Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
Summary record of the 1662nd meeting
Held at the Palais des Nations, Geneva, on Tuesday, 19 February 2019, at 3 p.m.
Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention (continued)
Ninth periodic report of Colombia (continued)
The meeting was called to order at 3 p.m.
Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention (continued)
Ninth periodic report of Colombia (continued) (CEDAW/C/COL/9; CEDAW/C/COL/Q/9 and CEDAW/C/COL/Q/9/Add.1)
1. At the invitation of the Chair, the delegation of Colombia took places at the Committee table.
Articles 10 to 14
2.Mr. Bergby said that the Colombian labour market was marked by vertical and horizontal gender segregation and that work in the home was unequally distributed between men and women. Fewer women than men were in employment and the unemployment rate for women was higher than the rate for men. In the light of that situation, he wondered whether any campaigns other than “Break Through Your Fears” had been established to address gender inequality in employment and, if so, what the results of those campaigns had been. The Committee would welcome information on the status of implementation of the Labour Inclusion Strategy with Gender Equity and would be interested to learn what measures were being taken by the Presidential Council for Women’s Equity to increase women’s participation in the labour market.
3.Given that Colombia was a party to the International Labour Organization (ILO) Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100), he wondered why the gender wage gap still stood at 19 per cent. He wished to know the time frame for the proposed amendment to Act No. 1496/2011, which was intended to introduce objective criteria governing the assessment of wages, and whether the amendment complied with the principle of equal pay for work of equal value. The Committee would welcome information on the results obtained by the Equipares certification programme for gender equality management systems and on the progress made by the Subcommittee on Gender within the Standing Committee on Wages and Employment Policy. It would be interesting to learn whether men and women were equally represented on the Subcommittee and the Standing Committee and whether labour inspectors received special training in issues surrounding equal pay. He would also like to know what steps were being taken to encourage more companies to join the Equipares certification programme, how many of the 67 companies that had already joined the programme were public enterprises, whether the Government would consider requiring all public enterprises to join the programme and whether the programme could be expanded to cover the entire public sector.
4.He noted that the Government had implemented a strategic plan to prevent sexual and workplace harassment and established formal guidelines on combating that problem and would be interested to learn what the results of those measures had been to date. Did the Government intend to conduct a comprehensive study to determine their effect and scope? He would also like to know the results of the perception survey on sexual harassment in the workplace, the number of harassment cases handled by the labour inspectorates in 2018 and the number of those cases that had concerned sexual harassment. Lastly, he wondered whether Act No. 1010, adopted in 2006, was adequate to the task of preventing sexual harassment in the workplace and whether the Government would consider eliminating the mitigating circumstances for perpetrators of sexual harassment provided for in that Act.
5.Ms. Mendoza (Colombia) said that the Government had taken a number of steps to reduce the gender pay gap, particularly among indigenous women and women of African descent. A number of government agencies had been working to develop measures aimed at helping women to commercialize agricultural products, handicrafts, fabric, clothing and foods characteristic of the Black, Afro-Colombian, Palenquero and Raizal communities.
6.The Government had implemented the Strategic Plan to Prevent Sexual and Workplace Harassment at Work and had taken steps to strengthen investigations into acts of harassment and racial discrimination in the workplace. One of the aims of the pact for gender equity included in the 2018–2022 National Development Plan was to eliminate gender equity gaps and gender-based violence in the workplace and promote labour equality in rural areas. The Ministry of Labour, with support from international organizations, would establish tools for the implementation of that strategy and take steps to broaden the scope of the Equipares certification programme to include rural areas. The National Development Plan set out a strategy for increasing the participation of indigenous persons in public sector employment. As a result of the agreements established between the Standing Committee on Consultation with Indigenous Peoples and the Government, investment in labour-related public policies and programmes aimed at indigenous peoples would be increased.
7.Measures had been taken to promote women’s employment, including in sectors traditionally dominated by men. For instance, tax incentives were offered to companies that employed women victims of violence. In 2018, representatives of the Ministry of Labour, in conjunction with representatives of the Ibero-American Social Security Organization, had visited 47 municipalities with the aim of promoting the employment of rural women in productive sectors traditionally dominated by men. Under the new National Development Plan, steps would be taken to promote the employment of disadvantaged groups, including young persons, women, and persons with disabilities, in sectors that they had traditionally found it difficult to enter. Specialized job placement services were encouraging young women to train for, and seek employment in, sectors not generally associated with women, including construction, agriculture and industry. Under the Equipares certification programme, efforts were being made to remove the barriers that prevented women from obtaining better paid jobs.
8.Mr. Bergby said that he would appreciate information on the number of public bodies that had joined the Equipares certification programme and the measures being taken to encourage more companies to join the programme.
9.Ms. Muñoz (Colombia) said that, under the new National Development Plan, measures would be taken to extend the scope of the Equipares programme to include the public sector. In order to prepare for that change, a strategy for the promotion of equality in employment, aimed at the Administrative Department of the Civil Service, was currently being developed. The aim of the Equipares programme in the public sector would be not only to achieve gender parity in the workplace, but also to encourage men to undertake an equal share of work in the home. In conjunction with the International Labour Organization and the World Economic Forum, the Government was developing a new strategy to encourage small and medium-sized companies to employ women in sectors traditionally dominated by men.
10.Ms. Tisheva said that she would welcome clarification on the scope of the law on harassment in the workplace. With regard to legislation on that issue, she wished to know whether the Government would consider regulating sexual harassment not only in the workplace but also as a form of gender-based violence. It would be interesting to know what level of proof was required for a woman to bring a case of sexual harassment, how many complaints of sexual harassment in the workplace had been filed in the previous two years and what the outcome of those complaints had been.
11.Ms. Ortiz (Colombia) said that, in June 2018, the Constitutional Court had instructed the Ministry of Education to regulate the procedures by which women could file complaints of sexual harassment in universities. That ruling had been intended to address a lacuna in Act No. 1010. The Court would take steps to ensure that that instruction was implemented.
12.Ms. Riveros (Colombia) said that sexual harassment had not been defined as an offence in the Criminal Code. Currently, the Attorney General’s Office considered it to be a purely administrative matter.
13.Ms. Verges, noting that the birth rate for adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years remained relatively high, said that she wished to know what was being done to reduce those rates and whether the Government had assessed the implementation of the 2015–2025 National Strategy for the Comprehensive Care of Children and Adolescents with an Emphasis on the Prevention of Child and Teenage Pregnancy. The Committee would welcome information on the extent to which the Strategy had benefited indigenous women, women of African descent, women victims of armed conflict and women with disabilities in the municipalities where it had been implemented.
14.It would be interesting to learn what measures were being taken to implement Directive No. 01 of 2018 on guidance to prevent child and teenage mothers, pregnant girls and adolescents and teenage fathers, especially victims of the armed conflict, from dropping out of school; whether action was being taken to reduce disparities in the education system affecting indigenous girls, girls of African descent and girls with disabilities; and whether temporary special measures had been implemented to tackle those disparities. The Committee would welcome information on measures taken to encourage women and girls to study science, technology, engineering and mathematics at all levels of the education system. In 2013, over 46 per cent of young women had reportedly failed to complete their university education. She wondered whether, and to what extent, that situation had improved.
15.She wished to know whether data on sexual harassment in the education system was gathered and whether measures were being taken to prevent violence at all levels of the system and to punish perpetrators. Lastly, she wondered what would be done to improve the collection of data on the education system, disaggregated by sex, age and ethnic group.
16.Ms. Arias (Colombia) said that, under the 2018–2022 National Development Plan, education was considered a mechanism for promoting social inclusion and equality and a means of eliminating gender gaps in the labour market. The Government had taken a number of actions to promote and guarantee the sexual and reproductive rights of children and adolescents, with particular emphasis on the prevention of teenage pregnancy, which was unquestionably an obstacle to the enjoyment of the right to education. Implementation of the 2015–2025 National Strategy for the Comprehensive Care of Children and Adolescents was overseen by an intersectoral commission for the promotion of sexual and reproductive rights, headed by the Colombian Family Welfare Institute and the Ministry of Health. The intersectoral commission was composed of representatives of all the State agencies involved in implementing the Strategy, thus ensuring that it would be implemented in a cross-cutting manner. The Strategy was intended to help children and adolescents to improve their prospects in life, learn about their rights, obtain access to information and make decisions relating to their sexuality through access to health services, leisure activities in safe environments and quality education. The Strategy was already being implemented in 82 per cent of the 563 municipalities targeted. As a result, the pregnancy rate among Colombian teenagers aged 15 to 19 had fallen significantly.
17.A compensation fund had been established to provide victims of the armed conflict with financial contributions towards university enrolment fees and maintenance costs. Under the regulations governing the allocation of the fund, priority was given to women heads of household, victims of sexual violence, persons with disabilities and members of minority ethnic groups. The Alvaro Ulcué Chocué Fund and the Fund for Black Communities had been established to enhance access to education for indigenous persons and persons of African descent, respectively. In conjunction with representatives of the indigenous peoples, the Government was developing draft regulations on the establishment of an indigenous education system. Pending the establishment of that system, the Government was working with the indigenous communities on measures to improve the quality of the education they received and increase their retention rates in the education system.
18.As a result of the ongoing efforts made by the Government, the school dropout rate for girls had fallen from 5.55 per cent to 3.08 per cent between 2007 and 2017. The measures taken to achieve that goal included the implementation of a school food programme, which had assisted over 5 million children in 2018, and a scheme for the provision of school transport, which, as of December 2018, had benefited over 400,000 children.
19.Ms. Peláez Narváez said that she wished to know what measures had been taken to implement the recommendation of the Committee on the Rights of the Child that the State party should ensure that girls had access to legal abortion in accordance with ruling C-355 of the Constitutional Court, including by devising a monitoring mechanism on compliance with the ruling, and ensure that the views of the child were always heard and respected in abortion decisions (CRC/C/COL/CO/4-5, para. 44 (c)).
20.Ms. Verges said that it was unclear whether municipalities with large populations of Afrodescendent and indigenous women and women with disabilities were included among the 563 municipalities in which the 2015–2025 National Strategy for the Comprehensive Care of Children and Adolescents with an Emphasis on the Prevention of Child and Teenage Pregnancy had been implemented. She had not heard an answer to her question about measures taken to reduce the dropout rate among women in higher education. She would also like to know what measures had been taken to prevent violence in schools.
21.Ms. Ortiz (Colombia) said that the Constitutional Court monitored compliance with ruling C-355 through applications for tutela (applications for protection of constitutional rights) filed by women who had been denied the right to voluntary termination of pregnancy. The cases selected were generally those in which health-care practitioners had refused to perform the procedure. Courts of first instance were responsible for enforcing the ruling, as the Constitutional Court did not exercise direct control in that regard. Another Court ruling had given rise to instructions on the prevention of violence in schools for reasons related to students’ sexual orientation. The authorities were developing procedures and regulations to prevent that particular form of violence.
22.Ms. Restrepo (Colombia) said that abortion had been decriminalized in three specific circumstances, namely where the mother’s life was at risk, where the fetus was at risk or suffered from some congenital anomaly, and where the pregnancy resulted from rape. Regulations applicable to those three specific circumstances were currently being drafted.
23.Ms. Mejía (Colombia) said that replies to the Committee’s questions on the municipalities targeted by the 2015–2025 National Strategy, the dropout rate among women in higher education and violence in educational settings would be provided in writing.
24.Ms. Chalal said that she wished to know what measures were planned to improve health-care coverage in rural areas and ensure that all women enjoyed equal access to health care. She would be grateful if the delegation could provide information on the implementation of the National Plan for Rural Health, including whether sufficient human and material resources had been allocated.
25.She welcomed the recent ruling of the Constitutional Court on abortion. In that connection, she wondered whether any measures were planned to enforce the right to abortion and impose penalties on health-care workers for failing to respect that right. She would appreciate data on legal abortions and on unsafe abortions and information on the impact of the latter on maternal mortality, which remained high, particularly among ethnic minorities, despite an overall reduction during the period 2010–2016.
26.It would be useful to receive an update on prospects for passage of the bill submitted in October 2015 to decriminalize abortion in all circumstances. She wondered whether there was a mechanism to monitor the enforcement of ruling C-355 of the Constitutional Court. She also wondered whether the 2015–2025 National Strategy for the Comprehensive Care of Children and Adolescents with an Emphasis on the Prevention of Child and Teenage Pregnancy was multisectoral in nature, as the development of preventive programmes and strategies seemed to suffer from a lack of coordination between the Ministry of Health and the education system.
27.The State party was to be commended for the adoption of Resolution 1904/2017, on the sexual and reproductive rights of persons with disabilities. However, women with disabilities and women living with HIV reportedly continued to be subjected to sterilization against their will. She wished to know what measures would be taken to ensure that the provisions of the Resolution were strictly implemented and that those who violated them were prosecuted and any victims compensated. She also wondered what progress had been made in amending Decree No. 1543/1997 so as to ensure that women living with HIV could not be sterilized without their prior consent.
28.Ms. Muñoz (Colombia) said that the National Plan for Rural Health was one of 16 plans adopted to implement comprehensive rural reform. The Plan set out a number of strategies to address geographical disparities in health-care coverage. Some of the ancestral practices of the ethnic groups living in rural areas had been taken into account in its preparation. As detailed in paragraph 107 of her Government’s replies to the list of issues (CEDAW/C/COL/Q/9/Add.1), various measures had been taken to reduce the number of unsafe abortions and promote women’s reproductive self-determination.
29.According to a recent monitoring report on sterilization in Colombia, 843 persons with disabilities, including 758 women, had undergone a sterilization procedure of some kind between July 2017 and July 2018. The number of persons who underwent such procedures had fallen in recent years. It could not be said that the persons concerned had not given their consent.
30.Ms. Chalal said that she would be grateful if the delegation could comment on reports that Venezuelan migrant women had access only to emergency health care, which did not include prenatal care. In addition, she wondered whether the State party planned to end the criminalization of women and girls who terminated a pregnancy voluntarily.
31.Ms. Mejía (Colombia) said that migrant women in an irregular situation normally had access only to emergency health-care services. However, the Government of Colombia had issued special residence permits to more than 600,000 Venezuelan migrants in the previous 18 months, giving them the same rights as Colombian citizens with regard to access to services. The Government intended to continue the process of regularizing and integrating the migrant population.
32.Ms. Riveros (Colombia) said that none of the cases of abortion handled by the Attorney General’s Office had involved a minor. In 2018, there had been 4,389 cases, of which 1,236 remained open. There had been one case involving a girl aged 14 years, but, as criminal proceedings had not been brought against her, the Attorney General’s Office had not handled the case.
33.Ms. Acosta Vargas said that she wished to know whether the father of a child born in a public hospital to a girl aged under 14 years would be prosecuted.
34.Ms. Riveros (Colombia) said that a man who had sexual intercourse with a girl under 14 years of age was guilty of an offence and would be prosecuted. The matter of consent had no bearing in such cases.
35.Ms. Bethel said that she would be grateful if the delegation could comment on reports that Afrodescendent and indigenous women were systematically excluded from the various initiatives introduced to promote women’s economic and social empowerment and indicate what specific measures had been taken to reach such women. With regard to training on information and communications technology (ICT), she would appreciate more information on the levels of digital literacy and connectivity among women in Colombia, particularly in the context of micro-businesses and sharing of support and information. Had ICT training led to an increase in the sharing of business practices, for example?
36.She would like to know whether the State party was taking measures to extend social security coverage, in particular maternity and pension benefits, to women working in the informal economy, who represented the majority of working women, and to home-based women. It would be useful to learn what steps were being taken to establish a social protection floor in line with the International Labour Organization Social Protection Floors Recommendation, 2012 (No. 202) and what progress had been made in implementing strategies to recognize, reduce and redistribute domestic and care work since the 2013 National Time Use Survey. She would be grateful for an update on the implementation of the national care system. In particular, she wondered what resources had been set aside for that purpose and what measures had been taken to coordinate the system’s implementation under the National Development Plan and the Intersectoral Commission for the Inclusion of Information on Unpaid Household Work in the System of National Accounts. Had the Government adopted measures to promote equal responsibility for housework and childcare by parents?
37.Lastly, she would like to hear what programmes were in place to provide opportunities for women to engage in cultural and recreational activities, whether young girls were encouraged to participate in sporting activities and what efforts were being made to promote the wide-ranging benefits of participation in such activities.
38.Ms. Eghobamien-Mshelia said that it was unclear when the State party would adopt a comprehensive public policy for rural women. She wished to know whether there was sufficient political will to take concrete action to guarantee the rights of rural women and, if so, what would be done to ensure the enforcement of existing laws. What plans were in place to implement the recently adopted United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working in Rural Areas, particularly in the context of the Committee’s general recommendation No. 34 (2016) on the rights of rural women?
39.She would appreciate more information on the practical implementation of Act No. 232/2016, which ranked the qualification criteria for the allocation of family allowances for rural social housing, and its impact on rural women’s quality of life and status. As more than half of applications for assistance were reportedly rejected, she wondered where responsibility for delivering services to rural communities lay, what structures and systems were in place to deliver such services and whether the number of women who benefited from them was commensurate with the demand. In addition, she wished to know whether Circular 002/2016, concerning the allocation of land and subsidies, was implemented with due regard to the major structural barriers that women faced.
40.It was concerning that rural women continued to be excluded from macroeconomic plans because care and domestic work was not reflected in the national accounting system. She would be grateful for more information on the role and mandate of family commissioners (comisarías de familia) and their authority to ensure compliance with social protection provisions. She wished to know what mechanisms were used to identify the specific needs of rural families in different locations; what financial, technical and material resources were allocated to local family units; and whether a statutory budget was allocated to local-level social services of that kind. In addition, she wondered what the measurable impact of the legislation in question had been, how many direct or indirect beneficiaries had been recorded to date, whether any gender performance indicators had been introduced to measure the impact of interventions and whether the State party had fully embraced gender-responsive budgeting.
41.She would appreciate more information on the implementation of the Comprehensive Programme of Guarantees for Women Leaders and Human Rights Defenders (Decision No. 845/2018), particularly in light of the large numbers of such women who were killed with firearms. She noted in that regard that the State party had yet to ratify the Arms Trade Treaty; the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime; or Protocol V to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects.
42.She would be grateful if the delegation could indicate how the State party guaranteed the protection of Afro-Columbians, indigenous rights activists, farmers and other vulnerable groups, especially in rural areas, where the Government’s presence was weak. She wondered what specific measures were planned to implement Decree 1581/2017, on the prevention of violations of the rights to life, integrity, freedom and security, in an inclusive and gender-sensitive manner, particularly in rural communities. Lastly, she would like to know whether the State party had produced a national action plan on Security Council resolution 1325 (2000), on women and peace and security, and, if so, what role had been played by women’s groups in its design, implementation and review.
43.Ms. Mendoza (Colombia) said that Congress had approved the Arms Trade Treaty in May 2016, but a procedural irregularity had delayed the ratification process. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defence were working to prepare a new submission to Congress, and ratification was expected to follow shortly afterwards.
44.Ms. Muñoz (Colombia) said that almost all Columbians were covered by the public health-care system. Anyone without access to the social security and pension system could be covered by voluntary savings or periodic allowances schemes. In 2017, almost three quarters of the beneficiaries of periodic allowances had been women, and women had accounted for over 68 per cent of contributions to voluntary savings schemes.
45.As part of the Government’s strategy on gender equality in the workplace and at home, the Administrative Department of the Public Service had taken steps to enable public employees to work from home when necessitated by their care responsibilities. Under the new National Development Plan, a public policy would be formulated with a view to balancing out caring roles between men and women.
46.With regard to digital literacy and connectivity, the “Digital Living” Plan extended Internet access to isolated areas and provided training on ICT. Over half of the Plan’s beneficiaries were women. A number of other initiatives aimed to improve digital skills, including the Digital Citizenship Programme.
47.The Government was committed to developing a public policy for rural women and to that end had already initiated a participatory process involving some 200 women’s organizations. It was expected that the policy would come into effect in around 12 months. The new Directorate for Rural Women had been created within the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in response to the need for a permanent institutional structure to address the needs of rural women. The Directorate oversaw a wide array of projects and programmes that dealt with access to credit, land rights and other matters of concern to rural women. In addition, some local governments had women’s offices or local mechanisms for the advancement of women that promoted income-generating activities for rural women.
48.Ms. Mejía (Colombia) said that in 2018 almost half the land deeds issued by the National Land Agency had been granted to women.
Articles 15 and 16
49.Ms. Acosta Vargas said that she would be interested in learning more about a bill, put forward in 2017, aiming to protect single mothers by, inter alia, creating a register of child maintenance defaulters.
50.Ms. Peláez Narváez said that she would like to know what steps the State party would take to amend its Civil Code to ensure that women with disabilities were not deprived of their legal capacity. She would also appreciate information on any specific measures to protect the right to motherhood of women with disabilities. In addition, she wished to know how the State party ensured that girls with disabilities, girls of African descent, indigenous girls, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex girls could express an opinion in legal proceedings, in accordance with their age and level of maturity. More detailed information on steps taken to amend the Civil Code to set the minimum marriage age at 18 would also be appreciated. Lastly, in the light of reports that persons in same-sex unions had difficulty exercising their rights, she would like to know whether members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex population could adopt children.
51.Ms. Restrepo (Colombia) said that the third of four required rounds of debate on the bill to guarantee minimum child maintenance payments was under way in Congress.
52.Ms. Ortiz (Colombia) said that a 2015 ruling by the Constitutional Court had recognized the rights of same-sex couples to adopt children. Adoption authorities were not permitted to consider the sexual orientation of the prospective parents when making adoption decisions. The Court had also recognized the need to give children the right to be heard in respect of decisions affecting their lives – decisions relating to medical procedures, for example – and had ordered that their evolving capacity must be taken into account.
53.Ms. Arias (Colombia) said that, under the National Development Plan 2018–2022, the Colombian Family Welfare Institute had committed to put forward legislation to eliminate the exception in the Civil Code enabling persons under 18 years of age to marry with the consent of a parent or guardian.
54.Ms. Riveros (Colombia) said that the Criminal Code provided for measures to punish non-payment of child maintenance. Approximately 900,000 complaints for non-payment had been lodged with the prosecution services.
55.Ms. Eghobamien-Mshelia said that she would like to know whether a national action plan was in place to implement Security Council resolution 1325 (2000). She also wished to know whether family commissioners had the authority to ensure compliance with social protection provisions in rural areas. In addition, she wondered why there was such a high rejection rate for social housing applications. Was it due to a shortage of social housing or to administrative barriers, or did applicants lack necessary information?
56.Ms. Peláez Narváez said that it was unclear whether restrictions on the legal capacity of women with disabilities would be repealed.
57.Ms. Bethel said that she would like to know whether the public pension scheme provided for women in the informal economy.
58.Ms. Mejía (Colombia) said that there were currently no pension provisions for informal economy workers, although they could make voluntary contributions to the social security system as independent workers. Reducing informal employment and the problems associated with it was one of the Government’s top priorities under the National Development Plan for 2018–2022. No specific policy existed to promote the right to motherhood of women with disabilities.
59.Ms. Muñoz (Colombia) said that, by law, men and women in rural areas had equal access to social housing. A points system was used to ensure that vulnerable women, including heads of household and armed-conflict survivors, could access such housing.
60.Ms. Ortiz (Colombia) said that judges would only remove a person’s legal capacity if medical professionals had deemed that the person was unable to understand his or her actions.
61.Ms. Mejía (Colombia) said that her Government was aware that work remained to be done in a number of areas in order to guarantee the fundamental rights and freedoms of Colombian women and girls, including: formulating a policy on support for women and girls with disabilities; setting up State-regulated infrastructure, including shelters, for victims of violence and trafficking; and improving data compilation on programmes promoting equity and equal rights and on women’s and girls’ access to public services. Likewise, the Observatory on Gender Issues could be improved and utilized as a tool to support decision-making in both the public and the private sectors. Lastly, data on unpaid care work should be included in national accounts so that the contribution of women to the country’s gross domestic product could be fully understood.
62.The Chair said that the Committee wished to urge Colombia to accept the amendment to article 20, paragraph 1, of the Convention.
The meeting rose at 5.05 p.m.