Committee on the Rights of the Child
Summary record of the 1419th meeting
Held at the Palais Wilson, Geneva, on Tuesday, 9 June 2009, at 10 a.m.
Consideration of reports of States parties (continued)
Initial report of Oman on the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict
Initial report of Oman on the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography
The meeting was called to order at 3.10 p.m.
Consideration of reports of States parties (continued)
Initial report of Oman on the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict ((CRC/C/OPAC/OMN/1); list of issues (CRC/C/OPAC/OMN/Q/1); written replies by the State party to the list of issues (CRC/C/OPAC/OMN/Q/1/Add.1))
Initial report of Oman on the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography ((CRC/C/OPSC/OMN/1); list of issues (CRC/C/OPSC/OMN/Q/1); written replies by the State party to the list of issues (CRC/C/OPSC/OMN/Q/1/Add.1))
1. At the invitation of the Chairperson, the members of the delegation of Oman took places at the Committee table.
2.Ms. Al Yahya’eah (Oman) said that as a member of the international community and a Member State of the United Nations, the Sultanate of Oman respected the principles set out in international human rights instruments. It had criminalized the sale of children and the slave trade and had prohibited the recruitment of children into the armed forces to participate in hostilities.
3.She said that lack of development opportunities, the debt burden, poverty and ignorance favoured the spread of wars and increased the recruitment and involvement of children in armed conflict. She emphasized that the national Constitution and laws prohibited the formation of militias and armed groups on Omani soil and that Oman condemned armed groups that recruited, trained and used children in wars. No Omani child was participating in armed conflict. Even before ratifying the two Optional Protocols, Oman had set the minimum age for recruitment into the armed forces at 18 and had criminalized the recruitment of persons under that age.
4.The Sultanate of Oman was actively engaged in combating the sale and trafficking of children and to that end had participated in numerous international forums, including in particular the third World Congress Against Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents held in Rio de Janeiro in November 2008. The Government had made a commitment to train the personnel responsible for the implementation of the two Optional Protocols; it was cooperating with the relevant United Nations bodies and strengthening mechanisms for international mutual legal assistance, including in particular with regard to criminal law. It had adopted a number of laws against the exploitation and sale of children, including the Trafficking in Persons Act, which gave a precise definition of the sale of children and listed the activities defined as offences; the Juvenile Delinquency Act, which included social rehabilitation and reintegration measures; and the Protection and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities Act, which governed the establishment and management of care and welfare centres for persons with disabilities, including children. In 2008, the Government had ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and issued Decree No. 124/2008 establishing the National Human Rights Commission, composed of representatives of government ministries and civil society organizations, which was responsible for monitoring the human rights situation and advising the authorities. Moreover, a working group composed of representatives from all government ministries and civil society institutions had been assigned to formulate a law on children’s rights and the Ministry of Social Development had set up working groups to monitor the situation of children throughout the country, to identify children at risk of abuse and to provide them with the necessary assistance.
5.The Sultanate of Oman was committed to incorporating the provisions of the two Optional Protocols into its legislation, pursuant to the recommendations of the Committee, and emphasized the need for all States to cooperate and to benefit from technical assistance in order to implement fully the provisions of the international human rights instruments.
Initial report of Oman on the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict
6.Mr. Pollar (Country Rapporteur for the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict) said that the fact that the Sultanate of Oman was one of the most politically stable countries in the Middle East would facilitate its implementation of the Optional Protocol. He wished to know whether children and adolescents had been involved in preparing the report, whether the content of the report had been made available to the public, in particular through the media, and whether the school curriculum included instruction on the Optional Protocol. He also asked what measures had been taken to identify refugee children who might have been child soldiers, in particular in Palestine, Iraq or Afghanistan. He wished to know what criminal penalties applied to Omanis and others who recruited children into armed forces in Oman or abroad, whether there were military academies in Oman and, if so, how they operated. Lastly, he asked whether there was legislation prohibiting the export of weapons to areas where children were involved in armed conflict or were likely to use those weapons.
7.Ms. Khattab, recalling that the State party had indicated in its second periodic report on implementation of the Convention that children could volunteer to serve in the armed forces from the age of 15 and that preference was given to the oldest, asked how the Omani authorities determined the age of the children in question. Moreover, she would like further information on the database on children and the role played by local associations in the dissemination of the Protocol. She asked whether the National Human Rights Commission had an office dedicated to children and whether the Commission responsible for monitoring the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was also responsible for monitoring the implementation of the two Optional Protocols, had a secretariat and sufficient human and financial resources, how it coordinated the activities of all stakeholders, how influential its decisions were and how their implementation was ensured.
8.In addition, she asked whether the draft Children’s Act was expected to be adopted soon and whether the public had been made sufficiently aware of the rights of the child. She also wished to know whether the Sultanate of Oman had made a comparison between its position and that of other Arab States in respect of reservations made upon ratification of the Convention and whether it planned to withdraw its reservations.
9.Mr. Citarella asked whether children between 15 and 18 years of age could actually join the armed forces as volunteers and, if so, what kind of education they received, whether they were enrolled in military or civilian schools and whether they were given weapons training. He added that according to the information available to him, more than 4,000 people were serving in paramilitary bodies in Oman. The question was what exactly those bodies were and whether there were children in their ranks.
10.Mr. Krappmann, emphasizing that a State could be sure of the age of the people living on its territory only if birth certificates had been duly issued, requested further information on the State party’s birth registration system.
11.Ms. Al-Asmar requested details of the role played by the children who had participated in the seminars and meetings that had been organized in order to disseminate the provisions of the Convention and its two Protocols. She also asked for specific details concerning the provisions contained in the Criminal Code prohibiting the recruitment of children into the armed forces and wished to know whether penalties were prescribed against minors who had recruited other minors into armed forces. She also asked whether the counter-terrorism laws stipulated penalties for the perpetrators of terrorist acts committed outside Oman and how the authorities, who had banned the trade in knives, applied the ban in practice, in particular as wearing a dagger was part of Omani tradition.
12.Mr. Filali asked whether the National Human Rights Commission could conduct investigations concerning children in cooperation with the Ministry of Defence, whether armed conflict was clearly defined in Omani legislation and whether soldiers received training on the Optional Protocol.
13.The Chairperson asked for updated information as to the current status of the ratification of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and requested additional information on the Al-Sahwa schools, in which children aged between 14 and 16 were given training in marching, military drill and weapons under the supervision of the Royal Oman Police.
The meeting was suspended at 10 . 35 a.m. and resumed at 11 a.m.
14.Ms. Al Yahya ’ eah (Oman) said that the Committee responsible for drafting the report on the implementation of the Convention and its two Optional Protocols and for monitoring the implementation of those instruments was composed of experts in the field of children and the family, lawyers and representatives of civil society. The report had been supplied to the media, which had been made responsible for its dissemination in Oman and abroad. She added that associations concerned with children’s issues, including the Association for Handicapped Children, had participated in drafting the report. Those associations also conducted activities to raise awareness of the provisions of the Convention and its Optional Protocols among children. The Ministry of Education was currently working to incorporate the provisions of the two Optional Protocols into school curricula.
15.There were no refugees in Oman from areas affected by conflict such as Iraq or Palestine. Children coming from those regions were accompanied by their parents and came to Oman not for political reasons but to live, to visit relatives or for the purpose of tourism. The Sultanate of Oman had no register of child political refugees.
16.Mr. Citarella, noting that under Omani law, children or families from areas affected by armed conflict could enter the country freely, asked whether the authorities could indeed then return them to the country from which they had come.
17.Mr. P ollar (Country Rapporteur for the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict) said that the Optional Protocol aimed to establish a distinction, in the case of children who entered a country for political reasons, between those who had been child soldiers and those who had not, and sought to provide children who had participated in armed conflicts with specific assistance, in view of the trauma that they might have undergone.
18.Ms . Al Yahya ’ eah (Oman) said that no case involving child refugees, children arriving from areas affected by armed conflict or the return of children or families to areas of conflict had been recorded in Oman. Those who arrived in Oman were treated in a most humane manner. They received assistance that took into account their social and economic situation and their psychological condition.
19.Mr. A l-Hadrami (Oman) said that under the Aliens Act, persons entering Oman were required to complete a form in which they must indicate their habitual place of residence, occupation and other information which would make it possible to determine whether or not they had come from a conflict zone. Children arriving from such areas must be afforded special protection.
20.Mr. Filali asked whether children arriving at an airport in Oman who appeared to have come from a conflict zone and to be in need of special assistance were assisted by a specially designated person responsible, in particular, for informing them about the laws of Oman should they decide to apply for refugee status. He wished to know whether there was a programme or strategy for receiving, assisting and integrating such children into Omani society.
21.Mr. A l-Hadrami (Oman) said that the Omani authorities were concerned to provide children with the best possible assistance immediately. Special committees within the Ministry of Social Development were able to provide children arriving in Oman, even those who arrived with their families, with any medical, psychological or other assistance that they might require.
22.Mr. Ismail (Oman) said that Oman did not face such situations but that the Aliens Act provided that any person arriving in Oman in need of special protection, in particular women and children, should receive the necessary assistance.
23.Ms. Al Yahya ’ eah (Oman) said that the Ministry of Social Development provided protection on a case-by-case basis to all persons residing in Oman, regardless of their sex and age. Foreign nationals with disabilities residing in Oman were as entitled as Omani nationals to receive a disability card, and the Government could decide on a case-by-case basis to grant financial assistance to persons with insufficient means.
24.Mr. A l-Hosni (Oman) said that the National Human Rights Commission met the international standards for such institutions and was fully independent. It had an extremely broad mandate and could comment on the activities of all governmental or private bodies, including the Ministry of Defence. However, there had been some delay with regard to the selection and appointment of members of the Commission, and it had not yet started work. It would certainly establish a subsidiary body, dedicated to children and women.
25.Ms. Khattab said that it would in fact be appropriate to create a subcommittee specifically responsible for children’s rights within the National Human Rights Commission.
26.Ms. Al Yahya ’ eah (Oman) said that the work of the Commission responsible for monitoring the implementation of the Convention and its Optional Protocols was regularly assessed and that the Commission was reorganized every four to five years. It had a technical coordinator, who coordinated activities relating to the implementation of the Convention and the two Optional Protocols and made recommendations on the budget required for activities centred on children. Agreements had been signed with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), under which the Sultanate of Oman was committed to implementing programmes for children and disseminating the provisions of the Convention and the two Optional Protocols.
27.A committee had been created to consider the declarations and reservations made by Oman upon its ratification of the Convention. It was likely that the reservations relating to those aspects of the Convention and Optional Protocols that were not incompatible with Islamic law would be withdrawn. The Omani authorities hoped that it would be possible to discuss those issues during its presentation of its third and fourth periodic reports on the implementation of the Convention in 2011.
28.The Sultanate of Oman had signed but not yet ratified the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.
29.Mr. A l-Hadrami (Oman) said that Omani law prohibited the recruitment of children under the age of 18 and authorized the acquisition of weapons only from the age of 20.
30.Mr. Filali asked whether the recruitment of children under 18 was prohibited even in states of emergency.
31.Mr. A l-Hadrami (Oman) said that even in times of war, only persons over the age of 18 could be recruited into the armed forces. Any violation of that principle was punishable by law.
32.Under the Juveniles Act, minors who recruited other minors into the armed forces were liable to prosecution. However, they were not subject to the same penalties as adults.
33.The Chairperson asked when the minimum age for voluntary recruitment had been raised to the age of 18.
34.Mr. A l-Hadrami (Oman) said that the minimum age for recruitment into the armed forces had been set at 18 years even before the Sultanate of Oman had ratified the Optional Protocol.
35.The Chairperson asked how the contradiction had arisen between the information provided in the State party’s second periodic report on the implementation of the Convention and the statements made by the delegation concerning the minimum age for voluntary recruitment into the armed forces.
36.Mr. A l-Hadrami (Oman) said that the second periodic report had been submitted in 2006 and that the General Mobilization Act had been adopted in 2008. The information contained in the report was, therefore, obsolete.
37.Ms. Al Yahya ’ eah (Oman) said that the system of birth registration applied to all newborns in the Sultanate and that a birth certificate was issued for every birth. Children had the right to obtain a national identity card at the age of 7. A national identity card was necessary, in particular, for school enrolment and access to health care. Omanis born or educated abroad could obtain such documents through consular services. There were no cases of unregistered births in Oman.
38.Ms. Khattab asked how the age of a child coming from abroad with no birth certificate was determined.
39.Ms. Al Yahya ’ eah (Oman) said that in such cases, the Ministry of Health was responsible for determining the child’s age. The same procedure applied to the children of unknown parents.
40.Mr. Ismail (Oman) said that a number of criteria were used to determine age. Information about the child was obtained locally, including through governors, who were the officials responsible at the governorate level.
41.The Chairperson requested clarification with regard to the penalties or measures applicable under the Criminal Code to persons who recruited children under the age of 18 into the armed forces.
42.Mr. Citarella asked about military personnel in paramilitary bodies.
43.Mr. Al-Hosni (Oman) said that the Counter-Terrorism Act prescribed a penalty of 10 years’ imprisonment for anyone training others in terrorist activities or supplying weapons or explosives, as well as anyone of any nationality in Oman who sought to encourage conflict between States. He added that the Sultanate of Oman, as a State party to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, had signed extradition agreements.
44.Furthermore, the Omani Constitution provided that only the Omani Government was empowered to establish military and security forces in order to maintain national security. There were therefore no paramilitary groups in Oman.
45.Mr. Al-Hadrami (Oman) said that there were national groups in the Sultanate of Oman that consisted of persons over 18 years of age that were described as “paramilitary” in the sense that their members received military training, which varied considerably from one military unit to another, in army barracks or posts. Those persons, who were placed under the Ministry of Defence and sometimes wore civilian clothing, were entrusted with administrative or security tasks and did not take part in military activities as such.
46.Ms. Al Yahya’eah (Oman) emphasized that members of those groups were over the age of 18 and were therefore not covered under the Convention or the Protocol.
47.With regard to cooperation between the National Human Rights Commission and the Ministry of Defence, she said that the National Human Rights Commission was an independent institution with legal personality that was responsible for reviewing the human rights situation in Oman.
48.Moreover, the Sultanate of Oman, which was a Member State of the United Nations, could not have its own definition of “direct armed conflict”, given that no internationally accepted definition of that concept had yet been reached.
49.Mr. Filali, noting that the absence of a definition of direct armed conflict at the international level would not prevent a State from establishing its own definition in its Criminal Code, asked whether children could participate in potential conflicts in one way or another, with or without weapons.
50.Mr. Al-Hosni (Oman) said that Omani law punished the acts of aggression inherent in any armed conflict but that direct armed conflict itself was not governed by Omani law, “armed conflict” being, however, commonly understood to mean conflict with the use of arms.
51.Mr. Ismail (Oman) said that that scenario was dealt with in the penalties chapter of Omani legislation, which covered conflict that was considered to be direct but also, under article 83 of the Counter-Terrorism Act, covered all situations that had the potential to endanger lives, for example by the provision of material resources or explosives. The involvement of children in direct or indirect conflict was therefore covered by the statutory prohibition.
52.Ms. Al Yahya’ eah (Oman) said that school curricula were the same throughout the country, at all educational levels, and that there was no “military” programme as such. Apart from very special topics such as aeronautical engineering, the education provided at military schools was equivalent to that offered in other schools. The authorities sought to disseminate knowledge of the Convention through the curriculum of all educational establishments, throughout Oman.
53.In Oman, the dagger was considered a symbol of national and cultural identity, not a weapon. It was worn by men as an object of pride at various official or national events or celebrations. Generally speaking, children under 14 years did not wear daggers that could be used as weapons.
54.The draft Children’s Act was currently being studied by various committees and experts from UNICEF, who were comparing it to similar legislation already adopted by other Arab and non-Arab countries. The Omani Government hoped that the Act would be promulgated shortly.
55.Mr. Al-Hosni (Oman) said that Oman did not produce weapons and therefore did not export them. Moreover, the acquisition of weapons and the arms trade were regulated by the Arms and Ammunition Act, which prescribed penalties for offenders, in particular with regard to the sale of unlicensed weapons, in accordance with the protocols and agreements signed by Oman.
56.Mr. Pollar (Country Rapporteur for the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict) said, in conclusion, that much had been done in Oman, in particular with regard to legislative measures, to ensure the implementation of the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict. Some issues, including the definition of “direct hostilities” and the relevant legal provisions, would nevertheless be addressed by the Committee in its recommendations.
Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography
57.Ms. Ortiz (Country Rapporteur for the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography) welcomed the adoption of new laws, including on the criminal responsibility of adolescents, on action against trafficking in human beings and on the protection and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities. She also welcomed the fact that Oman had ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Palermo Protocols. She appreciated the spirit of cooperation that the State party had shown to the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially in women and children, in 2006. She was pleased that the Government of Oman had agreed in February 2009 to the request for a visit by the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. She also welcomed the high rate of school enrolment in Oman (97 per cent) and the fact that girls and young women now accounted for 48 per cent of the pupil and student body, including in higher education. She also appreciated the numerous programmes that the Ministry of Education had established in order to disseminate knowledge of the Convention.
58.However, she would like to know more about the procedures followed in drafting the initial report on the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and highlighted a large number of discrepancies between the report and the written replies to the list of issues. Recalling that the drafting of the report should serve as an opportunity to disseminate knowledge of the Convention and to solicit the fullest possible participation of all parties responsible for its implementation, she noted that while the initial report had been drafted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in consultation with all the constituent ministries of the Committee responsible for the implementation of the Convention and its Protocols, it appeared that broader consultations had not been undertaken during the drafting process.
59.She noted that some of the problems described in the report resulted from traditional societal attitudes, including the use of corporal punishment and the lack of dialogue between adults and children. She wished to know what progress had been made towards establishing a mechanism for the comprehensive protection of children’s rights, including the anticipated date of adoption of the Children’s Act and the national plan of action for the implementation of the Convention. She also asked about the operational procedures of the Committee responsible for the implementation of the Convention and its Protocols, which consisted of 16 members drawn from various ministries and from civil society, and whether Oman was considering removing its reservations to the Convention and Protocol.
60.Noting with satisfaction that Oman had a comprehensive arsenal of laws and decrees dealing specifically with the issues covered by the Protocol, she asked whether the measures taken by the State party to prohibit the participation of child jockeys in camel races were applied in practice, whether the impact of those measures had been evaluated and whether appropriate monitoring mechanisms were in place. She would also like information on the use of children as domestic workers, the sexual exploitation of children, child pornography and pornography to which children had access by means of the Internet or mobile telephones.
61.Noting that Oman had embarked on a process of “Omanization” of the economy, economic diversification and privatization, she asked what the implications of that policy were for Omani and other children. She also asked for clarification with regard to eligibility for the acquisition of Omani nationality. Moreover, she wished to know whether children born out of wedlock or separated from their mothers after divorce continued to be placed in orphanages, whether their right to an identity, a name and a nationality was respected in practice and whether Omani women who married foreigners could now pass on their nationality to their children, as men could.
62.With regard to the exploitation of children in the strict sense, she expressed her concern that the State party was a country of transit and destination for children and adolescents from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Indonesia, Morocco, Eastern Europe and China. Such children were sold for sexual exploitation or domestic work, often as bonded labour. Their movements were restricted and they worked long days, sometimes without being paid; they were underfed and suffered physical or sexual abuse. She asked about measures taken to identify, prosecute and punish perpetrators and to provide protection services to victims, particularly during legal proceedings, as well as adequate rehabilitation services. It would be helpful if the delegation would provide data on the exact number of such cases, as well as on preventive measures against sexual exploitation, in particular that involving children, including measures undertaken in cooperation with countries in the region.
63.Ms. Aidoo wished to know what specific measures had been taken to raise awareness of the provisions of the Protocol among the general public and children in particular, and the extent to which its efforts to disseminate knowledge of the Protocol and inform and educate the population impacted non-Omani children and their families. It would also be interesting to know how non-Omani children benefited from the important legislative and institutional protective mechanism recently introduced in Oman.
64.With regard to preventing the sale of children and sexual exploitation of children, she welcomed the fact that the National Committee on Foreign Affairs had established local-level working groups on children at risk but wondered whether there were any mechanisms or research projects with the function of systematically collecting data at the community level different from the information collected by public institutions such as hospitals or health centres. Such mechanisms would enable the State party to better assess the situation, as children and their families were often reluctant to testify to sexual exploitation, prostitution and pornography, out of fear or pride.
65.Mr. Zermatten sought clarification with regard to the procedures applicable in cases where a child was a victim or witness in judicial proceedings resulting from a breach of the Protocol, including measures taken to address the risk that the child could be subject to secondary victimization. In particular, he would like to know who heard the child, whether the number of possible hearings was limited, whether audio and video recordings were taken during questioning by police and whether the judge could decide to hold a closed session without being requested to do so by the child. He also wished to know whether Omani legislation, to avoid any direct confrontation in court between the alleged perpetrator and child victim or witness, provided for the use of means such as videoconferencing, whether the child could receive legal aid and psychological support and whether the child was informed of the outcome of the procedure.
66.Ms. Al-Asmar requested further information on procedures for reporting cases of abuse. She also wished to know whether shelters for abused children would be established under the national strategy for child protection.
67.With regard to child labour, she asked whether the Omani authorities had sought to define the tasks assigned to children, as well as the number of meals provided and hours worked. She also wished to know what steps could be taken against an Omani national involved in child trafficking outside Oman and the specific penalties applicable to violations of article 29 (crimes of negligence) of the Trafficking in Persons Act. With regard to article 304 of the Criminal Code, it would be interesting to know who was responsible for children and their education in cases where the parents had been imprisoned for negligence. With regard to article 21 of the Criminal Code, it would also be interesting to know whether the young offenders placed in welfare and rehabilitation centres were able to leave upon reaching the age of majority, provided they had shown good conduct, and whether steps were taken to reintegrate them into society.
68.Mr. Kotrane asked whether the possession of pornographic material was clearly punishable by law. Emphasizing that the Protocol was immediately applicable, he asked whether the State party had specific criminal legislation that set out the crimes covered by the Protocol and, in that regard, what the liability of legal persons would be in such cases. Lastly, he sought clarification as to whether the State party could punish crimes committed outside Oman but involving an Omani national or a permanent resident.
69.Mr. Puras asked what direct steps the State party was taking to address the root causes of the sale of children, child prostitution, child pornography and sex tourism and to raise public awareness, in particular among children and their parents, about the harmful effects of those practices. He would like to know whether those issues remained taboo, whether public information campaigns and debates had yet been held and whether budgetary funds had been allocated for those activities. Any additional information on measures to provide medical and psychological support and to rehabilitate child victims of sexual exploitation, as well as on the level of training of the professionals concerned and the involvement of non-governmental organizations in preventive efforts, would be welcome.
70.Mr. Koompraphant welcomed the promulgation of the Trafficking in Persons Act but wondered about its application and effectiveness in practice, in particular with regard to articles 7 and 8 of the Protocol. He would like to know more about investigative and questioning methods, the mechanisms that existed to follow up on complaints, the authorities competent to receive complaints from children, the qualification of the professionals involved in investigations and interviews with child victims and the steps taken to minimize the negative impact of judicial proceedings and to reintegrate child victims into society. In practical terms, it would be useful to know whether child victims were informed about how judicial proceedings would take place and the legal protection available to them, and whether they were given protection after giving evidence.
71.Ms. Khattab asked about the mechanisms used to monitor the proper implementation of the law raising the minimum age for participation in camel racing to 18, whether child jockeys were put on a special diet, whether reintegration and rehabilitation programmes had been established for those children and whether any complaints had yet been registered.
72.Mr. Citarella, welcoming the State party’s efforts to harmonize its legislation with the Protocol, wished to know how many children were trafficked in Oman and whether, pursuant to articles 3 and 4 of the Protocol, the State party intended to include the crime of the sale of children specifically in its Criminal Code and prescribe penalties for that crime. The delegation might also indicate the steps taken to prevent children obtaining access via the Internet to harmful content.
73.Ms. Villarán de la Puente asked what share of budgets, programmes, indicators and monitoring and evaluation mechanisms was specifically allocated to compliance with the Protocol under the national child protection strategy and what role the academic world and civil society organizations played in that regard.
74.Mr. Filali asked whether the State party had signed bilateral agreements that would allow the perpetrators of crimes under the Protocol to be extradited, whether such extradition happened directly after a request was made by a State or after trial and whether the judges assigned to extraditions received specific training.
The meeting rose at 1.05 p.m.