Dropout rate

Academic region

Boys

Girls

Total

Dakar

6.7%

5.9%

6.3%

Diourbel

8.6%

6.4%

7.4%

Fatick

8.9%

7.2%

8.0%

Kaffrine

12.6%

13.1%

12.9%

Kaolack

7.7%

7.0%

7.3%

Kédougou

9.3%

9.9%

9.6%

Kolda

10.8%

9.8%

10.3%

Louga

11.0%

10.1%

10.5%

Matam

12.2%

9.8%

10.8%

Pikine-Guédiawaye

6.6%

2.5%

4.5%

Rufisque

5.1%

3.5%

4.3%

Saint-Louis

9.7%

6.8%

8.1%

Sédhiou

10.4%

10.9%

10.6%

Tambacounda

12.4%

10.6%

11.5%

Thiès

8.8%

7.1%

7.9%

Ziguinchor

3.8%

4.1%

3.9%

National

8.7%

7.2%

7.9%

Source: 2020 School Census, Directorate of Planning and Educational Reform/Ministry of Education.

74.Overall, the national dropout rate stands at 7.9 per cent, at 8.7 per cent among boys and at 7.2 per cent among girls. The academic regions with the highest rates are Thiès, Fatick, Saint-Louis, Kédougou, Kolda, Louga, Sédhiou, Matam, Tambacounda and Kaffrine, with values between 12.9 per cent and 7.9 per cent. Ziguinchor, Kédougou, Sédhiou and Kaffrine are the only academic regions where the dropout rate for girls is higher than that for boys.

Secondary education

Secondary school student flow rate by academic region in 2019

Dropout rate

Academic region

Boys

Girls

Total

Dakar

14.2%

9.7%

11.7%

Diourbel

4.0%

3.8%

3.9%

Fatick

9.3%

8.7%

9.0%

Kaffrine

6.9%

6.6%

6.7%

Kaolack

9.6%

7.9%

8.7%

Kédougou

13.8%

17.0%

15.2%

Kolda

15.4%

21.0%

18.0%

Louga

7.7%

7.6%

7.6%

Matam

17.6%

13.9%

15.3%

Pikine-Guédiawaye

7.8%

5.2%

6.3%

Rufisque

4.9%

3.2%

4.0%

Saint-Louis

8.3%

7.6%

7.9%

Sédhiou

9.1%

12.1%

10.4%

Tambacounda

12.0%

9.4%

10.7%

Thiès

7.2%

4.8%

5.9%

Ziguinchor

7.7%

8.4%

8.0%

National

9.1%

7.7%

8.4%

Source: 2020 School Census, Directorate of Planning and Educational Reform/Ministry of Education.

75.In 2019, the dropout rate was 8.4 per cent, slightly higher for boys (9.1 per cent) than for girls (7.7 per cent). Values by academic region vary at the national level. The highest rates are recorded in Kolda (18 per cent), Matam (15.3 per cent) and Kédougou (15.2 per cent). By sex, boys drop out more than girls in almost every academic region.

76.For all flow rates, the academic region of Kédougou is among those with the lowest values.

77.The Government of Senegal has taken the following measures to address the causes of dropout:

•Established a support system for associations of mothers of students to receive funding for income-generating activities in 166 schools across the country

•Granted allowances to girl pupils from disadvantaged families (21,600)

•Built school gardens to strengthen the school canteen policy

•Provided uniforms to all elementary school pupils

•Provided hygiene kits for girls in secondary or high schools to enable them to better manage their menstrual hygiene

•Incorporated the gender dimension in textbook eligibility criteria

•Provided educators with gender training

•Conducted a number of awareness-raising campaigns on girls enrolling and remaining in school

•Implemented a local communication plan aimed at reducing domestic work and ending early marriages and early pregnancies

Measures taken to implement a zero-tolerance policy with regard to sexual violence and sexual harassment at school

78.Senegal has adopted several laws that provide a framework for the protection of children, including for preventing and combating violence (see report).

79.In addition to this legal framework, in July 2019 the Government adopted national guidelines on the provision of multisectoral child protection services at the local level to better organize the multisectoral system and enhance prevention, identification and care services. The guidelines clarify the sectoral mandates of stakeholders from public policy branches in child protection.

Steps taken to increase the number of female teachers at all levels of education

80.The State has taken institutional measures to promote the presence of women in the education system. Much effort has been made to eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education and to combat discrimination in girls’ access to education through projects and programmes.

81.Improvements have been noted in the following areas:

•The percentage of women preschool teachers was 81.39 per cent in 2018 and 77.19 per cent in 2019

•The percentage of women teachers in primary education was 32.38 per cent in 2018 and 31.9 per cent in 2019

•The percentage of women teachers in secondary education was 26.92 per cent in 2017 and 16.6 per cent in 2019

•The percentage of women teachers in tertiary education was 7.93 per cent in 2015 and 11.99 per cent in 2018 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics)

Measures taken to review textbooks and remove gender stereotypes

82.Realizing early on that textbooks have a decisive influence on the representation of men and women and the existence of gender stereotypes, the State launched programmes to review textbooks as part of its 10-Year Education and Training Programme.

83.Measures taken include a textbook policy implementation strategy under the Education and Training Sector Quality, Equity and Transparency Improvement Programme (2013–2025) and the development of a guide for analysing and reviewing textbooks.

Employment

Statistical data on the participation of women in the labour market in urban and rural areas

84.According to the 2017 national employment survey report of Senegal, more than half (54.9 per cent) of the working-age population (aged 15 years or older) participated in the labour market The participation rate of those aged 15 or older varies by area of residence, and stands at 52.5 per cent in urban areas and 57.3 per cent in rural areas. The rate also varies by gender: 62.9 per cent of working-age men are in the labour market, compared to 48.5 per cent of working-age women. According to the same report:

•The employment rate is higher in urban areas, and stands at 39.0 per cent, compared to 32.9 per cent in rural areas. The employment rate varies considerably between men and women, standing at 47.0 per cent for men and 27.0 per cent for women.

•Unemployment affects 40.4 per cent of the female population, compared to 18 per cent of the male population.

•The salaried employment rate for men is higher than that for women, at 39.3 per cent and 23.7 per cent respectively. Differences vary by area of residence, with a salaried employment rate of 42.0 per cent in urban areas, compared to 22.0 per cent in rural areas.

Measures taken to promote the employment of women in the formal economy

85.The State has put in place public policies to promote women’s employment in the formal economy.

86.A case in point is the National Strategy for the Economic Empowerment of Women 2020–2024, aimed at increasing women’s wage income and the number of women-led businesses.

Measures to allow access to social security for women in the informal sector and plans to address the conditions of domestic workers and ratify the Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189)

87.The provisions set out in article 8 of the Constitution are aimed at ensuring the social protection of all workers and the right to freedom of association. It provides that everyone has the right to work and to seek employment. No one may be disadvantaged in his or her employment on the basis of his or her origin, sex, opinions, political views or beliefs. Workers may join trade unions and defend their rights through engagement in trade union action. All forms of discrimination between men and women regarding employment are prohibited unless it is based on the nature of the work or the services provided.

88.Under those provisions, the national coordination mechanism of the National Strategy for Gender Equity and Equality, in conjunction with civil society organizations, continues to advocate the ratification of the Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189), and the adoption of more protective measures to ensure decent work.

89.Nonetheless, universal health coverage is a social protection mechanism that is open to all Senegalese workers, especially those in the informal sector.

90.That ratification should be followed by specific measures to give substance to the conventional provisions protecting decent work.

Measures to protect maternity in line with the Labour Code, by which the Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 (No. 183), of the International Labour Organization was incorporated into national legislation

91.Maternity protection features prominently in Senegalese labour law. Women are entitled to 14 weeks (98 days) of maternity leave, including eight weeks of post-natal maternity leave. A pregnant woman’s employment contract is suspended during pregnancy. In the event of illness resulting from pregnancy or childbirth, as certified by a doctor, maternity leave can be extended by three weeks (article 143 of the Labour Code of 1997).

92.By law, pregnant women must undergo periodic medical and obstetric check-ups before the third month and again around the sixth and eighth months of pregnancy in order to receive prenatal benefits. Medical benefits are provided for through the Health, Social and Family Action Programme, which covers 40 to 80 per cent of medical, pharmaceutical and hospitalization costs. Services provided under the Programme include medical care for the mother and the child (article 16 of the Social Security Code, Labour Code, 1997).

Health

Number of doctors and midwives available in the State party in proportion to the number of women of childbearing age, in particular in rural and remote areas

93.The situation regarding the number of doctors and midwives available in the State party in proportion to the number of women of childbearing age in rural and remote areas is as follows.

Region

Number of women of childbearing age

Number of doctors specializing in gynaecology and obstetrics

Number of doctors specializing in gynaecology and obstetrics per 10 000 women of childbearing age

Number of midwives

Number of midwives per 1 500 women of childbearing age

Dakar

984 001

66

0.7

536

0.8

Ziguinchor

147 137

5

0.3

144

1.5

Diourbel

424 704

11

0.3

179

0.6

Saint-Louis

250 322

4

0.2

136

0.8

Tambacounda

180 628

2

0.1

114

0.9

Kaolack

262 808

2

0.1

140

0.8

Thiès

498 411

11

0.2

233

0.7

Louga

243 445

3

0.1

114

0.7

Fatick

186 555

3

0.2

118

0.9

Kolda

173 881

1

0.1

72

0.6

Matam

150 463

3

0.2

98

1

Kaffrine

147 134

2

0.1

104

1.1

Kédougou

38 422

1

0.3

35

1.4

Sédhiou

114 842

2

0.2

69

0.9

Total

3 802 754

116

0.3

2 092

0.8

Source: National Health and Social Action Human Resources Development Plan 2018.

94.The table above shows that a proportion of one doctor specializing in gynaecology and obstetrics for every 10,000 women of childbearing age has not been reached in all regions.

95.With regard to the proportion indicated for State midwives (one midwife for every 1,500 women of childbearing age), the following four regions have met the benchmark: Kédougou, Kaffrine, Matam and Ziguinchor.

96.These results can be explained by the sustained recruitment efforts of the State and the support provided by certain technical and financial partners towards universal health coverage.

97.This momentum should be reinforced to fill the persistent gaps in other regions.

Information on adolescent pregnancy, disaggregated by age and region, and information on the incidence of abortion

98.The prevalence of adolescent pregnancy has decreased in recent years, especially with the piloting of the New Deal, a community pact between parents and young girls, in the southern and south-eastern regions of the country, under the slogan “zero pregnancy between 2017 and 2019”. However, it is higher in rural areas than in urban areas.

99.To combat early pregnancies, steps have been taken to ensure the accessibility and decentralization of services including:

•Integration of reproductive health services for adolescents and young adults into all health-care delivery points.

•Provision of a minimum package of high-quality reproductive health services at health facilities and adolescent counselling centres and in communities.

•Training of health personnel to improve care for adolescents and young adults, and peer educators on adolescent- and young adult-friendly health services.

•Engagement and empowering of stakeholders, including adolescents and young adults, parents, the community and local authorities.

•Implementation of a new mobile application, “Hello Teen”, on reproductive health education.

•Establishment of 247 girls’ clubs by adolescent counselling centres, bringing together 8,125 girls who have signed the New Deal pact and been recognized by their communities. The New Deal initiative has helped to achieve the goal of “zero pregnancy and zero marriage before 18 years of age” among members of the girls’ clubs and has helped to promote the use of adolescent- and young adult-friendly reproductive health services.

100.The incidence of unsafe abortions can be reduced by expanding efforts to promote family planning programmes in all regions. To be effective, the programmes must offer high-quality, comprehensive and affordable services, including the provision of counselling, information and a wide range of contraceptive methods.

101.In Senegal, the number of women using family planning is steadily increasing, having risen from 770,401 in 2019 to 817,000 in 2020, representing nearly 478,000 more users since 2012. As a result, the use of contraceptives prevented 313,000 unintended pregnancies, 111,000 unsafe abortions and 700 maternal deaths in 2020.

102.In 2020, the Ministry of Health and Social Services, through the Directorate of Maternal and Child Health and in cooperation with all stakeholders, developed an action plan for family planning in Senegal. The aim of the plan is to mobilize domestic resources to fund family planning and, in particular, the procurement of contraceptives.

103.Senegal intends to adopt a decree to supplement and implement the Reproductive Health Act. In addition, Senegal has signed six new commitments for the period 2022–2026, the third of which is to improve the regulatory framework in order to strengthen the private, community and public sectors, including by signing the implementing decree for the Reproductive Health Act concerning family planning and by completing the revision of instruments governing the pharmacy profession to enable pharmacies to provide family planning services.

104.The expected result is that the legal environment for the provision of family planning in the public, community and private sectors and the availability of products in private facilities will be improved.

105.The steps to be taken to fulfil this commitment are as follows:

•Hold a national consultation meeting on task delegation.

•Effectively promulgate implementing decrees.

•Lift the restrictions on the initial supply of pills and injectables by pharmacies.

•Revise the policy on authorizing the storage of family planning products at private service delivery points.

•Expand the range of products of the National Supply Pharmacy made available to pharmacies to include family planning products.

•Streamline registration procedures for pharmaceutical products.

•Streamline procedures related to the acquisition of high-quality products in the health system to improve the performance of the entities responsible for implementing the national pharmaceutical policy (Directorate of Pharmaceuticals and Medicines, National Supply Pharmacy and National Medicines Control Laboratory).

106.These steps will improve women’s access to family planning.

107.Family planning is one means of reducing maternal and infant mortality. It is one of the most effective interventions available to save the lives and improve the health of women, children and adolescents.

Information on the provision of free antiretroviral treatment to women and men living with HIV and, in order to prevent mother-to-child transmission, to pregnant women, and barriers in access thereto

108.Senegal has developed its fourth national strategic plan for combating AIDS, covering the period 2018–2022, which sets out a framework for facilitating access to prevention, treatment, care and support services for all Senegalese, with the aim of ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

109.Good progress has been made, with the proportion of pregnant women screened increasing from 51 per cent to 76 per cent between 2017 and 2018. The proportion of pregnant women living with HIV who have received antiretroviral treatment increased from 53 per cent to 64 per cent. However, more needs to be done to diagnose children early and place them on prophylaxis.

110.A total of 26,625 patients (men and women) underwent regular treatment in 2018, of which 24,464 received antiretroviral treatment. The majority were patients over 15 years of age, representing 94.8 per cent of patients receiving antiretroviral treatment; and only 1 per cent of the patients undergoing regular treatment were not placed on antiretroviral treatment.

Free antiretroviral treatment for women and men living with HIV

111.The number of patients regularly undergoing antiretroviral treatment is steadily rising, having increased from 13,716 in 2013 to 30,431 in 2020. Antiretroviral treatment coverage evolved considerably in the period 2013–2019, increasing from 31.2 to 71.0 per cent.

112.Of the estimated 39,400 people living with HIV, a total of 30,431, or 77.2 per cent, regularly underwent treatment and were placed on antiretroviral treatment in 2020.

113.With regard to the 90-90-90 targets, in 2019 approximately 81.0 per cent of all persons living with HIV had been diagnosed, 87.0 per cent of them had received antiretroviral treatment and 81.0 per cent of those receiving antiretroviral treatment had achieved viral suppression. In 2020, about 87 per cent had been diagnosed, 89 per cent had received antiretroviral treatment and 84 per cent of those receiving antiretroviral treatment had achieved viral suppression.

Care by gender and age

114.Data on the provision of care, disaggregated by gender and age for 2019, show higher coverage among women than men. The same trend is observed in HIV diagnosis and viral suppression. Men and children seek HIV testing and treatment less (sources: 2019 and 2020 annual reports of the National AIDS Council).

Provision of care to pregnant women in order to prevent mother-to-child transmission, and barriers in access thereto

115.The implementation of the Accelerated Plan for the Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV, which began in 2018, has led to more pregnant women being screened, with the proportion increasing from 76 per cent in 2018 to 81 per cent in 2019 and to 83.4 per cent in 2020.

116.During the same period, the proportion of pregnant women living with HIV who have received antiretroviral treatment increased from 64 per cent to 74 per cent. Early diagnosis and the initiation of antiretroviral prophylaxis for children has increased, but more needs to be done to reach the targets.

117.The progress made in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV has been significant but falls short of the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission. A plan for accelerating progress will be implemented by the AIDS Division of the Ministry of Health and Social Services and community organizations to close the gaps.

Indicators for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission, 2018–2020

2018

2019

2020

Indicators

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number of pregnant women who were tested for HIV and received their results

441 190

76

483 129

81

503 569

83.4

Number of pregnant women living with HIV who received antiretroviral treatment to reduce mother-to-child transmission

1 401

64

1 445

72

1 394

74

Number of children born to women living with HIV placed on antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce mother-to-child transmission

987

45

1,014

50

1 141

73.2

Source: 2020 annual report of the National AIDS Council.

118.Stigma attached to HIV status and the low socioeconomic status of families were identified as barriers to access to HIV services in Senegal.

119.In its response to HIV and tuberculosis, Senegal has therefore invested in programmes to remove human rights and gender barriers with the support of technical and financial partners.

120.A five-year plan for the period 2021–2025 was adopted in October 2020. Its aim is to scale up and support the efforts of Senegal to remove human rights barriers to access to HIV and tuberculosis services through a comprehensive package of interventions.

121.In addition to this five-year plan, Senegal has developed a toolkit to provide better guidance to actors involved in interventions tailored to the human rights situation in the country as part of the response to HIV.

122.With a view to promoting respect for the right to health, the toolkit contains guidance on removing barriers and obstacles that may impede access to high-quality HIV/AIDS health services, along with a comprehensive, contextualized approach for the establishment of a mechanism to help with the rethinking of concepts and strategic guidance, and lead public programmes and community organizations to act in an effective, concerted and harmonized manner.

Climate change and natural disasters

123.In Senegal, climate change is already a significant threat, as illustrated by a decrease in rainfall of about 300 mm in 30 years, more intense and shorter rains, and a temperature increase of about 1.7°C.

124.The negative impacts are manifold.

Measures taken to integrate disaster risk reduction into development processes and to counter the adverse impact of climate change

125.The State has introduced policies and programmes and set up monitoring and coordination mechanisms such as:

•The early warning system for agriculture during the rainy season.

•The warning system for users of the sea.

•The climate disaster risk warning system.

126.Institutional mechanisms have been set up to produce regular information on water resource knowledge, rainfall trends and flooding.

127.With regard to sectors that are highly vulnerable to climate change, including agriculture and food security, the following steps are being taken to prevent risks and reduce vulnerability:

•Raising awareness among and providing guidance to producers.

•Disseminating agrometeorological information.

•Researching crop varieties adapted or tolerant to drought, salinity, cold and heat.

•Redefining the cropping calendars.

•Disseminating new technologies.

128.Aware of the direct links between the effects of climate change, food security, health and public safety, and irregular migration flows, the State of Senegal took a particular interest in the issues and challenges of climate change at a very early stage and, in that regard, has taken major initiatives, which were developed and implemented in a concerted manner.

129.To counter the negative effects of climate change, Senegal has, like the international community, introduced a number of policies that translate its desire to participate in the international effort to preserve the environment; the first step in that direction was its ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in June 1994. In the same vein, Senegal updated and adopted its nationally determined contribution in 2020. That document, which reflects the commitment of Senegal to the achievement of the objectives of the Paris Agreement, covers eight sectors, namely, floods, health, agriculture, livestock farming, biodiversity, the coastal zone, fisheries and water resources.

130.To reduce its vulnerability to the effects of climate change, Senegal has also launched its National Climate Change Adaptation Plan. The objectives of the Plan are:

•To reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change by building adaptive capacity and resilience.

•To integrate climate change adaptation, in a coherent manner, into relevant new and existing policies, programmes and activities, in particular development planning processes and strategies, within all relevant sectors and across different levels, as appropriate.

131.Ultimately, the aim will be to develop national sectoral adaptation plans for the ten sectors (infrastructure, health, disaster risk management focusing on floods, agriculture, fisheries, water resources, biodiversity, livestock farming, the coastal zone and tourism), and also to integrate adaptation into the planning documents for these different sectors.

Incorporation of a gender perspective and the inclusion of women in disaster management

132.Gender is a key issue in climate policies. It is considered to be a cross-cutting element across all aspects of the nationally determined contribution, including financing, technology transfer and capacity-building.

133.Gender is also an important consideration in the development of the National Adaptation Plan. A baseline study on gender and climate change has therefore been developed. The objective of the study is to improve understanding of the gender-specific impacts of climate change, identify gaps and opportunities, assess local and sectoral policies and strategies on gender and climate, and identify entry points for effective gender mainstreaming in climate strategies.

134.To comply with the Committee’s general recommendation, the State has put in place a number of strategies to build the capacities of women to adapt to climate change in various areas, including energy, forestry, agriculture, water and trade. Such strategies include:

•Support for reforestation projects.

•Facilitation of women’s access to energy (solar, biodigester, butane gas and biochar).

•Building of the adaptive capacities of women in agricultural sectors through activities such as water erosion and land degradation management.

•The Agrobio Niayes Programme led by ENDA Pronat, which includes facilitating the sale of grains, fruit and vegetables by women as part of their commercial activities through the kiosks of the One Village One Product project.

Economic empowerment of women

Poverty rates for women, disaggregated by age and location

135.In Senegal, 46.7 per cent of the total population lives in poverty, compared with 57.3 per cent of the rural population, according to data from the 2018 survey of the National Statistics and Demographics Agency (report on the economic and social situation in Senegal).

136.The majority of households are headed by men (76 per cent). The survey results show that poverty is less prevalent in female-headed households than in male-headed households. Indeed, 2 out of 10 people (21.8 per cent) living in female-headed households are poor, compared with just over 4 out of 10 (42.7 per cent) in male-headed households.

137.With regard to the economic empowerment of women, the Delegation for Rapid Entrepreneurship, the Sovereign Strategic Investment Fund, the Priority Investment Guarantee Fund and many other specific funds contribute to the promotion of women’s entrepreneurship.

138.In addition to these high-impact mechanisms, there is the National Strategy for the Empowerment of Women and Girls 2021–2025, the aims of which include the development of inclusive, sustainable and growth-generating entrepreneurship through the promotion of an equitable and value-creating workforce.

139.In February 2021, the State launched the Islamic Microfinance Programme with the aim of reaching 1 million beneficiaries, targeting women and young people working in rural areas.

140.With regard to persons with disabilities, the State has established the Directorate for the Promotion and Protection of Persons with Disabilities, which is responsible for the development, implementation and monitoring of the policy on the socioeconomic integration and advancement of persons with disabilities. The Directorate ensures the protection of the rights of persons with disabilities. It is responsible for implementing the national programme for the rehabilitation of persons with disabilities and helping to improve their living conditions, especially in remote areas.

141.Several schemes are in place for reducing the vulnerability and social exclusion of women with disabilities, including an equal opportunity card, the Social Policy Act, initiatives in various fields, such as the community-based rehabilitation programme, and universal health coverage.

142.By obtaining an equal opportunity card, persons with disabilities can enjoy rights and benefits in relation to access to health care, rehabilitation, equipment, financial services, education, training, employment and transportation and other benefits that may contribute to their promotion and protection.

Access by women to family benefits

143.Family benefits are the oldest and best-known branch of the social security fund. They comprise the following benefits:

•Maternal and child health care.

•Prenatal and maternity allowances.

•Family allowances.

•Daily benefits for women who are employed or have voluntary insurance.

144.Vulnerable groups such as women with disabilities receive the equal opportunity card. Since 2018, all card holders, including 21,078 female beneficiaries, have been enrolled in the National Family Security Grant Programme.

Access to financial credit

145.Women are increasingly turning to microfinance (81 per cent of active borrowers from institutions were women in 2013) and to informal systems such as tontines. Women’s access to credit has increased considerably since the establishment in 2019 of the Delegation for Rapid Entrepreneurship of Women and Youth, endowed with 30 billion CFA francs per year.

146.In addition, an economic stimulus programme launched in January 2018 has resulted in the funding of 922 projects reaching 4,610 beneficiaries through the Women’s Credit Fund and the National Fund for Women’s Entrepreneurship. In support of these efforts, a sectoral plan on the economic resilience of women was adopted in April 2020 to contain the adverse effects of COVID-19 on the activities of women with the following flexible terms:

•A total of 500,000 CFA francs per beneficiary without personal contribution, 50 per cent of which is repayable and 50 per cent of which is a subsidy.

•Repayments spread over 12 months with a three-month grace period.

•No application fee.

•No interest.

147.In addition, various financing mechanisms are helping to facilitate women’s access to credit, for example the National Fund for Women’s Entrepreneurship, the National Women’s Credit Fund and the Project to Support the Development of Women’s Entrepreneurship and Youth Employment. Between 2018 and 2021, the following results were recorded:

•166 projects of women working in the agriculture, livestock farming, poultry farming and trade sectors received credit totalling 202,565,850 CFA francs through Islamic finance.

•6,000 projects of women and girls in the local products processing, trade and livestock farming sectors received funding totalling more than 4,700,000,000 CFA francs from the two funds.

•1,000 business entities belonging to women in the informal sector affected by COVID-19 received funding totalling 500,000,000 CFA francs in the form of credit and a subsidy as a contribution to the Economic and Social Resilience Programme.

•671 projects in the north received funding totalling 68,881,875 from the Programme to Strengthen Economic and Social Development and the Programme to Promote Productive Families and the Integration of Young People.

148.In total, 12 regions and 509 communes were reached. The technical and financial partners responsible for the provision of funding under framework partnership agreements are Femme développement entreprise en Afrique, Mutual Credit of Senegal, the Savings and Credit Union of the Network of Farmers’ and Rural Organizations of Senegal, the Union of Community Mutual Savings and Credit Institutions, MCJSR, the Association for the Development of Women Poultry Farmers in Pikine, the Savings and Credit Union for Women of Pikine, the Savings and Credit Union of Kébémer, the Njambour Federation of Community Development Associations, the Autonomous Cooperative for Strengthening Economic Initiatives through Microfinance and the Dooleel Gjigeen Savings and Credit Union.

Programmes to support and stimulate women’s entrepreneurship and access to bank loans

149.In accordance with international guidelines and commitments, the Government has undertaken various initiatives through the implementation of projects and programmes covering important aspects of the promotion of gender equity and equality, such as:

•A project to improve drinking water and sanitation services in rural areas;

•A project to promote sustainable access to water and sanitation.

•A project for the development of inclusive and sustainable agribusiness.

•A national programme for integration and agricultural development.

•A project to support pastoralism.

•A programme to support the dairy industry.

•A programme to support the creation of green-job opportunities in Senegal.

•A literacy and trade apprenticeship programme to combat poverty.

•A programme to support the economic and social development of Senegal.

•A project to support the development of women’s entrepreneurship and the employment of young girls.

•A project to promote the employment of young people and women.

Measures taken to overcome legal and sociocultural barriers that restrict access for women to land

150.The issue of women’s access to land and control over resources has always been one of the major challenges for gender equality in this area, despite the fact that the principle of equal access to land is enshrined in the Constitution. The reasons for this are therefore not legal in nature, but rather social, cultural and economic, which is why the measures taken are aimed at strengthening the status of women and eliminating discrimination against them.

151.Regarding equal access to land, article 15 of the Constitution expressly states: “Men and women have equal right of access to possession and ownership of land. The law shall determine the conditions thereof.”

152.Senegal adopted Act No. 2004-16 of 4 June 2004 on agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry policy, which establishes the framework for agricultural development in Senegal. Article 54 provides that: “The State shall ensure equal rights to women and men in rural areas, in particular in farming. Moreover, women shall be accorded facilitated access to land and credit.”

153.A national commission responsible for analysing existing laws and regulations and identifying institutional constraints on optimal land management has been established. Decree No. 2012-1419 of 6 December 2012 on the establishment of the National Land Reform Commission has been signed.

154.The State is committed to improving land management in order to respond to the needs of development and social cohesion. Land reform is based on the principles of participation, decentralization, encouragement of family and commercial agriculture, and respect for human rights and the rights of women and minorities.

155.The measures taken by the agriculture sector through circular No. 09-89 of 5 June 2018, mentioned above, include:

•Allocating at least 15 per cent of future surface water development projects and 20 per cent of future groundwater development projects to women.

•Allocating at least 20 per cent of subsidized fertilizers to women.

•Allocating at least 20 per cent of certified rice and groundnut seed stocks to women.

•Allocating at least 10 per cent of subsidized tractors to women.

•Allocating at least 40 per cent of financing to women.

•Allocating at least 20 per cent of funding for agricultural research projects to women.

•Increasing the representation of women in decision-making bodies to 20 per cent.

156.In addition, cross-cutting programmes such as the Emergency Community Development Programme and the Emergency Programme for the Modernization of Border Roads have enhanced the empowerment of rural women through the provision of equipment and feeder roads, the lack of which had hindered the activities of rural women.

157.A study conducted by the National Parity Observatory in March 2019 to evaluate the contribution of the Emergency Community Development Programme, which was launched in 2015, to the empowerment of women in the targeted rural areas has made it possible to build on significant results, such as:

•An increase in women’s income through income-generating activities, such as market gardening with the provision of processing equipment by the Programme.

•Improvements in women’s health and nutrition through the building of infrastructure.

•Improved access for women to electricity.

•A reduction in women’s housework.

•Time savings for women and children (which can be spent on, for example, productive activities and education).

•Improved access to basic services with the construction of feeder roads.

•Strengthened capacities for 2,300 post-harvest equipment management committees composed mostly of women.

•The creation of at least 4,756 temporary jobs and 2,490 sustainable jobs for young people and women in the subsectors of rural roads, rural water supply, rural electrification and the operation of post-harvest equipment.

158.In addition, the Microfinance Promotion Fund, the Support Programme for the Economic and Social Development of Senegal and the State are developing the social and solidarity economy through the National Programme for the Promotion of Islamic Microfinance.

159.The decentralized financial system networks are also working hard to expand access to local financial services for women, as follows:

•The Union of Cooperatives for the Mobilization of Savings and Credit has developed a product for the promotion of access for Senegalese women to financial services that has been very successful with women and enabled the institution to better reach the female clientele, in particular women traders. In 2014, the Union’s outstanding loans to women amounted to 11 billion CFA francs for 47,000 active women borrowers, with 35.4 billion CFA francs in deposits collected from women.

•The Alliance of Credit and Savings for Production, which represents 12.7 per cent of the sector’s assets and 15.7 per cent of outstanding credit, had registered about 980,000 women members as at 31 December 2014, with outstanding loans to women of 12 billion CFA francs and outstanding deposits from women of 3.15 billion CFA francs.

160.With regard to the installation of technology and infrastructure to alleviate the difficulties of rural women, the State has created virtual platforms for women entrepreneurs for the exchange of information and best practices and for online sales, such as the “50 Million Women Speak” project in Senegal, the Buy from Women platform, the SORETOUL platform and the Information and Communications Technology Association of Senegalese Women.

161.Regarding social security for older women, reference should be made to the Social Security Act, which does not provide for any exclusions. In March 2013, a reform was introduced requiring employers with more than 100 employees to enrol their workers, regardless of their age or gender, in a health insurance scheme.

Disadvantaged groups of women

Measures taken to reduce overcrowding, and access to health care for women

162.The United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non‑custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules) and the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Nelson Mandela Rules) have been incorporated into the national laws of Senegal in order to take into account the particular issues faced by women, including pregnancy and childcare.

163.Regarding specific legislative provisions for women, article 12 of Decree No. 66-1081 of 31 December 1966 on the organization and regulation of prison facilities provides for the isolation of pregnant women in a special room for at least two months before delivery and two months after delivery.

164.The State of Senegal has taken measures as part of its efforts to combat torture and ill-treatment, including reducing prison overcrowding through collective pardons granted by the President of the Republic to certain prisoners; introducing electronic bracelets by Act No. 2020-28 of 7 July 2020, amending Act No. 65-60 of 21 July 1965 on the Penal Code; strengthening respect for economic, social and cultural rights; and ensuring universal access to health services and drinking water.

165.Remaining committed to these special protection measures for these groups, the State introduced measures during the COVID-19 pandemic to encourage the procurement of a large batch of ThermoFlash products, masks, gloves, soap, hand sanitizers and water basins for the early detection of cases and compliance with social distancing measures among both staff and inmates. Most significantly, from 16 March 2020, all hearings of courts and tribunals were suspended at the initiative of the Minister of Justice, the only exceptions being emergency and criminal proceedings.

Up-to-date data, disaggregated by relevant factors, on the enjoyment by disadvantaged groups of women, including women and girls with disabilities

166.Women of all categories enjoy the same rights in relation to access to education, health care and work and protection against all forms of discrimination and violence.

167.However, persons with disabilities, including women and girls, are granted special protection under the Social Policy Act of 2009 on the protection of the rights of persons with disabilities. In addition to this Act, the equal opportunity card gives them preferential access to basic social services such as health care and education.

168.In accordance with the principle of non-discrimination enshrined in the Constitution, Senegal is working to promote the inclusion of these categories of persons at all levels.

169.To date, 21,078 women with disabilities have received the equal opportunity card.

170.In 2020, 148 women with obstetric fistula received socioeconomic support as part of the COVID-19 response.

Marriage and family relations

171.In its report, the technical committee for the review of legislative and regulatory provisions that discriminate against women identified the harmonization of the legal age of marriage as one of the areas to be addressed as part of the review of discriminatory provisions.

172.However, given the need to obtain national consensus on these issues, the State organized sessions for the exchange of views with parliament in 2018 and 2019 to foster ownership of the proposed reforms.

173.There had also been plans to conduct community outreach activities, for which gatherings would have been necessary, but these were suspended owing to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Steps taken to eliminate the persistent practice of polygamy, in line with article 16 of the Convention, and to organize awareness-raising programmes

174.Polygamy laws in Senegal are not considered to constitute discrimination or violence against women, provided that the spouses consent freely to the option of polygamy when entering into the marriage.

175.Furthermore, each of the spouses is informed of all the legal consequences of the various options before the marriage is sealed in accordance with the provisions of the Family Code, which is the result of a national consensus that benefited from the expertise of jurists and religious and traditional leaders of all faiths. The Code is also considered a tool for ensuring stability in marriage.

Steps taken to eliminate child marriage and levirate marriage

176.The Children’s Code, which is in the process of adoption and is currently being considered by the administrative bodies, provides for raising the legal age of marriage for girls (16 years; see art. 116 of the Family Code) to the same age as for boys (18 years), in accordance with international and regional commitments (the Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1990 and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child).

177.The establishment of girl leaders’ clubs and the development of the New Deal project, a community pact between parents and children, have yielded encouraging results in the regions of Kolda and Tambacounda. It is envisaged that this project will be scaled up to help to end child marriage and early pregnancy.

178.The elimination of child marriage is among the six priorities of the Girl Child Agenda (2020–2024), which promotes the equal treatment of girls.

Steps taken to carry out awareness-raising and education programmes directed at women and men, in cooperation with civil society, on the elimination of discrimination against women in marriage and family relations

179.In terms of awareness-raising, the State has launched a “school for husbands” programme, which promotes positive masculinity in marriage and family relations. As part of this effort, a “school for husbands” national strategy was adopted in 2021. The strategy focuses on involving men in the management of women’s reproductive health.

180.The pilot phase of the “school for husbands” programme was tested in the regions of Tambacounda and Kédougou with the aim of reversing the trends in critical maternal and neonatal health indicators. Following the pilot, a training manual was adopted for husbands, bajenu gox (community godmothers) and other community actors, covering women’s human rights, the promotion of gender equality, the reproductive health-care package, gender-based violence, hygiene, nutrition, local governance and women’s leadership.

181.A new project targeting the regions of Dakar, Kolda, Louga, Sédhiou and Ziguinchor was launched in January 2022, marking the beginning of the nationwide expansion of the programme. In addition, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women has been translated into six national languages and disseminated to communities with the help of women’s and girls’ rights associations, in cooperation with civil society organizations and technical and financial partners, following the adoption of the national strategy for raising awareness of the law criminalizing rape and paedophilia.

182.The 16 Days of Activism against Gender-based Violence campaign is an annual opportunity to denounce all forms of violence against women. In addition, the State regularly carries out, in collaboration with women’s civil society organizations, activities to raise awareness of women’s rights.

183.Act No. 2020-05 of 10 January 2020 criminalizing rape and paedophilia has been translated into 14 national languages with the help of civil society organizations.

Steps taken to adopt measures to protect the rights of women in unregistered marriages, to pass legislation to protect the rights of women upon the dissolution of unregistered or polygamous marriages and to encourage the registration of all marriages

184.As part of the steps taken with respect to unregistered marriages, spouses may, when the one-year deadline provided for by the law has elapsed, submit a late declaration of marriage to the civil registrar with the authorization of the president of the district court.

185.In addition, mobile court sessions are organized every year throughout the country to encourage late civil registration. People, especially women, are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of civil registration as a result of the activities to raise awareness of women’s rights and the community outreach conducted by legal experts.