were also made by women, the members of the Government and MPs. The Ministry of Health also founded an expert group for the containment and control of the COVID‑19 epidemic, led by a woman, the majority of its members are female.

23.Until the beginning of 2021, Slovenia passed seven so-called anti-corona virus legal packages to respond to the consequences of the epidemic and to reduce its negative effects. The first anti-corona virus package was passed on 2 April 2020, whereas the measures applied retroactively since 13 March 2020 and remained in force until the end of the first wave of the epidemic on 31 May 2020. In the second wave, the epidemic was announced on 19 October 2020 and lasted until 15 June 2021, the majority of measures were extended consistently with anti-corona virus laws.

24.The state reimbursed employers for salary compensation to temporarily laid-off workers, for workers who stayed at home to care for children due to the closure of schools and kindergartens and for those who stayed at home due to their inability to travel to work. All of these workers were eligible for minimum 80 per cent wage allowance. The maximum amount was the gross amount of the average wage in 2019, i.e. EUR 1,753.84, and the minimum amount of was the minimum wage (gross EUR 940.58). For all the above-mentioned categories of workers, employers were relieved of paying their social security contributions. On the basis of claims sent by employers until including April 2021 for the period from March 2020 to June 2021, wage reimbursement for temporarily laid-off workers was given to 214,517 workers, of which 87,103 were women (40.6 per cent).

25.Large family allowance increased in 2020 and 2021, where families with three children received EUR 100 higher annual allowance (EUR 504.48), families with four or more children received EUR 200 higher allowance (EUR 691.52). Other measures to help families were also adopted, i.e. solidarity allowances for various categories of beneficiaries. Pensioners, whose pension is lower than EUR 700, received solidarity allowance twice (in the amount of EUR 130, 230 or 300, depending on the pension amount), beneficiaries with financial social assistance and income support (EUR 150) and students (EUR 150). Workers who lost their jobs due to the epidemic and were not entitled to unemployment benefit received a temporary financial assistance in the amount of EUR 513.64 per month (until the end of the epidemic at the latest). The state also subsidies shortened working hours in the scope from five to twenty hours per week and the temporary lay-off in all industries for a month upon the declaration of the end of the epidemic and introduced tourist vouchers for all Slovenian inhabitants (for adults in total amount of EUR 300 and EUR 100 for minors). There were 20,393 people whose working hours were shortened due to the situation or 41.2 per cent women. Some tax-related measures were also adopted for taxable people, for instance, the suspension of taxes or payment of taxes in instalments, and exemption from payment of prepaid income tax and personal income tax.

26.With regard to violence against women, the police posted several texts and videos on its website and social media pages such as Facebook and Instagram, calling for tolerance in mutual relations and pressed neighbours to report any detected domestic violence; the police continued this activity in the second wave. The police also raise awareness about the unacceptability of violence via newspapers and television, replies to journalist questions and issues press releases, where it clearly emphasises that despite the pandemic the police always respond to each call and are available 24 hours a day, every day of the year.

27.The work and access to courts were appropriately adapted to the situation during the epidemic. Measures taken due to the epidemic did not limit the access of women and girls to judicial protection. Court operations were mainly digitalised (use of e‑mail, the eSodstvo (e-Judiciary) portal, video conferences, etc.), all work done in physical form (on site) was implemented according to the measures used to prevent the spreading of the infection. During the epidemic courts worked in limited scope and carried out only urgent hearings, including investigations and trials in criminal matters, where the accused were deprived of their liberty and in procedures connected to sentencing, civil matters involving procedures in accordance with the Domestic Violence Prevention Act, enforcement cases in connection to child protection procedures.

28.In the field of social assistance programmes, where personal contact with clients was limited due to the epidemic, service providers adapted their activities and were available to clients via telephone or e-mail. Accommodation programmes continued to be implemented without change, with consideration for the instructions from the National Public Health Institute (NIJZ). The MLFSA motivated all service providers to strengthen their counselling services and upgrade them in various ways to approach clients and pro-actively make contact with clients in time, when their problems and distress were even greater, especially without the provided proper support. They continued their work with ICT services. They were also asked to publish their contact data in various different ways and on as many websites possible.

29.During the epidemic the MLFSA published a tender for the implementation of projects to mitigate or eliminate social distress of the most vulnerable groups of people caused by the COVID-19 epidemic. The tender aims to co-finance projects offering various approaches in fields such as psycho-social counselling, awareness raising, providing information, field work, guaranteeing support to clients, establishing new safe points, digital solutions for resolving problems and ensuring crisis accommodation for target groups. The target groups of the tender also include domestic violence victims. Since 1 January 2021, the telephone number for domestic violence victims, which is available 24 hours a day, is also co-financed.

B.Constitutional and legal framework, public policy framework

30.In 2016, the Protection Against Discrimination Act was passed to replace the Implementation of the Principle of Equal Treatment Act. Article 1 of the Protection Against Discrimination Act determines personal conditions for which the protection against discrimination is ensured, including the explicitly identified gender. The act also stipulates that equal treatment shall be guaranteed to anyone who is actually or legally connected to someone who is in certain personal circumstances (connection-based discrimination), and to anyone who is discriminated against because of incorrect conclusions about the existence of certain personal circumstances (discrimination on the basis of certain personal circumstances). The act also determines severe forms of discrimination including multiple discrimination (occurring when someone is discriminated against simultaneously due to several personal circumstances), mass discrimination (occurring when several people are discriminated against simultaneously by disputable conduct, particularly if motivated by hatred or contempt for people with certain personal circumstances), persistent or repeated discrimination, discrimination which has or could have consequences for the person subject to discrimination that are difficult to remedy regarding damage caused to the person’s legal position, rights or obligations, particularly if directed at children or other vulnerable people.

31.The Protection Against Discrimination Act also introduces special discrimination-based legal action, lodged by the discriminated person demanding the cessation of discrimination, the payment of compensation for discrimination and/or the publication of the ruling in the media. Due to exposure to discrimination, the person subject to discrimination shall be entitled to financial compensation paid by the person causing discrimination. Financial compensation shall range between EUR 500 and EUR 5,000. When determining the amount of compensation, the duration of discrimination, exposure to severe forms of discrimination and other circumstances of the case shall be considered. The Collective Actions Act determines the option of a collective action, lodged by the Advocate of the Principle of Equality and non-governmental organisations that operate in the public interest in the field of protection against discrimination or human rights protection. The collective action demands the termination of discrimination or the prohibition of such conduct, i.e. in cases where a large number of unidentifiable people are claimed to have been discriminated against.

32.The fundamental purpose of the Resolution on the National Programme for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, 2015–2020 is to improve the position of women or to ensure the sustainable development of gender equality including the aspect of gender equality in key areas. The report on the implementation of the national programme has shown that the gender aspect is more actively included in policies of line ministries in some areas, whereas in other areas the progress is slower. Activities were mostly carried out within the scope of current programmes, whereas attention was focused in reducing the gender gap and realising gender equality.

33.In the labour market, emphasis is put on promoting women’s entrepreneurship. Free training programmes were conducted to acquire the knowledge necessary for the successful commencement of business careers. Women who concluded their training were able to acquire a self-employment subsidy (393 women were self-employed in 2018 with the aid of the subsidy). (More in paragraph 44).

34.The protection and improvement of the health of women and men was especially promoted by the implementation of SVIT, ZORA and DORA prevention programmes. The programmes: Help for the vulnerable groups of pregnant women and mothers and pilot screening for post-partum depression, anxiety, psychotropic substances and violence in a target group of pregnant women six weeks post-partum were implemented.

35.Great emphasis was put on reducing online violence and harassment of women and girls; research was also conducted on the prevalence and recognition of on-line harassment among young people in Slovenia. A media awareness raising campaign was also implemented and a mobile app “Odklikni” was introduced, there were several training programmes carried out and a manual for employees in justice and police was also prepared. Various workshops and a curriculum for the youth and staff at schools about online violence and harassment were prepared.

36.In social inclusion, activities were carried out to promote the role of women and active inclusion of deprived groups of women within the scope of short social activation programmes. A public tender was implemented to co-finance social assistance programmes, various workshops and lectures were carried out within the scope of the Roma centres. Research and an organised international conference about the situation of rural women were carried out. A two-day international conference for pedagogues was organised with the aim to eliminate gender-based stereotype, where participants were informed on the topic and best practices cases both abroad and in Slovenia.

37.Guidelines for gender-sensitive use of language were published to raise awareness about different target groups about gender-sensitive use of language. In 2018 and 2019, Slovenia was quite active in its efforts to enhance gender equality and the role of women at the international level, including the organisation of events and giving incentives. It also strived to enhance the role of women in ensuring international peace and safety and the protection of women in conflict situations. A new Resolution on the National Programme for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men until 2030 is being prepared. Please see paragraph 201 for further information.

C.Women’s access to judicial protection

38.A person who, in regard to their financial situation and the financial situation of their family, cannot cover the costs of judicial proceedings or costs of obtaining legal aid without affecting their social situation and social situation of their family is entitled to free legal aid. This is fulfilled if the monthly income of the applicant or the monthly average income per family member does not exceed the double basic amount of the minimum income as determined in the Financial Social Assistance Act.

39.A person who is eligible for such aid may use it for full or partial coverage of the costs of legal aid or as an exemption from the payment of the court procedure costs. Female victims of domestic violence have, regardless of their financial situation, the right to free legal aid in accordance with the Legal Aid Act and the Domestic Violence Prevention Act. A condition for the awarding of free legal aid is the risk assessment made by a social work centre upon the first interview with the victim. The victim can choose an attorney or one can be appointed by the court.

40.Non-governmental organisations, the Advocate of the Principle of Equality and the Human Rights Ombudsman can help women in cases of discrimination. On the basis of the Protection Against Discrimination Act, a person subject to discrimination may authorise the Advocate or a non-governmental organisation working in the field of protection against discrimination and human rights protection to represent them in the judicial proceedings as per Article 39 of the Act. The Advocate can also file a request to initiate the review of constitutionality or legality of a regulation or general act, issued to execute public powers with the Constitutional Court, if they assess that the act is discriminatory, and the Advocate can notify the proposer of the procedure for the review of constitutionality or legality.

41.In accordance with the Constitutional Court Act, the Ombudsman is competent to file a constitutional complaint with regard to a matter being considered (if the person, whose human rights or fundamental freedoms are protected in an individual case, provide their consent) or to file a request for the review of constitutionality or legality of a regulation or general act, issued to execute public powers. The Ombudsman is not competent to refer the cases of discrimination against women to regular courts. In the period from 2016 to 2020, the Ombudsman considered six initiatives, where gender-based discrimination against women was explicitly claimed, i.e. In the area of employment access, working conditions and job promotion. In the aforementioned period, the Ombudsman handled 40 initiatives connected to violence against women and most victims came from rural environment. Several members of the Roma community (including seven females) who live in Roma settlements without access to drinking water, sanitary premises and are living in other poor conditions, also asked for Ombudsman’s opinion.

42.The Advocate of the Principle of Equality handles discrimination cases on the basis of a proposal for consideration, filed by a person subject to discrimination. The consideration can be initiated ex officio if the Advocate is informed on the case of discrimination on the basis of an anonymous initiative, third person initiative or in any other manner. To handle the case ex officio, the Advocate has to acquire the consent of the person subject to discrimination, except if the latter cannot be identified; if a group of people is subject to discrimination or if the Advocate assesses that the case is generally important from the aspect of protection against discrimination. The Advocate considers cases of discriminatory conduct of public and private subjects. The procedure is completed with a legally binding declaratory decision on the existence of discrimination. The Advocate has no competence to impose sanctions, although they can, if discrimination is found, propose an initiation of a minor offence procedure with the competent inspection office.

43.In 2016, the Advocate of the Principle of Equality received 8 (11.76 per cent) and in 2017 10 (12.66) applications, connected to gender-based discrimination. In 2018, the Advocate handled 8 cases of gender-based discrimination, 24 in 2019, which is 14 per cent of all handled cases. In 2020, the Advocate handled 15 cases of gender-based discrimination, 24 in 2019, which is 5 per cent of all handled cases. In the same year, the Advocate handled 16 cases of discrimination based on pregnancy or parenthood, which presents 6 per cent of all cases. The number of handled gender- and parenthood-based discrimination cases is not managed by gender of people who reported those cases. An advocate’s work is funded from the budged and the funds are determined by the National Assembly. In 2020, the Advocate was allocated EUR 1,141,888.

44.The following decisions of Slovenian courts referred to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Decision Up-716/18, Up‑745/18 (Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia decision on the non‑acceptance of the constitutional complaint with regard to the list of candidates not containing a sufficient number of female candidates), ruling II Ips 784/2006 (the plaintiff referred to the Convention with regard to the determination of alimony paid by her former husband) and three labour law disputes (rulings of the Higher Labour Court Pdp 590/2014, Pdp 672/2017 and Pdp 310/2014).

45.Data about violence against women and domestic violence in Slovenia is collected from various institutions (police, courts, social work centres and NGOs), which also exchange this data among themselves. The Statistical Office is the main provider and coordinator of work in the field of national statistics, and it collects data about indicted, accused and sentenced adults and minors who perpetrate a criminal act. Data about convicted people are acquired from the administrative register of IK‑registry, managed by the Supreme Court, and can be presented by various demographic variables of the perpetrator (gender, age, education, activity status, citizenship, permanent residence municipality, etc.), although not with regard to the victim’s gender or the relationship between the victim and the perpetrator, because the administrative source does not contain such data. The data that the Statistical Office obtains from the Office of the State Prosecutor General and Supreme Court, is also published on the annual basis.

46.The Domestic Violence Prevention Act from 2016, contains a more precise definition of domestic violence, expanding the definition of family members, improving the procedures of coordination and communication between all relevant institutions and bodies and determining procedures for treatment of domestic violence. In 2019, a total of 557 prosecutions were carried out due to domestic violence acts, of which 267 perpetrators were convicted; in 2018, there were 578 prosecutions (of which 307 were convicted), in 2017 there were 535 prosecutions (291 convicted) and in 2016 there were 485 prosecutions (251 convicted).

47.On the basis of the Compensation to Victims of Crime Act, when reporting a deliberate violent act to the police, a victim may request to be issued a certificate confirming that a criminal act has been detected or reported. As per the mentioned act, domestic violence victims, minor victims and victims of unknown perpetrators (if the perpetrator cannot be prosecuted) are eligible to claim indemnification before the latter is claimed from the perpetrator and before the initiation of the criminal procedure; reimbursement of non-pecuniary damage may be requested for physical pain and injury to health and for emotional pain.

48.A total of 17 requests for compensation from the state were submitted by women in 2017, 14 in 2018, 20 in 2019 and 19 in 2020. In 19 cases, the claims were submitted due to domestic violence, in 9 cases due to a light bodily harm, in six cases due to a sexual assault on a person under 15 years of age, in three cases due to rape, in two cases due to violence and one claim was submitted due to an attempted murder, attempted manslaughter, attempted rape and grievous bodily harm. In 2017, eight approving decisions were issued (totalling EUR 20,900); two approving decisions in 2018 (totalling EUR 2,550), 14 claims of victims were approved in 2019 (mostly for domestic violence and sexual assault to a person under 15 years of age) and eight claims in 2020. Total reimbursement paid to female victims in 2019 amounted to EUR 23,900 (average reimbursement amounted to EUR 1,707.14), in 2020 it totalled EUR 32,100 (average reimbursement amounted to EUR 4,012.50). The difference in the amounts was caused by different circumstances of cases, especially due to the caused harm.

49.The second Resolution on the National Programme for Prevention of Violence against Women and Domestic Violence is being drafted; its purpose will be to recognise key fields where deficiencies or poor performance in the field of prevention of violence against women and domestic violence have been detected, and to define objectives and measures for their improvement.

50.The Ministry of Justice continuously provides training in the field of violence against women, especially within the scope of the Judicial Training Centre that provides permanent education of judges, state prosecutors, state attorneys and professional staff in courts, state prosecutor’s offices and state attorney offices. The Judicial Training Centre in collaboration with the Association of State Prosecutors of Slovenia and the General Police Directorate organises training on the topic of violence against women and domestic violence and is attended by more than 250 participants.

51.Within the scope of the “Odklikni” European project, the MLFSA carried out various activities intended to warn about online violence and harassment of women. (more about the project in Appendix 3)

D.National mechanisms for the advancement of women

52.The Equal Opportunities Division at the MLFSA is the main national mechanism active in the field of advancement of women. In accordance with the Act on Internal Organisation and Systematisation of Workplaces at the Ministry and Equal Opportunities for Woman and Men Act, the division performs professional tasks in designing and implementing women and men equality policy and monitors the implementation of the Protection Against Discrimination Act. In the beginning of 2021, the division employed the head of the division and eight people, two of them for a fixed term – one for the project and a trainee who works in the field of LGBTI persons’ coordination. Compared to 2015, when Slovenia advocated for the fifth and sixth report on the Convention with the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, the number of people who work in gender equality increased by two persons.

53.The adoption of the Protection Against Discrimination Act in 2017 introduced the Advocate of the Principle of Equality as an independent and autonomous institution. Beforehand, the Advocate worked within the scope of the Equal Opportunities Division.

54.The Equal Opportunities Division received EUR 200,653 in 2021 for financing its activities, of which EUR 50,000 are intended for co-financing NGO’s projects in gender equality, EUR 30,000 are intended for the promotion of equal opportunities of women and men, EUR 120,753 for the implementation of Moje delo.Moja pokojnina project (My Work.My Pension), co-financed by the European Commission (EUR 107,494 EU funds, EUR 13,159 budget funds). The Moje delo.Moja pokojnina project is a two-and-a-half-year project in a total value of EUR 457,457.28. Compared to 2015, the amount of funds, intended for co-financing NGO projects, is higher and additional funds were allocated for the promotion of equal opportunities of women and men.

55.In accordance with the Equal Opportunities for Woman and Men Act, coordinators for equal opportunities of women and men as well as their deputies work at ministries and they perform these tasks besides their regular work tasks. The Equal Opportunities Division regularly cooperates with coordinators (work meetings, trainings for the integration of the principle of gender equality at ministries, participation at various events). On 17 November 2016, the Government adopted the Guidelines for Gender Mainstreaming in the Work of Ministries 2016–2020. They contain general guidelines for the work of ministries and coordinators, determine the method of collaboration of ministries with the Equal Opportunities Division and define priority work areas for the 2016–2020 period. The priority areas for the 2016‑2020 period include: (1) the promotion of collecting and presenting data, divided by gender, which are collected within the ministry, (2) the promotion of inclusion of gender equality and presentation of data, divided by gender, into analyses and research, prepared or ordered by the ministry and (3) advising in the inclusion of gender equality in key strategic documents of the ministry.

56.At the local level, the appointment of coordinators for equal opportunities is not mandatory as it is at the state level. Currently, around 20 per cent of municipalities have a coordinator.

57.We have reported on some activities for including the aspect of gender in the budget in the previous report. Besides education on the inclusion of gender aspect in the budget, designed guidelines and control survey, the so-called checklist for including gender aspect in the budget, the practical case of budget assessment from the gender aspect has been prepared. The assessment of budget funds, intended for family income policy measures (parental benefit, parental allowance, maternity pay, childcare allowance) from the gender aspect has been presented as an example. The ministries thus received a practical assessment of budget with regard to gender, which helps them to mainstream gender in the budget.

58.According to the data of the Centre for Information Service, Co-operation and Development of NGOs, almost 28,000 NGOs operate in Slovenia, most of them are associations (around 24,000), and they are followed by private institutions (approximately 3,700) and foundations (approximately 260). On the basis of the Non ‑ governmental Organisations Act that was passed in 2018, NGOs can acquire a status of working in the public interest in various fields, including the field of equal opportunities of women and men and in the area of protection against discrimination or in the field of human rights. Currently, approximately 5,800 non-governmental organisations have the status of working in the public interest in various areas. The status of working in public interest in the field of equal opportunities of women and men has been given to two NGOs, four of them have the same status in the area of protection against discrimination or human rights, 104 organisations have this status in the field of social protection, including violence against women and trafficking in human beings. All NGOs do not apply for the status; therefore, it is not possible to acquire specific data about how many NGOs promote the human rights of women. We estimate that there are from 100 to 150 organisations that in various ways include the rights of women.

59.Non-governmental organisations are an important partner in the implementation of various measures and projects. The MLFSA co-finances violence prevention programmes every year, which are further reported in sections 66 and 67. The Equal Opportunities Division earmarks EUR 50,000 every year to co-finance NGO projects in the field of gender equality, which suffices for the co-financing of five projects a year. The public tender in 2021 focuses in two areas that have been especially exposed due to the crisis, i.e. gender stereotypes and stereotypical roles of women and men in society, especially in connection to vulnerable groups of women and online violence against women and girls.

60.On the basis of the Equal Opportunities for Women and Men Act, the Government and the competent ministries have to cooperate with social partners and NGOs that are active in equal opportunities in the formation of solutions and proposals for achieving the purpose of the act. For this purpose, each minister at the MLFSA establishes the Expert Council for the Equality of Women and Men as an expert and consulting body of the minister on matters in women and men equality and the realisation of the principle of gender-based discrimination prohibition. The council comprises experts who operate in this area within the scope of academic institutions and NGOs. It considers strategic and legislative proposals in gender equality and discusses as well as adopts decisions on the current topics in various fields, such as gender equality in the media, balanced representation of women and men in decision-making positions, reproductive health and violence against women. It also considers the proposal of regulations and other materials in gender equality, adopted by the Government or the National Assembly.

61.On the basis of the Roma Community in the Republic of Slovenia Act, the Roma Community Council of the Republic of Slovenia is the umbrella organisation of the Roma community, its members are also the members of the Roma community. National authorities must acquire a preliminary opinion of the council when adopting or issuing regulations and other general legal acts referring to the situation of the Roma community. Cooperation with the representatives of the Roma community and its organisation is well-established, which especially applies for planning and designing strategic documents in the area of Roma community situation regulation, such as national programmes for the measures for the Roma.

62.The Office for National Minorities earmarks funds for the operation of the Roma Community Council every year (EUR 95,000 in 2021) and the funds for financing activities and programmes of associations that join the members of the Roma community. The funds are allocated via an annual public tender. EUR 200,000 were earmarked for these purposes in 2020 and 2021. Associations of the Roma community also carry out activities, intended to promote the activation of the members of the Roma community, especially the Roma women and the youth in local environments. Funds are earmarked for the Roma associations every year to financially support their activities and programmes; the average amount of funds since 2015 has been EUR 25,600. The Ministry of Health earmarks EUR 100,000 per year for co-financing health care programmes with an emphasis on the health of the Roma youth, women and children. Several organisations are normally selected, including the Roma association Romani Union, which includes female members of the Roma community as the providers of activities and as the target group of all activities. The Ministry of Culture earmarks EUR 90,000 every year via public tenders to support various cultural activities of the Roma associations. Special attention is given to projects that actively include the Roma women or are intended for them. These projects receive an additional point in the evaluation of individual projects (six projects were financed in 2020 in the total amount of EUR 8,200).

63.Each year, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food co-finances non-profit organisations that contribute to the development and preservation of agriculture or forestry and the preservation of countryside population. They also include non-profit associations that carry out activities in the field of protecting women in the countryside. Co-financing of the operation of non-profit organisations is implemented within the scope of three public tenders, for which from EUR 290,000 to 355,000 per year are earmarked. Every year, the Association of Rural Women of Slovenia receives funds, regional associations also receive funds for jubilee and special events in individual years. The Rural Women Council has been founded within the Ministry of Agriculture as an advisory body to the minister.

E.Special temporary measures

64.As has been mentioned in previous reports, the legal basis for adopting special measures is the Equal Opportunities for Woman and Men Act. In the field of gender equality, the Resolution on the National Programme for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, 2015–2020 is a strategic document of the Government, which determines the objectives and measures in eight priority areas. Various activities were conducted for their achievement as well as special measures.

65.The MLFSA and the Ministry of Economic Development and Technology implemented a special programme Promoting Women’s Entrepreneurship in the 2016–2019 period. The target group included women who had been registered as unemployed with the Employment Service of Slovenia for at least three months and had at least higher vocational education (level VI or higher), an interesting business idea, desire, conditions and options for self-employment. (more about the Programme in Appendix 3)

66.In 2020, the Ministry of Economic Development and Technology earmarked funds via the SPIRIT public agency for (potential) beginner female entrepreneurs. (more about activities in Appendix 3)

67.The measures to increase the number of women on the candidate lists at the local level, for the National Assembly and the European Parliament were presented in previous reports. During the reporting period, some activities to promote women in politics were conducted. They are mentioned in section 94.

68.The amended Equal Opportunities for Women and Men Act in 2019 changed Article 14 determining that the Government has to consider the balanced gender representation principle, i.e. at least 40 per cent representation of one gender in the composition of advisory and coordinating bodies, working bodies and delegation, founded as per the Government of the Republic of Slovenia Act and the Rules of Procedure of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia, as well as in the appointment or proposal of Government representatives in the management and supervision bodies of entities governed by public law. The added second paragraph determined exceptions that had been determined in the executive act. A new Article 30a was added, which obliges the self-administration local communities and self-administration national communities to respect the principle of balanced gender representation in the appointment or proposal of representatives in the management and supervision bodies of entities governed by public law.

69.The Advocate of the Principle of Equality dedicated one of the sections in Regular Annual Reports for 2018, 2019 and 2020 to special measures to ensure equality. They explain the concept of special measures – the legal basis and the conditions for their implementation and the review of implementation of special measures at ministries, as they had reported to the Advocate on the basis of his inquiry. Reports have been discussed in the National Assembly and published on Advocate’s website, thus contributing to railing the awareness of political actors and the public about the concept and implementation of special measures.

F.Stereotypes and harmful practices

70.Elimination of stereotypes about the role of women and men in society, family and partnership and a more equal division of care and household works is one of the goals of the Resolution on the National Programme for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, 2015–2020. Various activities were implemented for its realisation.

71.In 2016 and 2017, the MLFSA carried out the Aktivni.Vsi . project (Active. Everyone.). Its key goal was to reduce gender stereotypes and to stimulate equal division of care and household work among men and women. (more about the Project in Appendix 3)

72.To motivate fathers to enhance their care for children and the positive effects of their care, the MLFSA carried out a campaign in 2016 that was implemented in ten largest places in Slovenia. 8,500 T-shirts and more than 10,000 leaflets, 50,000 informative brochures and 50,000 postcards on active fatherhood were disseminated.

73.In 2020, the MLFSA started the two-year project called “Očka v akciji” (Dad in Action), co-financed by the European Union and which is intended to raise the awareness of (future) parents, employers, professional and lay public about the importance for successful harmonisation of work and family, active inclusion of men in fatherhood and equal distribution of parental care for the child from birth.

74.Gender stereotypes as one of the key reasons for many expressions of inequality of women and men in society were highlighted by the MLFSA within the Moje delo . Moja pokojnina (My Work. My Pension) project, which was carried out to raise awareness about the pension gender gap and reasons for it. The project promotes the adoption of informed decisions in entire life or working period, which can be used to affect our retirement options and reduce the pension gap between genders.

75.Within the scope of the project, co-financed by the Norwegian Financial Mechanism, a consultation on gender equality in the media was implemented in 2016. Best practices in gender equality in the media in Norway and other European countries were presented at the consultation. Lecturers spoke about the representation and image of women and men in the media, their impact on the aggravation of stereotypes and their prevention, about who decides what will be broadcast on TV screens or radio stations, which areas have more media coverage and where the Slovenian media rank on the gender equality scale compared to the media in other European countries.

76.In 2016, the MLFSA carried out a research on the standpoint of women and men with regard to gender equality, i.e. within the scope of the project, co-financed by the Norwegian Financial Mechanism. The research has shown that men and women know the term of equal opportunities of women and men, although there is a gap between the principle and practice. Most women and men believe that equal opportunities of women and men already exist, this is especially men’s opinion. Regardless of the majority opinion that women and men today have equal rights and equal opportunities, women in practice especially notice and feel some inequalities that refer to private and professional life. The research results have been presented at a conference to the wider public, the research is accessible in printed and digital format.

77.With the aim of strengthening the competences of pedagogues in the area of recognising gender stereotypes and providing study contents about this subject, a two-day international conference was organised in November 2018. It was entitled “Non ‑ Stereotypically about Stereotypes” and comprised workshops for pedagogues. The social consequences of gender stereotypes and a review of the equality of women and men in Slovenia and in the European Union were presented, including the consequences of gender stereotypes through the prism of developmental psychology, a comprehensive review of gender stereotypes in (Slovenian) youth literature and best practices cases in Slovenia and abroad. The participants were informed on the methods how to speak with children about gender stereotypes in popular culture, care work, violence against girls and women, about intergenerational transfer of the traditional comprehension of male and female social roles, and a practical case how to present this topic in a puppet show.

78.In 2018, the Ministry of Culture financed six projects, intended for minority ethnic communities, including women or which were (also) intended for women (e.g. Events, workshops, meetings). Five projects were financed in 2019 and six in 2020. The projects contributed to eliminating stereotypes and encouraging minority ethnic community members to activities in cultural creativity and engagement.

79.The MLFSA issued the Guidelines for gender-sensitive use of language, that contain findings and practical recommendations, useful for the public and various experts. The purpose of the guidelines is to raise awareness of different target groups with regard to gender-sensitive use of language and to promote the use of language that avoids stereotypical expression and equally considers women and men. By issuing tenders for NGOs that operate in the field of gender equality, the Ministry also co-financed projects, focused on exceeding gender stereotypes and stereotyped roles of women and men in society. The projects contained different topics, for instance: non-stereotypical reporting about violence against women and domestic violence, as well as exceeding stereotypes that impact the key decisions with regard to interests, education and career paths of youth, especially girls.

80.In accordance with the novel Criminal Code (2015) forced marriage or the establishment of a similar community has been considered as a criminal act, sanctioned with stricter penalties if minors are involved. The National Programme of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia of Measures for the Roma 2017–2021 also includes target-oriented measures and recommendations in the field of social protection with an emphasis on child and forced marriages or minors running away to harmful environments, as well as procedures for handling cases of civil partnerships with minors. An ad hoc working group was formed for the implementation and coordination of measures in 2017. Upon its initiative, trainings for justice employees were conducted in 2018 and 2019, and a Manual on the identification of early or forced weddings in the Roma community and acting in such cases was prepared in 2020. The manual will be presented to the interested audiences in 2021. On the basis of action plans for fighting trafficking in human beings 2017‑2018 and 2019–2020, numerous activities were carried out to raise awareness of the potential victims of trafficking in human beings in Roma communities, especially from the aspect of forced and early marriages. Within the scope of the Public Tender for Co-Financing Awareness-Raising and Educational Projects in 2018, 2019 and 2020, one third of activities for raising the awareness of children about harmful practices were conducted in environments where the Roma communities live; in 2020, the number of activities was reduced due to the COVID-19 epidemic.

81.In 2020, the Ministry of Culture co-financed the Gender and Society project on website portal (carried out by Vita Activa association). The activity of the portal was co-financed, since it focuses on topics and expert gender-based theories, such as gender inequality, sexism and reproduction of stereotypes in various social areas (politics, media, art, (pop) culture, science, etc.).

G.Gender-based violence against women

82.The Criminal Code also determines that psychological and physical violence against women is a criminal offence. Psychological violence is determined among criminal offences of coercion, threat, domestic violence (if it involves threatening with direct attack on their life or limb to throw them out of the joint residence), workplace mobbing, violence and stalking. In cases of physical violence, the perpetrator can be found guilty of criminal offences of violence, light, serious and grievous bodily harm or domestic violence, if cases exceed psychological violence. Sexual violence, including rape, is determined in a special section that combines criminal offences against the inviolability of sexual integrity and also comprises basic and serious forms of criminal offences, including situations where offences were committed in a cruel or extremely humiliating manner or successively by several perpetrators, where a stricter penalty is determined. With regard to rape or sexual violence in a marriage, extra-marital partnership or registered same-sex civil partnership, the prosecution shall be initiated upon a complaint.

83.Hate speech is as public incitement to hatred and intolerance included in the Resolution on the national programme for the prevention and suppression of crime 2019–2023. Its goals include the reduction of the scope of all forms and occurrences of hate speech or public incitement to hatred and intolerance as well as the guaranteeing and strengthening of educational, promotional and other preventive activities for its reduction and the improvement of public dialogue culture. Hate speech is determined in various laws, with regard to the gravity of each offence; the most serious forms are determined in the Criminal Code as criminal offences (Article 297), hate speech is also included in some sections of the Protection of Public Order Act (for instance: violent and reckless behaviour, indecent behaviour, writing on buildings). It is determined as prohibited conduct in the Audiovisual Media Services Act, Freedom of Religion Act and Protection Against Discrimination Act. The report of the Advocate of the Principle of Equality shows that six guilty verdicts and seven judgements on the punitive order due to a criminal offence of hate speech were imposed in the period from 2015 to 2020.

84.In 2020, a total of 129 women, aged 15 to 49, suffered various forms of violence caused by (former) partners or spouses, of which two were murdered, six women suffered severe bodily harm, 32 offences qualified as domestic violence criminal offence, 19 of them as criminal offence of violence. Women in the age group from 34 to 44 are the most endangered group, because almost one half (63) of victims belong to this group. Data on their education are not available. Data, whether the victims come from the urban or rural environment, can be partially visible with regard to police directorates, where the offences were managed and the data show that most offences occurred in the areas of the Ljubljana Police Directorate (37), Celje (35), Maribor (19) and Koper (17), there was less violent offences committed in the areas of Murska Sobota, Novo mesto and Nova Gorica Police Directorates. Nationality data is not available, although data about the citizenship of victims are collected. The most victims were Slovenian citizens (121), 8 victims were citizens of other countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Montenegro and Serbia) (table 9).

85.The following strategies were conducted in the area of violence against women: Resolution on the national social assistance programme for the 2013–2020 period, which defined programmes for prevention of domestic violence, support for victims of violence and work with perpetrators of violence; Resolution on the National Programme for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men 2015–2020, which determines the main goal of prevention (e.g. reducing violence against women, including the measures to improve awareness and information), Resolution on the national programme for the prevention and suppression of crime 2019–2023, which contains content for the prevention and investigation of violence against women, the National Programme of Measures for the Roma 2017–2021, which includes target-oriented measures and recommendations in the field of social protection with an emphasis on child and forced marriages or minors running away to harmful environments, as well as procedures for handling cases of civil partnerships with minors, Resolution on the National Mental Health Programme 2018−2028, which defines the measures for the prevention and treatment of the following forms of violence: peer violence, domestic violence, elder abuse, etc.

86.The police cooperate in the international project Improving Frontline Responses to High Impact Domestic Violence, which has been in progress from 2018 to August 2021. The research project is intended for searching and finding answers about the human factors that determine effective responses of the police and present best practices of police work in connection with other first responders and why the level of reporting such criminal offences is so low. On the basis of different analyses and findings, field research, key for first responders while investigating grievous forms of domestic violence, expert materials and tools for training and communication between experts that will be intended to manage and prevent domestic violence and manage the consequences as well as reducing domestic violence, will be prepared.

87.In 2019, violence prevention programmes were earmarked EUR 5,393,482.60, of which EUR 3,353,954.90 were provided by the MLFSA. Most funds (EUR 2,431,864.20) were earmarked for safe houses, shelters and crisis centres. 229 people were employed in 2019 in violence prevention programmes, co-financed by the MLFSA. A total of 385 volunteers cooperated in programmes, who jointly carried out 28,763 hours of voluntary work.

88.In 2020, the MLFSA co-financed 35 social assistance programmes, intended to violence prevention. There are 21 accommodation programmes among all violence prevention programmes, including eight maternity houses (180 beds) and 13 safe houses (270 beds). Furthermore, the MLFSA co-financed 12 counselling offices, including one sub-programme intended for training of social skills for perpetrators of violence, one programme intended for prevention of elder abuse and one telephone counselling programme. In 2020, the Ministry earmarked EUR 3,400,000 to violence prevention programmes. Another programme, intended for victims of violence against the disabled, was added to the public tender for co-financing social assistance programmes in 2021 (including accommodation).

89.Slovenia’s public network comprises two crisis centres for adult violence victims, which are intended for women and mothers with children in distress, who need to get out of the violent environment immediately. Crisis centres operate within the scope of the Maribor and Južna Primorska Social Work Centres and are financed on the basis of the annual contract for regular activity. They provide 42 beds. Each crisis centre gets funds for covering the work of five expert workers, costs of goods and services.

90.A total of 831 people were accommodated in maternity homes in 2019 (507 in 2018), of which 175 were minors (183 in 2018). A total of 750 people were accommodated in safe houses, shelters and crisis centres in 2019 (829 in 2018), of which 263 were minors (259 in 2018), while another 845 people were included in the sub-programmes (459 in 2018). A total of 437 beds (446 in 2018) were available in the accommodation programmes in 2019, which were used by 1,581 users (1,336 in 2018).

91.In accordance with the Domestic Violence Prevention Act, the competent authorities and organisations are obliged to consider domestic violence with priority and do everything to protect the victim. The measures depend on the level of victim endangerment. When violence occurs in the family, the victim has the option to be immediately accommodate at the crisis centre, where they receive professional help and accommodation. If, after the expiry of accommodation at the crisis centre, the victim still requires accommodation support, they can retreat to a safe house or shelter. The victim has the right to free legal aid and an assistant who accompanies them in procedures, helps them protect their integrity and find solutions as well as provides psychological support. If necessary, the police or the court can impose a restraining order against the violent offender to a place or person, and the court can prohibit entry to a joint apartment upon the proposal of the victim and let the victim exclusively use the apartment.

92.On the basis of the Police Tasks And Powers Act, the following number of restraining orders was imposed in the period from 2015 to 2019 annually: 806 in 2015, 839 in 2016, 851 in 2017, 994 in 2018 and 973 in 2019. Most measures were imposed (1195) in the area of the Celje Police Directorate, in Ljubljana (827), and the least in the areas of Kranj Police Directorate (164) and Nova Gorica (168). The most endangered are women in age group from 34 to 44 years; the majority of measures related to prohibiting approaching women referred to this age group (1,285) and the age group from 24 to 34 years (1,083). There were the least imposed measures connected to the prohibition of approaching women aged from 16 to 18 years (130).

93.The amended Criminal Procedure Act (2019) introduced the demand for ensuring proper information to the injured party, especially in connection with all supporting services and information about the procedure and final judgements with the purpose of ensuring safety. The competent authority is obliged to inform the injured party, for ensuring their personal safety, that they can request information on the release or escape of the perpetrator from house arrest or detention. The injured party can make a request to notify the competent social work centre about the situation. The amended Criminal Procedure Act also ensures that it must be timely and individually assessed whether there are special needs to protect the victim, whereas the personal characteristics of victims, as well as the type, nature and circumstances of the criminal offence must be considered. Special attention is given to victims with special needs (including victims who had suffered serious damage due to the gravity of the criminal offence; victims of criminal offences on the basis of prejudice or discrimination, victims who are especially vulnerable due to their relationship with the perpetrator or depending on them, victims of trafficking in human beings, victims on the basis of gender, domestic violence, sexual violence, exploitation or hate crimes, and disabled victims), in cases of children and minors who are victims, they are also considered as victims with special needs. The scope of an individual assessment can be adapted with regard to the gravity of the criminal offence and the level of damage and is implemented in collaboration with the victim and by considering the victim’s wishes. The individual assessment is also the basis of establishing the victim’s exposure to secondary or repeated victimisation. Statistical data collection is further reported in section 24.

H.Trafficking in women and exploitation of prostitution

94.In 2018, Slovenia strengthened its institutional structure to fight trafficking in human beings. In 2018, the Ministry of the Interior founded the Anti-Trafficking Service that ensures professional support to the national coordinator for fight against trafficking in human beings and interministerial cooperation. Activities are implemented on the basis of two-year action plans that are prepared by the interministerial working group and adopted by the Government. Four action plans were adopted in the reporting period, the last one for the 2021–2022 period. Regular annual trainings of experts dealing with human trafficking issue (law enforcement authorities) and awareness-raising campaigns among expert workers who deal with human trafficking (social workers, pedagogues) were implemented in accordance with action plans.

95.International Protection Act was adopted in 2016. Its provisions directly relate to human trafficking and the victims of human trafficking are determined as vulnerable persons with special needs. Issues of protection and safety are considered in the consideration of minors in procedures of assessing children’s benefits, especially when there are risks that a minor is a victim of human trafficking. The Residence Registration Act was adopted the same year, enabling victims of human trafficking to anonymously reside at a secret location. Due to the urgent measures or reporting and accommodation in a safe house for victims of domestic violence and victims of human trafficking, the law determines that for these people, it is possible to register legal residence at the social work centre address also upon the proposal of the state prosecutor, the police or the social work centre.

96.The amended Residence Registration Act, that has been in force since 27 June 2021, the determination of legal residence for victims of human trafficking has been amended. So far, the legal residence was considered as permanent residence, but in practice, it has been proven that a temporary residence can also be considered as legal residence. The administrative unit can determine a legal residence also to a foreigner who does not have the permit to reside in Slovenia, although they have a valid temporary residence permit, the residence registration certificate or a visa for long-term residence and has been the victim of domestic violence or the victim of human trafficking.

97.The Foreigners Act has also been amended in the part that determines the conditions for the issue of the temporary residence permit to victims of human trafficking. Under the conditions for the issue of a temporary residence permit, the condition that the victim’s testimony must be relevant, has been deleted, and a new reason for rejection has been added (“there must be founded suspicion that the victim’s report is false, or there must be founded conclusion that the victim’s cooperation was false”). The reason for rejection with regard to danger for public health was also deleted.

98.The aim of amending the Criminal Procedure Act was the implementation of the Directive 2012/29/EU on establishing minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA. The amended act ensures victims of criminal offences a wide range of rights in the preliminary criminal and criminal procedure from the aspect of protection, support and indemnification for victims.

99.The victims of trafficking in human beings are identified on the basis of the Manual on the Identification, Assistance and Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings adopted in 2016 by the Government. The manual determines the role and tasks of state authorities and NGOs as well as humanitarian organisations in the consideration of human trafficking and determines the measures to help and protect the victims. An important part of the manual are indicators to identify the victims of trafficking, including children. The manual is also used as a tool for training state authorities that frequently face this issue in their line of work.

100.Data show that in the reporting period, the majority of victims of trafficking in human beings come from Ukraine (73), Hungary (38) and other eastern European countries (Slovakia 23, Romania 22, Czech Republic 21), while in the past two years (2019 and 2020), victims almost exclusively come from Ukraine (table 11).

101.The implementation of providing assistance and protecting the victims of human trafficking is defined in the Act Ratifying the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. The Government funds various assistance programmes, carried out by NGOs, selected at a public tender. The “Providing assistance to victims of human trafficking – Crisis accommodation” project, financed by the MLFSA, ensures 30-day period intended for the victim to recover, escape the influence of traffickers, and receive information about the voluntary forms of further support programme and possibilities of cooperation with state authorities. (more about the Project in Appendix 3)

102.During crisis accommodation, victims are also offered long-term assistance and accommodation within the scope of the Providing assistance to victims of human trafficking – Safe accommodation programme, financed by the Ministry of the Interior. (more about the Programme in Appendix 3)

103.A two-year project (Re)Integration of Victims of Human Trafficking was initiated in 2019 and is financed by the Ministry of the Interior. (more about the Project in Appendix 3)

104.During the reporting period, the MLFSA earmarked EUR 45,000 for crisis accommodation every year, and the Ministry of the Interior placed EUR 40,000 for safe accommodation. Additional funds must be ensured in case of substantial increase of costs in accordance with the provisions of the contract, concluded with an NGO. In the period from 2019 to 2020, the state budget earmarked EUR 54,600 for the (Re)Integration of Victims of Human Trafficking.

105.The victim of trafficking in human beings can claim damage from the perpetrator with a civil legal action or can enforce indemnification by submitting a property and legal claim on the basis of the Criminal Procedure Act, including filing the criminal complaint against the perpetrator. If the indemnification cannot be claimed from the perpetrator, they can claim the indemnification from the state in accordance with the provisions of the Compensation to Victims of Crime Act (which for now excludes the citizens of third countries from the scope of eligible people).

106.The Government has for several years co-financed many prevention programmes for awareness raising, implemented by non-governmental and humanitarian organisations. Activities are intended for the general public and vulnerable groups (the youth, potential victims of labour exploitation of forced work, refugees and migrants, especial unaccompanied minors). Since 2018, the programme for raising awareness of the youth about trafficking in human beings includes raising the awareness about forced and arranged marriages. Crisis accommodation provider regularly carries out prevention workshops in Slovenian primary and secondary schools, as well as prepares and distributed informational materials. They are intended for providing information and raising awareness (about the dangers and traps of trafficking in human beings) of the youth, pedagogues and other target groups.

107.For several years, the PATS programme (Assistance and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings) has been implemented to identify potential victims of trafficking in human beings among the applicants for international protection, whereas individual interviews for minors and unaccompanied minors and women are especially important, so that individuals are informed about trafficking in human beings and protection measures.

108.A group of experts regularly meets within the scope of the Government Office for the Support and Integration of Migrants, where they consider sexual violence and gender-based violence cases on the basis of the document entitled Standard Operating Procedures for the Prevention of and Response to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence, which also define the forms of providing assistance to victims of trafficking in human beings in such procedures.

109.In fighting trafficking in human beings, Slovenia gives a lot of importance to international cooperation, especially with the countries of origin, in the operational and strategic levels. We dedicate special attention to efforts to strengthen international cooperation in south-east Europe. An informal network of national coordinators, initiated by Slovenia, operates within this framework.

110.The Ključ Association started a three-year project in 2020, co-financed by the Ministry for Health, which faces on various forms of supporting people who are not ready or cannot exit prostitution and/or are not ready to share information about the abuse they experienced with the law enforcement authorities. (more about the Programme in Appendix 3)

I.Participation in political and public life

111.At preliminary election to the National Assembly in 2018, 44 per cent of women were on candidate lists and 22 women were elected among 90 MPs (24.4 per cent). Due to the appointment of some MPs for terms-of-office, shares can change after election. On 1 January 2021 there were 24 female MPs or 26.7 per cent.

112.At the last local election in 2018, the share of women on candidate lists was 45.7 per cent, and there were 33.3 per cent municipal and city councillors elected. 692 men and 108 women (13.5 per cent) applied for mayors and 190 men and 22 women were elected mayors (10.4 per cent). Based on the Local Self-Government Act, the Romas in the areas of the autochthonous residence of the Roma community have a representative instituted in the municipal council. Among 20 elected Roma councillors, there are four Roma female councillors (20 per cent).

113.Elections to the National Council are held every five years. Among 40 national councillors, 4 women were elected in 2017 (10 per cent).

114.According to the example of the Mentor Day with a Woman Politician project, implemented in 2011 by the Office of Equal Opportunities and which was reported in the previous report, the National Assembly and the MPs Club in 2019 and 2020 organised a “Day With a Woman MP”. Young women, interested in politics, shared their working day on the International Women’s Day and accompanied the MPs while they were performing their daily tasks. Together they attended the MPs Club session. This activity contributes to raising the awareness and supporting greater engagement of young women in politics.

115.The new government started its term-of-office in the spring of 2020. The government is led by the Prime Minister, there are 3 female ministers among 16 ministers or 18.8 per cent. The share of women among state secretaries is 33.3 per cent.

116.The inclusion of women and men in atypical professions as referring to gender, is greatly considered in the Slovenian Armed Forces, the Police and diplomacy. The share of women in the Slovenian Armed Forces is 16.5 per cent and 10.3 per cent on missions (2019). In 2018, a woman was appointed the Chief of the General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces for the first time in Slovenia and in NATO. Women take a 26 per cent share in the Police and 5 per cent of women take the highest ranks (2020). In 2018, a woman was appointed the Director General of the Police for the first time. 41.3 per cent of women hold the positions of ambassadors.

117.In the largest listed companies, chairmen, members of the boards and employee representatives have 27.7 per cent of women, there are 24.6 per cent women among CEOs and executive directors.

118.With the aim of achieving progress in the area of greater representation of women in management and supervisory bodies of companies and for forming (better) diversity policies, the amended Companies Act (2021) determine that large and medium-sized companies that audit annual reports, need to disclose the ratio of both genders in management and supervisory bodies in their diversity policy, which is proportional to the size of the company, the goals that the company follows and with regard to the impact on the procedures of selecting management and supervisory bodies members.

119.The Ministry of Economic Development and Technology also actively motivates authorities, competent for adopting corporate governance codes of companies that are listed on the stock exchange, or companies with state capital shares (public companies, SDH, DUTB), i.e. to include the demand for a more equal representation of both genders in management in the company (e.g. at least 40 per cent representation of both genders).

120.The Equal Opportunities for Women and Men Act, adopted in 2019, transferred the executive provisions on the implementation of Article 14 of the act to the legislative level and obliged the self-government local communities and self-government national communities to respecting the principle of a balanced representation when appointing or proposing representatives in the management and supervisory bodies in public subjects and determined exceptions. (More in paragraph 47).

121.Harassment due to any personal circumstance, including political opinion, is determined in the Protection Against Discrimination Act as a form of discrimination. Harassment is defined as unwanted conduct, connected to any personal circumstance that has an effect or purpose creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, shameful or offensive environment for a person and offends their dignity. The Advocate of the Principle of Equality considered 13 harassment cases in 2019, which is 10 per cent of all considered cases, and 23 cases in 2020 which is 10.5 per cent of all considered cases. The reports do not show if any case was connected to so-called political harassment.

122.The MLFSA carried out a project in 2015 entitled “Balancing the Balance of Power Between Genders” to put attention to a non-balanced representation of women and men in decision-making positions. The campaign highlighted conduct that would contribute to a more balanced representation of women and men in managerial and leading workplaces in politics and economy. Billboards, radio ads and websites were used to raise awareness about the low share of women in decision-making workplaces or highest positions in the economy and politics. It was warned that men and women need to have the power to make decisions, because decisions made only by one gender are less comprehensive and do not comprise the needs of all social groups.


123.The legislation governing the right to indemnification for the erased, was reported in the Information of the Republic of Slovenia about the realisation of priority reports of the Committee in 2017. Indemnification as per the Act Regulating the Compensation for Damage Sustained as a Result of Erasure from the Register of Permanent Residents can be filed in an administrative or judicial procedure in the three years since the entry into force of the law, the general statute of limitations therefore expired on 18 June 2017. An extended deadline for filing the request or legal action was determined for persons, for which the applications for the issue of the permanent residence permit or the applications for the acquisition of citizenship of Slovenia were not decided and a three-year period since the finality of the decision applied for them. In the period from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2020, 1,101 applications for the determination of a monetary indemnification in an administrative procedure were considered, whereas 576 of them were granted (194 of which were women). The total amount of indemnifications, determined in the administrative procedure in 2016, amounted to EUR 1,367,250 (the average indemnification amounted to EUR 5,238.51), EUR 1,422,600 in 2017 (the average indemnification amounted to EUR 4,855.29). Women filed 106 complaints in judicial procedures from 2016 to 2020, in a total amount of EUR 4,457,780. Five claims of plaintiffs were granted (in a total value of EUR 81,189.30), in 55 cases court settlement was achieved (total value of indemnifications EUR 420,454).

124.The Ministry of the Interior had reservations with regard to the ratification of the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness from 1961 due to Article 12 of the Convention, determining a retroactive application of Article 1 of the Convention for persons, born in Slovenia before its entry into force. This opens a question of the acquisition of Slovenian citizenship under simplified conditions for persons, born in Slovenia, however, they should acquire the citizenship of any of the other republics of the former Yugoslavia with regard to the legislation valid in the time of their birth. Regardless of the afore mentioned facts, the valid Citizenship of the Republic of Slovenia Act has several elements that prevent the occurrence of statelessness, i.e. it enables children, born in Slovenia, to acquire Slovenian citizenship, if their parents are stateless or have unknown citizenship, or the child is found on Slovenia’s territory. Minors get special care in the procedures of acquiring Slovenian citizenship if non‑acceptance would cause statelessness. The law also stipulates that a stateless person acquires Slovenian citizenship with the naturalisation procedure after living continuously in Slovenia for five years. The decision on withdrawal of Slovenian citizenship is issued only if the person has an ensured foreign citizenship. In some points, the Citizenship of the Republic of Slovenia Act stipulates simplified conditions for granting Slovenian citizenship than are recommended by the convention (e.g. unconditional acquisition of citizenship by origin, if both parents of the child are Slovenian citizens, or by consent, if one of the parents is a Slovenian citizen.

The legal provision in the eighth paragraph of Article 12 enables the acquisition of Slovenian citizenship to stateless persons under simplified conditions. On this legal basis, 20 persons asked for citizenship in the period from 2006 to 2020, of which 12 were women (four women in the last five years).


125.The share of girls and boys in primary and secondary schools in Slovenia is almost equal. According to data of the Statistical Office, the share of girls in 2019/2020 among the primary school population was 48.6 per cent. Data on the share of girls among the primary school population in the eastern, less developed region (48.5 per cent) and western, more developed region (48.8 per cent), do not show significant differences. The share of girls, included in secondary school programmes, was 48.5 per cent in 2019/2020. Most secondary school pupils were enrolled in secondary technical and vocational education (47.0 per cent or 49.2 per cent of all male pupils and 44.7 per cent of all female pupils), followed by general secondary education (34.7 per cent or 25.9 per cent of all male pupils and 44.0 per cent of all female pupils), secondary vocational education (16.8 per cent or 22.7 per cent of all male pupils and 10.5 per cent of all female pupils) and lower vocational education (1.5 per cent or 2.1 per cent of all male pupils and 0.8 per cent of all female pupils). Girls predominate among general secondary school pupils (61.6 per cent), there are less enrolled in secondary technical and other vocational education, where the share of pupils is 46.1 per cent and secondary vocational (30.3 per cent) and lower vocational (27.0 per cent) education. Gender imbalance in secondary education is most present in IT and communication technology (4.8 per cent female pupils) and technology, production technology and construction (11.24 per cent female pupils). On the other hand, female pupils predominate in education (89.99 per cent), health care and social studies (75.9 per cent) (tables 15, 18, 19 and 20).

126.According to Statistical Office in the 2019/2020 school year, 13,302 pupils with special needs, of which 33.2 per cent were girls, were enrolled in regular or adapted primary school programmes. 2,511 or 18.9 per cent of children were enrolled in adapted primary school programmes, others were enrolled in regular primary school programmes. Considering the type of disorder, the share of girls among children with mental disorders was 40.8 per cent, 40.0 per cent among the blind and children with visual impairments, 43.8 per cent among the deaf and hearing impairments, 33.3 per cent among children with motor disabilities and 39.8 per cent among chronically ill (table 16).

127.According to the data of the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, 28 primary schools for children with special needs, 21 primary schools with programmes for children with special needs, 15 institutions for children and minors with special needs and four centres for training, work and care, which cover the needs at the level of the entire country, operated in Slovenia in 2020/2021. 15,270 children with special needs were enrolled in primary schools programmes in 2020/2021 school year. 2,124 pupils are enrolled in adapted education programmes with a lower education standard, of which 36.9 per cent are girls, 1,563 pupils are enrolled in special education programmes for children with moderate, serious and very serious mental disorder and other special programmes, of which 39.6 per cent are girls.

128.Women predominate among the students enrolled in tertiary education. In 2019/2020 study year, the share of women according to data of the Statistical Office was 57.3 per cent and was at the same level compared to 2015/2016 study year (57.6 per cent). In the past five years, the share of enrolled youth in universities and higher education institutions somewhat lowered in both genders. In 2015/2016 study year, the share of people from 20 to 24 years, enrolled in tertiary education, was 46.7 per cent (55.8 per cent of women and 37.9 per cent of men), in 2019/2020 the share was 43.8 per cent (54.5 per cent of women and 34.6 per cent of men).

129.10,662 students were enrolled in college programmes in 2019/2020 study year, of which 38.5 per cent were women. 19,696 students were enrolled in higher vocational education programmes, the share of women was 57.0 per cent. 22,237 students were enrolled in university programmes, of which 60.8 per cent were women. Master’s programmes included 20,827 students, of which 13,327 or 64.0 per cent were women. Doctoral programmes included 3,306 students, of which more than half were women (54.1 per cent) (table 21).

130.There were no significant changes in the selection of studies in the past years. Women are still predominantly represented in programmes in the area of health care and social work (76.9 per cent) and pedagogical work (87.4 per cent), there are less women in programmes in IT and communication technology (16.7 per cent). 57.3 per cent share of women are enrolled in programmes in natural science, mathematics and statistics (table 22).

131.Women predominate among graduates from tertiary education. In 2019, the share of women who successfully concluded their tertiary education, was 60.0 per cent. Among graduates who successfully concluded higher vocational and university education, there was a 61.1 per cent share of women, 66.2 per cent among master’s graduates and 54.3 per cent women among doctoral graduates.

132.There were 63.3 per cent women in 2019 among higher vocational and higher university study graduates in natural science, mathematics and statistics, 15.8 per cent women in ICT and 23 per cent women among technology, production technology and construction graduates.

133.There were 67 per cent women in 2019 among master’s graduates in natural science, mathematics and statistics, 14.9 per cent women in ICT and 34.9 per cent women among technology, production technology and construction master’s graduates.

134.54 women (54.5 per cent) got their doctoral degree in natural science, mathematics and statistics and 29 women (35.4 per cent) in production technology and construction. No woman got a doctoral degree in ICT.

135.Some activities are carried out to encourage women to enrol in non-traditional study programmes. Since 2018, the engineer of the year competition has been in progress within the scope of the “Inženirji in inženirke bomo!” (Becoming an engineer!), implemented by various organisations and companies with the Slovenian president being the honourable sponsor. The project promotes and encourages women to choose engineering professions. The KAMbi (WHEREto) application was launched in 2020, encouraging young people to consider engineering as a study programme.

136.There are many activities in progress to strengthen the role of career centres, operating at higher school institutions and to comprehensively assist students. Besides career counselling, the centres also raise awareness and inform professional workers and students about the relevance of the equal consideration of all students, regardless of their gender or any other special circumstances. By organising various themed events, career centres feature educational and career paths of successful women in areas, where women are represented much less than men.

137.Within financing the study activity of public higher school and private higher school institutions for concession study programmes, the allocation of funds is assessed from the aspect of developmental goals with wider systemic or social effects. In the 2021–2024 contract period that the Ministry of Education also determined the promotion of studies and increasing the enrolment in STE(A)M area (engineering programmes) and developing the solutions for including non-traditional groups of candidates in higher school study, referring mostly to women.

138.With scholarships, Slovenia promotes education and receiving a higher level of education, improves youth employability and contributes to shortening the period to the end of studies in tertiary education. Scholarships are used to reduce the disproportion between the education of youth and the demand for human resources in the labour market. There are different types of scholarships. State scholarships help or simplify the schooling of secondary school pupils and students from socially weaker families, Zois scholarships fund the schooling of talented students, Ad futura scholarships assist the education of youth abroad, co-financing company scholarships encourages employers to plan and acquire suitable human resources, scholarships for Slovenians living abroad strengthening their connection with their homeland and ensuring the possibility to study in Slovenia, scholarship for scarce occupations encourage pupils to choose professions where there is a lack of human resources. State scholarships are available for women from marginalised groups. The Scholarship Act determines conditions under which persons whose average monthly income per family member does not exceed EUR 680.56 is eligible for scholarship. Women from families with the lowest income (where average monthly income per person is EUR 319.01) are eligible for a scholarship in the amount of EUR 97.28 per month (until 18 years of age) or EUR 194.56 (over 18 years of age).

139.151,823 decisions were issued in 2020 with regard to receiving state scholarships, of which 132,062 were positive. Women received 67,614 scholarships (51 per cent). There were 1,073 new recipients of Zois scholarship, of which 627 were women (58.4 per cent). There were 1007 new scholarship for scarce professions given in 2020 (132 or 13.1 of which to women) and 423 company scholarships (75 or 17 per cent to women). EUR 71,753,296.47 were earmarked for state scholarships in 2020, EUR 9,093,188.50 for Zois scholarships and EUR 3,328,819.20 for scholarship for scarce professions. The average amount of state scholarship in 2020 was EUR 112.00.

140.According to adult education survey, 661,326 people formally and informally educated in 2016, of which 325,653 men (49.2 per cent) and 335,673 women (50.8 per cent). A programme that enables the completion of formal education, especially at the primary education level is carried out within the scope of the active employment policy. 45 per cent women were among participants in 2020 (eleven months) and 40 per cent in 2019.

141.Education about sexual and reproductive health and rights is part of the curriculum in primary schools (biology and homeland and state culture and ethics subjects). Similar education programmes are also carried out at various faculties in health care and social sciences (Faculty of Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, the Faculty of Medicine-all of the University of Ljubljana, etc.).

142.The Ministry of Education approached the resolution of issue of sexual and other harassment and violence in the higher education area and is preparing a research with public universities about sexual and other forms of harassment and violence within the Slovenian higher education sphere. The results will be a starting point for necessary measures, identified in the research.


143.According to LFS of the Statistical Office, the employment rate of women and men from 20 to 64 years of age has risen in the past few years, from 69.1 per cent in 2015 to 75.6 per cent in 2020, from 64.7 per cent in women to 72.4 per cent and from 73.3 per cent to 78.6 per cent in men. The highest level has been noticed in women from 40 to 44 years (89.5 per cent) and also in men (93.1 per cent) (table 24).

144.Data about persons (older than 15 years) in employment show that there are almost no differences between rural and urban areas. The employment rate in 2019 in the urban environment was 50.3 per cent in women (55.0 per cent in men), and 50.9 per cent in women (56.1 per cent in men) in rural environment (table 25).

145.Considering the area of activity, there are most women employed in health and social care (81.0 per cent; urban environment 81.9 per cent, rural environment 79.7 per cent), education (79.9 per cent; urban environment 78.4 per cent, rural environment 81.8 per cent), other activities (73.9 per cent; urban environment 73.9 per cent, rural environment 73.8 per cent) and accommodation and food service (61.9 per cent; urban environment 59.4 per cent, rural environment 65.5 per cent). The lowest share of women in employment is in construction (9.3 per cent; urban environment 7.7 per cent, rural environment 11.1 per cent) and in water and waste management, environment rehabilitation (17.1 per cent; urban environment 16.7 per cent, rural environment 17.5 per cent). As can be seen from data, there are no significant differences between the urban and rural environment (table 27).

146.According to the Statistical Register, there were 35,036 people with disabilities among the persons in employment at the end of 2019 (of which 68 per cent were in urban, 32 per cent in rural environment) or approximately 4 per cent of all persons in employment in the mentioned year. Since 2015, the number of work active people with disabilities increased by 13.6 per cent. The number of work active women with disabilities at the end of 2019 was by 3.9 per cent higher than the number of work active men with disabilities (in urban environment there were 8.9 per cent more women than men, while in the rural environment there were 6 per cent less women with disabilities than men with disabilities). At the end of 2015, the situation changed: there were 5.7 per cent less work active women with disabilities than men with disabilities. At the end of 2019, the most work active people with disabilities had secondary school education (64 per cent), among which there were more men (54 per cent) than women (46 per cent). The share of work active people with disabilities and secondary education or less was higher than the share with higher school education (one fifth of those with secondary education or less, and approximately one sixth of those with higher school education); the latter comprised a higher level of women (65.5 per cent) than men (34.5 per cent). More than two thirds of all work active people with disabilities were employed in the private sector. More than half of all work active persons with disabilities were from 50 to 59 years old (56 per cent).

147.In 2019, in the informal economic sector (assistants and family members, work for direct payment), there were 17,000 persons in employment (49.7 per cent women, 50.3 per cent men). More persons worked in the rural environment (14,000), where there were 51.3 per cent women and 48.7 per cent men. In the urban environment, the share of women was 40.4 per cent (table 28).

148.LFS unemployment rate of people over 15 years has reduced in the past years. Since 2016, when it was 9 per cent (10.1 per cent women, 8.1 per cent men), it has reduced to 5 per cent (5.7 per cent women, 4.4 per cent men) in 2019. In women, it dropped by 4.4 percentage points, and by 3.7 percentage points in men. The highest unemployment rate was among younger people; in age group from 25 to 29 years in women (8.9 per cent) and in age group from 20 to 24 years in men (5.9 per cent). There are no significant changes between the rural and urban environment with regard to unemployment rate. It is slightly higher in the urban environment. The unemployment rate of people older than 15 years in 2019 in the urban environment was 4.8 per cent (5.1 per cent women, 4.4 per cent men), and 4.1 per cent in the rural environment (4.7 per cent women, 3.6 per cent men) (tables 30 and 31).

149.Data from the register of unemployed people of the Slovenian Employment Service show that there are no differences between men and women. The share of unemployed women was 51 per cent in 2020, similarly to 2019 (50 per cent). Besides the success of intervention measures (more under sections 2 and 3), preserving employed women, an important factor is that women are equally represented in employment programmes. In eleven months of 2020, all active employment policy measures included 53 per cent women, and 56 per cent women in the education and training programme.

150.In accordance with the Employment Relationship Act, the conclusion of fixed-term employment contracts is an exception that can be used by an employer only upon fulfilled conditions, determined in the law and sectoral collective contract. These include reasons justifying the conclusion of a fixed-term employment (substitution of a worker, seasonal work, project work), when there is a need for a job that will last for a limited time. Such contracts are limited to a maximum of two-year period, except in special cases. The employment of a pregnant woman with a fixed-term employment contract is terminated when the fixed-term of the contract ends. Upon the expiry of the contract, a pregnant woman can, if she is unemployed, register at the Employment Service and receive unemployment allowance in accordance with the Labour Market Regulation Act. She is eligible for maternity pay and parental allowance, if she was insured according to the Parental Protection and Family Benefits Act for at least twelve months in the period of three years before the enforcement of the right to allowance.

151.According to Eurostat, the gender pay gap was 7.7 per cent in 2019 and increased by 0.1 percentage point compared to 2015. The Structural Salary Statistics of the Statistical Office show that the average gross salary in 2019 amounted EUR 1,851 (men EUR 1,700, women EUR 1,790). The pay gap was 5.8 per cent and was by 0.1 percentage point lower than in 2015. From the aspect of workplace regions, the highest pay gap was in the Gorenjska statistical region (9.4 per cent), the lowest was in south-east Slovenia (0.7 per cent).

152.The average monthly gross salary of people with disabilities, employed in Slovenia in 2019 amounted to EUR 1,389 or 75 per cent of the average monthly gross salary of all people, employed in Slovenia. Persons with disabilities, employed in the urban environment, earned 9.1 per cent more than those employed in the rural environment. Men with disabilities in 2019 earned in average 8 per cent more than women with disabilities.

153.Pension and disability insurance are part of the social insurance system. It is based on the solidarity principle and works as a flow system. The inclusion in pension and disability insurance is mandatory and uniform for all insured persons as stipulated by the law. The same conditions apply for men and women for the realisation of the right to old age pension. The Pension and Disability Insurance Act determines that a person acquires the right to old age pension at 65 years of age if at least 15 years of insurance period are fulfilled. Person who is 60 years of age and has 40 years of pensionable age without purchasing additional years, has the right to old age pension. The age limit to acquire the right to old age pension can be reduced for various reasons, childcare, inclusion in mandatory pension and disability insurance before 18 years of age, etc. In some cases, the reduction of the age limit can vary between men and women.

154.If a person reaches 40 years of pensionable period when turning 60 years, they are eligible for preliminary old age pension. In this case, the person receives a reduced pension (so-called malus), which is permanent. In preliminary old age pension, the reduction of the age limit cannot be realised, although the increase of the percentage due to childcare can be enforced.

155.The amount of old age pension depends on the amount of the pensionable basis and the accrual rate, increasing with the duration of fulfilled pension period. For 15 years of pensionable period, an accrual rate in the amount of 29.5 per cent of the basis is determined and increases by 1.36 per cent for every following year of completed pensionable period. This has already been achieved for women, and men will achieve it in the transitional period until 2023. The upward accrual percentage is not limited. By extending work activity, an individual can increase the accrual rate and the pension amount.

156.The accrual rate can be increased due to the care for children for one year, i.e. 1.36 per cent for every child, although maximum for three children or 4.08 per cent. A woman or man who used the parental leave in the duration of 120 days, is eligible for additional accrual rate if they agree on this with the other parent.

157.The right to disability pension is given to an insured person with 1st disability category and in some legally determined cases if they have the 2nd and 3rd disability category. An insured person can acquire the right to disability pension if they are injured at work or due to occupational disease and also due to injury outside work or disease, however, in the latter case, the person had to be included in mandatory insurance for a certain period of time. The amount of disability pension depends on gender (until 2023, different accrual percentages apply in the transitional period) and age, the reason of disability, completed pensionable age and salaries or insurance bases.

158.According to the data of the Ministry of Education pre-school education in 2020 was carried out by 966 kindergartens and their units, of which 851 are public and 115 are private kindergartens. The majority of children visited public kindergartens (94.3 per cent). The data of the Statistical Office show that in the beginning of 2019/2020 school year 87,708 were enrolled in kindergartens, or 82.8 per cent of all children from one to five years of age. In the last decade, the number of children in kindergartens increased by a quarter: from 71,124 (2009/2010) to 87,708 (2019/2020) (tables 13 and 14).

159.In the 2019/2020 school year, 94.1 per cent of children from one to five years of age were enrolled in kindergarten, which is 6 percentage points more than ten years ago. The enrolment of the youngest (children of one and two years of age) is increasing; in 2019/2020, 67.5 per cent of children of this age were enrolled in kindergartens (a half in 2009/2010).

160.The MLFSA has since 2014 carried out programmes that offer various forms of help to families, reducing various risks and positively impacting the improvement of quality of the lives of families. These are quality and widely accessible programmes, based on modern concepts of support and (self)help, that contribute to reducing inequalities in society and increasing social inclusion of families and individuals, improve the situation of vulnerable families, etc. These programmes also include the topics of harmonising professional and family life, because they offer organised workshops and holiday activities for children. The funds for family support programmes were increased significantly – from EUR 668,118.32 for 2020 to EUR 978,000.00 for 2021. In the 2021–2025 period, 12 family centre programmes will be financed. The programmes are distributed all over Slovenia.

161.15 multi-generational centres carried out various programmes in all regions in 2019 and 2020. These are programmes intended for preventing people from slipping into social exclusion and poverty, and for this reason they in particular address groups at a high risk of social exclusion. The multi-generational centres include educational workshops and activities to develop competences in various areas as well as content intended for easier harmonisation of professional and family life, holiday activities for children and organised occasional care for children and domestic violence prevention content.

162.Slovenia has not yet decided to join the ILO Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189), because domestic workers are not excluded or in any other way treated differently than other employees. Slovenia as the member of the EU cannot ratify the ILO Violence and Harassment Convention, 2019 (No. 190), because the Council’s decision on authorising member states to ratify the mentioned convention in the interest of the EU has not been adopted yet. Regardless of the fact that the content of the convention is not contradictory to the valid legal order of the EU, it refers to some areas of EU law, therefore, the member states cannot ratify the convention by themselves.


163.As has been reported in previous report, the protection and promotion of sexual and reproductive health and rights are regulated by the Health Care and Health Insurance Act. Reproductive health care for women in Slovenia is organised at the primary health care level, where every woman can choose their own gynaecologist and obstetrician as personal doctor or doctor that is accessible without referral. The preventive programme for the care of sexual and reproductive health is determined within the Rules on carrying out preventive health care at the primary level. Preventive reproductive health care programmes include check-ups and counselling for family planning or the use of contraception, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and consequential infertility, preventive pregnancy check-ups, examinations and counselling after giving birth, spontaneous or artificial termination of pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy, preventive activities in community nursing care (preventive visits to the pregnant woman, neonatal mother and new-born) and health care and health promotion. Within primary reproductive health care of women, preventive swabs are taken due to cervical cancer detection, implemented within the scope of the ZORA state screening programme.

164.For more than ten years, vaccination against human papillomavirus for girls has been available free for girls, and it is planned that as of 2021/2022 the vaccination will also be available to boys.

165.Within the scope of infertility treatment, six biomedically assisted procreation procedures for the first child and four such procedures for every next child are covered by the health insurance.

166.A person who wants to be sterilised in Slovenia, has to submit an application to a special sterilisation committee and wait for six months after approval.

167.A large number of projects were intended for the needs of vulnerable groups in the past years in Slovenia, which included the verification of accessibility of health institutions to people with disabilities.

168.The issue of accessibility to health care services for people with disabilities was included in various projects. The National Institute of Public Health included this issue among the topic of the MoST project (Community Approach Model for Health Promotion and Reducing Inequalities in Health in Local Communities, 2017–2020), whose wide framework has upgraded preventive health care at the primary level and the connection of structures at the level of local communities to reduce inequalities in health. A scientific monograph entitled “Inequalities and Vulnerabilities in Health Care in Slovenia: Qualitative Research in 25 Environment” was issued. The results have shown the vulnerability of many very heterogeneous groups that face many structural obstacles, including obstacles in accessing health care institutions and other institutions. The publication entitled Standards of Intercultural Mediation in Health Care was prepared to help bridging the language and cultural obstacles. A training for health care workers was organised to help them acquire the competences to include persons with motor and sensory disorders in preventive programmes; within the SOPA project (Together for a Responsible Attitude to Alcohol), special attention was given to including groups with different vulnerabilities. During the COVID-19 epidemic, the Basic Instructions and Recommendations for Working with Vulnerable Groups during the COVID-19 Epidemic and the Recommendations of the Elderly during the New COVID-19 Epidemic were publishes, where special attention was given to elderly with disabilities.

169.In the field of reproductive health, Recommendations for identifying and directing pregnant women and neonatal mothers with vulnerabilities, for instance women with mental health problems, addictions, violence victims, immigrants, etc., were prepared.

170.In the time when we are trying to surpass the consequences brought to our society by the health, social and economic crisis, the COVID-19 epidemic puts new challenges ahead us with regard to mental health risks.

171.The Resolution on the National Mental Health Programme 2018−2028 was adopted in 2018 and is the first strategic document with a long-term plan in the field of mental health in Slovenia. The national programme comprises the entire scope, from promoting mental health, early treatment and treatment to psycho-sociological rehabilitation, monitoring, evaluation and the control of quality of implementation of activities and programmes. It determines the network of mental health services providers and puts the core of mental health treatment from secondary to primary health care level. 25 mental health centres for children and youngsters are envisaged at the primary health care level and as many centres for adult mental health. Currently, there are ten mental health centres for children and youngsters and ten centres for adult mental health (they also have mobile teams for group treatment).

172.Within the scope of health protection and promotion programmes, the Ministry for Health co-finances and supports primary mental health prevention programmes with a special emphasis of programmes with a greater reach to the most vulnerable and hardly accessible target groups, their inclusion in assistance programmes, such as the victims assistance programme, especially women who are victims of criminal offences, women in detention and convicted women in prisons, and the programme for assistance to women and children in prostitution.

173.The Ministry for Health co-financed the research project on the prevalence and long-term impact of burdening childhood experience on health and functioning in adulthood. The project detected the prevalence of burdening childhood experience, including the exposure to different types of violence or abuse. The results will contribute to providing services that are sensitive to trauma in health care, social care and education.

174.Slovenia ensured personal protective equipment to health care workers during the epidemic, and also provided for the redistribution of persons with an increased risk to less exposed workplaces and for priority COVID-19 vaccination.

N.Women’s economic empowerment

175.With a wide number of social transfers and social protection programmes, the MLFSA strives to ensure maximum social inclusion of all individuals. A relatively high share of funds in is intended for survival-related transfers (transfers within the scope of the wider social welfare system) which are effective in reducing poverty and social exclusion. During the economic crisis, Slovenia has not lowered the monetary social assistance, extraordinary monetary social assistance and income support. There were no other interventions in the lowest income classes of child benefit recipients. On the contrary, the ponders to calculate the amount of monetary social assistance and income support to some most endangered categories of people, including the elderly, were increased during the worst economic crisis. It must be emphasised that the austerity measures during the crisis did not focus on the social position of the weakest. Austerity measures in the field of public funds were mostly eliminated as of 1 January 2019.

176.Child benefit amount for families with the lowest income for the first child amounts EUR 117.04 (EUR 128.75 for the second child and EUR 140.47 for the third child). With the elimination of austerity measures, child benefit will be also given to people in the 7th and 8th income class. Families, whose monthly average income per person does not exceed EUR 1,052.75, are entitled to child benefit. The last income class for state scholarship also decreased, meaning that pupils and students where the average monthly income per family member is lower than EUR 680.56, receive the lowest scholarship, i.e. EUR 35.84 for minors and EUR 71.68 for those above 18 years of age.

177.Women in average earn less than men, and their average pensions are lower, which reflects in a higher risk of poverty rate. The pension gap is one-fold to the pay gap and in 2019, it amounted to 16.4 per cent according to Eurostat among the pensioners older than 65 years. The risk of poverty among women in 2019 amounted 13 per cent and in men it was 10.9 per cent; in women older than 75 years, the risk of poverty rate was 28.1 per cent and in men in the same age group it was 12,7 per cent (table 32). Older women with a higher risk of poverty rate more frequently live in one-member household, and in their active period, they held less-paid jobs than men and had lower working period than men, therefore their pensions are lower.

178.The share of women among the self-employed was 30.5 per cent in 2019, 28.8 per cent in the rural environment and 32.2 per cent in the urban environment (table 29). On the basis of AJPES PRS records, it has been evaluated that the share of female entrepreneurs who own more than 50 per cent of a company, is 25.54 per cent (on 28 February 2021, 7,814 held at least 50.01 per cent share in verified 30,596 companies). In the period from 2015 to 2020, the Slovenian Enterprise Fund supported 535 projects with two measures (Incentives for the start-up of innovative enterprises and Seed capital), of which 81 projects where women were owners were financed (15.1 per cent).

179.The MLFSA co-finances social welfare programmes in nine different areas: violence prevention, addiction, mental health, the homeless, children and youngsters, the elderly, people with disabilities, the Roma and other programmes. The issue of poverty and the risk of poverty as well as social exclusion of men and women are intertwined in all areas. In 2020, 162 social welfare programmes were co-financed with EUR 15,400,000.00. Elderly women in social welfare programmes are not a specifically defined target group, but women and the elderly are special target groups, where poverty and social inclusion are subcategorised.

O.Rural women

180.Within the scope of the Rural Development Programme, the Ministry of Agriculture implements supporting measures, intended for rural women via the LEADER mechanism. The target of the measure is to promote social inclusion, reduce poverty and the economic development of rural areas with an emphasis on promoting the local development of rural areas; the measures are especially oriented to women within the themed area of Greater inclusion of women, the youth and other vulnerable groups. It is hard to assess how many projects are implemented within the scope of the measure, how many eligible persons from this group were supported and in what amount, because complex projects are carried out via the LEADER measure. These are mostly projects that support social inclusion of rural women – rural women associations, intergenerational centres and meeting rooms, childcare and support to young rural women, pensioners who are included in lifelong education projects (digital know-how and skills, etc.), transfer of knowledge of some skills (women who teach baking, etc.) and transport of the elderly.

181.From the aspect of measures within the Rural Development Programme 2014‑2020, the criteria for selection of applications are designed regardless of gender. Within the scope of the first six public tenders entitled “Start-up help for young farmers”, 266 women or 18.6 per cent are among 1,418 eligible people–young farmers who took over their farms as owners.

P.Deprived groups of women

1.Migrants, refugees and asylum seekers

182.The International Protection Act considers gender dimensions by envisaging special treatment of vulnerable groups, including girls and women. Slovenia strives to prevent gender-based discrimination and abuse as well as violations in all phases of international protection, and ensure support in empowering girls and women as well as enforcing their rights. The law stipulates that a vulnerable person with special needs means, in particular, a minor, an unaccompanied minor, a disabled person, an elderly person, a pregnant woman, a single parent with a minor child, a victim of trafficking in human beings, a person with a mental health disorder, a person with mental health problems, or a victim of rape, torture or other severe forms of psychological, physical and sexual abuse.

183.Vulnerable persons with special needs are provided with special care, attention and treatment. An individual’s vulnerability can be established in any phases of international protection procedure, at the reception of application or during the personal interview up to the preparation of a suitable decision. The material conditions, medical and psychological counselling, as well as care is adapted to applicants with special needs in the course of their admission.

184.Within accommodation in an asylum home it is ensured that girls and applicants are accommodated separately from other applicants. If a female applicant has to be accommodated outside an asylum home (private accommodation, safe house, etc.), this is realised according to possible options.

185.The applicants who need special guarantees in the procedure, are provided appropriate support, especially for girls and women. In a personal interview, an official must consider personal and other circumstances of the individual, including their cultural origin, gender, sexual orientation and identity or vulnerability. A personal interview with an unaccompanied minor, older than 15 years (exceptionally also with a minor, younger than 15 years) is performed personally or with the presence of a legal representative. Whenever possible, the interview should be managed by a same sex person, if the interviewee demands; this is especially important if the applicant was exposed to conduct causing her vulnerability. If the person does not understand official language, an interpreter in the language she or he understands, is provided; if possible, same sex interpreter is provided. In cases of vulnerable persons with special needs, the competent authority treats the application with priority.

186.All international protection applicants have the right to contraception, termination of pregnancy and health care during pregnancy and when in labour. Vulnerable persons with special needs are also be entitled to additional healthcare services including psychotherapy. When entering an asylum home or its unit, the competent authority must ensure that the personal examination is performed by a person of same sex in order to consider personal dignity and physical as well as psychological integrity of the applicant.

187.Returning rejected international protection applicants is regulated by the Foreigners Act, the procedures of returning persons to their countries of origin are implemented by the police. Before a foreigner without a residence permit in Slovenia or with an expired residence permit as well as a foreigner whose application for international protection was rejected, is removed from Slovenia and returned to the country of origin, it must be established without a doubt that the non-return principle is violated. In the procedure of removal from Slovenia to the country of origin, all personal circumstances of every individual foreigner are considered, especially if a woman is concerned. It is guaranteed that they have the option to appropriately and comprehensively present their reasons why a return to the country of origin would not be appropriate. In the process of returning a foreigner, especially a foreign woman whose application for international protection was rejected, the police acquire all available information that the competent authority in charge of procedures for establishing eligibility to international protection had obtained and verified.

2.Roma women

188.The National Programme of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia of Measures for the Roma 2017–2021 was adopted in 2017. Its goals are to improve the position of the Roma people and to expedite their social inclusion and reduce their social exclusion. The strategic goals are determined in education, social welfare and social inclusion, health care, employment, living conditions, preserving culture and the language of the Roma community, fight against discrimination and strengthening cooperation with local communities where the Roma live. We should emphasise co‑financing of preschool education and primary school education of the Roma children from the state budget, adapted norms and standards for pre-school and primary school programmes, introduction of shorter programmes in kindergartens with the purpose of enabling adaptable forms of enrolling children in kindergartens, the implementation of the project entitled “Together for Knowledge” and financing the work of Roma assistants in primary schools and some kindergartens, the implementation of measures for including the Roma in the labour market, especially via active employment policy, the implementation and co-financing of social welfare programmes and the programme of multi-purpose Roma centres, established in environments of the Roma people, measures that are focused on the issue of early and forced marriages, etc.

189.The national programme also includes measures, intended to prevent the vulnerability of certain groups within the Roma community, including the Roma women. The national programme also includes measures to promote social activation of the Roma people, with special emphasis put on social activation of the Roma women; activities and programmes, intended for raising awareness and the care for Roma youngsters, women and children in the field of health to ensure quality living and health, are financed from the budget on the basis of tenders. Multi-purpose Roma centres are co-financed, because they implement activities intended for strengthening and improving the socio-economic position of the members of the Roma community, better integration and the introduction of cooperation with the majority population of the local community; special attention is given within these programmes to Roma women.

3.Women with disabilities

190.In 2014, the Government adopted the Action Programme for the Disabled 2014 ‑ 2021 which also envisages measures, intended for women with disabilities. Within the scope of raising awareness and providing information, the measure of implementing activities for raising awareness of the general public about people with disabilities, focused against stereotypes, prejudice and harmful practices, also those that are gender-related, is envisaged. For financial and social security, women with disabilities are given special attention with regard to access to mechanisms for increasing social welfare and reducing the risk of poverty. Special attention is given to women with disabilities in connection to violence and discrimination, since they are more exposed to them. Every year, the government adopts the report on the implementation of the action programme. The 2018 report shows that Društvo Vizija implements a safe house programme for women with disabilities who are violence victims. The 2019 report mentions that the new national programme in the field of violence against women will also consider the risk factors with regard to additional exposure to different forms of violence. The report warns that the needs for accommodation capacities for victims of violence that would be adapted to people with special needs are shown and that specialised trainings for working with violence victims from special target groups are envisaged, including for people with motor, sensory and intellectual hindrances.

Q.Marriage and family relations

191.Article 21 of the Family Code stipulates that both spouses are equal in a marriage. They have the same rights and obligations with regard to their children and the same responsibility for the care and education of children and their development. Joint property of spouses includes all property rights that were acquired with work or against payment during the marriage and partnership community, and the property acquired on the basis of and with the help of joint property or the property that would arise from it. A spouse cannot dispose of their indefinite share in joint property with legal transactions among the living, especially, a spouse cannot dispose of or encumber such property. Both spouses share joint ownership of the objects in joint property. The spouses manage their joint property and dispose of it jointly and consensually. The Family Code legalises the option that the spouses conclude a contract on the regulation of property and legal relations to agree the content of their property regime if it differs from the legal regime. They consensually regulate other property relations during their marriage and in case of divorce.

192.If no such contract is concluded, it is considered at the division of their joint property, that their shares are equal and the spouses can prove that they contributed to joint property in different scope. If there is a dispute on their shares, the court considers all circumstances of each case, especially the income of both spouses, the help given by one spouse to another, care and education of children, the performance of household work, the care for home and family, preservation of property and any other form of work and cooperation in the management, preservation and increase of joint property.

193.At divorce, parents must agree on the care and education as well as their maintenance of common children in accordance with their benefits. They can agree on joint care and education, that all children are cared for by one of the spouses or that children are cared for by either of the parents. If the spouses cannot agree on that, the social work centre and mediators help them reach an agreement. If the parents cannot agree on the care of children and their maintenance, the decision lies with the court.

194.Non-payment of child maintenance is determined as a criminal offence, prosecuted ex officio. The amended Domestic Violence Prevention Act from 2016 unjustifiable non-completion of child maintenance obligations to a family member determines as economic violence.

195.On 31 March 2021, the personal data collection with regard to child maintenance in Slovenia comprised 60,260 children and persons from 18 to 26 years of age, who are legally eligible to receive child maintenance.

196.The Resolution on the Family Policy 2018–2028: “A Society Friendly to All Families” includes raising awareness in responsible parenthood (that also includes paying child maintenance) and the preparation of an online tool for an informative calculation of the proper child maintenance amount.

197.The inheritance of spouses is determined in the Inheritance Act, the conditions of inheritance are the same for women and men, cohabiting partners have equal rights as spouses. If one of the spouses dies, the surviving spouse and children inherit after them, each one in equal share. If the widower/widow has not necessary funds for living, they can request to inherit also the part of legacy that children or other heirs would inherit. The court can decide that the surviving spouse inherits the entire legacy, if the value is so small that the spouse would be in deficit if the legacy would be shared. If the spouses have no children, the surviving spouse inherits together with the parents of the deceased; in this case, the surviving spouse inherits half of the inheritance. The surviving spouse does not have any inheritance right if the marriage was dissolved or annulled or if the life partnership permanently terminated due to the surviving spouse’s fault or consensually.

198.Special subsidies for single-parent families in case the child does not receive child maintenance, do not exist. If the person obliged to pay child maintenance does not pay it or pays it irregularly, the child is entitled to child maintenance compensation on the basis of the Public Guarantee, Maintenance and Disability Fund of the Republic of Slovenia Act. The fund enforces the paid compensations (together with interest and procedural costs) from the maintenance debtors and in this way raises the awareness and promotes the payment of child maintenance.

R.Climate change

199.Climate change decision making procedures (the same as in all other areas of environment protection) must include the interested public via a public discussion, who have 30 days to express their opinion. There is no special protocol, intended for harmonising legislation with women’s rights advocacy organisations, but NGOs in the field of gender equality are just like every other institution informed and included in the policy making processes via the website of the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning.

200.The current system for protection against natural and other disasters does not envisage special communication with women’s organisations because this involves administration procedures that include various stakeholders with regard to the role and position in the process of protection against natural and other disasters and in the processes of eliminating the consequences and with regard to gender.

S.Additional information

201.A new Resolution on the National Programme for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men until 2030 is being prepared. The Resolution determines the goals and measures of fundamental policies of equal opportunities for women and men in six key social life areas: working relations, family relations, social welfare – eliminating the gap between genders and ensuring equal economic independence of women and men; education – reducing the inequality of women and men and exceeding stereotypical social roles; health – improving the health of women and reducing inequalities in health between men and women; violence against women – preventing all forms of violence against women and girls and fighting the violence; decision-making places – promoting balanced representation of women and men; external affairs – promoting gender equality and realising the rights of women around the world. A description of the content is provided for each of the six themed areas (content starting points, arising mostly from EU commitments and other fundamental strategic guidelines in the field of equal opportunities of women and men), data about the situation in connection to the position of women and men in society are presented, and fundamental goals and measures that will be carried out by individual providers of measures and appropriate indicators are defined.

T.Objectives of sustainable development

202.Slovenia has connected the process of planning and monitoring progress in the realisation of the objectives of sustainable development with Slovenia’s Development Strategy 2030. By monitoring the realisation of 12 national developmental goals, we monitor the achievement of the objectives of sustainable development. Progress in achievement of national developmental goals is monitored with performance indicators, which hold target value by 2030. Developmental goals that are of key importance for achieving gender equality, are: (1) healthy and active life (performance indicators: healthy life expectancy and gender equality index); (2) knowledge and skills for quality life and work (performance indicators: inclusion in lifelong learning (25 to 64 years); share of tertiary education population and PISA – the average results in mathematics, reading and natural science); (3) decent life for all (performance indicators: social exclusion risk rate, inequality in income distribution, quintile class ratio (80/20) and discrimination experience); (7) inclusive labour market and quality workplaces (performance indicators: level of population’s working activity (20 to 64 years) and the risk of poverty rate of active people, older than 18 years).

203.Slovenia has already achieved some national developmental goals or even exceeded them, including the reduction of the social exclusion risk rate (by 4 percentage points in 2016–2019 period), increase of the work activity of population aged 20 to 64 years by 6 percentage points in 2016–2019 period) and the reduction of the risk of poverty of work active persons, older than 18 years (by 1.6 percentage points in 2016–2019 period). The gender gap has not significantly reduced in any of the aforementioned indicators.

204.Progress has been noticed in the number of healthy life expectancy. In 2019, Slovenians expected 60.8 years, and women 61.2 years of healthy life. This way the gap between men and women dropped with regard to the year 2015, when men could expect to live healthy for 58.8 years while women for 57.7 years. In the 2016–2019 period, the education structure of population also improved, because one third of the population from 25 to 64 years had tertiary education in 2019, while in 2016, this rate was 30 per cent. This indicator shows that the gender gap, reflecting in a higher education rate of women, remains relatively high (more than 10 percentage points).

205.According to Eurobarometer for 2019, 10 per cent of respondents experienced discrimination, while 13 per cent of them experienced discrimination in 2015. The share of respondents who experienced sexual discrimination in the past year also dropped (from 3 per cent to 2 per cent).

206.The situation in adult learning is worrying because the share of Slovenians, included in lifelong learning stagnated in 2016–2019 period at 11 per cent (the goal by 2030 is 19 per cent). The value of the composite gender equality index that measures progress and gaps (inequalities between women and men) has worsened, whereas six main areas are considered (work, money, knowledge, time, strength and health) and there are two side areas (intersectional inequalities and violence against women). In the 2015–2019 period, Slovenia dropped by 0.7 percentage points (from 68.4 to 67.7), but when considering individual areas, we can see that the gap or inequality between men and women mostly increased in the area of political and economic power, since the situation in this area worsened by more than 5 percentage points (60.6 in 2015 and 55.0 in 2019).