United Nations


Convention on the Rights of the Child

Distr.: General

1 May 2017

English only

Committee on the Rights of the Child

Seventy-fifth session

15 May-2 June 2017

Item 4 of the provisional agenda

Consideration of reports of States parties

List of issues in relation to the fifth periodic report of Mongolia


Replies of Mongolia to the list of issues *

[Date received: 24 April 2017]

Part 1

1.With regard to public budgeting for children, please inform the Committee about measures taken to safeguard the protection of children’s rights during periods of economic recession. Please provide more detailed information on measures taken to prevent corruption.

Measures taken during the periods of economic recession in order to protect child right:

1.Government of Mongolia has been pursuing policies and taken following measures to create an environment where every child can be raised in the family environment by promoting employment, ensuring social protection for mothers and securing family sustainability.

2.Pursuant to the Government Action Plan 2016-2020, draft Law on Mother and single headed households with multiple children has been formulated and handed over to the Cabinet secretariat of Parliament for discussion on 28th December 2016. According to the draft law, one time lump sum for twins and triplets, monthly benefit for mother who take care of their children aged 0-3 years old, pregnant women and single mother/father with 3 children are provided. In addition, it is stipulated to provide school uniform, stationary and books for the children of single headed household and to create environment that is enabled single mother/father to work by increasing number of day care services of children.

3.Several amendments are made to the “Law on pensions and benefits paid from Social insurance fund” and were adopted by Parliament on 2nd February 2017. Aims of the amendments are to value the unpaid domestic work of mothers and improve social protection of herders. In doing so, insurance periods for mothers will be increased and refunded by 1.5 years by the number of children, they raised.

4.In relation to the insurance type of mothers, several modifications are made in order to secure mother’s social protection. For instance: if the mother is taking of the child until age of 3 - who is insured compulsorily, the social insurance payment will be paid by employer, - is insured voluntarily, the social insurance payment will be paid from Social Insurance Fund, - who is unemployed, the social insurance payment will be paid partially by state budget and by herself. Moreover, regardless of the social insurance type, mothers will receive maternity benefit. Before the amendments, mothers receive certain percent of the maternity benefit depending on the insurance type. Now mothers are able to receive maternity benefit every time, they give birth.

5.In order to create legal base to ensure the medicine cost to be covered by state for children under age of 5 and to deal with the spread of flu like diseases, National Social Insurance Council has issued a decree No. 1 dated 7th January 2017 to revise list of medicines which are fully funded by state budget and to include 30 types of necessary medicines which are crucial to heal flu like diseases. on the price discount for the payment Due to the spread of flu-like diseases and it entered into force starting from 1st March 2017.

6.In the frame of child money program, all the children aged between 0-18 was covered, 61196 children were covered by Food voucher program in 2015 and 68491 children in 2016 respectively.

Measures taken to prevent corruption:

Legal environment:

7.In the article 1 of Chapter one of the Constitution of Mongolia, it is stated “The fundamental principle of the activities of the State shall be securing democracy, justice, freedom, equality, national unity and rule of law”.

8.Government of Mongolia ratified the UN Convention against Corruption on 27th October 2005 and entered into force from 10th February 2006.

9.In order to impact eradication of corruption directly and indirectly, the Government of Mongolia adopted Law on Regulating Public and Private Interests in Public Service and Preventing Conflicts of Interest on 19th January 2012, Law on Information Transparency and Right to Information was adopted in June 2012 and Law on Procurement of Goods, Works and Services with State and Local Funds was adopted in December 2005 and revised and amended in 2011.

10.With respect to the adoption of Law on Transparency, “methodology to evaluate the public organization activity against corruption” was revised and approved.

11.National program against corruption was adopted by the Parliament of Mongolia in the 3rd of November 2016.

12.Public center was established to raise public awareness against corruption in accordance with Government resolution No. 85 dated on 14th September 2016.

13.Annually, the Independent Agency Against Corruption has been providing guidance to conduct national evaluation on fairness and honesty. Specific research with 1929 high school respondents /7-11th grade students/ which covered 21 provinces and 9 districts was conducted to identify honesty of children.

Measures taken to prevent from corruption by Independent Agency Against Corruption in 2016:

14.“Public sub-council” was established with the purpose to create public monitoring mechanism in order to prevent from corruption related crime and conflict of interest.

15.Pamphlet on “Measures taken by other countries to fight against corruption” was developed and disseminated to public organizations as well as publicly available on our website.

16.In accordance with Action plan to fight against corruption, workshops to advertise Law against corruption were organized in 5 ministries, 2 agencies, 14 villages of Dundgovi province, Selenge province and National Center for Transportation.

17.In order to raise public awareness on Law against corruption, animated video with 16 serials were made, out of the 16 serials 2 of them and 8 episodes are focusing on financial resource of political party and electoral donation and which are posted on some local and national television and NGO websites.

18.In 2016, 14 types and 8015 pieces of hand books on against corruption were developed and disseminated to 48 public organizations and 21 provinces, 3871 central and local authorities and NGOs and general publics.

2.Please provide information on measures taken to ensure that the activities of business enterprises, including extractive industries, fully respect the enjoyment of the rights of the child and that remedies are provided in case of violation. Please also provide information on how disputes over land and water between extractive industries and herder communities have been resolved.

19.Even though, the Government of Mongolia has been making efforts to improve social protection of artisanal miner by creating legal environment, child labour and child right in this regard still remain challenge for us.

20.In accordance with Regulation on artisanal mining which was approved by Government resolution No. 308 in 2010, it is legalized to terminate illegal artisanal mining, to establish collective cooperation and make tripartite contract between local governor offices. In provision 11 of the regulation, it is stipulated that children under 18 are prohibited to work in artisanal mining area and inspectors in charge of environment and special inspection shall monitor the enforcement.

21.“The methodology to make technical and biological rehabilitation” was approved by decree No A/138 of the Minister for Environment and Green Development. This will serve as legal base to formalize artisanal mining activities and improve social protection of the artisanal miners.

22.Since 2005, Tripartite Agreement has been signed between the Government of Mongolia, Mongolian Trade Union and Mongolian Employers Federation in order to eliminate child labour by 2015. In the frame of the Agreement, several campaigns and trainings were organized Mongolian Employers Federation in order to raise general public awareness on child labour issues.

23.The list of workplaces where children are prohibited to work was revised and approved by the Decree A/36 of Minister for Labour in February 2016. According to the list, it is prohibited children to work in artisanal mining area and the implementation is co-monitored by specialists of Labour Division and Child and Family Development Division at local level.

24.With support from Sustainable Artisanal Mining project of Swiss Development Agency and Global Action Plan of ILO, National Agency for Child, Youth, Elderly and Family Development has been organizing several trainings and awareness raising campaigns on prohibiting child labour. Further, in the frame of the project, research “Analysis on child situation who work in artisanal mining area” was conducted in 2016.

25.Relation between citizen and license holder is regulated by provision 41.1 of Law on Minerals, it is stated that License holders shall fully compensate owners and users of private and public residential dwellings, wells, winter huts, other structures and historic and cultural landmarks for the damages caused by exploration or mining operations, including if necessary, relocation costs. Currently, there is no any recorded argument and claim in this regard.

3.Please inform the Committee about measures taken to implement existing anti-discrimination legislation in practice, and indicate whether discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex children is prohibited by law.

26.There is no any discriminative statement against sexual orientation in our national legislation including Constitution.

27.In order to prohibit legally all types of discrimination, it is stated that “Discrimination based on race, nationality, sex, sexual orientation, social status, wealth, religion, opinion, health condition shall be punished” in Criminal Code which was adopted in December 2015 and will enter into force in 1st July 2017.

4.Please provide more detailed information on how the best interests of the child are guaranteed in the draft family law, the Criminal Code, the 2016 law on child protection, the 2016 law on the rights of the child and other recently adopted or amended laws. Please provide concrete examples of cases in which the best interests of the child have been taken into consideration in judicial and administrative decisions.

Law on Child right and Law on Child Protection:

28.Aim of the Law on Child Right is to regulate relation related to child right and freedom, to define the right of legal entity, public organization that deal with child right issues and to create effective mechanism to ensure child right.

29.One important issue reflected in this law is creation of effective mechanism to monitor implementation of the law and national inspector in charge of child issue. The national inspector will monitor the implementation of types of child right issues in accordance with Law on Breach.

30.Aim of the Law on Child Protection is to ensure child right and to prevent child from all types of discrimination, exploitation, violence and to get engaged in risky situation and to take responsive actions. As a result of the Law, child protection mechanism become more comprehensive and new type of responsive action in case of violation of child right get introduced. The law addressed child right issue in terms of multi sectoral perspective such as child protection in education sector, family environment, health sector, social sector, information and communication sector etc. The law legalized the responsibility of teachers, social workers, health sector specialists, parents and care givers to inform about the issues related to protection of child right.

Law on Child Minding service:

31.The Law on Child Minding Service was adopted in July 2015 and entered into force in 1st January 2016. The concept of the Law is to ensure right of children who live in suburban area, countryside where is lack of kindergartens and children with disabilities to get access to healthy and favourable kindergarten environment. As of 2016, the service covered 5496 and out of which 297 are children with disabilities.

Revision of Criminal Code:

32.The revision of Criminal Code was adopted in 3rd December 2015 and will enter into force 1st July 2017. In accordance with the international conventions and legal instruments, in the revision, new chapters on “Crime against child” and “Crime against sexual inviolability” were added in order to strengthen the punishment mechanism of crime against child and to legalize the punishment against corporate punishment etc. According to the revised law, 11 types of crime are defined as crime against child rights and punishments are clearly stated. In addition to this, new chapter on “Punishment for adolescents” is added to reduce number of child prisoners, to punish them according to their psychological and physical features, monitor them at home and prevent them to commit crime.

Law on Domestic Violence:

33.The Parliament of Mongolia adopted the revised Law on Domestic Violence in 22nd December 2016 and entered into force in 1st February 2017. In accordance with the international conventions and legal instruments, the revised law well reflected the issues related to identify domestic violence, stop it, protect the victims, take responsive action, prevent from domestic violence and to ensure the right and best interest of child. For instance: new chapter on “To protect child from domestic violence” is added to protect child to become a victim of domestic violence considering their vulnerability dependent on their parents or care givers. In addition to this, the scope of the law is expanded to cover adoptive children, child who is living separately and relatives as well.

The concept of revised Law on Family:

In case of divorce of couples who are not married, children become victims. Therefore, spouse is defined as legally married couples;

Legalize children’s right to property;

Clearly defined the responsibility of parents and care givers and even after divorce, parents’ responsibility will remain same;

In order to secure financial resource for children’s allowance in case of divorce, Children’s allowance repayable fund shall be established;

Legalize the adoption of Mongolian children to foreign citizens;

To create follow up mechanism after adoption;

To institutionalize family development;

To promote family sustainability in the frame of the state policy;

To develop services to provide family education and family counselling to the general public;

To expand the scope of the law to regulate relation related to the foreign nationals and stateless people.

34.The list of jobs in which children under 18 are prohibited to work is revised and approved by Decree No A/36 of Minister for Labour in January 2016. According to the revised list, it is prohibited children to ride racing horse from 1st of November to 1st of May every year.

35.Overall, there several decrees and resolutions were issued by local governors and authorities in order to protect the best interest of children. For instance: 62 resolutions by 21 provinces’ Citizen’s Representative Khural, 395 ordinances by local governors and so forth. Out of which 46 percent of the decrees and resolutions are directed to child protection issues and 54 percent are child development and participation issues.

36.Out of the decrees and resolution, directed to protect children, 80 percent is focused to protect children’s right, establish Multidisciplinary team and to create temporary shelter house.

5.Please provide information on the impact of the 2011 strategy to promote child participation, including how the outcomes of the children’s forums have been reflected in laws and policies at the national and local levels. Please also provide information on measures taken to ensure that teachers, health professionals, social workers, parents and caregivers respect and protect children’s right to privacy.

37.Followings are the impact of 2011 strategy to promote child participation:

Children’s rights were ensured to associate freely to run “School newspaper”, to work together as a team, to express their opinion.

Debate club was established in 85 percent of total schools which enabled children to speak out their challenges and further promote their participation and development.

TV studios were established in every province and several TV channels are broadcasting child programs in order to promote child development and participation.

In order to prevent teenagers to commit crime “Teenager police” group was established in every school.

In order to enable children to voice out their challenges, “Children’s podium” was established.

38.In accordance with outcome documents of the conferences on children, the Government of Mongolia has increased budget allocation to establish child development centers and children’s camp between 2012-2016.

39.“Children’s green card campaign” was organized nationwide in order to reflect general public and children’s opinion in the Law on Child Right as well as Law on Child Protection.

40.Further, children’s right to be protected in terms of right to keep secret, right to favourable accommodation, right to healthcare were ensured as well as parents’ and care givers’ responsibility issues were well stated in the Law on Child Right. It is clearly stated that medical organizations need to secure children’ and their parents’ secret.

6.Please provide information on follow-up to the Committee’s recommendations on child abuse and neglect (see CRC/C/MNG/CO/3-4, para. 47), including with regard to the 2016 laws on child protection and on the rights of the child. Please inform the Committee about complaint procedures available to children in detention, including in prisons and police custody, in relation to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

41.According to the Law on Child Protection, any type of discrimination against children is prohibited, children’s protection in education, health, media, public service and activities are ensured and responsive mechanisms and service providers in case of violation of child right is stated.

42.The Government of Mongolia has been paying particular attention to ensure the implementation of the Law on Child Protection. Several forms, rules and regulations were drafted and approved in order to prevent from violation of child right, to create responsive service to the violation and receive the claim on the cases of violation.

43.Helpline 108 was integrated into the structure of National Authority for Family, Children and Youth Development by the Government resolution No. 55 in 2016 and shelter house was established under the National Authority in 1st January 2017 in order to take responsive measures.

44.Newly approved Law on Domestic Violence is aimed to ensure the responsibility of various stakeholders including social workers, health specialists, district and sub-district level specialists, civil servants and NGO staff to inform about domestic violence cases. In addition to this, organizations that are covered by the scope of the law will be responsible for training their staff in regard to domestic violence issues. Accountability and penalty mechanism for the specialist who did not execute well their responsibility is clearly stated as well.

45.Also, it is stated in the Law that the protection of victims, rehabilitation services for the victims, implementing organizations and financial resources from local as well as state fund. “Operational rule of police departments to combat domestic violence against children” and “Programme of police departments to combat domestic violence against children” were approved by the decree of director general of General Authority for Police.

46.As stated in the paragraph 224 of the rule, it is prohibited police officer to treat suspects inhumanely and hurt physically. Therefore, the police departments make sure its implementation. From 2014 to 2017, there was no any claim received regarding inhumane treatment against prisoned children by police officers.

7.Please update the Committee about the measures taken to monitor and control the quality of care in alternative care settings for children who have lost their parents or live separately from them, such as residential institutions, including those for children with disabilities, foster care, informal care, adoptive families, school dormitories and religious schools.

47.Monitoring and evaluation was conducted by Joint team with representatives of Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sport, Ministry of Health, State Professional Inspection Agency and National Authority for Family, Child and Youth Development in the implementation process of the “Operational Standard MNS5852:2008 of organizations which provide caring, welfare and protection services to children” and Law on Child Minding Service and its respective standards and regulations in November 2016. The result and outcome document was discussed during the meetings of Parliamentarian Standing Committee on Social Policy, Education, Culture and Science and ordering document was issued in order to ensure improve the enforcement and implementation of the respective laws and legislations.

8.Please provide information on the law on the rights of persons with disabilities that was adopted in February 2016, including on the budget allocated to, and monitoring mechanisms for, its implementation.

48.Following measures were taken to ensure the implementation of the Law:

Non vacant council was established to ensure the rights of PWDs by the Government resolution No. 136 in November 2016.

National program on promotion of rights, participation and development of persons with disabilities was drafted and expected to be approved the Government soon.

Policy documents on type, design, rules and standards set to the organization provide services for persons with disabilities in order to promote their independent living were drafted.

Regulation on guide dog was drafted and discussed by the representatives of NGOs and GOs and reflected their comments.

Persons with disabilities access public transportation free of charge in the capital city.

Cost for lunch break of students of special schools is allocated in the state budget.

49.Measures were taken to ensure coverage of children with disabilities in the social protection, health, educational and early identification services:

(а)Vacant council on Education, Health and Social Protection was established under the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection by the Government resolution No. 200 in December 2016 and accordingly non vacant sub council was established under local governor offices. The aim of the council is to identify children with disabilities, to evaluate their development level, to support them to be covered any welfare assistances and programs.

(b)With the support from Chinese Government /60 million dollar grant/ Development Center for children with disabilities which is capable of serving 500 children is in the process of constructing and expected to be operationalized in 2019.

(c)In the frame of the project “To ensure the inclusiveness of persons with disabilities in the social services and improve the quality of services” development centers are going to be built in 6 provinces.

9.Please provide information on the regulation of marketing of breastmilk substitutes and unhealthy foods; the involvement of children in the development, implementation and monitoring of laws and policies on adolescent health; adolescents’ access to contraceptives and sexual and reproductive health education; and measures taken to protect children from air pollution.

50.As of 2015, there are 165 types of substitute breastmilk imported from 11 countries are on sale in our market and 69.1 percent of children under 2 are fed with substitute breastmilk.

51.The statistics on children breastfed during the first 6 months was quite stable /55-60 percent/ between 2000-2010 and there was sharp decrease in 2013 /47 percent/. While, in 2005, 543.5 tons of substitute breastmilk was imported, in 2014 the importing was increased to 758.2 tons.

52.The increasing usage of substitute breastmilk serves causal factor to revise the Law on Substitute breastmilk which was adopted in 2005. The main concept of the law is to support policy that promotes breastfeeding and regulates relation related to producing substitute breastmilk, its importing, selling and usages.

53.In order to revise the Law, Ministry of Health drafted Law on “Food related products of infants and children” which is currently discussed by the Parliament of Mongolia. The law states to breastfeed children during first six months alone, to promote continuous breastfeeding until 2 years old with some supplementary food, regulates the relation related to importing of food related products and bottle sucks for children, selling, supplying, advertising of the products and monitoring the implementation.

Measures taken to reduce air pollution:

54.Due to rapid urbanization, majority of Mongolian population concentrate in urban areas. Majority of them reside in suburban area /ger district/ where has limited access to sanitation and heating system and it causes increase of children’s respiratory diseases due to air pollution. Statistics shows that the risk and possibility of children in Ulaanbaatar to have respiratory disease is 7-8 times higher than the children in rural area. Research proved that 80 percent of children who hospitalized cause of lung fever are during the winter season and 53 percent out of which is caused by air pollution. According to the air quality index, 83 percent of children who have lung fever are residing in the highly air polluted area.

Measures taken to reduce air pollution:

Under the auspicious of the Speaker of the Parliament of Mongolia, international conference on “Impact of air pollution on the health of children and its solutions”, with of over 200 participants and experts from various countries including USA, Canada and Australia was held in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia from 25 to 26 January 2016.

National Committee on reducing air pollution, headed by Prime Minister of Mongolia has discussed the Health Deputy Minister’s report on “Impact of air pollution on people’s health and way forwards” and approved action plan to be implemented in 2017 in order to reduce air pollution.

Ministry of Environment and Tourism has organized 2 phases of trainings and prepared 40 trainers in order to raise the awareness of high school students on impact of air pollution on health and how to protect themselves. The prepared trainers further organized trainings for 8000 student in 80 schools.

In partnership with UNICEF, Public Health Institution of Mongolia conducted survey on impact of air pollution on children’s health and way forwards in June 2016.

Measure taken to address reproductive health:

55.Mongolia has been pursuing specific policies in order to address reproductive health issues such as 4 phases of “National program on reproductive health” /1997-2016/, “Strategy on safety and sustainable supply of conceptive medicines and devices” /2009-2013/ etc.

56.The evaluation of National program on reproductive health /2012-2016/ shows several positive impact of the program to address the challenges of reproductive health sector, contributed greatly to the improvement of the healthcare services of the second and third level hospitals and children and mothers. Unfortunately, there are several issues remained unaddressed such as prevention, capacity development of first level hospitals which provide reproductive health services and family planning.

57.Those issues are reflected in the Government Action Plan 2016-2020 and further it reflected the issues to improve family planning and counselling services, to increase the supply and accessibility of contraceptive devices and medicines, to provide health education to general public. In 3.1.7 of the Action Plan, it is stated that “To implement the National program on mother, infant and reproductive health”, “Program on improving accessibility of the contraceptive devices and medicines” and make sure the implementation of those programs. Currently, National program on mother, infant and reproductive health is drafted and in the process to be discussed by Parliament session.

58.The Government of Mongolia gives priority to the public health and reproductive health issues by setting following sub objectives in the Mongolian Sustainable Development Vision-2030:

Objective 2. “To reduce the risk factors of the infant and maternal mortality and malnutrition by improving and preventing reproductive health services”.

Objective 1. “To prolong the life expectancy of Mongolians and to improve the quality and accessibility of diagnosis by creating national mechanism to prevent”.

10.Please update the Committee on the measures taken to protect children’s lives, health and standard of living from the negative impacts of climate change, environmental degradation as a consequence of the activities of extractive industries, and rapid urbanization. Please indicate how children are involved in the development, implementation and monitoring of responses to those challenges.

59.Law on hygiene which was adopted in February 2016 regulated relation related to creating favourable and safe living environment, preventing, reducing and eliminating environmental negative impact to human health.

60.“The normative standard on requirements set to the hygiene, toilet of high school dormitory and kindergartens” was approved by joint decree No А/253/251/173 of Minister for Health, Minister for Finance and Minister for Education, Culture, Science and Sports in June 2016 and makes sure its implementation.

61.“Technical standards on school uniform, desk and chair MNS 6582:2016”, “Standard to pilot the school desk and chair MNS 6583:2016” and “General technical standard on air quality MNS4585:2016” were approved respectively.

62.In partnership with “Sustainable micro mining project” of Swiss Development Agency and “Improving health care of artisanal miners project” training on “artisanal mining, its damage and consequences, occupational safety and usage of mercury” was organized for 250 people including artisanal miners, their family members. Further, we developed guideline on mercury and its chemical structure and damage, consequences and diagnose for the medical specialists and organized training in this regard.

11.Please clarify how the quality of education in public and private schools is monitored; whether poor children receive support to pay for school uniforms, transportation costs and any other additional costs to access education; whether boys living in monasteries have access to the full range of basic education; and the purpose of and services provided by 24-hour kindergartens.

63.In accordance with the Annex I of Decree No A/309 /2013/ of the Minister for Education, Culture, Science, survey on “educational quality assessment” has been conducted using sampling method among high school students of grade 5, 9 and 12 since 2014. Within three years, 138 students were covered in duplicated way and out of which 5 percent are from private schools.

64.During the process of the assessment, some subjects of exam are mandatory and some are optional for the students. For instance: Regarding the mandatory subject: For the students of grade 5 - mathematics, Mongolian language, natural science are mandatory subjects, for grade 9 students - mathematics, Mongolian language, natural science /Chemistry, physics, biology and geology/, social sciences /social study, Mongolian history, English language/ and for grade 12 students - mathematics, Mongolian language and foreign language /English or Russian/. And regarding the optional subjects: one of the social science, geology, physics, chemistry and biology will be chosen to take as fourth exam.

65.Further, we are planning to increase the number of private schools to be covered in this survey.

Measures taken to promote children’s education:

66.State covers fully cost for the book of elementary school students and 40 percent of cost for books of middle school students. All the books are stored in library of the schools and they distribute them to the students in the beginning of the academic and collect back at the end of the year. Regardless of ownership of the school /private or state owned/, in accordance with the provision 20.2 of the Law on Social Welfare, children with disabilities, full and semi orphan children and children who are living under poverty line and one of the three high school students of same household will be provided free school books.

67.During the academic year of 2016-2017, there 128 school buses are on service and which served 7626 students of 3 kindergartens and 51 high schools of 7 districts. Out of the total number of buses, 22 belongs to private schools, 29 belongs to state owned schools and 3 belongs to private kindergartens.

68.In accordance with Law on the Right of People with Disabilities, all the students shall be covered by lunch program which is implemented by the Government of Mongolia regardless of age and grade.

Measures taken to ensure the access of students of religious school to the basic education:

69.In cooperation with UNICEF, educational equivalency module was developed in order to provide opportunity for religious school students to get access to basic education, increase inclusive education and organized trainings for 248 students from various monasteries including Gandantegchilen monastery, Gethodarjaa monastry of Darkhan Uul province, Bat erdenezuu monastery from Uvurkhangai province and so forth.

Regarding the purpose and activity of 24 hour kindergarten:

70.Totally, there 2324 children are studying in the 13 kindergartens of 7 districts. Main purpose of the 24 hour kindergarten is to provide opportunity for the children whose parents have day or night shifting work or of poor households to get access to kindergarten. They provide service 5 days a week and get subsidy from state as like other kindergartens.

12.Please provide information on laws and policies that provide comprehensive protection and support to children in street situations. Please also provide information on the outcome of the 2012-2016 national programme to eradicate the worst forms of child labour and on the current status of the legal reform on the protection of child jockeys (see CRC/C/MNG/5, para. 164).

Street children:

71.In provision 3.4.7 of the Government Action Plan 2016-2020, it is stated that State shall pursue policy to improve registration and protection of street children and provision of life skill training. Followings are taken to ensure implementation of above mentioned objective:

Responsive service section and shelter house section with 16 staff were structure in Unur Bul Center. The purpose of the section is to identify street children, provide temporary shelter home, to conduct baseline study and refer them to next level service providers and also to provide protective and responsive services in accordance with Helpline for children.

Guideline to work with street children is under formulation.

As a result of 2 official request of City Mayor to Minister for Labour and Social Protection and official meeting, accommodation and human resource issues of the Special Complex under City Governor Office was solved.

72.In accordance with City Mayor Ordinance No A/847 on “Some measures taken to address street children” dated on 2nd December 2016, measures were conducted to identify street children, labour engaged children, register them, prevent them committing crimes and die from cold and as a result 76 children identified, provided protection services. Currently, there are around 50 street children in capital city.

Measures taken to address child labour:

73.Specific provisions regarding prohibiting and eliminating of worst form of child labour were stated in the Law Child Right, Law on Child Protection, Criminal Code and Law on Breach.

74.For instance: in the terms and definition section, labour engaged children shall be considered as children in risky situation. In the chapter 3 on “Responsive services of child protection” the Law on Child Protection, detailed services to be provided to children in risky situation were stipulated.

75.In the Criminal Code, new Chapter “Crime against children” was added and it is defined as crime if someone intentionally started works that is harmful to children physically and mentally and responsibility and punishment is stated clearly.

76.National program on Elimination of Worst forms of child labour /2012-2016/ was expired.

77.In partnership with ILO, evaluation was conducted on the implementation of the National Program and the score was 60.5 percent. They identified main constraints are financial and management constraints. In accordance with the Government Action Plan 2016-2020, National Program on Child Development and Protection is under formulation and child labour issue will be stated in it.

78.In partnership with ILO, General Office for Family, Children and Youth Development conducted “Rapid analysis of child labour in construction sector” in 2015 and “Situational analysis on children who are engaged in artisanal mining” in 2016 respectively.

Measures taken to address child jockey issues:

79.List of jobs where children were prohibited to work was revised and approved by the decree No A/36 of Labour Minister in February 2016. In accordance with the list, it is prohibited to organize racing horse competition during the harsh winter period starting from 1st November to 1st May.

80.As a result of improvement on the monitoring of the standards set to the security of child jockeys, uniforms, organization of the horse racing competition, 90 percent of the total child jockeys are wearing security uniforms. As of 2016, 13.572 child jockeys are registered in integrated database.

81.In cooperation with UNICEF, Mongolian Lawyers Association, National Committee on Human Right conducted survey on “Spring competition of racing horse and child rights” in 2015.

82.Several measures were taken to ensure security of child jockeys such as handing over Orderingl letter 01/32 of Director of National Authority for Children dated on 2015, Orderingl letter 01/32 of Director of National Authority for Children dated on 2016 to the local governors and local Department of Family Development.

13.Please indicate the measures the State party has taken to amend the relevant legislative provisions to fully incorporate articles 2 and 3 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Please also indicate the measures taken to prohibit online child sexual exploitation and to promote online safety for children, and to respond to the improper financial gains from adoptions referred to in the State party report (CRC/C/MNG/5, para. 97).

83.According to the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child regarding the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, the following articles and provisions have been enacted in Criminal law as a revised version which was approved on December 03rd of 2015 and began its implementation on July 1st of 2017:

Anyone who gains profit from victims ages of 12-18 by means of forced prostitution to have sex with others will receive 2-8 years imprisonment, and anyone whose victims become pregnant will receive 5-10 years imprisonment, anyone who forces children to prostitution will receive 12-20 years imprisonment or a lifetime imprisonment. /Article 12.3/.

Anyone who is forcing prostitution on children who are under age and/are forced into labor, sex, sexual abuse, enslavement, organ trafficking, abuse for forced labour, or transportation of victims, transfer of victims, or who receives these victims will receive 5-12 years imprisonment./article 13.1/.

Anyone who advertises pornography to children, by means of books, videos, pictures, forces children to watch pornography; forces them to do anything related to pornography, offers sex to children, will pay a penalty from 4500 units – 5400 units and/or in addition to forbidding their traveling to another country for a span of 1 month to 1 year, or imprisonment for 1 month to 1 year. /Article 16.8/.

Anyone who sells, advertises, or archives pornography videos, books, or photos in which children are involved will pay a penalty of 5400 units to 27000 units, and/or in addition to 1-5 years of forbiddance to travel to another country, or imprisonment of 1-5 years.

Anyone who uses the internet for the purpose of the above mentioned crimes or against children will pay a penalty of 10000 units to 40000 units and/or 2 -8 years of imprisonment. /Article 16.9/.

Anyone who forces child labour which is dangerous for the health, body, or mental health will pay a penalty of 450 units to 5400 units, and/or be forbidden from traveling to another country for 1 month to 1 year, or face imprisonment of 1 month to 1 year. /Article 16.10/.

84.Protection of children from Internet and media environment in order to receive wrong information was added to the part “Child protection in news media, internet environment” Article 8 of the Protect Children rights Law of Mongolia.

85.Currently, there is no data in the General Police department data base about the victims of children forced into sex labour in an internet environment.

86.The following work was done in 2016 to protect children in an internet environment, and to prevent forced sex labour:

A working group was started to work by order of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science on a “Cyber discrimination far away” national program to prevent and protect citizens from being exposed to an Internet environment that may promote mental disorders, burdens, crimes, and bad habits.

A Communication and Information Technology Authority discussion was held, named “Child protection in Cyber environment” on the 10th of October, 2016, and the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science held a discussion named “State policy to protect children in media and cyber environment” on the 24th of November, 2016.

An Internet crime division of the General Police Department of Mongolia held 415 training sessions for 2200 Secondary high school students, 98 TVET’s intuitions, and 35132 university students, named “Child protection in Internet environment” to protect High school students from internet environment crimes.

The General Police Department and Communication Regularity Commission collaborated upon and activated a www.cybersafety,mn website in order to give advice to parents, guardians, and teachers what is the definition of internet crimes, and the potential dangers of abuse regarding under-age children.

The Police department gave 120 interviews in media, 92 times on FM radios and 84 times on 32 television channels, on the subject of and in order to protect underage children from sexual abuse and human trafficking.

14.Please indicate the measures the State party has taken to ensure that violations of the provisions of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict regarding the recruitment and involvement of children in hostilities are explicitly criminalized in the State party’s legislation. Please also indicate what measures the State party has taken to ensure that military codes, manuals and other military directives are in accordance with the Optional Protocol.

87.Children and youth will not need to go to the army and do work which is related to the army, according to the Soldier’s duty law of Mongolia, Article 12.2 which states, Only “Mongolian male citizens who are age 18-25 will potentially need to go into the army” which was approved by the Mongolian State Khural on the 1st of November, 2016, and the main strategy is intended to protect children from army-related issues which include war, battle, and fighting/combat.

88.Men who are over 18 years should register in their local soldier’s department according to the “Soldier’s duty law” of Mongolia. Men aged 18-25 years old shall be potentially recruited by the army at some period during these points of time, and anyone who receives a notification paper is then called as an inductee. In order to give notification, one should check their date of birth, and males who have reached 18 years old should be registered in their local soldier’s recruitment office and should have a medical health check.

89.Soldier’s recruitment paper work should be organized twice a year, and should include a notification paper for men who have successfully passed their medical health check.

90.The time period for soldier’s duties is the length of one year.

91.The ones able to temporary dismissed until the next year from military recruitment according to the “Military law” of Mongolia, article 16, section 2, provision 3 of which states “Men who have 2 or more under school age kids”, and article 16, section 2, provision 4 which states “Men who have pregnant wife and have under school age kid, as well as article 16, section 2, provision 4 which states “Men who have blood related siblings who doesn’t have legally guardianship, or siblings with 1st, 2nd grade of disabilities”. Those adjustments are stated in the Children rights convention, article 9 to provide meridian interest of children.

92.While protocol was approved military age was 18, which not amended until now.

Part 2Committee request to provide information on following issues

15. (а)Newly adopted law or regulations

93.Following laws adopted such as Revised Criminal Code, Law on Violation, Law on Child Rights, Law on Child Protection, Law on to Combat Domestic Violence, Law on Safety of the Victims.

94.Out of 15 legal documents 8 documents adopted and implemented such as National program to ensure Law on Child Rights, Law on Child Protection, rule and procedure, service standard.

Adopted documents:

1. Rule on joint team operation, A/328 decision of Minister of Labour and Social Protection in 2016

2. Ethic rule of social worker, A/329 decision of Minister of Labour and Social Protection in 2016

3. Rule on certifying the entity for providing child care service, A/330 decision of Minister of Labour and Social Protection in 2016

4. Compose Child rights database, operational guidance, A/331 decision of Minister of Labour and Social Protection in 2016

5. Rule on providing state investigator right for child rights, A/79 decision of Minister of Population Development and Social Protection in 2016

6. Training program on preparing state investigator right for child rights, A/80 decision of Minister of Population Development and Social Protection in 2016

7. Operational guidance of state investigator right for child rights, A/80 decision of Minister of Population Development and Social Protection in 2016

8. Rule on recruitment of ambassador of child, Decision of Head of the Family, Child and Youth Development center in 2016

95.Adopted work plan to ensure implementation of Law to combat Domestic Violence. Processing to adopt 13 new rule in February of 2017 within the work plan.

15. (b)Newly organized institution /Direction, operation, renewal of the institutions/ (MoJIA, MoECSS, MoH, MoLSP, MoMHI, FCYDC)

Within the Minister of Labour and Social Protection managing issues:

1. Resolution number 4 of Government of Mongolia on 24 of July 2016, National center of children changed to the Family, Child, Youth Development center. Main objective of this center is directed to ensure sustainable development of the family, improve living standards, provide child right, development, protection service on professional level for promote social interference, youth development and implementation of policy.

2. Resolution number 55 of Government of Mongolia on 24 of August 2016, Child helpline center /108/ changed to capacity of 24 hours working helpline with a 22 officer independent center which is newly organized as a subside with a the Family, Child, Youth Development center. Center started its operation from 1st of January 2017.

3. Working group of coordinating committee for prevention of the crime is established with 5 members.

96.Non-official coordination committee members for prevention of the crime established in 2016 which is led by Minister of Justice and Internal Affairs. Alongside this committee, Sub-committee of “Combat, Prevent, provide management for Human trafficking”, Sub-committee of “Combat, Prevent, provide management, ensure implementation for crime against children” is working.

15. (c)Recently adopted Policy, Program, Work plan and their framework and budget (MoJIA, MoECSS, MoH, MoLSP, MoMHI, FCYDC)

97.On National level following issues addressed and have been implementing in policy document and projects. Such as:

State policy for population development /Resolution number 261 of Government of Mongolia in 2016/.

State policy for Health /Government of Mongolia in 18th of January 2017/.

Action plan of Government of Mongolia in 2016-2020 /Resolution number 45 of State Great Khural in 2016/.

National program on Prevention and monitoring of Infectious disease, Government of Mongolia in 11th of January, 2017.

Law on Child Rights, Training, advertisement, work plan on ensuring implementation of Law on Child Protection, Work plan of entity who work with parents, children and public for against child abuse. /Decision number A/194 of State Secretary of Ministry of Labour and Social Protection in 28th of October, 2016/.

15. (d)Recently ratified international human right conventions /MoJIA/

98.Following conventions and Protocol ratified:

International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance ratified in 9th of October, 2014.

Protocol on Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment ratified in 11th of December, 2014.

Protocol on Rule of receiving additional information on Child rights convention ratified in 17th of April, 2015.

Part 3Numerical and other data

16.Please provide consolidated information for the past three years on the budget lines regarding children and social sectors by indicating the percentage of each budget line in terms of the total national budget and the gross national product. Please also provide information on the geographic allocation of those resources.

99.State fund limit which allotted to Social protection sector, was calculated in the frame of State percentages, and were 10.6% in 2016, 9.6% in 2016, 15.8% in 2017.

100.4.8% in 2015, 3% in 2016, 2.5% in 2017 was allocated to Child development, and protection fund compare to State fund and allocation fund.

101.45.5% in 2015, 45% in 2016, 16.2% in 2017 was allocated to Child development, and protection fund compare to Social protection sector allocation fund.

102.Remark: Child organization staff salary and maintenance cost was included.

17.Please provide, if available, updated statistical data disaggregated by age, sex, ethnic origin, national origin, geographic location and socioeconomic status, as relevant, for the past three years, on:

(a)The number of professionally qualified social workers working with children (per 10,000 children), disaggregated by the geographic location where they are posted;

103.731 social workers in school, 152 social workers in sum, bag, khoroo, 201 welfare social workers, 348 health social workers, and 10 police officers are working out of 2033 social workers which working in Mongolia. In this regard, 1 social worker handling 502 children, although this numbers may change depends on local and rural situation.

104.For example, the rule of social workers working rule as follows:

Per social worker 10000 people, and khoroo with more than 10000 people will have 2 social workers.

Rural area school has 1 social worker, and a student numbers /150-1500/ per social worker is depends on numbers of the kids in school.

Number of social workers, by province and city


Province name

Total number of children

Number of social worker

Number of children per social worker

Number of school social worker

Village, district social worker

Welfare social worker

Health social worker

Police social worker



34 182








Bayan- Ulgii

40 800









30 590









19 415






510. 9


Gobi Altai

20 283








Gobi Sumber

6 000








Darkhan Uul

34 250









27 412









23 198






1 200



16 104









26 202






502. 5/150-1306/



32 390









41 837








15 560









20 495









37 493









35 145









30 324









32 660









46 830









25 730








Capital city

42 4411





107 Shelter home- 3



1 021 311







(b)Please provide information about the number of people treated cruel and complaints from the children who is detained and the children conducted inhuman treatment or punishment./General Court committee, Ministry of Justice and Internal affairs/;

105.There has no registered a complaint as for underage children were cruelly detained, ill-treated and punished.

(c)Please provide information about the children obesity, excess body weight and stunted growth, and micronutrient deficiency./Ministry of Health/;

106.In 2013, the National Statistical Office conducted “Sample of the social indicators research”, as a result, children aged up to 5 years in Mongolia, 10.8 percent of children has a growth latency, 1.6 percent were underweight and 1.0 percent were thin.

107.In recent years, our country’s alimentation has become a problem among the population. 16.7 percent of children aged up to 5 years has a excess weight issue and 12.5 percent of teenagers has a overweight or obese.

108.If more than 20% of deficiency of any secondary micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), distribution of the population according to WHO guidelines, it is viewed as a public health problem. Among our children and women A and D vitamin, iron, zinc, selenium and iodine deficiency prevalence is observed quite commonly and shows no sign of decreasing. 32.3 percent of children under age five lacked vitamin A, 21.8 percent lacked vitamin D, 21.4% percent has an iron deficiency and, 28.5 percent has an anaemia of the blood.

(d)HIV/AIDS prevalence/ mother to infant infection among teenagers are sexually transmitted diseases/./Ministry of Health/;

109.Government of Mongolia maintaining the low level spread of infection among the general population as a result of the national response to HIV and AIDS(<0.1%), and achieved full implementation of the Millennium Development Goals.

110.Government of Mongolia successfully fulfilling its commitment to high-level summit, the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS issues in 2011 such as transmission of HIV from infected mothers, the elimination of blood borne infections.

111.National Health Statistics 2015 data accounted for sexually transmitted infections 28.1% of the total registered infectious diseases, considering infected aged 0-4 years age category of sexually transmitted 0.5 percent and 0.3 percent for 5-14 years of age, 43.4 percent of young people aged 15-24.

(e)Access to the availability of antiretroviral therapy drugs/Ministry of Health/;

112.Mongolia has successfully implemented the new measures such as antiretroviral treatment and prevention recommended by WHO, Government of Mongolia has been financing treatment costs of all infected people from state budget since 2014. 85 percent of people infected with HIV have been involved in anti-viral therapy.

(f)Prevalence of mental health and mental illness among children /Ministry of Health/;

113.“Mongolian National Center for Mental Health” epidemiological study conducted in 1991-2014 among the population of Ulaanbaatar to attempt suicide and suicide 443 children of the surveyed people aged 10-19 was 10.5%, in 2012, young people aged 15-29 years second cause of mortality is a suicide. The suicide cases for people aged 10-19 years old: 45 people from 1991 to 1995, 125 people in 1996 to 2000, 127 people in 2001 to 2005, 92 people in 2006 to 2010, 53 people in 2011 to 2014 respectively registered. Men have committed suicide, 4.2 times more than women.

114.Last 5 years, National Center for mental health illnesses treated for Child and teenager clinic gave hospital admission 10 to 18 year-old children’s was 36 in 2011, rising up from 135 in 2015.

115.“Global School-based Health” 2013 Year of the survey shows that last year 1 of a 4 students thinking about suicide and 1 of a 7 students planned to commit suicide and 1 of a 10 students were attempted suicide 1 or more. Many students who participated in the survey often faces emotional disappointment and 1 of 3 students have participated in class that talk about how to manage emotional encounter anger and problems.

(g)Children’s distribution of consumption dependence of alcohol, tobacco and other substances /MoH, GAoFCY, GPD/;

116.In 2011, Survey conducted to determine the knowledge of harm of drug and the drug use among teenagers, 12.1 percent of the youth surveyed had surroundings of heroin, drug users and 3.3 percent of the youth surveyed is been using drugs. Average teenagers start using drug from age of 14 years old. Major cause of teenager drug and substance abuse is related to the “relieving anger” and “simulation” to others.

117.Police have checked 158 entities that sell and serve approximately 48409 alcoholic beverages with duplicated number and imposed fine for violations in their fight against alcoholism.

118.According to Crime and Conflict database in 2016, 361 students detained for alcohol and 53 were high school teenagers, police detained 279 people under 18 years of age.

119.In our country, regular drug users, drug addicts layer, illegal supply and demand and the increased demand for type of drug and mainly children and teen has been involved in this type crime shows that in statistics of the past few years.

1.2 Case, 2 juvenile crime, 2 under age person in 2013

2.2 case 3 juvenile crime, 2 under age person in 2014

3.8 cases, 13 juvenile crime, 10 under age person in 2015

4.5 cases, 9 juvenile crime, 6 under age in 2016

120.According to the study, in 2013 and 2014 tobacco, drugs mostly used by a high school tuition, leading schools students, however, in 2015, 2016shows that students connected to the crime regardless of their social class.

121.Recently, Local police departments registered the children who caught the attention and likely to commit crimes and during actions such as “Risky Children”, “gas” and “healthy baby” conducted research for 24 child who might use household gas for type of drug and investigating 29 child who get caught for using household gas for type of drug.

(h)Teenagers pregnancy; /MoH/;

122.Teen birth rate for girls have been stable over the past 15 years, an average of 50 out of 1000 girls give birth to baby but teen girls gave birth to the child is at high risk. Social Indicator Survey (2014), show that teenage girls 40.4 birth rate (per 1,000 women aged 15-19).

(i)Improved water sources and bathroom supplies in schools and housing conditions; /MoEC, MoCUD /;

123.We are working to develop recommendations for the norms and requirements for “Kindergarten, schools, dormitories, water, sanitation and health” was adopted by Ministry of Construction and Urban Development on 29th of June, 2015.

124.2014-2016 year, Built and commissioned new sanitation and hygiene facilities for 40 schools in 12 provincial by funding from Mobicom, World Vision and local development fund and spent 3.3 billion, in Khuvsgul province we renovated 38 Kindergartens and 38 schools sanitation facilities, specifically to renovate sanitation facilities for girls provinces schools financed by the United Nations Children’s Fund, has spent 2.1 billion and 5.4 billion total.

(j)Please provide quantitative information about how many child have been involved and victim of the sexual exploitation, abuse in electronic and non-electronic environment. /General Police Department/.

125.In 2016, the police have investigated and discovered 4 crime with 5 victim and 7 suspect to organize others to engage in prostitution, according to exploit people for prostitutions under Article 124 of the Criminal Code.

126.In 2015 16 underage victims and 16 underage victims in 2016 have been registered related to the organizing others for prostitution, forced prostitution, involving people in sexual crime.

18.Please provide quantitative information about children living separately from the family during the last 3 years, classified as origin, age, sex, socio-economic background of environment, race, ethnicity and geographic location./GAoFCYD/:

(a)The number of people living in fosterling;

127.In Mongolia, 36 child welfare and care centers operating,31 centers in Ulaanbaatar, 2 centers in Darkhan-Uul province, 1 center in Dornod province and 2 centers in Orkhon province.

128.3 of these centers funded by state budget and other 33 centers operating on the financing of international and non-governmental organizations and civil sources, 1,060 children are raised in total. There of 163 children are age between 0-5 years old, 342 children are age between 6-11 years old, 459 children are age between 12-18 years old and96 children and young people are living in fosterling.

129.Accounting for children family status, 28 percent or 297 children are full orphan, 49 percent or 519 children are semi orphan, 27 percent or 281 is children with parents. There is 800 children who have a family and semi orphan which is 75, 4 percent of the total children.

(b)The number of children enrolled “Asralt” family services.

130.The following cases in Article 13 of the Law on Social Welfare 13.2 caring /13.2.1 full benefits to care for the child are being protected from risk situations and adoption of orphans, according allow, taking into account the provision / support; and referred to in Article 25.5 of the Family due to psychological and physical violence child protection in order to ensure the children’s safety is taken care of and their families in accordance with Article 74 of the family house children in need of protection receive their physical Oh pursuant to Article 13 providing care benefits if you /13.2.2 matches alternative child care services / covered, and in 2015 to 611 in 2016, 814 children were covered by Asralt family services.

19.Please provide quantitative information about children with disabilities during the last three years, classified as an age, sex, type of disability, race, ethnicity, geographic location. Following:

(a)Children living with his/her family;

131.According to the 2015 data of the National Statistical Committee, there is a 10407 children with disabilities in Mongolia.


132.71 children with disabilities are living in child fostering and care center.

(c)Early childhood development centers such as kindergarten;

133.Day care service for children involved 297 children with disabilities. There is a 190 children living two kindergarten, which is for children with severe disabilities.

(d)School involvement;

134.The number of disabled students enrolled in schools has dropped 2710 children which is 1,3 percent compared to 2014.

(e)School involvement in middle school;

135.Number of students with disabilities who are accessing basic and secondary education reduced 1.8 time equivalent to 2720 students compared to 2014.

(f)Number of students accessing special schools;

136.Number of students accessing special education is on increase compared to 2014.

(g)School drop-outs;

137.Statistics show that school drop-out reason was reduced by 5 reasons among 6-14 years old children and number of school drop-out was decreased by 649 children.

(h)Abandoned by family.

138.There are 71 children with disabilities who are abandoned by their family are living in the orphanages.

Number of children with disabilities, by type 2015

Classification of disability





Children with disabilities aged 0-17 year old

9 104

10 407


National Statistic Office

Visual impaired


1 263

National Statistic Office

Speech impairment



National Statistic Office

Hearing impairment



National Statistic Office

Physical impairment


2 209

National Statistic Office

Mental illness


1 834

National Statistic Office

Multiple impairment


1 025

National Statistic Office

Other disabilities


2 449

National Statistic Office

20.Please provide the Committee with an update of any data in the report that may have been outdated by more recent data collected or other new developments.

139.In 2017, there are 15 new school buildings, 20 new kindergartens, 4 new dormitories were completed and on operation. As 2016, 10.4 billion tugriks were allocated to purchase new equipment and tools in educational sector from state budget. Some budget equivalent to 6.8 billion tugriks was allocated to conduct maintenance of educational sector from various sources including “Grass root program of Japan”, 904 million tugriks from Mongolian side, 383.2 million tugriks from World Vision Mongolia.

21.In addition, the State party may list areas affecting children that it considers to be of priority with regard to the implementation of the Convention.

140.Need to implement effective measures directed to the violation of child rights and core reason behind abuse, such as:

Economic crisis.

Poverty, unemployment, divorce, unequal, bribe and corruption.

141.There is enough work done to reform law on child and family and service rule and standards have been created. Regarding to this, strengthening capacity of law, rule implementing child sector and other sectors.

Budget is not enough for its need.

Need to conduct research on child, domestic violence and labour.

There is a serious violation of child, mother, and Mongolian people right to live safe and healthy environment because of air pollution.