UNITED NATIONS

CRC

Convention on the Rights of the Child

Distr.GENERAL

CRC/C/SLV/3-423 July 2009

ENGLISHOriginal: SPANISH

COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION

Third and fourth periodic reports by States parties due in 2007

EL SALVADOR* **

[21 February 2008]

CONTENTS

Paragraphs Page

I.Introduction1-65

II.General information 7-375

A.Definition of child75

B.General information on the child population 8-135

C.State of the National Policy for the Full Development of Children and Adolescents (PNDINA)14-207

D.State of the National Action Plan (2001-2010)218

E.Allocations and trends of budgets for implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child22-259

F.International cooperation2612

G.Information on programmes for caring for children in vulnerable groups 27-3213

H.Role of the independent national human rights institutions with competence for child rights3316

I.Publicizing the Convention34-3716

III.General principles3817

IV.Civil rights and participation rights39-4317

A.Freedom of expression; freedom of assembly and association39-4317

V.Family and other types of protection44-9118

A.Parental counselling and guidance and parental responsibilities44-4918

B.Children temporarily separated from their parents by non-criminal court rulings50-5520

C.Alimony payments5622

D.Adoption57-5822

E.Protection and assistance of children59-6823

F.Protection against domestic violence69-9127

VI.Basic health and well-being92-21532

A.Survival and development; nutrition92-12432

B.Disabled children125-16342

C.Health and health services164-17951

D.Social security180-18454

E.HIV/AIDS185-21556

Paragraphs Page

VII.Education, leisure and cultural activities216-27861

A.Education, training and careers guidance216-23261

B.Activities to improve the coverage and quality of education233-27768

C.Relaxation, leisure and cultural and artistic activities27878

VIII.Special protection measures279-38679

A.Returning children279-28879

B.Child victims of trafficking and sexual exploitation289-31082

C.Refugee children31189

D.Children in conflict with justice312-34289

E.Children subject to exploitation and the worst forms of child labour343-35698

F.Children belonging to minorities or indigenous groups357-365106

G.Drug abuse 367-374108

H.Street children375-376109

I.Prevention of violence against minors377-380110

J.Missing children381-386110

ANNEXES

I.Child population of El Salvador 113

II.Child Information System (SIPI): protection indicators (ISNA)119

III.Presence of ISNA at national level122

IV.Treatment of sex crimes123

V.Types of crimes of paternal irresponsibility punishable by custodial sentences(Criminal Code) 128

VI.Statistical data of the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic on crimesconcerning family relationships 130

VII.Child victims of sexual assault and abuse treated by ISDEMU 131

VIII.Beneficiaries of individual and group support activities for victims of domesticviolence 132

IX.Undernourishment and anaemia 133

X.Revision “Plus 5” of the implementation of commitments under the Action Plan inthe document "A World Fit for Children" 134

XI.Nutritional vulnerability map 159

XII.Breast-feeding practice in El Salvador 160

Page

XIII.Salvadoran Institute for Rehabilitation of Invalids161

XIV.MINED public expenditure by level of education, budget line 2001-2005 163

XV.Alternative classes 165

XVI.Pregnancies and marriages of minors 166

XVII.Literacy of population aged 6 and over by gender and age group 167

XVIII.School attendance of population aged 4 and over by gender and age group 173

XIX.Deported minors (2004-2005) 180

XX.Care of victims of trafficking 181

XXI.Offences allegedly committed by persons under 18 183

XXII.Continuous Development Programme for Labour Inspectors 188

XXIII.Prevention programmes 190

I. Introduction

El Salvador, in strict compliance with the commitments made when ratifying the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990, is submitting its third and fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, as requested by the Committee in its concluding observations on the second report.

The present report covers the period 2004–2007, since the Committee had the opportunity to examine the situation of compliance with the Convention up to 2003 when it examined the second periodic report on El Salvador. It also includes information and replies from El Salvador to the Committee’s latest observations on the second periodic report.

The report was prepared following the Committee’s guidelines for the preparation of periodic reports, taking account of the Committee’s concluding observations on the second periodic report.

The State institutions with competence for child rights took part in the drafting of the report, and the main non-governmental organizations working in this area were consulted, though no information was received in writing.

Except where otherwise indicated, the institutional mandates and the legal framework applicable to the protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms of children and adolescents described in the second periodic report, were not substantially altered during the period 2004‑2007. Accordingly, please see El Salvador’s second periodic report for general information on the legislation, bodies and procedures for protecting and promoting child rights. (CRC/C/65/Add.25 of 22 October 2003).

The Government of El Salvador gives an undertaking to the Committee on the Rights of the Child to take the measures necessary to comply with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and to endeavour to submit future periodic reports on time.

II. General information

A. Definition of child

The legislative provisions in force in El Salvador regarding the definition of “child”, already described in the second periodic report, were not changed substantially during the reporting period.

B. General information on the child population

According to projections by the General Directorate for Statistics and Censuses of the Ministry of Economy (DIGESTYC), based on the Multi-Purpose Household Survey (EHPM), around 2006 the percentage of the country’s population aged under 18 was calculated at 43.83 per cent, 51.13 per cent of whom being boys and 48.87 per cent girls.

Figures 1, 2 and 3 contain data on the child population by gender, age group and urban or rural origin, calculated for 2006.

Figure 1

Total child population by gender and age group, 2006

National total

Age group

Total

Gender

Male

Female

Total

2,832,221

1,448,024

1,384,197

0 – 4

666,508

341,995

324,513

5 – 9

851,671

431,421

420,250

10 – 14

850,920

444,476

406,444

15 – 17

463,122

230,132

232,990

Source: Ministry of the Economy, DIGESTYC, EHPM. 2006

Figure 2

Total child population by gender and age group, 2006

Total national urban population

Age group

Total

Gender

Male

Female

Total

1,556,719

802,490

754,229

0 – 4

363,773

192,003

171,770

5 – 9

464,349

236,122

228,227

10 – 14

467,817

243,182

224,635

15 – 17

260,780

131,183

129,597

Source: Ministry of the Economy, DIGESTYC, EHPM. 2006

Figure 3

Total child population by gender and age group, 2006

Total rural population of the country

Age group

Total

Gender

Male

Female

Total

1,275,502

645,534

629,968

0 – 4

302,735

149,992

152,743

5 – 9

387,322

195,299

192,023

10 – 14

383,103

201,294

181,809

15 – 17

202,342

98,949

103,393

Source: Ministry of the Economy, DIGESTYC, EHPM, 2006.

Annex I contains data on the child population by gender, age group and urban or rural origin, for the period 2004–2005.

The Ministry of the Economy is processing the data from the 2007 National Population and Housing Census. The final results will be ready in the first quarter of 2008 and the section on general population information of the basic country document will be updated accordingly then.

The Salvadoran Institute for Full Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA) has developed an Child Information System (SIPI). The system incorporates indicators in the areas of prevention with initial education, protection with care for children and adolescents whose rights have been violated, and re-education for adolescents in conflict with the current Juvenile Criminal Justice Act.

The indicators are listed in Annex II.

C. State of the National Policy for the Full Development of Children and Adolescents

In 2004 activities began for improving compliance with and implementation of the National Policy for the Full Development of Children and Adolescents (PNDINA). ISNA’s institutional priority is basically to implement the PNDINA in a context of local development and joint social responsibility. In line with this priority, the Department of Policy Promotion and Adjustment was set up and was allocated human and financial resources to work in the following four areas:

Political and institutional: A training programme was promoted for human resources in public and private bodies on the policy and focus of child and adolescent rights;

Local management: The policy was promoted at local level in the municipalities using participative community methods for diagnosing the situation of child rights at local level;

Public participation: Situational diagnoses were made on child rights, work plans and the training of committees to monitor the plans;

Mass media: Promotion and awareness campaigns for safeguarding child and adolescent rights were carried out.

In 2005 work continued in the same areas of action scenarios, coverage and objectives were extended in municipalities, and a new strategy of training volunteer promotion agents was implemented for promoting child rights. In 2006 there was a need to bring the services closer to the community to improve the results in terms of the strengthening of local networks in the field of child rights and national policy for full development of children.

In particular, the achievements include the agreements signed between ISNA and local governments for the promotion and protection of child rights. In 2005 agreements were signed with 21 municipalities, or 15.78% of all local authorities in the central and paracentral areas of the country. In 2006, with the change of strategy and the setting-up of nine ISNA community offices, the targets increased to 76 local governments, equivalent to 57.14% of all 133 municipalities. Implementation of the plan began in 2004 with six diagnoses of the situation of child rights, with their respective working plans and the training of local committees. In 2006 there was a total of 25 local situation diagnoses.

In 2004 ISNA provided 52 training courses under the programme for training human resources on child rights and policy. At least 831 staff of ISNA and its other cooperating institutions were informed and made aware of child rights and freedoms. Over the period 2005‑2006, 1284 more members and strategic allies were trained, bringing the total to 2115 persons over the three-year reporting period. In addition, 22 local networks were incorporated and upgraded. In 2005 these totalled six networks in the east of the country and five in the west. At the end of the period, 33 ISNA local networks for promoting and protecting child rights were operational.

ISNA has drafted the children’s version of the PNDINA, with the aim of informing the child population about child rights, 4000 copies of which have been circulated to children and adolescents throughout the country.

One of the obstacles to extending the coverage of the plan was that to be participative it was subject to adolescents’ time availability, reconciling the agendas of the participants and a lack of political will on the part of some local authorities. It therefore changed its strategy. The alliances were continued, and efforts focused on the working processes and immersion in the municipalities by strengthening local networks and extending coverage of services through a process of decentralizing ISNA’s institutional services.

With the promulgation of the National Policy for the Full Development of Children and Adolescents, ISNA has put in place comprehensive protection mechanisms in 43% of the country’s 111 municipalities, with prevention programmes to promote rights and prevent violence, impacting on diagnoses and local development plans relating to children. Prevention plans were also fostered with local authorities, such as the Life Skills Preparation Plan, for adolescents aged 12 to 17 in the east of the country; management for the adoption by town halls of operational units for children and adolescents; approval of municipal orders protecting against the worst forms of child labour; and promoting mental health committees.

D. State of the National Action Plan (2001-2010)

ISNA has taken various measures in compliance with the objectives of the National Action Plan for Children 2001-2010, notably:

Regarding the aim of extending and improving access to comprehensive early-childhood education, ISNA administers the Child Welfare Centres (CBI), Comprehensive Development Centres (CDI), and Initial Care Homes (HAI), which exist in 48.5% of the country’s 127 municipalities. One of the main areas of progress is the comprehensive approach to the concept of child care, with the participation of the family and local players in order to promote and reinforce good parenting practice in families. The activities aim to change bad practices perpetuated by cultural patterns that adversely influence child development. The strategy is based on family schools or family development workshops, which have been developed using various integration methods, such as child development and life skills materials. This enables children to receive better care both at initial care centres and within their families;

Another significant step forward is the implementation of the integrated curriculum guides, that have been prepared on the themes of health, education and protection, which include technical contributions from the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare (MSPAS), the Ministry of Education (MINED) and NGOs working for child rights. These guides, approved by the Ministry of Education, are used by personnel outside the formal teaching profession (educators, health personnel and parents) to gain a qualification in child care;

Regarding the objective to reduce gender inequality in education, ISNA has achieved fair and egalitarian participation in initial education programmes, with 50.7% boys and 49.3% girls;

Regarding the objective of developing protection for children against ill treatment, exploitation and violence, ISNA statistics report 351 complaints of ill-treatment in 2004; 423 in 2005 and 463 in 2006. In relation to all children whose rights were violated, this percentage distribution accounted for 10.5% of all cases in 2004, 8.6% in 2005 and 9% in 2006. Similarly, complaints of economic exploitation fell from 1.5% in 2004 to 1.1% in 2005 and 1% in 2006, with 51 cases in 2004, 64 cases in 2005 and 74 cases in 2006;

Regarding the reduction in the rates of involvement of children and adolescents in the worst forms of child labour, up to September 2007, 46,657 children and adolescents had been removed from or prevented from taking part in such activities.

E. Allocations and trends of budgets for implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child

From 2004 to 2006 there was a sustained increase in State budget allocated to safeguarding and promoting child rights, as the following figure shows.

Figure 4

Expenditure on child rights by source of funding

At the top of the table there are some zero entries, relating to the Youth Secretariat and the social programmes for preventing violence and juvenile delinquency, since that institution and those programmes did not exist at the time.

Branch/Institution

2004

2005

2006

Prime Minister’s Office

26,236.4

31,627.8

32,149.4

Youth Secretariat

General fund

0.0

2,569.5

4,399.1

Social prevention of violence and juvenile delinquency

General fund

0.0

600.7

494.5

Social prevention of violence and juvenile delinquency (donation)

Donation

429.2

483.3

1,430.7

Grants service

General fund

360.1

434.5

586.4

Family care

General fund

2,040.7

2,720.0

2,438.1

Alimony

General fund

989.2

1,255.6

1,212.4

INDES

General fund

8,940.7

10,287.4

9,316.1

ISNA

General fund

11,856.4

11,659.2

11,817.8

ISDEMU

General fund

1,425.9

1,423.4

260.0

National Council for Comprehensive Care of the Disabled

General fund

194.3

194.3

194.3

Supreme Court of Justice (CSJ)

10,130.8

10,122.7

10,894.4

Strengthening of the CSJ’s Juvenile Justice Support Office

External fund

39.2

31.1

16.2

Juvenile courts

General fund

4,025.2

4,025.2

4,318.7

Family courts

General fund

6,066.4

6,066.4

6,559.5

Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic

740.9

775.6

905.6

Juvenile offenders

General fund

740.9

775.6

905.6

Office of the Attorney-General of the Republic

3,942.0

3,709.7

4,171.5

Assistance to families and minors

General fund

3,942.0

3,709.7

4,171.5

Ministry of Governance

329.0

355.6

372.0

Social prevention of drug use

General fund

329.0

355.6

372.0

Ministry of Public Security

297.7

314.6

298.1

National Anti-Drug Commission

General fund

5.0

40.9

31.7

Donation by private enterprise

11.1

2.2

1.8

Donation by international organizations

5.7

General Directorate of Public Security

General fund

231.5

231.5

238.2

General Directorate of Prisons

General fund

16.6

11.2

9.2

General Directorate of Migration and Aliens

General fund

0.4

1.4

12.2

National Civil Police

Donation by international organizations

27.4

27.4

5.0

Ministry of Education

371,966.8

380,714.5

419,282.2

Nursery education

General fund

35,665.9

36,689.7

40,897.3

Elementary education

General fund

285,883.5

293,332.7

313,953.9

High-school education

General fund

29,355.1

30,407.5

33,665.9

Subsidies to:

Roberto Callejas Montalvo Cerebral Palsy Home

General fund

38.9

38.9

38.9

Children’s Museum Association

General fund

48.6

48.6

48.6

National Children’s Association

General fund

1.0

1.0

1.0

El Salvador Scouts’ Association

General fund

97.6

77.7

77.7

El Salvador Girl Guides’ Assocation

General fund

9.7

9.7

9.7

Special Education Foundation

General fund

48.6

48.6

128.6

FUNDASALVA

General fund

77.7

77.7

77.7

National Special Olympics Committee

General fund

19.4

19.4

19.4

Salesian Educational Association of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians of the city of Chalchuapa.Department of Santa Ana

General fund

75.0

4.7

4.7

Investment programmes for competitiveness, equity and innovation in education

General fund

9,370.8

Improving access, quality and equity in education

General fund

9,201.8

9,015.4

9,190.5

CONCULTURA

General fund

11,444.0

10,942.8

11,797.4

Ministry of Health

78,115.1

93,604.5

104,043.6

National Health System 1/

General fund

51,513.4

59,284.1

56,569.4

Bloom Hospital

General fund

14,237.9

13,578.5

14,944.2

Own resources

748.9

648.6

1,623.6

Salvadoran Institute for the Rehabilitation of Invalids

Own resources

319.2

372.0

415.0

General fund

3,765.1

3,978.2

4,178.2

Health Solidarity Fund (operational from August 2005)

General fund

0.0

4,136.1

13,876.2

Salvadoran Social Security Institute

Own resources

6,792.6

11 ,059.8

11 ,714.8

Subsidies to

Ayúdame a Vivir Foundation

General fund

522.9

422.9

422.9

FUNDASALVA

General fund

190.1

114.3

194.3

Albergue Jardín de amor, Zacatecoluca

General fund

5.0

10.0

10.0

Hogares Providencia Foundation

General fund

20.0

40.0

CREA Households Association of El Salvador

General fund

25.0

FUNDA INOCENCIA

General fund

30.0

Ministry of Employment and Social Security

41.4

43.2

43.2

Eradication of Child Labour

General fund

34.7

36.5

36.5

INSAFOR

Own resources

6.7

6.7

6.7

Total

491,800.1

521,268.1

572,160.1

Source: SAFI, ISRI, FOSALUD ISSS, MISPYAS.

1/ The information on hospital care for 2006 has yet to be completed with Ministry of Health data. It was therefore estimated to be the same as for 2005.

As an agency specializing in caring for vulnerable children, ISNA was allocated the following budget for the past three years:

Figure 5

Budget allocated to ISNA (2004-2006)

Year

Budget (US dollars)

2004

12,357,166.36

2005

11,763,675.00

2006

12,701,745.55

Data taken from the ISNA Financial Unit on the basis of executed budgets.

We would point out that the tendency to support budgets earmarked for child care also applies to the strengthening of the courts and specialist offices of the judiciary for minors, as the following table shows:

Figure 6

Judiciary

Supreme court of justice

Department of institutional finance

Dollars

Source of funding

2004

2005

2006

Cumulative total

Strengthening of the CSJ Juvenile Justice Support Office

External fund

$39,231

$31,116

$16,221

$86,568

Juvenile courts (3 chambers and 20 judges)

General fund

$4,025,187*

$4,025,187

$4,348,689

$12,399,063

Family courts (3 chambers and 22 judges)

General fund

$6,066,432*

$6,066,432

$6,559,487

$18,692,351

Total:

$10,130,850

$10,122,735

$10,924,397

$31,177,982

*Estimate

In addition, the Ministry of Public Security has allocated substantial financial resources to the prevention of juvenile delinquency, as shown in the following table.

Figure 7

Ministry of public security

In dollars

Programme and institution

Source of funding

2004

2005

2006

National Anti-Drugs Commission

General fund

4,964.7

40,943.7

31,736.6

Donation from private enterprise

11,057.5

2,203.4

1,777.1

Donation from international organizations

5,669.8

General Directorate for Public Security

General fund

231,505.4

231,505.4

238,165.4

General Directorate for Prisons

General fund

16,644.0

11,234.7

9,154.2

General Directorate for Migration and Aliens

General fund

386.2

1,433.2

12,199.8

National Civil Police

General fund

Donation from international organizations

27,392.7

27,392.7

5,000.0

Total

297,620.3

314,713.2

298,033.1

Source: Financial units of the: National Anti-Drugs Commission, General Directorate for Public Security; General Directorate for Prisons; General Directorate for Migration and Aliens, National Civil Police.

F. International cooperation

Over the reporting period, ISNA formed strategic alliances by signing cooperation agreements with international organizations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO), technical cooperation organization GTZ, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the El Salvador International Plan and Save The Children, for implementing plans and programmes at national level in the field of the promotion and protection of child rights, as provided for in the National Policy for the Full Development of Children and Adolescents (PNDINA). These include: a) implementation of child policy with emphasis on eradicating child labour, covering 19 municipalities nationwide where there is child labour, carried out with funding and technical support from ILO; b) the methodology school for training key players and for establishing local connections in 27 municipalities, with funding and technical support from UNICEF; c) the German GTZ foundation provided technical support for research and the formulation of proposals for municipal development, and funding for local projects; and d) USAID, as part of the project Initial Education from the Family (EDIFAM), supported the promotion and implementation of the policy by funding the design and reproduction of the children’s version, and a number of social mobilization activities. Furthermore, the National Committee against Trafficking in Persons has cooperation relations with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), UNICEF, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), ILO and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), among others, which provide support for the various activities carried out.

G. Information on programmes for caring for children in vulnerable groups

ISNA has the following main responsibilities: a) to promote the full development of children’s personalities, taking account of the fundamental rights and duties, and their subjective needs, involving in that protection the family, the community, the municipalities and the State; b) to promote the participation of the community and society in solving problems facing children and the family; c) to investigate threats to and violations of child rights and any orphaned children; to investigate and assess the situation of such children, their families, and those aiming to offer them protection in their homes, and to take any appropriate measures to protect them where they are found to be threatened, their rights violated or orphaned; d) to devise prevention plans and programmes to protect children in the home environment, and care programmes in State, municipal and NGO centres, in line with their personal circumstances and type; and e) to coordinate and supervise the execution of programmes and to set up a register of children cared for in such centres, establishments or bodies.

In accordance with the responsibilities set out above, ISNA implemented the following programmes during the reporting period:

Figure 8

Programmes implemented by ISNA

Programme

Objectives

Brief description

Protection and specialist care for children and adolescents whose rights have been violated or with special needs, and for their families

To restore violated or denied rights of children and adolescents and their families to overcome the need arising out of the particular issue or living conditions at the time the right was violated and enforceable.

Temporary or permanent protection and comprehensive and specialist care services are provided in Government or private centres for child or adolescent victims of commercial sexual exploitation, trade in persons, illegal trafficking, child labour, sexual abuse, abandonment, ill-treatment, addiction, HIV, special skills and disaster victims; supporting the biological or extended family or family through marriage, by inter-institutional coordination and catering for risk areas, working with civil society on guidance, support and information to help restore rights.

Care for the social integration of street children and adolescents

To provide a life project and return street children to their families, thereby furthering a social and family rehabilitation process.

Children are offered reintegration alternatives and an alternative to the street in a children’s centre where they receive a model of social and educational care designed specifically for young people living on the street.

Alternative measures and internment of young people in conflict with the Juvenile Criminal Justice Act

Family and social reintegration of young people tried for criminal misconduct or offences

It consists of implementing a framework programme under which young people are offered re-education and vocational training to enable them to rejoin society once they have served their sentence.

Prevention of violation of rights by strengthening the family, inter-institutional coordination and citizens’ participation at national and local level

To promote compliance with children’s and adolescents’ rights by supporting municipal governments through setting up, strengthening and consolidating local protection networks, with a risk-prevention and/or social damage focus, under the ISNA Act and PNDINA’s lines of action.

It consists of coordinating with municipal councils, civil society and government organizations the rights of children to implement projects that directly and specifically benefit children in the municipality, by means of local diagnoses and work plans, child welfare centres, full development centres and initial care homes in connection with parent school support centres and mediation centres.

Registration and assessment of ONGs, governmental organizations and private bodies running children’s programmes

To oversee compliance with child rights in authorized institutions registered with ISNA

Monitoring and assessment of working models applied by the various bodies registered with ISNA, supervising the care, treatment and legal circumstances of children and adolescents benefiting under the programmes; recommending measures or penalties where rights are violated

See Annex III for ISNA’s geographical distribution nationwide.

The following tables show the age and gender distribution of children in ISNA’s care.

Figure 9

Total population in ISNA care by gender (2004, 2005 and 2006)

Gender

2004

2005

2006

Children

%

Children

%

Children

%

Females

3,059

50.9%

3,517

52.4%

3,971

51%

Males

2,945

49.1%

3,197

47.6%

3,855

49%

Total

6,004

100%

6,714

100%

7,826

100%

Figure 10

Population in the care of the ISNA protection subsystem by age group, (2004, 2005 and 2006)

Age group

2004

2005

2006

Children

%

Children

%

Children

%

Age 0 to 3

830

13.8%

816

12.2%

975

12%

Age 3 to 6

790

13.2%

771

11.5%

850

11%

Age 6 to 9

789

13.1%

902

13.4%

1,086

14%

Age 9 to 12

959

16.0%

1,076

16.0%

1,250

16%

Age 12 to 15

1,273

21.2%

1,526

22.7%

1,699

22%

Age 15 to 18

1,188

19.8%

1,491

22.2%

1,829

23%

Age 18 and over

175

2.9%

132

2.0%

137

2%

Total

6,004

100%

6,714

100%

7,826

100%

Source: ISNA’s Child Information System.

In 2004 the Salvadoran Government set up the Youth Secretariat as an institution reporting to the President of the Republic’s Office, specializing in promoting programmes for the rights of adolescents in the field of participation, education, the right to healthy relaxation, prevention of violence, and rehabilitation.

The programmes implemented by this agency include:

Izalco Farm School: This is a voluntary rehabilitation hostel caring for ex-gang-member single mothers and their minor and adolescent children; it has been in operation since March 2005;

Juvenile rescue centres: This is a rehabilitation centre caring for more than 80 former gang members;

Buscando un Camino (Seeking a Path): This programme is being run in conjunction with the private organization Fundación Salvador del Mundo (FUSALMO), which cares for 20 young glue-sniffers in the Centenary Park of the city of San Salvador. The beneficiaries are offered psychological rehabilitation, school coaching, games and practice in giving up their habits;

Recorrido Participativo (Participation Course): This is a preventive health programme for young people using information materials for stimulating group discussion. It is being carried out in support of the National AIDS Commission and is allocated $4,176 a year;

Cine Foro (Cinema Forum): These are training activities that stimulate discussion and learning on themes affecting health development of young people. It has a budget of $4,000 a year;

Health Vacations: These are itinerant public activities offering the opportunity of acquiring or improving knowledge of health, and access to health services. This programme has a budget of $5,000 a year;

Parents’ School: These are television programmes produced by Canal 99 of the Francisco Gavidia Private University and the Youth Secretariat. This activity aims to guide and educate parents and family members to help them mould adolescents’ behaviour by setting a good example.This activity has an annual budget of $4,200;

It set up the “Youth Observatory”. The 2005-2015 National Plan covers the installation of a monitoring system that supervises and guarantees the operational implementation of the proposed public policies. The monitoring system is taking shape with the launch of the Youth Observatory that has quantitative and qualitative measuring tools, such as: the national youth survey; the youth development index; the human development report focusing on young people; and the network of experts and researchers. It should be emphasized that the combination of the National Youth Plan, the Inter-institutional System for Youth and the Youth Observatory provide the country with mechanisms for promoting full development of young people and monitoring and assessing the results.

H. Role of the independent national human rights institutions with competence for child rights

Over the reporting period there were no changes to the powers of the Office for the Defence of Human Rights regarding the promotion and protection of child rights that were reported in the second periodic report.

I. Publicizing the Convention

El Salvador has carried out many measures to publicize the content of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as described throughout this report, and the principal measures adopted to implement the Convention, also described herein. For example, in 2006 ISNA carried out 110 social mobilization measures with a rights approach and promoting fundamental rights of children nationwide, in coordination with strategic partners, by means of activities such as fairs, festivals and fora. These activities covered 21,000 children and adolescents in 2005, and 29,841 in 2006. The activities were carried out by ISNA’s Department for the Promotion of the National Policy for the full Development of Children and Adolescents.

ISNA has promoted activities directly involving children and adolescents in activities to promote their rights. It succeeded in increasing direct participation of beneficiaries from 23,000 in 2005 to 36,169 in 2006.

ISNA’s Annual Operational Plan includes dissemination activities in the form of training lectures and workshops at ISNA centres and shelter homes, and to ONGs. Over the period 2004 to 2006 topics included nutritional assessment, diet and nutrition, and the preparation and handling of foods. Work with NGOs covered the topics of inter-institutional cooperation for a community strategy, preparation of cases, full development of children, promotion of child rights, law and the family, alternative discipline, legal tools for protection centres, child development using participative methods, therapy for sexual abuse, and a rights approach to the care of institutionalized children and adolescents. More than 30 NGOs working for child rights took part in these activities.

The above-mentioned activities enabled programmes to be conducted on awareness and training in human rights and child rights, in coordination and in cooperation with various NGOs, but it has not yet proved possible to expand the dissemination activities descried in the previous country report in this area.

III. General principles

The concept and scope of the principle of the child’s best interests have not been changed in Salvadoran law, enshrined in the Family Code (Article 350), which means that it retains the same guarantee structure, along with the principle of equality and non-discrimination, recognized and enacted in the Constitution and the country’s secondary legislation, as notified to the Committee in previous periodic reports.

IV. Civil rights and participation rights

A. Freedom of expression; freedom of assembly and association

ISNA has promoted the training of children and adolescents and their participation in public activities designed to publicize and defend child rights and fundamental freedoms.Some 1,012 young people have been trained as volunteer promotion agents, and children and adolescents have been involved in joint projects carried out with NGOs, such as the Movimiento de Jóvenes Encuentristas de Ilobasco (170 young people); Visión Mundial (5,644 young people); INTERVIDA (600 young people); Plan Internacional El Salvador (6,000 young people); Polígono Industrial Don Bosco (83 young people); Fe y Alegría (150 young people); Círculo Solidario (300 young people); Ayuda en Acción (200 young people); and Sistema de Asesoría y Capacitación para el Desarrollo Local (SACDEL) (300 young people).In this way, 13,871 children and adolescents were involved in ISNA and NGO participative programmes over the period.

In line with Principle 10 of the PNDINA, on the participation of children and adolescents in their own development, ISNA and several NGOs have fostered the setting-up of a number of bodies and have promoted some participative programmes, including the following:

Figure 11

Name of association

Function

Jóvenes Encuentristas Ilobasco

Reduction of violence through recreation and integration into the labour market

Visión Mundial

Promotion of rights and human development (prevention)

Casa Encuentro Juvenil, INTERVIDA

Use of leisure time:recreation, libraries, art and culture, sport, ecology, sexual and reproductive health, life skills, cinema and leadership.

Plan El Salvador

Participation in defence of child rights at community level

Polígono Industrial Don Bosco

Re-establishment of the rights of young people in conflict with criminal law

Centro de educación para todos, Fe y Alegría

Social and educational prevention with a rights approach

Vicaría Divino Salvador training and coaching centre, Archbishopric of San Salvador

Training of social role models for children and adolescents in a situation of social risk.

ISNA volunteer promotion agents

Prevention and reduction of violence towards children and adolescents through the promotion of rights and good parenting practice in families

The aims of the National Youth Secretariat include fostering the involvement of young people in public affairs as a strategy for making citizens aware of their rights and obligations. It has set up eight full development centres nationwide with the aim of providing young people with opportunities for vocational training, remedial courses, access to information, culture, sport, leadership, citizens’ participation, preventive health and volunteer work.

The Youth Secretariat is also implementing the Youth in the Park project, so as to expand the range of options for healthy relaxation and reactivation of areas for recreation and youth cultural expression under the patronage of the municipal governments.It also aims to encourage young people to develop their skills in the various branches of art and sport, motivating them to express them in public.

The Secretariat runs the following other programmes:

Vacation opportunities.This programme is carried out with the FUSALMO private organization, the Ministry of Education, the National Civil Police and the art gallery, with the aim of giving young people opportunities to get involved, during their vacations, in educational, sporting, cultural, work and training activities;

Deportevías.These are street sports programmes to repurpose public spaces for developing sports activities.They are carried out in conjunction with the National Sports Institute (INDES), the National Council of Public Security and the municipalities;

Comprehensive Presidential Football Programme.This programme is being carried in coordination with the private foundation Educando a un Salvadoreño (Educating a Salvadoran – FESA).The objective is to raise the quality of Salvadoran football by training young talents in the sport, offering them education in athletics without neglecting aspects such as academic studies, health, diet and training in values.

Youth camps.These take place with the support of the National Academy of Public Security and the Ministry of National Defence, for training leaders in fields such as motivation, group management and stress management;

Jóvenes Solidarios:This is a union of youth organizations and volunteers interested in supporting major common concerns.

V. Family and other types of protection

A. Parental counselling and guidance and parental responsibilities

ISNA has 203 Child Welfare Centres (CBI) and 15 Full Development Centres (CDI) in 117 of the country’s municipalities, plus 11 shelters and three re-education centres for offenders. ISNA has implemented a permanent Parents’ School programme in the child welfare centres and full development centres. This programme has covered 4,698 families and 8,354 children. In the re-education centres for offenders, up to 50% of families – an average of 244 – of 487 inmates attend these schools.

The multidisciplinary teams of the Family Tribunals have an education unit and run guidance days on child rights and parental responsibilities. The work carried out is listed below.

Figure 12

Group guidance days. (2004-2006)

Activity/year

2004

2005

2006

Educational days for awareness of and guidance on rights and duties of family members and users of Family Tribunals.

Working days

Attendance

Working days

Attendance

Working days

Attendance

Parents’ school

627

6,373

591

5,402

462

5845

Children

210

1,347

119

604

233

3,104

Adolescents

246

1,500

254

1,264

75

600

Families

24

53

223

645

Total

1,083

9,220

988

7,323

993

10,194

Publicizing rights and duties, regulated by the Family Code and the Domestic Violence Act in institutions outside the tribunal.

Working days

Attendance

Working days

Attendance

Working days

Attendance

Elementary schools

374

23,282

219

13,781

290

15,540

High schools

29

1,961

34

2377

23

1638

Institutes

148

5,197

94

4,963

203

7194

University

15

665

5

168

7

169

Military barracks

22

1,170

10

597

22

653

Nurseries

16

839

12

484

7

299

Markets

2

91

2

170

2

265

Religious groups

5

432

2

39

26

814

Community groups

80

2,627

56

1,308

19

717

Health centres

17

586

25

997

14

518

Municipalities

17

455

8

302

8

176

NGOs

28

954

26

624

13

265

Other

73

4037

48

1892

29

898

Total

826

42,296

541

27,702

663

29,146

Source: Education Section, Department of Coordination of Multidisciplinary Teams of the Family Tribunals.

ISNA has 11 centres or shelters caring for children separated from their family environment for various reasons, such as: illegal exit from or entry into the country, ill-treatment, abuse, negligence, living on the street, abandonment, sexual abuse, commercial sexual exploitation, and trafficking in persons. When ISAN takes in a child or adolescent, the following actions are carried out:

Welcome or reception of children by order of a government authority;

Opening of a dossier;

Assessment of physical condition;

Psychosocial approach and guidance;

Temporary hosting in the centre or shelter, depending on age and gender;

Provision of clothing, personal grooming accessories and feeding;

Interview to identify family background, nationality and circumstances;

Arrangements to involve the child in the activities of the centre or shelter.

From the legal standpoint, children are informed of their circumstances, that they are under protection and not deprived of their liberty or in detention, on international arrangements for their repatriation (if they are foreigners), and the average length of stay in the establishment. The Public Prosecutor of the Republic and the National Civil Police are notified in cases of violation of rights with criminal consequences. Children are interviewed, requesting the presence of a representative of the Attorney-General of the Republic. Where appropriate, they are handed over to their parents or guardians, after assessing and determining the proper legal measure in accordance with the ISNA Act, and they are discharged with or without follow-up. Where appropriate, formalities are carried out for repatriation to their country of origin.

The children under ISNA’s responsibility are 51% boys and 49% girls. Eighty per cent are from urban areas and 20 per cent are from rural areas.

Figure 13

Age ranges of children in ISNA care

0 < 3

3 < 6

6 < 9

9 < 12

12 < 15

15 < 18

18 and over

Total

11.3%

8.9%

12.1%

16.1%

25.2%

25.7%

0.6%

100%

Source: ISNA

The number of children temporarily separated from their parents and under ISNA’s institutional care is as follows:

Figure 14

Measure applied

Admissions

Re-admissions

Total

No. of cases

%

No. of cases

%

No. of cases

%

Placed in institution

1,591

36.4%

429

70%

2,020

41%

Placed in institution for 30 days

244

5.6%

59

10%

303

6%

Total

4,369

100%

610

100%

4,979

100%

The remaining children making up 100 per cent were returned to their families or communities.

Source: ISNA

B. Children temporarily separated from their parents by non-criminal court rulings

ISNA offers protection for children temporarily separated from their parents by non-criminal court rulings, and for breaches of criminal law, broken down as follows:

Figure 15

Children temporarily separated from their parents by non-criminal court rulings

Ruling handed down by

Number of children

%

Family courts

282

6%

Other courts

36

1%

Total

4.979

100%

Figure 16

Children separated from their parents by juvenile criminal court rulings

Population/age

Total inmates

Aged 18 and over

Aged under 18

Definitive male inmates

153

129

Definitive female inmates

8

5

Interim male inmates

19

154

Interim female inmates

2

17

Subtotal

182

305

Total, all centres

487

Children temporarily separated from their parents are housed in ISNA shelters and private institutions authorized by ISNA, with the following breakdown.

Figure 17

Number of centres and shelters

Geographical area

Number of shelters

Approximate capacity

West

11

1,000

Centre and Paracentral

34

1,400

East

6

300

ISNA (nationwide)

11

1,200

Total

62

3,900

Source: ISNA

In 2004-2006, public and private centres catered for more than 10,000 children, as shown in the following table.

Figure 18

Population catered for in centres and shelters of ISNA and NGOs

Institutions

Year

2004

2005

2006

NGOs

2,520

2,464

2,765

ISNA

939

955

930

Total

3,459

3,419

3,695

Source: Child information system (SIPI) and reports of ISNA regional branches.

Children not living with their families benefit from various programmes and services. ISNA’s goal in this context is to ensure that any child or adolescent whose rights have been violated is offered immediate and full protection as required, and involved in a process of restitution of rights, giving priority to the family alternative. They are offered all services, notably education, health, board and lodging.

Measures adopted to mitigate the loss of the children’s family environment include the use of foster homes, where an average of 66 children are placed each year; these are subject to periodic monitoring by ISNA. An average of 20 per cent of children leave the ISNA shelters, an average of 739 a year out of 3,695 institutionalized children.

Regarding the policy of reducing the number of children in public and private institutions, and reducing the length of their stay, ISNA has established a measure to handle them in no more than 30 days. In terms of policy, the decentralization of ISNA services lays more emphasis on the community, where community networks mobilize resources through the three regional branches and 10 local offices.

C. Alimony payments

Under the Family Code, family courts have ordered alimony payments in more than 3,000 cases over the past three years.

Figure 19

Alimony granted for minors (2004-2006), broken down by gender.

Family courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

Total

3,049

1,522

1,527

484

468

508

564

530

495

D. Adoption

In accordance with article 21 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in the past three years priority has been given to the adoption of children by nationals, as ordered by Family Courts. The adoption process is highly protective. The legal framework governing adoption consists of the Family Code, the Family Procedural Act, the Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Adoption consists of two phases: administrative and judicial. During the administrative phase ISNA has to establish that the child is eligible for adoption, and together with the Office of the Attorney-General of the Republic (PGR) establish that the foreigners are eligible to adopt in El Salvador. The eligibility of Salvadoran families to adopt is determined solely by the PGR. The latter has set up an assignment committee, responsible for selecting the family that will adopt a child, once they have been established as eligible. It falls to the Attorney-General of the Republic to authorize the adoption and at that moment the judicial phase begins in which the judge orders the adoption. Domestic adoptions have been given priority in recent years, through the use of foster homes as a protection measure, since 90 per cent of children in foster homes are adopted by their carers. The formalities required by law are carried out in the Adoptions Office, by technical staff of ISNA and the PGR. In accordance with the 1993 Hague Convention, ISNA and the PGR are the central authority for adoptions.

Figure 20

Adoption of children, by origin of adopter (2004-2006)

Family courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

Salvadoran

Foreign

Salvadoran

Foreign

Salvadoran

Foreign

Salvadoran

Foreign

Total

1,924

1,637

287

461

77

511

82

665

128

E. Protection and assistance of children

The Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic’s mission is laid down in the Constitution as the prosecution of crime.For the protection of child victims of crime the Office also has a prevention function, carried out by its Multidisciplinary Support Unit, which aims to help prevent violence and delinquency by conducting criminological studies and implementating prevention projects and programmes, such as the running of training workshops for adolescent promoters of violence prevention, the promotion of peace and dialogue been generations and cultures.

In 1992 the Unit for Offences against Minors and Women was set up within the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic with the aim of concentrating on the investigation of offences committed against children in the family and offences against sexual freedom. The Office is obliged to take the necessary measures for the immediate protection of child victims and to prevent further violation of their rights as victims, always bearing in mind the child’s higher interest. This unit has been extended nationwide to ensure greater territorial coverage.

To protect child victims of crime and their families, the Unit for Offences against Minors and Women provides special assistance services, including the following:

Psychological assistance, with a view to supporting victims of physical, psychological and sexual violence, and their family members, to reduce the short- and long-term effects of the trauma;

Counselling, with the aim of seeking alternative care and protection for victims of physical, sexual and psychological violence, based on an investigation of the victim’s social and family background, and through coordination with other institutions involved in protection of children and adolescents;

Legal assistance, involving follow-up of court proceedings for trying crimes.In the case of adult defendants it begins with the presentation of an indictment or injunction in which requests may be submitted to the magistrate.

Regarding the judicial process, it is for the Office of the Attorney-General of the Republic via the Minors’ Attorneys to act as legal representative of minors to prevent them being exposed and to safeguard the child’s rights and higher interest in the proceedings referred to above.

The aggrieved parties, including the victims or plaintiffs, are legally empowered to take legal proceedings (lodge an appeal) in cases of dismissal or definitive discharge, and in case of provisional discharge or filing of the case, they may request the legal proceedings to be re-opened.

In cases of domestic violence it is essential for the victim to undergo a psychological assessment in order to establish the emotional effects caused by the cycle of violence to which they have been subjected. The attorney concerned will have to make an assessment of the victim before taking part in legal proceedings, and will have to provide psychological and social support, especially in the case of children and adolescent victims, offering them psychological treatment or assistance at the attorney’s office.

Legal hearings and proceedings are generally public, but the court may order them to be partially or totally private where required for moral reasons, in the public interest, or where child victims of crimes are taking part. Having regard to the higher interests of the child, the Code of Criminal Procedure states that where the victim is under 18 years of age, he or she is entitled to facilities for testifying in informal and non-hostile environments, and their testimony is recorded to facilitate its reproduction in public where necessary. The law states that the identity of minors and their families must not be disclosed.

The law offers special protection to minors aged under 18, providing for harsher sentences for crimes committed against them. The Code of Criminal Procedure provides that where the victim is a minor and has no parents or guardian, or where the crime is committed by a relative in the ascending line, the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic will press criminal charges for all offences subject to private prosecution.

Having regard to the higher interests of the child, the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic, through the Unit for Minors and Women, is obliged to implement mechanisms for protecting children, to prevent them becoming repeat victims. These measures notably include:

Giving evidence in advance of court proceedings;

Not exposing victims in court hearings, applying the Special Regime for the Protection of Witnesses Act;

Arranging shelter for child victims where necessary;

Arranging NGO support;

Guaranteeing psychological and social care by the Institutional Multidisciplinary Team;

Requesting the immediate protection measures provided for in the Domestic Violence Act.

Criminal courts (magistrate’s courts, preliminary investigation and trial courts) have heard cases of crimes against minors, with performance and processing over the period 2004–2005 as set out in the following tables:

Figure 21

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims in the 24 Magistrates Courts equipped with the Case Monitoring System

Magistrates Courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

Age 0 to 5

Age 6 to 11

Age 12 to 15

Age 16 to 17

Total

Age 0 to 5

Age 6 to 11

Age 12 to 15

Age 16 to 17

Total

Age 0 to 5

Age 6 to 11

Age 12 to 15

Age 16 to 17

Total

1,870

575

63

136

197

179

700

84

130

200

286

595

53

154

188

200

Average per court

78

24

3

6

8

7

29

4

5

8

12

25

2

6

8

8

Figure 22

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims in the 24 Magistrates Courts equipped with the Case Monitoring System In 2006.

Magistrates Courts

Total

Case filed

Mediation authorized

Plea bargain

Declaration of fault

Discharge

Inadmissible

Incompetent

Absolute invalidity

Order for investigation with interim detention

Order for investigation with injunctive relief

Order for investigation with petition hearing

Order for investigation without inerim detention

Judicial pardon

Mediation period

Acquittal in fault proceedings

Conviction in fast-track procedure

Definitive discharge

Provisional discharge

Conditional suspension of proceedings

Total

583

1

54

1

3

19

2

2

1

128

53

1

54

2

3

1

3

99

144

12

Average per court

24

0

2

0

0

1

0

0

0

5

2

0

2

0

0

0

0

4

6

1

Figure 23

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims in the 30 Preliminary Investigation Courtsequipped with the Case Monitoring System.

Preliminary investigation courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

Age 0 to 5

Age 6 to 11

Age 12 to 15

Age 16 to 17

Total

Age 0 to 5

Age 6 to 11

Age 12 to 15

Age 16 to 17

Total

Age 0 to 5

Age 6 to 11

Age 12 to 15

Age 16 to 17

Total

1,883

671

78

206

228

159

651

76

161

234

180

561

49

147

234

131

Average per court

63

23

3

7

8

5

22

3

6

8

6

19

2

5

8

5

Figure 24

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims in the 30 preliminary investigation courts equipped with the Case Monitoring System in 2006.

Preliminary investigation courts

2006

Total

Proceedings in progress

Admission or rejection of evidence for public hearing

Trial proceedings

Provisional filing

Mediation authorized

Declaration of fault

Contempt of court

Incompetent

Ratifying injunctive relief

Revoking injunctive relief

Conviction in fast-track procedure

Conviction in fast-track procedure

Definitive discharge

Provisional discharge

Conditional suspension of proceedings

Total

561

263

1

170

1

21

1

12

5

1

1

6

1

26

38

14

Average per court

19

9

0

6

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

Figure 25

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims in the eight Trial Courts equipped with the Case Monitoring System.

Trial Courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

Age 0 to 5

Age 6 to 11

Age 12 to 15

Age 16 to 17

Total

Age 0 to 5

Age 6 to 11

Age 12 to 15

Age 16 to 17

Total

Age 0 to 5

Age 6 to 11

Age 12 to 15

Age 16 to 17

Total

448

16

5

1

7

3

99

40

19

27

13

333

93

74

103

63

Average per court

56

2

1

0

1

0

12

5

2

3

2

42

12

9

13

8

Figure 26

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims in the 8 Trial Courts equipped with the Case Monitoring System.

Trial Courts

Total 2004-2006

2004

2005

2006

Total

Acquittal

Conviction

Total

Acquittal

Conviction

Mixed verdict

Total

Acquittal

Conviction

Mixed verdict

Total

448

16

6

10

99

45

50

4

333

152

179

2

Average per court

56

2

1

1

12

6

6

1

42

19

22

0

F. Protection against domestic violence

At the request of the Network for Action Against Gender Violence in El Salvador, the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic, along with a number of government organizations and NGOs, set up a standing committee for the protection of children against domestic violence.In 2004, the committee drafted a manual for the application of the Domestic Violence Act, which was circulated to various institutions nationwide, with a view to providing fast and effective care for victims of domestic violence.

Since 2004 the Office has been a member of a technical working party set up to draft legislation for the Legislative Assembly Committee on Women and the Family.That Committee prepared a bill on the protection of victims of sexual abuse, domestic violence and trafficking in persons for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation, which is being considered for adoption by the legislative plenary.Proposals have also been prepared for reforms of the Family Code to protect women and children, which are also being considered in the hope that they will be approved by the Legislative Assembly.

In the field of awareness-raising and training, the Inter-institutional Committee for the Prevention of and Care for Domestic Violence has been in existence since the year 2000, carrying out activities such as nationwide awareness-raising and fairs to prevent violence, in which it informs the pubic about the rights of women, children and adolescents, and gender violence, its causes, and which institutions are competent in this area.This project is run by the Salvadoran Institute for Women’s Development.

Regarding publicizing violence specifically against children and adolescents, in 2003 the Working Party for the Eradication and Prevention of and Protection of Children from Commercial Sexual Exploitation was set up by the signature of a memorandum of understanding by fifteen institutions: the Legislative Assembly Committee on the Family, Women and Children, the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic, the National Council of the Judiviciary, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare, the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, the Ministry of External Relations, the National Civil Police, the Salvadoran Institute for the Full Development of Children and Adolescents, the Salvadoran Institute for the Development of Women, the National Coordination Association for Salvadoran Women, the Employers’ Association for the Development of the Communities of Morazán and San Miguel, the Huellas Foundation and the Network against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents, in which they undertook to work together in this area.The working party has also drawn up a number of information documents on the protection of children against sexual exploitation, which were distributed nationwide.It also drafted an inter-institutional action plan, which is in progress.

By means of forums designed for judicial operators and citizens in general, work has also been done on awareness-raising in order to foster a rejection of violence against children and adolescents in various State sectors and society.The Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic has carried out an awareness-raising project on the issue of commercial sexual exploitation, which is designed to provide information to the population on the role of men in the prevention and eradicate sexual exploitation of children and adolescents.The Physical Training School is carrying out awareness-raising activities on the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, aimed at all public prosecution staff nationwide.

The following tables give details of the treatment of cases of domestic violence against children in the Salvadoran judicial system.

Figure 27

Statistical data on minors who are victims of domestic violence in the country’s 22 family courts, during 2006

Family courts

Total

Total

Total by type of violence

Total by age range

Total by gender

Physical

Sexual

Psychological

Age 0 to 5

Age 6-11

Age 12-14

Age 15-17

Female

Male

Total

283

169

4

110

95

19

44

125

204

79

Figure 28

Statistical data on minors who are victims of domestic violence in the country’s 22 family courts, during 2006

Family courts

Type of violence involving minors

Physical

Sexual

Psychological

Age 0 to 5

Age 6-11

Age 12-14

Age 15-17

Age 0 to 5

Age 6-11

Age 12-14

Age 15-17

Age 0 to 5

Age 6-11

Age 12-14

Age 15-17

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

Total

44

20

3

3

12

10

65

12

-

-

1

-

1

-

2

-

22

9

6

6

13

8

35

11

Figure 29

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims of domestic violence in the 24 Magistrates Courts equipped with the Case Monitoring System.

2004

2005

2006

Total

Average per court

Total

Average per court

Total

Average per court

Magistrates Courts

Mediation authorized

1

0

6

0

12

1

Order for investigation with injunctive relief

3

0

4

0

Discharge

1

0

13

1

Order for investigation with petition hearing

2

0

Non-applicability of the anti-gang law

1

0

Order for investigation with interim detention

1

0

Order for investigation without interim detention

1

0

10

0

15

1

Definitive discharge

20

1

9

0

17

1

Provisional discharge

11

0

15

1

96

4

Conditional suspension of proceedings

3

0

1

0

2

0

Total

39

2

44

7

Total 2004-2006

345

Average per court

14

Figure 30

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims of domestic violencein the 30 Preliminary investigation courts equipped with the Case Monitoring System.

2004

2005

2006

Total

Average per court

Total

Average per court

Total

Average per court

Magistrates Courts

Total

8

0

9

0

14

0

Proceedings in progress

3

0

2

0

5

0

Trial proceedings

2

0

Mediation authorized

2

0

1

0

3

0

Incompetent

1

0

Contempt of court

3

0

Absolute invalidity

1

0

Conviction in fast-track procedure

1

0

Definitive discharge

1

0

1

0

1

0

Provisional discharge

1

0

1

0

Conditional suspension of proceedings

1

0

1

0

Total 2004-2006

31

Average per court

1

The Salvadoran Government’s National Policy on Women, implemented through the Salvadoran Institute for the Development of Women (ISDEMU), recognizes that violence against women, in public and private spaces, manifests itself in the unequal exercise of power through the social establishment of gender differences that place women at a disadvantage in relation to men, and over other vulnerable groups such as children, adolescents and older and disabled persons. The State of El Salvador has taken up the challenge of eliminating these generic socio-structural inequalities, which goes beyond mere legislative action and consolidation of a safe infrastructure. There is therefore a need for action to change cultural models that place women at a disadvantage and leave them exposed to gender violence.

This policy includes the Family Relations Restoration Programme (PSRF), the objectives of which include implementing ongoing educational gender awareness and prevention programmes on the issue of domestic violence, sexual assault and child abuse, aimed at the population at risk, in coordination with government bodies, local governments, civil society and private enterprise. In this context, a national domestic violence prevention and care plan has been devised, under which a number of publicity and awareness measures against violence have been carried out, including: publicity for the Domestic Violence Act, the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women (Convention of Belem Do Para), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in activities aimed at staff of government institutions and the judiciary, schools, the armed forces, the National Civil Police, and the general population. A total of 631 Prevention Fairs have also been carried out since 2004 in the country’s 14 departments, directly benefiting 160,744 people, and 803,720 indirectly.

Figure 31

Fairs against domestic violence

People taking part in fairs against domestic violence

Year

Number of fairs

Women participants

Men participants

Total

2004

102

38,882

32,966

71,848

2005

463

30,699

23,019

53,718

2006

66

20,502

14,676

35,178

Total

631

90,083

70,661

160,744

Source: ISDEMU

Since 2004, ISDEMU has been implementing group action agendas for child and adolescent victims of domestic violence, child abuse and commercial sexual exploitation of children.

The PSRF has been carrying out sessions for students of national and private schools, covering topics such as:child abuse, sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, commercial sexual exploitation of children, human values and trafficking in persons.Individual and group psychology sessions are also being conducted for children and adolescents with the aim of improving their mental health and self-esteem.Individual psychological care has been given to 4,900 children; and to a further 5,794 in group sessions; 8,294 underwent psychological monitoring.

The Salvadoran State, through the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic and the courts of justice, has continued to prosecute sexual offences against children and adolescents. See information on this in annex IV.

Regarding the protection of children involved in offences against family rights and duties, the Minors’ and Women’s Unit of the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic is responsible for taking criminal proceedings. In caring for victims, the Office provides legal, psychological and social assistance, in some cases applying the protection measures provided for in the Domestic Violence Act. In performing this function, the Office acts on this issue in constant coordination with government institutions such as ISDEMU, ISNA, the National Secretariat for the Family, the Institute of Forensic Medicine, the Supreme Court of Justice and the National Civil Police.

Criminal law recognizes several types of crimes in which paternal irresponsibility is punished by imprisonment. See annex V for the relevant legislation.

The Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic reports statistics on crimes relating to family relations for the reporting period. See annex VI for this information.

Regarding child-abuse victims, in all cases handled by ISNA protection measures were adopted in accordance with the ISNA Act, and measures were also ordered for those responsible for the children.

ISDEMU also cares for child victims of sexual assault and abuse. The following table sets out the number and percentage of children handled by ISDEMU in 2006.

Figure 32

Child victims of sexual assault and abuse treated by ISDEMU (2006)

Age

Sexual assault

Child abuse

Female

Percentage

Male

Percentage

Female

Percentage

Male

Percentage

Total

0-1

1

0.16%

37

2.37%

18

1.31%

56

2-5

40

6.33%

23

24.21%

164

10.50%

147

10.74%

374

6-9

95

15.03%

39

41.05%

379

24.26%

423

30.90%

936

10-13

188

29.75%

23

24.21%

478

30.60%

490

35.79%

1179

14-17

308

48.73%

10

10.53%

504

32.27%

291

21.26%

1113

Total

632

95

1,562

1,369

3,658

Source: ISDEMU

See annex VII for the cases occurring in 2004-2005.

ISDEMU offers temporary shelter for women and their children who have suffered domestic violence, sexual abuse and commercial sexual exploitation. The temporary protection goes hand in hand with psychological and social care, legal advice and individual and group support for women victims of domestic violence, including the children.

Figure 33

Domestic violence victims sheltered by ISDEMU (2004-2007)

Year

Women

Boys

Girls

Total

2004

88

53

58

199

2005

54

30

95

179

2006

60

42

122

225

Total

244

151

348

744

Source: ISDEMU

See annex VIII for the number of domestic violence victims handled by ISDEMU, including children.

ISDEMU also has a line of action on training and awareness for key officials for care and immediate action for victims of domestic violence, including children. National Civil Police officers have been given priority for taking part in these activities.

Figure 34

National Civil Police officers taking part in domestic violence training and awareness activities.

Year

Number of activities

Female

Male

Total

2004

111

3,654

3,064

6,718

2005

125

2,481

1,674

4,155

2006

130

2,346

1,660

4,006

Total

366

8,481

6,398

14,879

Source: ISDEMU

Regarding internment of children and adolescents, the ISNA Act states that placing them in an institution or internment is an exceptional protection measure of last resort, enabling children to be placed in a shelter appropriate to their age, personality and gender, with the aim of carrying out studies, learning a craft or trade, receiving specialist care for their rehabilitation, always ensuring that they are fully protected. The fundamental criterion for deciding on the internment of a child for their care, protection or treatment, is a direct and immediate threat to their life and personal integrity.

ISNA is the main institution responsible for sheltering children at risk, and for supervising private agencies authorized to carry out that function. To that end, it has internal procedures for periodic examination and supervision of internment conditions.

Having regard to the higher interests of interned children, ISNA has also established coordination mechanisms with the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic, the Office of the Attorney-General of the Republic, the National Civil Police, family courts and Magistrates courts, to supervise internment conditions and facilitate the protection of children at risk. The Office of the National Counsel for the Defence of Human Rights, as a part of the Attorney General's Office, and as an independent State agency, also has constitutional and legal powers to supervise the human rights of children interned in public institutions.

VI. Basic health and well-being

A. Survival and development; nutrition

Indicators of undernourishment in children aged under 5 show that El Salvador, over the past 15 years, has made considerable progress, reflecting a substantial improvement in the quality of children’s lives. However, these indicators differ considerably according to area of residence. The indicators show progress on solving the problem, as the rate of 11.2% in 1991 fell to 10.3% in 2003, a reduction of 0.9 points in 10 years, at an average rate of -0.09 points a year. If El Salvador maintains this most recent rate it may succeed in reducing the global rate of severe and moderate undernourishment to 7.5% by 2010 in accordance with 'A World Fit for Children' targets (PA-MANA), and to 5.6% in accordance with MDG 1.

Figure 35

Trend of undernourishment in children aged < 5, 1998-2003

15,211,211,810,330,023,223,318,92,51,51,11,405101520253035401988199319982003%Height/ageWeight/ageWeight/heigh

See annex IX for more information on undernourishment and anaemia.

According to the height census in school children (2000), 80.5% of children aged 6 to 9 are not underheight. Among the small percentage that is underheight, the proportion is 2.3 times higher in rural areas than in urban areas.

The analysis at municipal level indicates that most children are of adequate height. However, of the country’s 262 municipalities, there are nine in which over 40% are underheight, namely San Fernando in Chalatenango (50.6%), Mercedes La Ceiba in Cuscatlán (40.82%), California in Usulután (44%), San Antonio del Mosco in San Miguel (46.64%), and in Morazán: Guatajiagua (40.3%), Arambala (41.3%), San Fernando (41.38%), Cacaotera (44.61%) and San Simón (47.48%). The goal for the coming years is to bring this municipal percentage into line with progress nationwide.

Undernourishment results in or directly causes a high proportion of infant mortality. Nevertheless, El Salvador has succeeded in reducing the infant mortality rate for children from 0 to 11 months – i.e. the number of children dying under one year old per 1,000 live births – to 24. This half of the 2010 target for infant mortality (27.3) as that rate was achieved and exceeded over the period 1998-2002 at national level.

Figure 36

Goal: Reduce infant mortality (MDG 4)

Infant mortality rate (0 to 11 months) – i.e. the number of children dying under one year old per 1,000 live births –

TARGET:Reduce it by one third (2010) (PA-MANA A, 1, 36 (a))

27.3

TARGET:Reduce it by two thirds (2015) (MDG 4)

13.7

For 2006 the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare reports a rate even lower than 12.75 per 1,000 live births. In this sense, the country has also achieved and exceeded the target of reducing this indicator by two thirds, so it is reasonable to forecast that the goal will be met in 2015.

Figure 37

Infant mortality rate (age 1 to 4) – i.e. the number of children dying aged between 1 and 4 per 1,000 live births –

TARGET:Reduce it by one third (2010) (PA-MANA A, 1, 36 (a))

8

TARGET:Reduce it by two thirds (2015) (MDG 4)

4

The 2010 child mortality target (8) was achieved and exceeded at national level during the period 1998-2002, with a rate of 6.

Similarly, the 2015 target is very likely to be achieved.

See annex X for the “Plus 5” Review of the Application of Commitments under the “World Fit for Children” Plan of Action (2002).

Furthermore, 3.7% of children under five years old are overweight or obese. Overweight or obesity is more prevalent in children under two years old in households with a high socio-economic level. Overweight and obesity affect 54.2% of women of child-bearing age, 35.8% being overweight and 18.4% obese.

According to FESAL, for the years 2002-2003, 80.2% of the nation’s children aged between 12 and 59 months were not amaemic, while 19.8% were. The prevalence of anaemia among children under five (12 to 59 months) means the proportion of children in that age range whose haemoglobin level indicates that they are suffering from anaemia according to the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States of America (Morbility and Mortality Weekly Report - MMWR).

By geographical area at national level, prevalence of anaemia in children in rural areas is 23.1%, while in urban areas it has been reduced to 15.8%. The worst affected group is children aged 6 to 24 months, with prevalences of 40% in children aged 6 to 11 months. Nutritional anaemia, caused mainly by iron deficiency, is therefore still a public health and child development issue.

El Salvador aims to reduce anaemia to 12.6% in line with PA-NAMA targets, i.e. a one-third reduction by 2010. If the pronounced downward trend is maintained, it is likely that the targets for 2010 and 2015 will be met.

Figure 38

Prevalence of anaemia in children aged 6 to 59 months. National total.

(FESAL 2002-2003)

Over the past five years the prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin < 11mg/dl) in non-pregnant women is 8.8%, while 80.2% of women are not anaemic.

Moreover, anaemia in pregnant women, especially in the last three months show a significant increase of 20.7% in relation to non-pregnant women. At the end of that period the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women was 13.6%, compared with 86.4% of pregnant women who do not suffer from it.

Figure 39

Prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women by trimester. National total.

(FESAL 2002-2003)

Despite progress made, control of this programme has a high priority as anaemia increases the risk of maternal mortality, delayed psycho-motor development in children, reduces their learning capacity and school performance, and reduces adults’ physical strength and productivity at work.

According to the latest height census (SCENTES/2000), four departments and 66 municipalities in the country have been identified as having a high percentage of undernourishment, located mainly in the rural areas of the country. It is important to prioritize the geographical area to begin action in these areas and concentrate efforts where they are most needed. See annex XI for the second school height census, 2000.

Exclusive breast-feeding is the best food for children during their first six months of life, and is the cornerstone of nutritional food security in the first two years, protects maternal health, and has financial repercussions for the home.

Exclusive breast-feeding has increased by 8 percentage points in recent years, from 15.8% to 24%, though it is still low, as only 2 out of 10 children under six months are exclusively breastfed. Foods are introduced early, which means that if food and nutrition education is stepped up, mothers might not introduce other liquids that they still regard as necessary for their babies.

Figure 40

Prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding in children under nine months old.

National total. FESAL (2002-2003)

See annex XII for information on breast-feeding in El Salvador.

For the years 2002–2003, 24% of children nationwide aged 0 to 5 months were exclusively breastfed. According to institutional records of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare, for 2006, a total of 105,397 children under six months were exclusively breastfed, the department of San Salvador reporting the highest number of children (20,774).

In 1988, 36% of Salvadoran children under 5 had low levels of serum retinol. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with infant mortality, especially neonatal. Vitamin A deficiency was a serious public health issue in El Salvador during the 1980s. The latest studies show that only 5% of children under 5 have levels below 10mg/dl. Successful implementation and maintaining strategies such as supplementation with megadoses of vitamin A, food fortification and nutritional education have minimzed the problem in El Salvador.

In 1990 the national prevalence of endemic goitre in school children was 24.8%, with a higher proportion in rural areas. Recent studies of iodine levels in the urine of school children report that only 5.4% had levels below 10 micrograms per decilitre, the largest number of school children with this deficiency being in the departmento of La Unión (26.4%), indicating that iodized salt is reaching most Salvadoran households.

Nutrition campaigns are aimed at improving the circumstances of persons, families and communities and ensuring proper physical and emotional development. To carry out nutrition campaigns, work was needed to intensify and focus a number of measures designed for the most vulnerable groups. Thus measures for early detection of child undernourishment were stepped up; but where it was found it was managed and treated appropriately and comprehensively. Monitoring and continuous assessment of the state of nutrition and its constraints have also been stepped up, thereby helping to meet the corresponding targets of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

In this context, based on a diagnosis and an analysis of the activities and costs of current programmes, taking account of the priorities of more vulnerable groups and areas, we set out below the progress and achievements in nutrition. It must be acknowledged that progress has been satisfactory and sustained; however, there are still some deficits in this field so lines of action have been defined in nutrition, giving priority to reducing short- and medium- term nutritional problems.

With the aim of reducing nutritional risk and morbility and mortality during infancy and early childhood, and improving breast-feeding indicators, since 1992 the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare has been implementing the promotion, protection and support component for breast-feeding and food supplements, by means of the following indicators:

Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). This initiative takes as a reference the Innocenti Declaration, adopted at the 45 th World Health Assembly (1992). The BFHI aims to reverse hospital practices that interfere with the successful start of breast-feeding, from birth and maintaining exclusive breast-feeding until the sixth month of life. Of the country’s 30 hospitals, 23 are being upgraded and reaccredited, while five hospitals are being accredited.

The women- and child-friendly health centres initiative ( USANYM) . The Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare is promoting this initiative, made official in June 2004 and implemented in 367 health centres, with the objective of strengthening and expanding activities to protect, promote and support maternal nutrition for infants during gestation, breastfeeding and infancy and early childhood, through the first level of care, with a view to increasing exclusive breast-feeding up to six months of age and promoting appropriate introduction of other foods at that age, together with breast-feeding extending up to age two or beyond. At community level, some 2000 health promoters have been trained to put across the key messages of this practice, and volunteer counsellors have been trained, for which technical standards were prepared.

At USANYM the Breast-Feeding and Food Supplements component is being implemented at local and community levels, and nutritional care is given to pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers. At the same time, other processes are being carried out to ensure that the initiatives are sustainable, such as:

Study of the Bill on the Promotion, Protection and Support for Breast-Feeding;

Study of the setting-up of the National Committee for Breast-Feeding and Food Supplements;

Conducting periodic (biannual) assessments on compliance with the Code on the marketing of breast-milk substitutes and sharing its results at national level;

Incorporation of a breast-feeding and baby-food component in the Strategy for Comprehensive Nutritional Care in the community (AIN-C), and in the Strategy for Comprehensive Care of Common Childhood Diseases (AEIPI), in health establishments and in the community, implemented by health promoters;

Implementation of a monitoring system in direct support of breast-feeding (MADLAC) in 23 Salvadoran hospitals with a maternity service;

Strengthening the technical capability of health personnel. In 2005, 141 technical advisers were trained to implement the BFHI and USANYM initiatives. In 2006 the first national team of external assessors was certified, consisting of 35 professionals from the Ministry of Health, the Salvadoran Social Security Institute and NGOs (paediatricians, neonatologists, gynaecologists, doctors, nutritionists, nurses and educators), with the cooperation of UNICEF. All health establishments have health personnel who offer advice on breast-feeding. Nutrition teachers have also been included from the Universidad de El Salvador and the Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador;

DvDevelopment of tools to monitor the initiatives (self-assessment of hospitals and health centres), and questionnaires and consolidated data of MADLAC information. The BFHI, encouraged by WHO/UNICEF worldwide, is being implemented using the ten steps to successful breast-feeding. Twenty-three hospitals with maternity services (i.e. 85% of the country’s hospitals) have been accredited and monitored as baby-friendly.

As part of the approach for children’s nutritional prevention and protection, the promotion and monitoring of growth has been strengthened and sustained in both public establishments and the community, using weight/age, height/age and cephalic perimeter growth charts, interpreting the growth trend for boys and girls. This measure is being carried out in the 367 public establishments by health personnel and at community level by health promoters. To date there is a total of 1,900 health promoters and specific supervisors of trained promoters. Nutritional supervision is also carried out at community level, twice a year on all children under five in rural areas using the weight/age index.

The following strategies have been implemented for extending coverage:

Comprehensive Nutritional Care in the Community (AIN). This is a community strategy for promoting health and nutrition by monitoring weight gain in pregnant women, and children under two. The strategy fosters the promotion and development through community participation, and is carried out by volunteers, generally fathers or mothers. Besides monitoring growth and supervising maternal and infant health, the strategy provides nutritional education by means of nutritional advice by volunteer advisors. Since 2002, 1,120 households were covered in 150 municipalities, training 516 facilitators and 2,250 volunteer advisors. A total of 16,000 children and 3,000 pregnant women were handled with this strategy. The strategy was supported by a number of private and cooperation bodies such as INTERVIDA, Canadian Cooperation - Project SAGYS, CALMA, FUSAL, PLAN, USAID, Save the Children, Doctors of the World, among others;

Comprehensive care in rural health and nutrition centres (CRSN). These centres provide primary health and nutrition care, stimulation of development and initial education for children aged two to five. There are 51 CRSNs located in marginal rural and urban areas of 34 municipalities. Some 63.9% of the centres are located in municipalities with a high prevalence of underheight children. The centres handle an average of 35 children, covering a total of 1,785 children aged 2 to 5, by means of 153 nutrition promoters. Activities are carried out to monitor and control physical growth, micronutrient supplementation (vitamin A, iron and zinc), delousing, vaccination, supplementary food (lunch and two snacks), oral health, nutritional health for parents, and initial education for children;

Nutritional care plan for children, pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers in priority municipalities. The Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare, with the support of the Directorate of Food Welfare of the National Secretariat for the Family (SNF), and the World Food Programme, is implementing the nutritional care plan for mothers and children under five in 62 municipalities selected for a high prevalence of underheight children. Under the plan a food supplement was provided for an average of 53,000 direct beneficiaries, including 44,000 children under 5, and 9,000 pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers. The programme began in 2003 with 22 municipalities in Ahuachapán, Sonsonate and Santa Ana, departments selected on account of the coffee crisis. A budget of $3.1 million, funded by the World Food Programme (WFP), was allocated for food purchases. Since November 2005, this programme has been providing a monthly package of basic health and nutrition care and an individual food ration (rice, oil, beans and maize), food supplement for children and mothers (CSB/vitamin-enriched cereal), and advice on food and nutrition. An average of 475 metric tonnes of food are distributed each month.

In the nutritional food education component, communication strategies, educational materials, guides and technical manuals were devised to support nutritional measures and programmes, including the following: Salvadoran family food guide; Preventing anaemia; Iodized salt; Vitamina A; Breast-feeding and food supplements; Diet during pregnancy; Diet guide for adolescents and women of child-bearing age; Advice leaflets on Comprehensive Nutrition Care (AIN) in the community; and provision of radio and television slots on health- and nutrition-related topics.

The food fortification programmes are a nationwide initiative, as it is a responsibility of government, producers and consumers to ensure that they are maintained, and that they improve in quality and coverage for the benefit of the health of the Salvadoran population. These programmes include: supplementation with micronutrients (vitamin A, iron plus folic acid and zinc). Vitamin A is supplied to four vulnerable population groups: babies under one year old, children aged 1 to 4, children aged 5 to 9 and nursing mothers. In 2005 the beneficiaries were 37,085 breast-feeding mothers. Iron supplements are given to six population groups: pregnant women aged 10 to 19, pregnant women aged 20 to 49, nursing mothers aged 10 to 19, nursing mothers aged 20-49, women of child-bearing age aged 10 to 19 and women of child-bearing age aged 20 to 49. In 2005, 427,745 women of child-bearing age benefited, i.e. 20% received iron supplements. Zinc supplements are given to a population group (children aged 1 to 4), with treatment of 60 ml a year and therapeutic doses to treat diarrhoea. Thirty-six per cent of the total population, or 251,472 beneficiaries, received this supplement in 2005. Iodized oil is administered in therapeutic doses to children diagnosed as deficient in iodine.

Figure 41

Estimated coverage of the supplementation programme

Vitamin A

Under 1 year old

Aged 1 to 4

Aged 5 to 9

Nursing mothers

Dose

1st

2nd

3rd

1st

2nd

Single dose

Single dose

Beneficiaries

81,440

60,359

45,862

121,313

109,735

103,783

37,085

Total population

95,768

95,768

95,768

558,453

558,453

619,380

--**

Estimated coverage

85%

63%

48%

22%

20%

16%

--

FESAL 02/3

47.8%

22.4%

ZINC: 60 ml bottle

IRON: 60 ml syrup bottle (25/1 ml)

Aged 1 to 4

6-11 months

1-4 years

Single dose

Beneficiaries

112,952

340,529

Beneficiaries

251,472

Total population

--**

558,453

Total population

558,453

Coverage

--

60.9%

Coverage

45%

FESAL 02/3

28.7%

66.4%

The supplementation programme implemented the following initiatives:

Fortification of salt with iodine. By law, industrially produced and packaged salt must be fortified with iodine. This programme is implemented using administrative standards and procedures, and monitoring plans for pre-mixing, in salt packaging and production plants. Within the programme’s quality assurance system, food samples are analysed in households each year, with national representativity to corroborate that the level of fortification in households is in line with standards. Also, nationwide assessments of iodine excretion in the urine are conducted every four years on school children under 12 to establish the impact of iodized salt fortification. The variables investigated are: gender, age, origin, department, municipality, repeat of school year, salt brand, presence of iodine in salt and iodine levels in urine;

The third study conducted in 2004 covered 87 schools, and a total of 1,280 urine samples were collected. The results reported that the population’s average level of iodine in their urine was 20 micrograms of I/dl, an increase in relation to the value reported in the studies conducted in 1996-97 and the year 2000. Levels for 94.6% of the school children in the study were at least 10 micrograms/dl, showing that the iodized salt programme has had an impact on the population and that school children consume iodine in their daily diet. Since 1995 the iodized salt programme has had a communication strategy which comprises a variety of educational and audiovisual materials, covering the mass media: radio, press and television;

Fortification of sugar with vitamina A. The programme began in 1990 thanks to support from the Japanese Government through the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare, and succeeded in fortifying some 2.5 million quintals of sugar for domestic consumption. The family health survey conducted in the country reports that vitamin A deficiency in the country had fallen to less than 5% in children under five. Since 1996 the programme of sugar fortified with vitamin A has had a communication strategy that promotes the importance of vitamin A;

Fortification of wheat flour with iron, folic acid and B-complex vitamins. Fortification of wheat flour was reactivated in the 1990s. While the wheat flour fortification programme has a good coverage, children under two and women of child-bearing age still suffer from anaemia. All flour fortified for consumption is subject to the monitoring programme in mills, shops or stores and homes to check the level of fortification. A communication strategy for preventing anaemia has been in place since 2003;

Fortification of processed corn flour with iron, folic acid and B-complex vitamins. In 2003 processed corn flour was successfully fortified with iron, folic acid and B-complex vitamins, such as niacin, thyamin and riboflavin, as consumption is higher in the country. This measure follows those already implemented for combating anaemia in El Salvador; in this case, efforts have been made at community level to promote women’s rural agro-industries by setting up bakeries.

To upgrade nutritional care for the population with nutritional complaints, technical documents have been drafted for handling patients who are hospitalized, and in some cases outpatients, such as the clinical care handbook for children with severe malnutrition in hospitals and the nutritional care handbook for handling persons living with HIV/AIDS.

B. Disabled children

The issue of educational care for persons with diabilities or special educational needs is governed by the Constitution and secondary legislation. The Constitution requires the State to organize the educational system and set up special educational institutions and services. It also states that citizens have the right and duty to receive nursery and elementary education, and provides that special education, like nursery and elementary education, is to be free of charge when provided by the State. The premises of the Constitution are expanded in the General Education Act, and together they establish the objectives of special education the responsibilities of the Ministry of Education. Furthermore, El Salvador is a State party to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities approved in March 2007 by the United Nations General Assembly.

Also, in the year 2000 the Equal Opportunities for the Disabled Act was approved, with the National Council for Comprehensive Care of Disabled Persons (CONAIPD) as governing body for implementation. This body coordinates all the measures and endeavours to foster compliance with obligations regarding the rights of disabled children, checking and supervising the operation of the institutions working with that segment of the population.

CONAIPD promotes programmes designed to raise society’s awareness of the rights of the disabled in general, working with the mass media on the proper image of disabled persons, by promoting the competition “A Better Press for the Disabled”, in which the press, radio and television take part in drafting media pieces or news items that can promote respect of the rights of this population group in various areas, such as education, timely prevention and detection, non-discrimination, sport and leisure. It thereby contributes to the general public awareness of social inclusion of disabled children, and the disabled population throughout its development. It also helps to publicize issues for preventing disabilities and proper care; activities include the science day “Progress on preventing blindness through timely diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity”, that took place in February 2007 for doctors and authorities of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare.

The CONAIPD infrastructure unit coordinates with local authorities, builders’ associations and the media, to promote compliance with accessibility regulations in architecture, urban development, transport and communications. The regulations lay down guidelines for all public and private buildings, including schools, setting out the technical details to enable barriers to be removed and give students with physical and sensory disabilities a properly adapted learning environment. The institution also promotes the right to education of disabled children and adolescents, in the family and to the general public, via the mass media. This programme involved Italian cooperation and the Ministry of Education to promote an inclusive education project, at the República de Haití school in Sonsonate, which is to be a model inclusion school to serve as an example to the whole country.

In 2004 blind and visually impaired children were officially included in the regular education system from third grade. This success came about as a result of joint work in the inter-institutional committee on the process of reform to cater for the blind and visually impaired in education.

Since 2004 CONAIPD has been running a contest in coordination with the Ministry of Education to promote inclusive education. It consists of a contest between normal public educational establishments with the aim of fostering creative teaching strategies in classrooms where there are children with disabilities, and a change of attitude in favour of inclusive education.

The Salvadoran Institute for the Rehabilitation of Invalids (ISRI) is a specialist body providing care and rehabilitation services for users with physical and mental limitations, catering for disabled children in its centres. ISRI’s total budget has been increased over the reporting period as follows: 2004: $11,746,760; 2005: $12,033,720; and 2006: $12,928,120. The budget allocated to the ISRI Care Centres for 2007 is as follows:

Figure 42

Salvadoran Institute For Rehabilitation Of Invalids

Care centre

Assets 2007

Wages and salaries 2007

Total general fund 2007

Own resources 2007

2007

Rehabilitation centre for the blind

$44,505.00

$405,730.00

$450,235.00

$10,415.00

$460,650.00

Centre for the locomotor system

$20,230.00

$879,750.00

$899,980.00

$148,340.00

$1,048,320.00

Hearing and language centre

$2,885.00

$479,770.00

$482,655.00

$70,000.00

$552,655.00

Rehabilitation centre for children and adolescents

$20,230.00

$911,410.00

$931,640.00

$91,995.00

$1,023,635.00

Western comprehensive rehabilitation centre

$8,095.00

$490,075.00

$498,170.00

$57,370.00

$555,540.00

Eastern comprehensive rehabilitation centre

$16,185.00

$478,620.00

$494,805.00

$64,930.00

$559,735.00

Professional rehabilitation centre

$20,230.00

$292,760.00

$312,990.00

$14,030.00

$327,020.00

Outpatient consultation unit

$25,440.00

$314,100.00

$339,540.00

$20,020.00

$359,560.00

Total, all centres

$157,800.00

$4,252,215.00

$4,410,015.00

$477,100.00

$4,887,115.00

The budget allocated to the care centres has been increased over the reporting period. See annex XIII in this respect.

There is as yet no census in El Salvador of the precise number of children with disabilities, but the governing body for disabilities has started to take steps with a view to taking a census purely of disabilities.

ISRI cares for children with disabilities that are physical (cerebral palsy), mental (mental retardation, Down syndrome, autism) and sensory (blindness and deafness). In the case of mental retardation, the children range from 0 to 30 years in age (chronological age). In 2006 it catered for 7,001 boys and 5,207 girls.

ISRI provides services for disabled children in the various care centres. In the Eastern and Western Rehabilitation Centres, at the Rehabilitation Centre for Children and Adolescents(CRINA) and at the Centre for the Locomotor System, the population is treated according to the speciality of the professionals attending them, under the following programmes:

Physical therapy: early stimulation, sensory motor programme, hydrotherapy, hypotherapy and preparation of adaptations;

Occupacional therapy: sensory motor programme and preparation of adaptations;

Language therapy: programme for developing motor skills (movements for articulation); language acquisition and development programme; articulation programme; aphasia programme; and alternative communication programme;

Educational therapy: regular education programme; mature student programme; calculation and attention; verbal comprehension; and preparation;

Special education programme: socialization; multisensory education; and everyday activities;

Music therapy;

Adaptative therapy;

Support services;

Psychology: psychological assessments; individual counselling for parents; individual psychotherapy for parents; parents’ school;

Social work: education and instruction programme for family groups; and educational recreation visits;

Construction of special chairs at the Locomotor System Centre (CAL), Eastern Comprehensive Education Centre (CRIOR), and Western Comprehensive Education Centre (CRIO).

The Locomotor System Centre (CAL) and the Hearing and Language Centre (CALE) cater for users with a variety of disabilities, whether neurological disorders, skeletal muscle, joint disorders or congenital deformities, or language and speech problems.

The Eugenia de Dueñas Rehabilitation Centre for the Blind caters for blind and partially sighted users. The service provided covers a wide variety of measures in the functional rehabilitation process for children with visual impairment, whether congenital or acquired.

ISNA also accommodates and cares for 63 boys and 46 girls with disabilities. ISNA is running the following care programmes for disabled children:

Psycho-social care: social and psychological care, income assessment, case monitoring, home visits, individual and group work;

School programme: The ISNA Special Education Centre currently has three teachers, one on the morning shift and two in the afternoon, and the study curriculum is based on the syllabuses established by the Ministry of Education. In addition, the benefiting children take part in Special Olympics in the athletics and swimming categories.

Health programme: the centre receives support from the Ministry of Health with doctors from the San Martín Health Centre. A general practitioner comes twice a week, while a psychiatrist helps to monitor cases twice a week. Dental care is provided on Saturdays and Sundays at the San Martín Health Centre. The Special Education Centre has a floor nurse, who controls the dispensing of drugs and visits the various homes, attends to emergencies, coordinates with health centres, checks the drugs register and makes referrals to hospitals;

Physiotherapy: The ISNA Special Education Centre has two physiotherapists; a gymnasium area for treatments; and a programme with continuous monitoring providing individual and group physiotherapy, coordinating physiotherapy activities with the Teletón Pro Rehabilitation Foundation (FUNTER), an agency providing technical support;

Workshops: the Centre has handicraft, needlework and baking workshops.

The Fund for the Protection of those Maimed and Disabled as a result of Armed Conflict was set up to provide care to maimed and disabled ex-combattant Salvadorans of the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) and the armed forces, and the families of those killed in action: disabled parents and children, older parents and children under 18, as well as children under 18 dependent on maimed and disabled persons supported by the fund.

Services to which beneficiaries of the institution are entitled include the following:

a)Financial and additional benefits (pensions, compensation, travel allowances, funeral expenses and handover to surviving children);

b)Benefits in kind (prostheses, orthoses, drugs and other rehabilitation aids);

c)Stays in medical, surgical, hospital, dental, laboratory and mental health services and reintegration into working and productive life.

The Fund currently pays benefits to the following child population:

Figure 43

Child population receiving payments from the Fund for the Protection of those Maimed and Disabled as a Result of Armed Conflict (2006)

Type

Girls

Boys

Children with treated disability

30

71

Children of deceased disabled persons

155

183

Non-disabled minor children of deceased combattants

151

145

Disabled minor children of deceased combattants

33

50

Total

369

449

Source: Fund for the Protection of those Maimed and Disabled as a Result of Armed Conflict.

The Fund for the Protection of those Maimed and Disabled as a Result of Armed Conflict caters not only for adults mained or disabled as a direct result of armed conflict, but also for children under 18 who lost their family support for the same reasons.

Figure 44

Contribution of the Salvadoran Government from April 1995 to April 2006

158,085,541.93

Institutional budget for 2006

14,479,350.00

Total population of beneficiaries from April 1995 to April 2006

30,577

These beneficiaries include orphaned minors with the following breakdown:

Figure 45

Total orphaned minors cared for by the Fund

7,124

Figure 46

Minor children of deceased combattants

6,783

Invalid children of deceased combattants

81

Children of maimed persons who died receiving benefits from the Fund

260

The State’s efforts to care for disabled children are supplemented by private agencies that are supervised by the State.

Figure 47

Disabled children cared for by private agencies

Agency

Boys

Girls

El Progreso Vocational Training Centre

30

7

Faraway Special Friends Club Foundation

55

62

Salvadoran Association of Friends and Parents of Exceptional Down Children

37

7

Abandoned Disabled Children’s Home.Hermano Pedro Foundation

67

73

Total

189

149

The following are noteworthy among the programmes being implemented by private agencies:

El Progreso Vocational Training Centre. Cares for persons with mental retardation and Down syndrome, with a chronological age between five and forty years. It was set up and is administered by the Association of Parents of Mentally Retraded Persons, and carries out the following activities: vocational training under the protected workshop system; recreational-educational activities; support for the parents and other family members of disabled children; specialist care for disabled children while the parents are at work; promotion of non-discrimination in families, community participation, inclusion in the community, and accesiblity in public transport and communications;

Roberto Callejas Montalvo Cerebral Palsy Home. It offers day-care activities for children, adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy and other physical disabilities. This home carries out artistic, manual and craft and industrial production activities; it promotes educational interaction and awareness with the family; and implements the Basic Community Rehabilitation Programme in the Municipality of Santo Tomás, where it raises awareness in the community and promotes early detection and care for disabilities.

The Hellen Keller Foundation. Provides services for training deaf children and adolescents in numeracy; it offers literacy for the deaf and children suffering from Down Syndrome and promotes the educational support classroom;

Faraway Special Friends Club Foundation Handles mental retardation and physical and sensory disabilities in persons varying in chronological age from 4 to 35 years. It runs a sheltered workshop for manual activities in fabric and wood, clay and painting; it runs a distance-learning programme, with material support from the Ministry of Education (MINED); and promotes and monitors educational integration of children;

Salvadoran Association of Friends and Parents of Exceptional Down Children The Association provides educational services for nursery school and first grade for children and adolescents with Down Syndrome. It provides backup for everyday life activities, psychomotor activities, manual skills workshops, language therapy, sport, dance, and has the support of a nutritionist;

Hermano Pedro Foundation Home for Abandoned Disabled Children. It provides basic health care and rehabilitation for children with various disabilities in some areas. It cares for persons of chronological age 0 to 47 with cerebral palsy, mental retardation, autism and hydrocephalus.

In addition, from 2004 to 2006 the Fundación Teletón Pro- Rehabilitación (FUNTER) cared for 4,678 children.

The Equal Opportunties for the Disabled Act offers education for persons with special educational needs, from the perspective of their right to an education based on an appropriate methodology that facilitates their learning, a right that encompasses their training and working and professional rehabilitation, to be cared for by appropriate staff for their comprehensive rehabilitation and to have access to the system of scholarships.

The Act refers to the State’s obligation to recognize the principles of equal educational opportunities for all disabled persons, and to ensure that their education is integrated into the main system. The Act also allows for the possibility of the persons mentioned being integrated into the regular education system and requires educational establishments to have appropriate support services and accessibility. The Act also covers State responsibility for fostering training of human resources to cater for demand for special education, also providing for persons with special educational needs to access centres with appropriate resources. It provides a legal guarantee of the right of parents or heads of family to take part in the organization and assessment of educational services for persons with special educational needs.

The implementing regulation for the Equal Opportunties for the Disabled Act approaches the subject based on the “equal opportunities” concept and the responsibility of the Ministry of Education for compliance (article 34).

The regulation sets out the basic measures that MINED must promote in the following areas: increasing coverage, setting a minimum target of one integration school per municipality; adapting curricula and classrooms for special education; providing information on special educational needs; training, coaching and retraining of teaching staff; provision of appropriate teaching resources, technology and support for special education; guaranteeing access to the formal education system (including university) for persons with special educational needs; and guaranteeing the right of disabled persons to access the national educational grants system.

Article 36 of the Regulation sets out the strategies that the Ministry of Education must promote in special education regarding diversity, education integration, specialist services and awareness. The article stresses MINED’s responsibility for providing support services, training teaching staff and supplying materials and equipment for special education.

Article 37 highlights the need for any educational programme for persons with special educational needs to involve institutions, teachers, the education community, parents or heads of family and society in general. The article lays emphasis on ensuring that parents or guardians of disabled children take part in School Councils.

In order to put this whole legal framework in place, MINED has implemented measures through the National Education Plan 2021 in line with the political measures laid down for the education sector in the equal opportunities policy for disabled persons. For instance, there are Educational Support Classrooms which offer psychoeducational support for students with specific learning difficulties and support for the process of integrating disabled students. They are located in urban and rural areas of the countries, based on demand from the school. There are 563 educational support classrooms, 163 in rural areas, serving a total of 25,810 students in rural areas with special educational needs, whether or not associated with a disability.

Integration Schools are regular educational establishments which, after undergoing a process of awareness-raising, training and technical assistance, include disabled students in the school classrooms, where they take part in all the activities organized by the educational establishment. There are 550 Integration Schools nationwide; 103 of them in rural areas.

The State has special education schools, which are educational establishments catering for the moderately or severely mentally disabled population. Although they are located in urban areas, students come from both urban and rural backgrounds; there is a heading in the funds transferred to the school for supporting the transport of students from rural areas.

Figure 48

Children at special public schools by department and type of disability

Department

Blind

Visually impaired (non-functional residual vision)

Deaf

Hearing impairment

Down syndrome

Mentally retarded

Motor problems

Missing limbs

Total

Ahuachapán

14

388

111

45

2

64

102

20

746

Santa Ana

16

574

50

45

14

117

214

21

1,051

Sonsonate

13

368

123

47

12

93

142

22

820

Chalatenango

14

470

51

16

10

116

117

14

808

La Libertad

44

551

110

41

15

119

184

22

1,086

San Salvador

101

1,466

333

114

51

777

507

63

3,412

Cuscatlán

6

246

32

19

10

59

79

17

468

La Paz

22

360

71

30

10

69

154

24

740

Cabañas

11

165

33

6

9

42

56

6

328

San Vicente

5

241

38

8

10

67

83

14

466

Usulután

8

295

100

30

31

192

184

18

858

San Miguel

13

442

123

34

18

124

189

27

970

Morazán

9

203

47

13

16

107

64

8

467

La Unión

9

213

35

8

11

81

85

12

454

Total

285

5,982

1,257

456

219

2,027

2,160

288

12,674

Source: Enrolment census 2006. MINED

Special education has been offered for more than 60 years in El Salvador. Educational for the disabled has generally been a major challenge, not only for reasons related to the educational environment but also mainly on account of factors linked to the country’s social and cultural environment, notably the following: failure to identify disability at an early stage; social myths about disability; low expectations of the disabled population; scattered demand for educational services, making it difficult to open specialist services; and a general lack of knowledge about disability in society. These reasons have made it harder to tackle the situation, mainly in rural areas; however, efforts are being made to provide the disabled population with educational services in both regular schools and specialist services, as required.

The plans implemented by MINED for caring for disabled children also include measures to support teachers in catering effectively for persons with special educational needs.MINED has devised and given courses for school teachers specializing in caring for children who are deaf or blind or suffer from mental retardation, and devised Catering for Diversity Modules for regular teachers.Efforts have also been made to increase the provision of support and teaching materials for the visually impaired, for example by providing:specialist school and classroom libraries for 30 special education schools and five schools for the deaf; basic specialist material for 152 blind students catered for by various means in the system; Perkins machines for the blind for 10 rural educational establishments; and flexible education offers to ensure access for hearing-impaired and blind students to literacy clubs for the deaf and the blind; distance learning and proficiency exams.

The policy and regulations for special educational needs were drafted with four strategic lines in mind: administrative organization, provision of educational services, professional care for special educational needs, and participation and awareness-raising. These strategic lines aim to stimulate the national education system by determining responsibilities at central, departmental and local levels; diversifying the provision of educational services; promoting ongoing training of the professionals involved, and guiding, promoting and publicizing the schooling process of disabled students. It is important to stress the leading role of regular educational establishments and the guiding role of special education schools.

The structure of the MINED Special Education Unit was redesigned in order to broaden the scope of action when catering for the education of disabled students from central level.In this new context the Department for Special Educational Needs was set up, with two levels of coordination:support for students and guidance and resources for diversity.Both levels aim to ensure that the approach for catering for diversity can permeate throughout the entire education system.

In particular, Student Support Coordination is the body responsible for designing, implementing and providing specialist curricular and teaching support resources, to guarantee access to the curriculum for students with special educational needs, with or without disabilities or outstanding skills, in the regular education system. Meanwhile, Guidance and Resources for Diversity Coordination is responsible for devising educational strategies and resources to offer guidance to teachers on educational responses for catering for diversity and to parents of students undergoing prevention and assessment processes. The preliminary data obtained from the Enrolment Census 2006 reveal more than 12,000 disabled children in the various facilities offered by the system: special education schools, regular schools, literacy clubs for the deaf and the blind, distance learning, being served and supported in the regular educational establishments that they are attending.

Regarding teacher training, under the “skilled and motivated teachers” educational policy of the Department of Professional Teacher Development of the Ministry of Education, four specialist courses for the level of elementary education are being run in the fields of mental retardation, hearing impairment, learning difficulties and emotional problems. Furthermore, the Department is taking part in the revision of the language and mathematics modules for the network of institutions in the Comprendo programme, with a view to ensuring that they incorporate an approach catering for diversity.

The redisign of regulatory tools for the various areas of care for disabled children is at a very advanced stage. The tools – all known as manuals – involved in the updating process are: the educational psychology service, service for the deaf, education support classroom and special education school.

All the measures described above are covered by the Presidential Equality for All programme, a part of the National Education Plan 2021, which aims to guarantee education for students with special educational needs, with or without disabilities.

C. Health and health services

Furthermore, health care for children is still a priority for the State of El Salvador and it contiues to earmark funds for it, as the following table shows.

Figure 49

Department of health service planning

Health information unit

Cost of child care, 2004, 2005, 2006

Dollars

Costs of hospital child care

Costs of primary-level child care

Year

Child check-ups

Child morbidity

Child check-ups

Child morbidity

Production

Unit cost

Production

Unit cost

Production

Total cost

Unit cost

Production

Total cost

Unit cost

2004

208,486.00

14.80

2,217,023.00

15.40

1,133,296.25

4,576,183.23

4.30

2,080,574.36

9,709,485.21

4.64

2005

155,627.00

14.56

2,255,782.00

17.24

1,064,602.14

6,123,168.19

5.98

2,029,929.94

12,005,318.17

5.43

2006

Scrubbed data not yet available

1,070,643.05

5,343,550.75

4.99

2,037,613.71

10,070,190.69

4.94

Source: Management Information System, 2004-2006

There was a reduction in the proportion of households with no access to piped drinking water, whether via a connection to the home or an easily accessible public source, and the country is nearing compliance with the following goals:

Figure 50

GOAL:reduce by one third (2010) (PA-MANA A, 1, 36 (d))

30.7%

GOAL:reduce by half (2015) (MDG 7)

23.0%

Between 1991 and 2005 the proportion of households without access was reduced from 46.06% to 31.92%, a decrease of 14.17 percentage points, at an average rate of 0.94 points a year. If this overall rate is maintained it is highly likely that the country will achieve the goals for 2010 and 2015.

Between 1991 and 2005 the proportion of households without access to main drainage, a septic tank or earth closet was reduced from 24.16% to 10.12%, a decrease of 14.04 percentage points, at an average rate of 0.94 points a year, which shows that the goal for 2010 (16.11%) has already been achieved and exceeded at national level.

The Salvadoran Government has set up a Health Solidarity Fund (Fosalud), with a view to raising, collecting, and distributing financial resources to improve public health care. Over the 2005 and 2006 financial years, Fosalud paid out the fololowing amounts for children.

Figure 51

Health Solidarity Fund

Expenditure on children

Tax years 2005 and 2006

Thousand dollars

Description

2005

2006

Expenditure on children 1/

4,136.1

13,876.2

Number of health centres

66.0

105.0

Percentage contribution to total expenditure

80.0

66.2

1/ in 2006 cover was given for: purchase of vaccines for rotavirus, dengue prevention, development of the Maternal and Infant Health Programme on the islands of Jiquilisco Bay and at the San Julián Maternal and Infant Nutrition Centre.

Families in the poorest municipalities of El Salvador represent major challenges which are the basis for the “Solidarity Network”, which since 2004 includes the component of front-line combat against poverty as a part of the Presidential “Opportunities” Programme, which works with sympathizer members, participating municipalities, NGOs, the international community, private enterprise, and work coordinated by the government ministry.

The Solidarity Network tackles extreme poverty in rural areas and in the municipalities that have been identified as most lacking basic services. These are families which, besides having no income, have no access to basic services such as energy, roads, water or health. The Solidarity Network transfers money to every houshold that is in severe extreme poverty, on two conditions: that the children go to school, and that babies and their mothers undergo nutritional and health check-ups.

The important thing is to provide a basic platform to rescue them from the extremely fragile conditions in which they live. Later, they are provided with tools so that they can progress through work and effort, giving priority to health care and education for their children. Most poor households are run by a woman. Solidarity Network aims to comply with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals for the year 2015, and advocates transforming the poverty map of this country, building a viable and sustainable environment, with chances to develop in an environment of new opportunities.

Solidarity Network’s vouchers are already supporting more than 48,000 families in 47 municipalities, 32 of severe extreme poverty and 15 of high extreme poverty, and it had paid out more than $10 million nationwide up to the end of 2007. For 2008, the Network will be extended, with education and health vouchers for 30 new municipalities in high extreme poverty, thereby completing coverage of 77 municipalities.

Note that in the 32 municipalities in severe extreme poverty where the Network operates, there have been signs of an increase in health checks, including ante-natal check-ups, check-ups on babies under one year old and puerperal check-ups. Enrolments have also increased in these 32 municipalities, 23% in nursery school, 6% in first cycle and 9% in second cycle.

The Programme’s main achievements by theme up to December 2007 include:

a) Theme 1: Family solidarity network

Action in 47 municipalities in severe and high extreme poverty;

87,326 homes surveyed;

48,659 beneficiary families and $ 10.7 million handed out in health and education vouchers to severe and high extreme poverty municipalities.

More than 48,000 parents trained in topics such as child health and nutrition , child rights, domestic violence and healthy housing.

b) Theme 2: Basic services network

$ 32.4 million of investment in basic social infrastructure in 47 municipalities in severe and high extreme poverty, benefiting some 446,447 people (FISDL);

105 Effective Schooling Networks implemented by MINED;

83 municipalities served by the MSPAS Health Services Coverage Extension Programme;

c) Theme 3: Family sustainability network

28,416 families benefit under production projects implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (MAG), in September 2007;

7,047 microloans provided through the Multisectoral Inverstment Bank (BMI) in municipalities covered by the Programme. These microloans totalled $12.2 million at September 2007.

Solidarity Network operates in three stages:

Immediately changing living conditions;

Expanding opportunities to access basic services such as water and education;

Changing the economic enviroment and helping people to find a sustainable source of income and family development, especially when the woman is alone in the home, with no support from the father.

Around $50 million a year will be invested in each one. The funds will come from four sources: appropriations from the various participating ministries; international cooperation, loans from international bodies; and a specific heading of the national budget. The goal is to support 100,000 families in extreme poverty over the next four years, at a cost of $200 million.

The programme will invest directly in extremely poor households, regardless of their location or the religion or ideology they embrace.

The general objective is to bring about a comprehensive improvement in the living conditions of families living in extreme poverty, focusing on rural areas, expanding their opportunities and providing the necessary resources, by improving the network of basic services, programmes of production development and microloans, to boost their capabilities to take advantage of these opportunities and improve the quality of their personal, family and community life.

The specific objectives are as follows:

to improve the incomes of families in extreme poverty, helping to eradicate hunger and linking it to the basic health and education systems;

to improve rural health and nutrition conditions, giving priority to preventive care for mothers and infants;

to improve the conditions of rural families – especially mothers – in extreme poverty by means of training and support measures;

to improve the education of the school-age population – under 15 – from nursery school to sixth grade in rural areas;

to foster gender, ethnic and age equality, by the active participation of women and men in all the network’s activities, and the implementation of gender-equality training in various environments to improve conditions and relationships in families and communities;

to improve the provision of basic services in health, nutrition programmes and elementary education;

to improve basic social infrastructure – drinking water and sanitation, and strategic infrastructure – for access to services through comprehensive and coordinated action with those sectors;

to improve the population’s legal security, by legalizing the place of residence and personal identity documentation;

to provide tools to enable the home to be financially sustainable, through production projects, job-skills training and micro-loans.

D. Social security

Within its benefits system the Salvadoran Social Security Institute (ISSS) has a number of programmes aiming to ensure comprehensive health for its contributors and beneficiaries, such as: comprehensive care for women; nutrition, family planning; HIV/AIDS; child care; immunization; older persons; health development and promotion; and occupational health. Besides health services, the plan includes monetary benefits by way of subsidies for temporary incapacity, pensions for occupational accidents and funeral expenses in the event of the death of the contributor.

According to ISSS sources over the period 2004-2006, these programmes benefited a total of 1,895,890 workers and 786,377 children between the ages of 6 and 12, broken down as follows. In 2004 the programme benefited 612,190 workers and 213,274 children aged between 6 and 12. In 2005 the programme benefited a total of 633,752 workers and 256,557 children aged between 6 and 12. In 2006 the programme benefited a total of 649,948 workers and 316,546 children aged between 6 and 12.

Over the reporting period, the ISSS spent more than $33 million on caring for children of insured beneficiaries.

Figure 52

Salvadoran social security institute

Institutional finance unit

Budget department

Cost-control section

Cost of caring for children of insured beneficiaries 2004 to 2006 and january to may 2007

Description

Summary

Grand total in US dollars

2004

Amount in US dollars

2005

Amount in US dollars

2006

Amount in US dollars

January to May 2007

Amount in US dollars

Spending on programme for

Vaccines

N.A.

683,000.00

1,100,000.00

362,000.00

1,462,000.00

Consultations

542,375

4,593,871.35

886,952

7,285,827.00

894,726

7,348,318.22

332,002

2,739,158.90

21,967,175.47

X-ray examinations

43,893

558,955.12

44,248

586,285.70

51,300

679,735.85

22,201

304,967.21

2,129,943.88

Drugs

1,225,767.50

2,004,511.52

2,022,080.76

750,324.52

6,002,684.30

Laboratory tests

127,330

414,030.61

154,416

500,222.08

172,737

564,631.01

69,246

229,360.84

1,708,244.54

Total

6,792,624.58

11,059,846.30

11,714,765.84

4,385,811.47

33,270,048.19

Source: Actuarial and Statistics Department, Cost-Control Section Health preventon

N.B.: Medical care for children of insured beneficiaries which in 1989 covered ages 0 to 2 has been extended. It now covers the 0 to 12 year age range.

Note also that in order to help improve health care for children of workers, the ISSS has been extending the age range for which they may benefit from medical and hospital services, at no additional cost to workers with dependent minor children. Accordingly, in the first stage children under 2 years of age were included; subsequently, over the period 1993-1996 cover was extended to children aged 2 to 6, and in September 2004, cover for children aged 6 to 12 was approved. The total number of children covered is currently 278,000, about 92,000 of whom are in the 6 to 12 age group. By the end of the year it is hoped to cover a total of 316,000 children, 131,000 of whom would be in the 6 to 12 age group (the goal is to cover some 211,000 children in that age group).

The benefits of medical care for children under 12 of entitled workers include: specialist paediatric consultations, drugs, laboratory services, access to preventive utrition and vaccination programmes, and low-complexity emergency treatment in hospitals and medical centres as defined above.

E. HIV/AIDS

Regarding HIV/AIDS, the State has made efforts to care for the infected population, and has implemented campaigns to prevent the disease. The following graph illustrates cases of HIV/AIDS detected by age group over the period 1991-2005.

Figure 53

Cases of HIV/AIDS by age group (1991–2005)

Cases

As the chart shows, the highest number of cases of HIV/AIDS was recorded in the 25‑34 age group; however, the level is significantly higher in the 15-39 age group, which means that the highest incidence of cases in Salvadoran society is still concentrated in economically productive individuals.

The following chart illustrates cases of HIV/AIDS detected by category of transmission over the period 1991-2005.

Figure 54

Cases of HIV/AIDS by category of transmission (1991–2005)

Sexual transmission

Unknown

Vertical transmission

Intravenous drugs

Blood transfusion

Over the period studied, sexual transmission (heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual) was the main type of exposure, accounting for 85% (13,876) of all forms of transmission. Vertical (mother-child) transmission accounts for 7%.

According to the National STD/HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention Programme, the annual rate of incidence gradually increased up to 2003, for both HIV (seropositives) and cases of AIDS. This rate grew especially from the year 2000, at an average of 765 new cases of HIV and 779 of AIDS a year, which may be the result of improvements in the epidemiological monitoring system and greater availability of free HIV testing nationwide, although it might also indicate a sustained – and more recently more acute – increase in the level of risk in the country.

However, it is important to mention that from 2003 and 2004, national efforts have succeeded in reducing the rate of incidence of HIV by 3 percentage points, from 20 in 2004 to 17.3 in 2005; the rate of AIDS was also reduced from 10.2 in 2004 to 6.2 in 2005. Therefore, if the current dynamic continues, the country can probably hold the disease in check.

One of the major achievements in combating HIV/AIDS in the country is the reduction of cases of HIV and AIDS in babies under one year old up to 2005, down from 92 in the year 2000 to 20 in 2005.

1. National action to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV accounts for over 90% of infections in children under 15 worldwide. In El Salvador significant progress has been made using a strategy of national action to prevent HIV infection by mother-to-child transmission.

This national action to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV began in 2001, as a priority in the National STD/HIV/AIDS work programme of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare (MSPAS), and consists of the four main phases: a) research, b) training, c) supply, d) monitoring and assessment.

The main activities and tasks of the previous phases were as follows:

Training of key players (health personnel and midwives);

Free and voluntary testing nationwide for pregnant women, with counselling before and after HIV testing;

Incentive through provision of baby clothing for pregnant women undergoing testing for detecting HIV antibodies;

Prophylactic anti-retroviral treatment for HIV-positive pregnant women (with AZT, Niverapine or triple therapy schemes);

Elective caesarean for HIV-positive pregnant women;

Counselling on infant nutrition;

Provision of breastmilk substitutes for HIV-positive mothers, consisting of eight tins of milk a year;

Monitoring of children of HIV-positive mothers at the Centre of Excellence for Immunodeficient Children;

Inclusion in the Basic Food Hamper Programme, to foster continuation of the treatment.

From 2003, voluntary and free HIV testing has been offered to all pregnant women nationwide, together with an promotion item of baby clothing as an incentive for taking the HIV test; similarly, the Ministry of Health offers seropositive pregnant women specialist ante-natal care, counselling, administration of antiretroviral drugs, safe birthing care, post-natal care and the necessary food (breastmilk substitutes) free of charge for proper feeding and nutrition of the child up the age of 18 months.

In the year 2000 the clinic for immunodeficient children opened at the Benjamín Bloom National Children’s Hospital, and a significant increase in the number of new infections was recorded, due mainly to the work carried out on active detection of new cases and comprehensive management offered to that population, with a subsequent strengthening of the “Initiative for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-AIDS” at national level through the National Programme with the taking of free tests nationwide in health centres equipped with a laboratory, associated with training of all operational levels of the Ministry of Health: Public and Social Assistance and an intense educational campaign on the media.

The success of the measure was clearly seen from 2004, when there were more than 100 cases of children infected with HIV a year, whereas over the past three years there were fewer than 20 cases a year, thanks to the prevention and comprehensive care measures put in place.

The most outstanding achievements of National Action for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission include:

An 88% reduction in the number of cases of children born with HIV;

A 60% reduction in the level of HIV/AIDS positivity during pregnancy, from 0.33% in 2002 to 0.08% in 2006;

An increase of over 100% in the number of HIV tests carried out from 2001 to 2006;

Decentralization and extension of cover of third-level care centres for the prevention programme, from one hospital in 2001 to 13 centres in 2006.

2. Information, Communication and Education Strategy

In the field of education, a number of strategies have been promoted to prevent HIV transmission, with the aim of reducing new infections among the population. Using these strategies a number of different messages have been designed that encourage people to adopt the various ways of preventing infection, and provide information on the ways in which HIV can and cannot be transmitted.

Note that ignorance of the ways in which HIV is transmitted is a determining factor for stigma and discrimination in various environments such as the family, the community, the workplace and health establishments.

Information, education and communication (IEC) programmes have reached all spheres through the use of various channels of the mass media, interpersonal and group communication media. The media have played a determining role in recent years, by contributing to the whole process of involving this profession in awareness-raising education campaigns about HIV/AIDS. As part of this process, the “Journalism Prize” strategy is being implemented, that rewards publications and reports on AIDS on radio, in the press and on television.

To support all the measures set out above, various printed materials have been designed (leaflets, flyers, brochures, posters and flipcharts that focus on the prevention message). The various educational campaigns are also based on epidemiology, which identifies the target groups for our action, thereby avoiding increased numbers of cases in groups such as adolescents, homosexual males, sex workers, pregnant women and the general population.

3. “Decide to Wait” campaign

The increase in pregnancies and HIV infections among adolescents, where the risks make this group more vulnerable, has prompted a number of measures in this group, which was broken up into two main segments, adolescents aged 10-12 in 4th to 6th grade and those aged 12-19. This situation indicates that delaying the start of sexual relations among adolescents is a 100% safe alternative for preventing HIV/AIDS in this group.

The campaign is an initiative of the National STD/HIV/AIDS Programme of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, in coordination with the “Education for Life” programme which is the fruit of the combined efforts of the Health Ministry, the National Secretariat for the Family and the Ministry of Education. All this was made possible by the support and coordination of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and private enterprise.

The main goal of the campaign is to make adolescents think about responsible sexuality; the slogan “Decide to Wait” is a phrase that covers many questions, and which at the same time sends a clear message to adolescents about postponing the start of sexual relations. We believe that that message needs to be strengthened, so as to make a positive change towards responsible behaviour on the part of young Salvadorans. Furthermore, adolescents learn about other prevention options and are educated to reduce the stigma and discrimination against persons living with or affected by HIV/AIDS.

One of the campaigns promoted during 2005 offers a response to the challenges raised by the FESAL study in 2005 which, on the basis of the 2002-2003 national family health survey, indicated the perception of personal risk of catching HIV, and the stigma and discrimination that infected persons can experience. This campaign was carried out in two stages, the first, called “Win the Battle against AIDS”, aims to reduce the situations of risk among the population. While the second, “Unite against Discrimination”, is designed to reduce levels of stigma and discrimination against persons living with HIV. The exposure of both campaigns in the mass media was the largest investment in the country’s history in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns, costing more than one million dollars.

4. “Win the Battle Against AIDS” education campaign

This campaign comes in response to the increase in cases among the country’s young population, and disseminates images in various environments where young people spend their daily lives; the central messages are directed at a proper perception of the risk of HIV and recommending effective means of prevention against the epidemic, such as delaying the first sexual relations, mutual fidelity among couples, and thoughtful self-control in a healthy and responsible sex life.

Messages were spread by placing them on street billboards, in public transport buses, and in places most frequented by these groups, such as cinemas, restaurants and bars, with a launch in September 2005 by the Ministry of Health through the National HIV/AIDS Programme with the support of the National Aids Commision (Conasida) and private enterprise.

5. Education campaigns for high-risk groups and the general public

During the various publicity campaigns under the National STD/HIV/AIDS Programme, campaigns were run aimed at high-risk groups such as homosexual men, sex workers and the general public, for which a variety of educational materials about the disease were prepared, laying emphasis on specific aspects such as the means of transmission and prevention, and ways of preventing transmission.

These groups were also received in health establishments for interviews, educational talks and counselling. At the same time, monthly meetings were held with groups of sex workers who were given guidance on looking after their own health, sexual health topics and HIV/AIDS.

Like other campaigns of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare, this one was backed up using mobile testing units for detecting HIV antibodies, which travel to various places in order to offer this service wherever required.

6. Solidarity garden

As a tribute to those who have died of AIDS and as a wake-up call to the general public on the importance of HIV prevention, a “Solidarity Garden” was built. This commemorative garden is designed with paths, green spaces and sunlight, covering a total area of 2,500 metres, to send the message “we human beings move along the path of life recognizing that we must show solidarity with persons living with HIV”; they are also human beings who hope to live a normal and harmonious life.

The National AIDS Commission (Conasida) was the driving force behind this project, which was the main action in the country to commemorate World AIDS Day, held on 1 December each year all over the world, with the aim of recognizing progress in the fight against the epidemic, and drawing attention to the remaining challenges.

In 2007 the central theme was “Stop AIDS. Keep the promise”, a pledge to be shared with anyone concerned to help from a personal standpoint, through leadership. This personal pledge consists of stepping up measures for prevention, treatment and care for HIV with support and dignity.

Note that the epidemiological report, up to December 2007, shows that important progress has been made against AIDS in El Salvador, thanks to a significant improvement in political commitment, coordination between institutions through Conasida with public policies and a unified plan, to ensure effective prevention, HIV/AIDS treatment, detection tests, and technical advice, along with other effective action.

VII. Education, leisure and cultural activities

A. Education, training and careers guidance

El Salvador is facing the challenges of overcoming poverty, improving its productivity and competitiveness, and laying the foundations of sustainable development, democracy and social peace. To do so, the country has to raise the educational level of its people, in terms of both training in basic life skills and specialist training of human capital in various areas of science, technology and the arts, while implementing social programmes such as Solidarity Network to combat poverty.

The Ministry of Education, under the Nacional Education Plan 2021, which is an initiative of the Salvadoran Government coordinated by the Ministry of Education with a view to combining efforts to improve the national education system, and with the objective of formulating, with a long-term view, the priority educational policies and goal for the coming years, is promoting the development of the professional teacher’s career, recognizing the academic training teachers have received in service and studies pursued after qualifying as teachers, which may be of use to them in completing a Degree in Education Science in the specialist course they have followed. To that end, specialist courses are being run in the basic areas of the curriculum and in school administration with the aim of improving teaching methods and improving the skills of teachers by developing their knowledge and skills and providing tools to help them solve childen’s learning problems. Each of the courses will comprise eight training modules, each with an academic value of 4 credits or points, equivalent to 80 hours of face-to-face training and teaching practice, each course being worth 32 points. Each of the modules in a course is structured around language and mathematics with a skills-based approach and using practical methodologies. In this context, from 2004 training measures have been carried out on specific topics with teachers of various levels and educational procedures at national level. As of that year specialization processes were introduced in basic areas of the curriculum with teachers in service belonging to the Ministry of Education’s priority programmes: Comprendo, Effective School Networks, Effective and Solidarity Schools and MEGATEC, as detailed below:

Training of 268 nursery-school teachers in managing and applying the integrated guide to methodological processes and implementing modules on the theoretical bases of the curriculum, technical supervision in the classroom and elements of nutrition for childen up to age six;

Training of 480 elementary- and high-school teachers on STD/HIV/AIDS issues;

Content and specific methodology update for 7,716 high-school teachers: preparation of teaching material, lesson planning, methods for teaching the basic subjects in the curriculum, catering for diversity, catering for learning difficulties, cross-cutting issues, conflict resolution, etc.;

Training for 1,100 teachers under the Comprendo and Effective schooling Networks programmes in the use and application of materials to support the teaching and learning process: text book, work book and teacher’s manual;

The following table sets out the details of Ministry of Education’s budget by level of education.

Figure 55

Budget allocated to the Ministry of Education (2001–2007)

Year

Budget (us dollars)

2001

472,323,513

2002

468,730,104

2003

466,303,405

2004

463,580,197

2005

501,329,877

The detailed budget by level of education for 2001-2005 is annexed.

Note:* Current expenditure includes wages and salaries, goods and services and current transfers

See also annex XIV.

Article 18 of the General Education Act states that nursery education normally comprises three years of study. The elements of the curriculum are to foster comprehensive development through education from age four to six, involving the family, the school and the community. Accreditation of the completion of nursery education, while not being a requirement for continuing studies, allows unrestricted access to elementary education.

The following graph illustrates how spending on nursery education as a proportion of the MINED budget showed a rising trend over the years 2001-2005, from 6.0% to 7.8% of the total budget. Within the total current expenditure allocated to wages and salaries, 9.3% corresponded to that level in 2001, rising to 9.8% in 2005 and staying at that proportion in the budget approved for 2006. Current expenditure in goods and services accounted for 1.9% in nursery schools in 2001, and 3.9% in 2005. Furthermore, capital expenditure for 2002 and 2003 represented 6.4% and 8.5% respectively, whereas there was no spending under the heading of loans for this level of education over the reporting period. Over the period analysed, wages and salaries accounted for between 95% and 97% of the total allocation to nursery schools.

Figure 56

Breakdown of spending on nursery schools as a percentage of total budget (2001-2005)

0%2%4%6%8%10%12%200120022003200420052006Wages and salariesGoods and servicesCurrent transfersCapital expenditureSpending from loans

Source: MINED, (2001-2006).

Elementary education normally comprises nine years of study from first to ninth grades, organized into three cycles of three years each, normally starting at age seven. According to article 4 of the LGE, elementary education is compulsory, and free of charge when provided by the State.

Over the period 2001-2005, spending on elementary education fell slightly from 64.3% to 62.6% as a proportion of the total budget executed by MINED, rising in the 2006 budget allocation to 63.4%. The current expenditure allocated to wages and salaries fluctuated between 74.8% and 75%, as the majority of the student population in the education system is in first to ninth grade, and in view of its importance in achieving the goals of Plan 2021, and the targets of the millennium development goals (MDG2) to achieve universal primary education by 2015. Current expenditure includes remuneration of teaching and administrative staff and the purchase of goods and services and current transfers. In the case of goods and services, there was a proportional increase for the contracting of educational services under the Educo programme.

Capital expenditure was higher in 2002 and 2003, because it covered reconstruction after the earthquakes and Hurricane Stan.Spending from loans is a prominent heading at this level of education, although it shows a downward trend, from 73.6% in 2001 to 45.6% in 2005 of the total.

Figure 57

Breakdown of spending on elementary schools as a percentage of the budget MINED

0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%20012002200320042005Wages and salariesSpending from loansCurrent transfersCapital expenditureGoods and services

Source: MINED, (2001-2005).

High school offers two kinds of education: general and vocational. In accordance with the General Education Act, both are designed for going on to higher education or joining the labour market. High-school studies end at baccalaureate level, accredited by an appropriate diploma. The general baccalaureate lasts two years while the vocational cycle lasts three years. The night-school baccalaureates last three and four years respectively. All this is laid down in the General Education Act.

Spending data for the high-school budget account for 10.5% to 10.9% of the total budget executed by MINED, falling to 9.2% of the budget allocation for 2006. Spending from external loans grew from 26.4% in 2001 to 54.4% in 2005, highlighting the strategy of expanding educational services by arranging loans, with the aim of subsequently finding ways of absorbing them with public funds.

Processing the MINED enrolment data to group investment by means of budgetary execution from 2001 to 2005, the following trend is observed:

In nursery schools there was a rising trend from 2001 to 2004 from 6.0% to 7.7% in the total budget executed by MINED, followed by a small drop in 2005 to 7.3% of the Ministry’s budget execution;

For the period 2001-2005, 48.3% of spending went to primary education;

Spending on secondary level increased over 2001 and 2002; 21% of the budget went to secondary over the period 2001-2005.

In June 2007 a trust was approved by decree with the aim of raising a total of $350 million to support education, social peace and public security; $200 million of that amount were allocated to education.

The trust funds are being used in various Plan 2021 programmes, including:

The EDIFICA programme (infrastructure) was allocated $59.3 million for renovating or rebuilding 280 new schools, including a specific number of national institutes. These include the National Institute of Commerce (INCO) where $1,100,000 is being invested in reconstruction and equipment. This will cover the total replacement of 12 classrooms, three toilet blocks, the installation of a first-level computer laboratory and the renovation of various areas of the establishment, thereby benefiting almost 700 pupils.

The Conéctate programme has been allocated $21.7 million to upgrade computer classrooms and provide the institutions with hardware and software.

The Megatec network will benefit by expanding the offices in La Unión and setting up another office in Cabañas. This would mean at least 5000 grants in these areas.

The Edúcame programme aims to provide a more flexible supply of educational services in the third cycle and baccalaureate, by implementing new procedures to reduce the level of over-age students and bring young people having interrupted their academic training back into the education system. It will receive an allocation of $14.4 million, sufficient to provide 20,000 new places for poor young people and distance learning, which has already made it possible for 4,628 new students to join the programme. The trust has so far raised an actual investment of $1,200,000.00. Edúcame has 70 offices in 56 municipalities spread over 14 departments nationwide, 62 of which in 50 municalities are working with funds from the trust;

The Compite programme will receive $7.8 million, earmarked for English lessons for 10,000 baccalaureate students.

Assessments will also benefit from the allocation of $5.4 million to the Elementary Education Learning Test (PAESITA) and international tests.

The Effective schooling Network programme (REE), which is the educational section of Solidarity Network, has received an allocation of $7.3 million. To date, more than 130,000 pupils at 767 educational establishments have benefited from a contribution of $1,340,000 to carry out projects in fields such as the physical environment, educational materials, desks, school transport, remedial classes and psychological care.

Figure 58

MINED spending according to UNESCO classification (2001-2005)

0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Percentage of budget executed by level of educationNursery6.0%6.5%7.0%7.7%7.3%Primary (grades 1 to 6)49.7%49.4%47.1%48.0%47.3%Secondary (grade 7 to Baccalaureate III)25.2%28.6%14.2%10.8%26.2%Total spending from nursery to secondary81.0%84.6%68.3%66.5%80.8%20012002200320042005NurseryPrimary (grades 1 to 6)Secondary (grade 7 to Baccalaureate III)

Source: MINED, (2001-2005).

In order to obtain an approximate figure for MINED spending, we took as a basis the enrolment figures broken down by area for the period 2001-2005, and estimated the amount of spending from the MINED budget for urban and rural areas at nursery, elementary and high-school levels. The data for spending on education for nursery and elementary pupils, broken down by geographical area of the schools in which they are enrolled, shows the following:

MINED spending in rural areas is tending to rise, from 44.7% in 2001 to 46.7% in 2005, as a proportion of total spending for students from nursery to high school in the public sector. The average for the period was 45.6%;

Priority was given to schools in rural areas, which cater for poorer populations and have lower academic indicators than urban schools.

Figure 59

MINED spending by geographical area

0%10%20%30%40%50%60%200120022003200420050.80.80.80.80.80.90.90.9Urban areaRural areaRural/urban index

Source: MINED. (2001-2005)

Based on the enrolment data recorded by MINED for nursery to high-school levels, spending was estimated broken down by gender for those levels over the period 2001-2005. This exercise shows that spending by gender has remained equitable, since in 2001 48.7% was allocated to the female student population as against 51.3% to males, while the distribution was 49% on female enrolments and 51% on male enrolments in 2005. The ratio varied from 0.94 to 0.96 over the period, which is an acceptable index of gender parity in terms of spending.

Figure 60

MINED spending by gender

47%48%48%49%49%50%50%51%51%52%52%200120022003200420050.90.91.01.01.01.0Female enrolmentsMale enrolmentsGPI (female/male)

Source: MINED. (2001-2005)

The average cost to MINED of a student in the various levels of education was estimated using the spending data recorded by the Administration Department of MINED, divided by total enrolments for each level of education taken from the enrolment survey. The following average annual costs were obtained for the period 2001-2005:

The average annual cost per nursery pupils was $140 for the reporting period, with a rising trend in average costs of budget execution, leading to a higher cost for 2005 of $151;

In elementary education, the average annual cost was $227 over the reporting period;

For high school, the average annual cost is estimated at $341 over the reporting period.

Figure 61

Average cost by level of education. Amounts in US dollars

Level

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Nursery

133

135

138

145

151

Elementary

243

234

216

213

227

High school

333

398

396

283

293

Source: MINED. (2001-2005)

B. Activities to improve the coverage and quality of education

The challenge facing the Ministry of Education in terms of coverage is to reduce the percentage of the population that does not attend school by expanding the coverage of nursery, elementary and high-school education, raising literacy levels and catering for the whole poor and above-age population.

Among the activities designed to close the gap in coverage and quality under the Educo programme, enrolments of students from nursery to baccalaureate level have been maintained at more than 320,000 since 2004.The programme has 17 educational establishments that have expanded educational services to the baccalaureate in rural areas, administered by the community, including a National High-School Institute.From 2005 a strategy was implemented of remedial classes, especially in first grade, to enable pupils to successfully complete first grade and be moved up to second grade.This strategy is being extended to the higher grades.

Under the Opportunities Programme and the National Education Plan 2021, since 2005 the Ministry of Education has been implementing the Effective schooling Network programme, one of the main Government management initiatives for the 2004-2009 period.The Effective schooling Network aims to improve efficiency in the provision of educational services and to enable children and young people to gain access to high quality education.In the 100 municipalities in extreme poverty and with the highest repetition and dropout rate in the country, 105 Effective Schooling Networks were set up, involving 780 educational establishments with enrolments of about 124,243 students, and 3,436 teachers.As at 2006, the 66 networks organized brought 4,460 new students into the national education system, mainly as a result of the conditional money transfers to families benefiting under the Solidarity Network programme.The networks receive technical assistance with teaching and administration to improve access and help students to stay in school.

The network steering committees coordinate the various activities for the benefit of the network, and receive the relevant guidelines for implementing common initiatives to help improve integration of the member schools.Some 500 first- and second-cycle teachers have begun a process of specialization in the areas of language and mathematics so as to serve students better and improve their learning experience.

Pupils from nursery to sixth grade receive a daily snack at school.Language and mathematics books have also been supplied to all first- and second-grade pupils, to support and help them learn to read and write and perform arithmetic.Pupils, mainly in first grade, receive remedial teaching to help them learn to read and write.In elementary education, the following measures safeguard the children’s right to education:new regulations to encourage access to elementary education; ensuring that the necessary conditions are met to guarantee a suitable environment for a good education that encourages students to continue their studies;facilitating the processes of providing teaching resources in schools; facilitating processes of long-term (PEI) and short-term (PEA) planning to create a culture of educational planning based on children’s learning;supporting all institutional and international efforts that are of educational benefit to pupils in the level;set up school registers to ensure that promoted students retain their legal entitlement; orientating departmental quality monitoring teams towards the improvement of school management in a way that favours elementary education;checking that the 200 school days per year are taught and that the study hours are in accordance with the regulations and academic workload of the level;supporting the process of creating new sections in elementary education;investigate and solve cases where children are denied the right to education; and incorporate into circulars information on the development of family involvement in learning.

The Ministry of Education has taken some important steps that have enabled coverage to be expanded in the third cycle and high school. For 2006, 826 grants were awarded to baccalaureate students, 502 to women and 326 to men. These grants were awarded on the basis of the following criteria: the level of poverty of the applicant; child of a single mother; applicant from a municipality in the Solidarity Network; applicant students attend one of the establishments in the Megatec network or National Technology Institutes.

Other similar measures and activities included:

The topic of non-discrimination against pregnant teenagers was included in the Operating Regulations document for elementary educational establishments, which is supplied to head teachers. In most schools, pregnant teenagers are now able to attend in normal school hours and are not expelled or subject to arbitrary measures that violate their rights;

The Committee on the Family, Women and Children of the Legislative Assembly is considering a reform of the General Education Act, aimed at eradicating discriminatory measures against pregnant girls;

For 2006, 345 grants were awarded for the third cycle and 352 for high school;

The provision of educational services in the department of La Unión was expanded in five urban educational establishments, equipping them with classrooms, furniture and teachers, which allowed coverage to be increased by 40 per cent in elementary education and also in high school;

A network of 36 elementary and high schools has been formed and for 2007 it is planned to upgrade students’ vocational skills by means of careers guidance and vocational training projects;

The range of educational services provided has been expanded in 52 high schools nationwide.

We should also mention the Accelerated Elementary Education Programme which is a teaching strategy supporting the development of the seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade curriculum in the third cycle of elementary education, catering for young people in areas of extreme poverty.The accelerated education strategy is a measure designed to increase educational coverage, mainly in marginal rural and urban areas, and aims to improve quality in education of the over-age elementary education population, offering a process enabling them to advance to a high level of schooling and develop skills and attitudes for improved personal and social development.Young people are expected to join the formal education system within one or two years and this is an opportunity to obtain certificates for grades two to six of elementary education.The programme offers the target population an educational service based on electronic and online media and caters for demand for elementary education in rural areas where, for geographical and financial reasons, it is not possible for young people to move to urban areas to continue their studies.In 2006 it served a population of 26,400 pupils in 352 schools nationwide.The programme is being implemented at national level, and in 2006 it catered for 589 students within the Effective schooling Network (REE), and 2,586 outside it, benefiting a total population of 3,175 students from grades two to six of elementary education.

The Alternative Classrooms programme is a strategy designed for students enrolled at schools with a low student population, allowing differentiated education to be provided that takes account of students’ potential and limits; it is run at the same time but separately by a single teacher for students in different grades, specifically in grades two to six of elementary education where the curriculum is suited to the grade and level of each student. The objective of the programme is to devise a participatory and dynamic methodology focusing on the student as the main player in the learning process. It is being implemented nationwide, and in 2006 it served a population of 123,456 students in grades two to six of elementary education. The programme catered for 1,875 students within the REE, and 125,340 in the population at large. See annex XV in this respect.

We should also mention the Distance-Learning Programme which is a teaching strategy supporting the development of the seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade curriculum in the third cycle of elementary education, catering for young people in areas of extreme poverty.The programme offers the target population an educational service based on electronic and online media and caters for demand for elementary education in rural areas where, for geographical and financial reasons, it is not possible for young people to move to urban areas to continue their studies.In 2006 it served a population of 26,400 pupils in 352 schools nationwide.

The issue of teenage pregnancies has always been a highly controversial one in the country’s educational establishments, especially on the cultural level and the myths surrounding the issue. Much of the work involves raising awareness among teaching staff, parents and students, and has achieved much in recent years. Beginning in 1999, head teachers of public- and private-sector elementary schools were invited to devise awareness campaigns on the issue of teenage pregnancy. Over that period, this measure improved the position of pregnant girls in schools. In 2001, a national research project was carried out involving 138 elementary schools. It brought to light very important data on the reasons why pupils drop out of school, one reason being teenage pregnancy. A sample of 101 regulations from elementary schools was reviewed, 87% of which did not require expulsion on grounds of pregnancy.

This research on pregnancy concluded that although awareness-raising days had been held on the rights of adolescents, the aim was to ensure that all institutions should allow any pregnant pupils to continue studying. The research enabled action such as the following to be taken:

Awareness-raising workshops with school authorities, describing the legal measures to ensure that the rights of pregnant girls were respected and that efforts were made to prevent teenage pregnancies. These workshops laid emphasis on the legal basis of protection for women;

Provision of guidelines to schools to keep records of causes of pupils dropping out, and to strive to retain these students.

In 2005, a sample of 50 public schools was provided with tools for collecting information on teenage pregnancy, to provide a reliable database on the issue. The main outcome of this survey was as follows: in 49 shools in the sample there were 198 cases of teenage pregnancy; in the 49 schools in the sample, there was an average of 4.0 pregnant teenagers; 55% of the pregnant pupils were aged between 17 and 18; 81% of pregnant pupils were in the second or third year of the baccalaureate; 63% of the pregnant pupils stayed at the school, which is a success for the awareness-raising campaign among authorities and teachers; and 37% of pregnant pupils left the school at their own choice.

As a result of these strategies, in most educational establishments, the girls are now able to attend in normal school hours and are not expelled or subject to arbitrary measures that violate their rights;

In 2006 research was carried out with the aim of collecting information to build a reliable database on educational efficiency indicators, such asschool drop outs and truancy.Head teachers were provided with a tool for collecting data on the number of pregnant teenagers, their age, school grade and whether they were currently studying in the establishment, with a view to making an analysis and update the database on this issue which is linked to the causes of school drop-outs in the country.This database will help elementary school coordination, whether supported by or supporting other MINED bodies, to define some strategies with a view to ensuring that schools take measures to enable young girls to continue their studies and complete their baccalaureate.See Annex XVI for more information on articles 14 and 15 of the Family Code which determine who may or may not contract marriage and the requirements applying to minors.

The Ministry of Education, under a cooperation agreement with the Salvadoran Education and Labour Foundation (Editar), is implementing a project entitled “The Don Bosco Industrial Estate – an alternative education”, with the aim of facilitating access to education by the young population at social risk, by creating opportunities for a quality academic, vocational or business training and the training of business leaders. Since 2003, MINED – in cooperation with Editar – has been awarding grants for academic training at elementary and high-school level; training and work experience in sales, finance, production and management in aluminium, footwear, printing, bakery, die-stamping, and engineering businesses; and vocational training in carpentry, engineering, cutting, textile and electrical workshops. Young people receive the academic, vocation and practical business training, and also receive medical and psychological care, family and legal counselling, food, uniforms, shoes, teaching materials, personal items, and the boarders receive full board and lodging throughout the year.

In 2006 MINED also promoted the implementation of two relevant activities at national level: “Leisure mornings” and “Art festivals”, involving parents and significant adults, which focus on child rights. A total of 242,414 children took part.

Furthermore, the ten priority programmes of the National Education Plan 2021 include nursery education under the “Juega Leyendo” (Reading though Play) programme. The Juega Leyendo programme consists of two strategies: a) one-year community nursery education sections, and b) sections to prepare for entering first grade of elementary school, lasting three months, both in their own right and as part of the National Education Plan, focusing on six-year-olds, especially those in rural areas classed as extremely poor, difficult to access and with the highest repetition and dropout rates. As things stand at this point in 2007, the Juega Leyendo programme operates in 76 of the poorest 100 municipalities in El Salvador, across 14 departments. The programme has benefited children who have no access to nursery education, as the following table shows:

Figure 62

Children benefiting under the Juega Leyendo programme (2005–2007)

Year

Strategy

Children

2005

25 three-month preparatory sections for entering first grade (October 2005 to January 2006)

401

2006

50 ten-month community nursery education sections

856

30 three-month preparatory sections for entering first grade (October 2006 to January 2007)

476

2007

96 ten-month community nursery education sections

1440

Total

3173

This programme equips teachers with the tools to give children basic preparation in reading and arithmetic and also enables them to explain parents’ and guardians’ obligations towards their children.

The Ministry of Education’s Department of Initial and Nursery Education has joined an interinstitutional effort with UNICEF, the Ministry of Health, the Salvadoran Institute for the Full Development of Children and Adolescents and other bodies concerned to draw more attention to children through the programme También soy Persona (I’m a Person Too), aimed at families. Phase I has already been launched in six educational communities in the country through “Parents’ Schools” implemented nationwide with financial support from UNICEF.

Even though we have a gross coverage of 50.4% and a net 42.7% rate in nursery education, attendance at this level has been improving year after year in the communities and parents are therefore inceasingly keen to send their children to nursery school. In 2006, 239,638 children were enrolled on this basis.

With the Juega Leyendo programme of the National Education Plan 2021, there was an increase in coverage of nursery level, especially in communities with the highest repetition and dropout rates and in those which have educational services but no nursery level. In 2006, 856 children were enrolled under the “Community Nursery Education Sections” strategy, and 476 under the “First-Grade Preparatory Sections” strategy, covering a total of 1,332 children of nursery age. For 2007, 1,290 children will come under the “Community Nursery Education Sections” strategy, and 810 under the “First-Grade Preparatory Sections” strategy, covering a total 2,100 children in the system. The Juega Leyendo programme equips teachers with the tools to give children basic preparation in reading and arithmetic and also to explain parents’ and guardians’ obligations towards their children. The Initial Education programme, aimed at parents and operating in 568 schools, continues to offer guidelines and improve the growth of their children, especially those aged four and under, and who have no systematic institutionalized care. The aim is to start introducing them to education before they enter nursery school, and 39,375 children under four have benefited since 2005.

After three years of focused implementation, a proposal for improving learning has been put together.The spirit of the educational reform begun in the 1990s has not been abandoned, but it has been clarified and implemented in such a way that the objectives, content, methods and assessment of the learning process are put into practice in a more connected and clearer manner.The focus of the Salvadoran curriculum is therefore still constructivist, humanist and socially committed.When working on skills development, pupils are encouraged to learn significant lessons by solving problems in context and developing critical thinking.At the same time, it encourages them to emerge from the education system and be successful in higher education or working life, since both require highly skilled human resources.Based on this approach, the national curriculum is constantly being updated.These updates to the curriculum have the support of researchers who, after long experience, have succeeded in setting theoretical and practical standards that allow innovations to be introduced into to the curriculum.The basic outlines of our curriculum, adopted by our academic and technical staff, allow a skills-based approach to have more chance of success in Salvadoran education.The Ministry of Education’s update of the curriculum does not abandon the objectives-based approach, as it considers them to be compatible with skills.

Any update of the curriculum always affects the structure and sequencing of the objectives and content. This means that the content and structure of syllabuses will change. To orientate the curriculum towards attaining skills, the objectives were reviewed, improved and drafted in a skills format, which implies linking conceptual, attitudinal and procedural content in such a way that it corresponds to an outcome. In terms of teaching and learning, the relevance of the content depends on its function in achieving the objectives, i.e. developing skills. Hence its importance is not determined by the subjects. The starting point has to be the skills that the students need to perform well in the academic, work and social domains, which are set out in the objectives. This update of the curriculum has sometimes led to a new approach to the basic subjects. For instance, in language teaching, the functional communication approach has been encouraged, which starts by acknowledging the social nature of language and the importance of interaction in the construction of meaning, and the development of thought, knowledge and creativity.

More up-to-date methodological proposals have also been put together in the other areas of the curriculum. This initiative will reach schools by means of documents, teacher training and departmental monitoring teams. The plans will be implemented in schools on the basis of the following documents:

Curriculum in the service of learning implements the whole skills-based proposal for the education system;

Skills-based assessment: guides skills assessment;

Study syllabuses;

Methodological guides to basic subjects for teachers in grades 1 to 6;

Text books for the four basic subjects for students in grades 1 to 6;

Exercise books for the four basic subjects for students in the first cycle; and

Nursery notebooks for pupils aged 4, 5 and 6.

Since 2005, teachers in 111 targeted schools have been given three teaching materials for implementing the proposal in language and mathematics subjects for first grade: text book, exercise book and methodological guide. The materials for second grade were validated in 2006 and those for third grade in 2007. The same year, all first-grade pupils were given a book for learning to read and six exercise books. The first exercise book in this series was also designed for six-year-olds in nursery school. Monitoring teams were trained in the proposed teaching materials and their use in the classroom, and they in turn held information and modelling meetings on the use of the materials for first-grade teachers in early 2007. In 2007 there will be a national effort to equip all first-cycle pupils (grades 1 to 3) and teachers with these materials. The four basic subjects of language, mathematics, social studies and science will be covered.

As an important activity in the field of monitoring and assessing learning, a nationwide experiment was carried out for assessing the priority indicators for language and mathematics for each term, with the aim of offering remedial classes to first-grade pupils not delivering the expected results. This initiative helped to consolidate the continuous and motivating nature of assessment in the education system, by means of “quarterly progress tests and remedial class plans”. The measured indicators correspond to the indicators of the Unified Quality Monitoring Strategy. In the second quarter progress was made by considering possible reasons why students were not achieving the expected performance in the assessment indicators. The experiment was validated on a sample of 111 schools with a view to extending it to the whole country. The assessment is monitored by the departmental monitoring teams, and focuses more on the remedial activities than on the results, by relating results to students and sections over the three terms assessed. This continuous assessment is built into the text books, exercise books and methodological guides, in order to integrate it successfully into the education system.

As indicated in the National Education Plan 2021, the Salvadoran Government, under the coordination of the Ministry of Education, is fostering combined efforts to improve the national education system. The aim of the plan is to devise priority long-term education policy and targets for the coming years.

The following accreditable specialist courses have also been devised.

Development of three modules with 317 teachers from the Comprendo Programme, corresponding to the specialist course in language and mathematics for the first cycle of elementary education. The following modules have been developed: introduction to communication skills in language and mathematics, continuous assessment of reading and writing and the basic operations, and emerging reading and writing and problem-solving;

Development of module I : introduction to communication skills in language and mathematics with 634 teachers from Effective School Networks and Effective Solidarity Schools;

Development of two language modules with 668 first-cycle elementary teachers and teachers from the Elementary Education Upgrade Programme with emphasis on language;

Development of a diploma course on basic areas of the curriculum with 119 teachers from nursery and first and second cycles of elementary education, from the departments of La Unión and Morazán. The diploma course lasted 10 months, during which seven modules were developed on the following topics: initial and nursery education, teaching mathematics, teaching language, learning assessment, school organization and administration, catering for diversity and strategic planning;

Training of 360 language, literature and mathematics teachers from the third cycle of elementary education;

Training of 3724 head teachers of public educational establishments, with the development of four modules in the following fields: institutional management, organizational management, curriculum management and teaching management.

Progress has been made with raising the literacy of the Salvadoran population, but a certain level of illiteracy still remains. Accordingly, the State of El Salvador continues to make efforts and allocate resources to bring literacy to as many inhabitants as possible. The following table gives data on the trend of literacy in the country, illustrating the constant reduction in the illiteracy rate, from 25.2% in 1991 to 14.9% in 2006. It also shows the increase in school attendance over the same period, which rose by more than 400,000.

Figure 63

Trend of illiteracy in el salvador, 1991–2006

Population aged 10 and over by literacy and calendar year

1991 - 2006

Year

School attendance (number of persons)

Illiterate (number of persons)

Illiterate (percentage)

1991

949,611

954,840

25.2

1992

NA

937,604

24.6

1993

NA

926,255

24.1

1994

NA

892,538

22.6

1995

1,013,707

856,285

21.0

1996

1,197,881

861,120

19.8

1997

1,127,509

886,873

20.1

1998

1,104,814

876,799

19.5

1999

1,120,997

840,081

18.1

2000

1,156,033

836,695

17.5

2001

1,194,272

818,773

16.6

2002

1,227,160

836,256

16.6

2003

1,211,084

805,495

15.9

2004

1,274,470

811,735

15.5

2005

1,307,773

791,658

14.9

2006

1,360,691

797,349

14.6

Source: Derived from data from the General Directorate for Statistics and Censuses (DIGESTYC). Educational variables and EHPM.

Annex XVII contains statistics on illiteracy broken down by gender, age and urban or rural origin, for the period 2004-2005.

As stated above, substantial progress has been made in relation to school attendance for promoting the integration of children into the education system, particularly in the early cycles of schooling. However, a significant number of children still leave the system at age 16.

Annex XVIII contains statistics on school attendance broken down by gender, age and urban or rural origin, for the period 2004-2005.

Besides the education offered by the public school system, the State of El Salvador offers a number of training programmes, notably through the Salvadoran Vocational Training Institute (INSAFORP). The National Youth Secretariat also runs the Careers and Working Skills programme which prepares young people to work in skilled trades, with technical skills and knowledge. It is run with the support of German cooperation (GTZ), private enterprise and trade unions.

The analysis carried out in 2006 by the Ministry of Education’s Quality Monitoring Teams as agents providing technical assistance to schools in a particular geographical area (education district), helped to identify the factors at national level influencing pupils dropping out of school. The most common is the families’ financial situation (municipalities in extreme poverty), and child labour. Other factors are a lack of interest or attention by parents in their children’s education, common diseases, families emigrating abroad, moving house (families fearing crime, seeking work, etc.).

The analysis by the monitoring teams in the education districts is accompanied by efforts to establish commitments within the education community to reduce school drop-out levels. The most common commitments made in educational establishments are: carrying out home visits; discussing absenteeism in meetings with parents; and sending parents written notes for pupils missing from school, stressing parents’ obligation to educate their children. One strategy for stopping first-grade pupils dropping out is to provide remedial classes in language and mathematics. This process is carried out as follows: examinations are set in both subjects each term, and the questions correspond to various skills that the students have to acquire in that time. The teachers set and mark the exams and a remedial strategy is planned based on the results obtained. This strategy is monitored not only by the teacher but also by the parents.

Previous efforts to reduce dropping out from school have given positive results, as El Salvador has a target for 2010 of reducing by half, i.e. to 14.49%, the proportion of school-age children – aged 7 to 17 – who do not attend primary or secondary school.

The proportion of non-attendance of 28.97% in 1990 fell to 13.88% in 2005, an overall decrease of 15.10 percentage points, with an annual average of ­1.01 per cent. The rate of decrease over the third five-year period 2000-2005 was higher than in the two previous five-year periods, with an annual average of ­1.26 per cent. The 2010 target has therefore already been achieved and exceeded.

1. Family Alliance Plan

In response to the rise in international oil prices, President Saca presented the Family Alliance to the nation, comprising 19 measures. The plan involved an investment of $54 million. It was divided into $18.5 million for education, $17 million for agriculture, $15 million for supplementing income tax and $3 million to fund the ISS paying 100% of salary during maternity leave.

The Plan involves a decisive participation by the private sector, as it implies more regulation of public services such as telephones and electricity, to avoid unjustified payments in those sectors and the financial system.

There are also plans for reforms of certain laws such as the General Telecommunications Act and the Consumer Protection Act.

The measures include:

An increase to 100% of salary cover granted by the ISS to working mothers during the 12 weeks of maternity leave;

Increase in deductions that citizens can claim against income tax under education and health, up to $1,600, or $800 for each heading;

Abolition from January 2008 of enrolment, tuition and graduation fees for more than 150,000 baccalaureate pupils in the public system;

Consistent with the above, repayment of enrolment and tuition fees already paid by families;

Extension of the free Edúcame programme to increase its capacity from 30,000 to 50,000, bringing young people who have dropped out of baccalaureate studies back into the education system;

Hiring with own funds of a total of 2,950 new teachers, to join the education system.

2. Measures for education

Under the measures for education, baccalaureate students will be able to enrol in high schools free of charge from January 2008. The Ministry of Education has earmarked $17 million (from the trust fund) to cover enrolments, tuition and graduation fees for some 150,000 students who are currently about to enter high school. The remaining $1.5 millon dollars will go to technology upgrades.

The baccalaureate is the only academic level that is not free of charge in the public system. Until 2007, students paid an average of $10 a month (10 instalments a year), $20 for enrolment and $15 in graduation fees.

For the time being, 300 high-school classrooms will be refurbished and internet will be funded for all baccalaureate establishments.

C. Relaxation, leisure and cultural and artistic activities

The National Youth Secretariat’s objectives also include healthy leisure activities for young people and optimum use of free time. The activities it carries out to promote participation in cultural activities, and healthy leisure and recreation for young people include:

Youth camps. With the support of the National Council for Public Security, MINED, the Ministry of National Defence and the National Academy for Public Security, youth camps are run as common living areas, where young people learn and practice skills and abilities;

Youth Month. In Youth Month, activities are carried out to promote participation by outstanding young people as citizens in the various areas of national life, through youth meetings, forums, conferences, cultural activities and sports activities;

Youth Power Festival.This is an area for expression, participation and recognition of young people’s artistic and cultural talent.The Festival encompasses art exhibitions, street art, contests, stage art, knowledge quizzes, extreme sports and youth concerts;

Youth Ingenuity Contest.This activity is designed to stimulate young people to develop their creativity in the areas of technology, through recognition, exhibition of projects, fostering young people’s ingenuity and knowledge transfer;

Young Talent Festival.This activity aims to promote the talent of young people with outstanding academic, artistic, cultural or sporting qualities; create the necessary spaces and skills to successfully encourage the abilities of young people, by promoting music, plastic arts, literature and theatre and promote youth issues; and

Outstanding Merit Prize.This is a programme to recognize young Salvadorans who stand out in daily life, and organizations and institutions that offer the best programmes to promote young talent.

VIII. Special protection measures

A. Returning children

Reception mechanisms are established for Salvadoran children found travelling alone in other countries. These are mediated by the various institutions involved, namely the Department of Humanitarian Management and Migrant Care (DGHAM), the Ministry of External Relations, the National Civil Police General Directorate for Migration and Aliens (DGME) and the Salvadoran Institute for Full Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA), amongst others.

The process begins as follows:

Relatives of the child in El Salvador submit an application to DGHAM and set out the case, showing the child’s birth certificate;

An official appointed by DGHAM: personally interviews the person requesting repatriation;

When a case is submitted by a Salvadoran Consulate abroad, the DGHAM official locates relatives in El Salvador to explain the repatriation process to them and draws up an authorization to be signed by a relative. This enables the Consul to complete the necessary formalities with the local authorities and thus repatriate a person under the age of 18;

If a foreign institution caring for a child asks for a social services report on the family who is to receive him or her in El Salvador, the Consulate requests this from DGHAM;

DGHAM draws up and sends a memo to ISNA requesting the preparation of a social services report on the family who will receive the child in El Salvador;

DGHAM receives the Social Services report on the relevant family prepared by ISNA and sends it to the Consulate;

The Consulate completes the relevant formalities with children’s institutions and migration authorities for repatriation (identification of the child, transfer to the airport or confirmation of repatriation route);

If the authorities in the corresponding country do not provide for the child’s transport, the Consulate will notify DGHAM so that it can liaise with relatives in El Salvador or the relevant bodies in order to obtain the fare;

DGHAM coordinates the child’s reception with the relatives who are to receive the child in El Salvador, DGME and ISNA;

DGHAM hands over the child to ISNA for clearance and subsequent handover to his or her relatives.

With regard to the above process and because the children enter across the La Hachadura border, it has been agreed that the Consul notifies ISNA by email the day it sends the children and also liaises by telephone with the Ministry of Foreign Relations Migrant Care Centre in La Hachadura; ISNA staff go to the Ministry of External Relations Migrant Care Centre and perform the following procedure there:

They receive a list of all children and adolescents.

They confirm which of the children are accompanied by relatives and in possession of documentation.

They carry out interviews with each child and their family to establish that they are biologically related and that the birth certificate and sole identity document (DUI) are correct.

Official record and report forms are then filled in so that the children and adolescents can be handed over to their relatives.

If no relatives are present to meet the children, they are transferred to ISNA and temporary accommodation is organized in the Hogar Moraga and Ciudad de los Niños orphanages for girls and boys respectively. In some cases, the relatives even come to the ISNA in Santa Ana on the same day to reunite the family. Otherwise, arrangements are made by telephone to allow the relatives time until the following day to pick up the children.

Under exceptional circumstances, when the family fails to turn up, the relevant arrangements are made with ISNA branches, according to the geographical area in which the child is resident.

When they are sent to ISNA, the procedure is as follows:

They are sent to ISNA by the DGME or the National Civil Police at the following border posts: Santa Ana, Anguiatú and San Cristóbal de la Frontera or the Paraje Galán police station in Santiago de la Frontera, Ahuachapán, and the Las Chinamas and La Hachadura borders;

The Anguiatú, San Cristóbal de la Frontera, Paraje Galán and Las Chinamas border posts specifically receive children and adolescents who are detected at these borders or border posts when they leave El Salvador heading for other countries;

The La Hachadura border specifically receives children sent by the El Salvador Consulate in Chiapas, Mexico.

1. Numbers of children and adolescents handled

ISNA began work in the field of returning minors in the western area in 2004 and reported as follows:

In 2004 it handled 444 minors;

In 2005 it handled 918;

In 2006 it handled 976 salvadoran children and 56 foreigners entering the country illegally.

The type of assistance offered consisted of providing:

Accommodation;

Food;

Hygiene products;

Psychological assistance, when necessary.

Note that children return by both land and air, in the latter case under the “Bienvenido a Casa” (Welcome Home) return programme, handled by the General Directorate for Migration and Aliens, which reported receiving the following numbers of minors during the following years:

194 in 2004

A total of 269 in 2005

A total of 298 in 2006

The following institutions were involved in this process:

National Civil Police;

General Directorate for Migration and Aliens;

Ministry of External Relations;

ISNA.

Minor nationals may return to El Salvador in two ways, by air and by land.

Figure 64

General Directorate for Migration and Aliens. Returning Salvadoran children

Period from January to December 2006

Place of entry

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

La Hachadura

172

147

153

164

135

139

98

103

134

71

88

104

1,508

Las Chinamas

0

0

4

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

2

8

San Cristóbal

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Anguiatú

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

El Poy

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

El Amatillo

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

2

0

0

0

5

International airport

45

18

34

26

33

33

11

18

28

22

13

17

298

Total

217

165

191

190

168

172

113

121

165

93

101

123

1,819

See annex XIX for more information on returning children.

B. Child victims of trafficking in persons and sexual exploitation

El Salvador set up a National Committee against Trafficking in Persons by means of Executive Order Number 114, published in Official Gazette No 224, Volume 369 dated 1 December 2005, with the aim of fighting this scourge comprehensively, by implementing a national Policy and Plan for the eradication of trafficking in persons in accordance with obligations under the Salvadoran legal system.

The Committee is made up of the following Secretariats and Institutions: Ministry of External Relations (the Committee Chair and Permanent Secretariat is in charge of this agency), Ministry of Government, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Employment and Social Security, Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare, Ministry of Tourism, National Secretariat for the Family, National Civil Police, General Directorate for Migration and Aliens, Salvadoran Institute for the Full Care of Children and Adolescents, Salvadoran Institute for Women’s Development.

The Committee performs the following functions to achieve its aim:

Integrates and coordinates efforts with the aim of investigating and preventing the crime of trafficking in persons and assisting victims through national institutions and international bodies;

Develops enablement and training activities on the subject, taking into account the various methods of trafficking in persons;

Disseminates efforts to combat the scourge of trafficking in persons amongst the population;

Proposes appropriate legal initiatives through any of the committee members, with the approval of the president of the republic.

Advises committee government body officials on measures or projects to promote the topic;

Promotes measures designed to reinforce and facilitate the participation of public and private institutions in combating, preventing and handling trafficking in persons.

The committee is currently drawing up the national policy against trafficking in persons 2008-2017 and its respective action plan 2008-2012.

In order to combat trafficking in persons and the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, the National Plan for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (2006‑2009) contains a specific chapter on the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents. This includes intervention strategies, strategic measures and indicators. The Plan incorporates the following indicators: level of perception and public rejection of commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents; media coverage; types of complaints; level of integration of victims in families; number of beneficiaries in prevention programmes; number of citizen complaints; number of cases investigated; number of exploiters captured; and number of cases where the aggressor receives a criminal penalty. By means of a Citizen Charter between government institutions and civil society, it has also been possible to set up a Working Party against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children And Adolescents.

Over the reporting period, special units were set up against trafficking within the ISNA, the National Civil Police, the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic, ISDEMU (Salvadoran Institute for Women’s Development), the Ministry of External Relations and the General Directorate for Migration and Aliens, which work in coordination to increase the efficacy of State action to help victims and punish those responsible.

As far as criminal law is concerned, the Criminal Code and Code of Criminal Procedure has been reformed to bring national legislation into line with international obligations in this area, with the aim of providing greater protection for victims and more severe penalties for exploiters and traffickers. In 2004, for example, all offences connected with child abuse, lewd sexual acts, including possession of child pornography, trafficking and trading in persons were reformed, increasing the penalties if the victim is under 18 years of age in order to safeguard and protect children and adolescents. In particular, Article 367-B of the Criminal Code criminalizes the offence of trafficking in persons, and also aggravating circumstances to the offence of Trafficking in persons.

In cooperation with international organizations such as the ILO and UNICEF, investigations were carried out into trafficking, identifying risk areas. ISNA conducted awareness and information campaigns to prevent such acts occurring and invests an approximate annual sum of $ 196,328 in caring for victims and working to restore their rights. In 2006, ISDEMU promoted a prevention campaign against trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation through the media. This involved 2,570 radio spots broadcast on five national radio stations, advertising hoardings on the main streets of San Salvador, mobile billboards on bus routes in the metropolitan area and the printing of posters and leaflets with informative messages. ISNA delivered training activities against trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation to the competent authorities. Training was provided for court, police, tax, protection and migration employees. Material on methods and types of trafficking in persons and the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents was also circulated to Salvadoran consulates and forums involving Salvadoran communities abroad. ISDEMU also delivered this type of programme and, at the time of this report, 2,514 male and female National Civil Police officers benefited from awareness seminars on commercial sexual exploitation and basic courses against domestic violence. The Ministry of Education implemented a pilot project for schools entitled "Preventing the trafficking of children and adolescents and raising awareness of sexual and reproductive health”, delivered in educational establishments trained 400 teachers, more than half the total of 701; the campaign was delivered to 28,040 students and their families and 66 schools, with the staging of five plays and the production of material such as flyers.

With regard to programmes for the assistance and rehabilitation of children who have been victims of sexual exploitation or trafficking in persons, ISDEMU has been implementing a programme aimed at girls and adolescents who are victims of commercial sexual exploitation since 2004. Under this scheme, girls are provided with psychological support, monitoring by social services, support in court cases, medical care through the national health system and training in productive skills for their subsequent reintegration in society, such as baking and make-up artistry. ISDEMU’s institutional budget covers funds invested in victim support (technical resources, infrastructure, resource training, food, materials, transport, essential items, medicinal products, victim training and identity documents). ISDEMU also manages the allocation of funds to fight trafficking in persons and delivers awareness campaigns through co-operation agencies such as the Resource Foundation, ILO-IPEC, UNICEF and the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (SAIC). Similarly ISNA deploys a technical team of solicitors, social workers and psychologists whose work is to provide direct assistance to victims. The team is supported by nursing staff, doctors and instructors. ISNA also runs a shelter for victims. The assistance programme offers medical assessment, psycho-social counselling, provision of clothing, personal hygiene accessories, food, recreation and family contact and international negotiation for repatriation.

Inter-institutional working parties have been set up within the field of assistance for victims of commercial sexual exploitation. The code of criminal procedure has also been reformed to prevent children who have been the victims of crimes becoming victims again. Reforms include the early taking of statements from the boy or girl; being accompanied by their parents or a professional psychologist to court hearings; having no physical contact with the aggressor - and protecting the identity of victims under 18 years of age.

One of the aims of ISNA is the eradication of commercial sexual exploitation and other forms of sexual exploitation of persons under 18 years of age. It conducts its work through three branches and nine local offices while also providing shelter and care for victims. The number of victims assisted due to sexual abuse in the last three years and the proportion they represent of the remaining population protected by ISNA are detailed in the following table:

Details of ages, gender and nationality of victims of commercial sexual exploitation assisted by ISNA during 2005 and 2006 are given in the following tables.

Figure 65

Victims of trafficking in persons, forms of commercial sexual exploitation, assisted by ISNA (2005)

Age range

Female

Male

Total

Country of nationality

Total

age 3 to < 6

1

1

2

Belize

1

age 9 to < 12

4

4

Guatemala

1

age 12 to < 15

29

29

Honduras

2

age 15 to < 18

38

2

40

Nicaragua

4

age 18 and over

3

3

El Salvador

70

Total

75

3

78

Total

78

Figure 66

Victims of trafficking in persons, forms of commercial sexual exploitation, assisted by ISNA (2006)

Age range

Female

Male

Total

Country of nationality

Total

age 0 to < 3

1

1

Guatemala

6

age 9 to < 12

6

6

Honduras

2

aged12 to < 15

30

30

Nicaragua

4

age 15 to < 18

43

43

El Salvador

70

age 18 and over

2

2

Total

82

Total

82

82

ISNA dedicates a good proportion of its efforts to programmes for the assisting and rehabilitating child victims of sexual exploitation or trafficking with the aim of restoring their rights involving the family and local networks. It has run local campaigns for the prevention of commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking in persons, with teaching material, posters, advertising billboards and moving billboards on buses. IPEC/ILO has funded and implemented projects for the prevention of commercial sexual exploitation and victim support for the National Civil Police (PNC), ISNA, Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic (FGR) and non-governmental organizations.

Trafficking in persons is classed as a crime in Article 367-B of the Criminal Code, which establishes the following:

Anyone who, of their own initiative or as a member of a national or international organization, for the purposes of financial gain, recruits, transports, transfers, shelters or harbours persons, within or outside national territory, in order to engage in any activity related to sexual exploitation or to keep them in forced labour or service or practices similar to slavery, or for the purposes of organ removal, fraudulent adoption or forced marriage, shall be liable to imprisonment for a term of four to eight years. The maximum applicable penalty shall be increased by up to one third when the victim is under 18 years of age or incompetent.

As stated above, the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic is responsible for managing the investigation of the offence and bringing a criminal action with the cooperation of the National Civil Police. Investigations of this type of offence are instigated automatically, because they are categorized as crimes against humanity under the Salvadoran Legal system. The Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic sets up an Illegal Trafficking in Persons Unit in 2003 to offer specialized assistance for this type of offence. This unit is in charge of investigating all forms of trafficking and trading in persons. The Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic is a member of the National Committee Against Trafficking Persons, set up in 2005 with the aim of handling the crime of trafficking holistically through a national policy and plan for the eradication of this crime, in accordance with obligations entered into by the State of El Salvador when it ratified international instruments on the subject.

Over the reporting period, the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic opened the following investigations into cases of crimes relating to trading and trafficking in persons:

Figure 67

Trading and trafficking in children cases.

Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic. (2004 – 2006)

Year

Age of victim and number of offences

Total

Age 0-10

Age 11-18

2004

Illegal Trafficking in persons

40

48

88

Total

42

51

93

2005

Illegal trafficking in persons

7

21

28

Trade in persons

5

10

15

Total

12

35

47

2006 (up to August)

Sale of persons

0

0

0

Illegal trafficking in persons

9

27

36

Trade in persons

2

18

20

Total

11

49

60

See annex XX for more information on trafficking in persons.

El Salvador has implemented various measures to combat the scourge of kidnapping, beginning with the adoption of penal reforms that entered into force in 2001, when the criminal penalties were increased. This crime was punished by imprisonment for 20 to 30 years and, as of the reform, the penalty was increased from 30 to 45 years of imprisonment and it is now forbidden to grant the prisoner conditional release or early conditional release. Similarly, it was established that when the victim is under 18 years of age, this aggravating circumstance may increase the sentence by up to a third of the maximum sentence.

With regard to the legal prosecution of the crimes of kidnapping and trafficking in persons for the period 2004–2006, magistrates courts dealt with 42 cases, preliminary investigation courts dealt with 30 cases and trial courts dealt with five cases. The details are given below:

Figure 68

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims of kidnapping and trafficking in persons in the 24 Magistrates Courts equipped with the Case Monitoring System.

Magistrates Courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

Kidnapping

Total

Kidnapping

Trafficking in persons

Total

Kidnapping

Trafficking in persons

Total

42

21

21

9

3

6

12

10

2

Average per court

2

2

2

1

0

0

1

1

0

Figure 69

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims of kidnapping and trafficking in persons in the 30 Preliminary Investigation Courts equipped with the Case Monitoring System.

Preliminary investigation courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

Kidnap-ping

Aggravated kidnap-ping

Total

Kidnap-ping

Aggravated kidnap-ping

Trafficking in persons

Total

Kidnap-ping

Aggravated kidnap-ping

Trafficking in persons

Trafficking in persons

Total

30

1

1

4

9

3

3

3

20

7

3

9

1

Average per court

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

Figure 70

Statistical data of all cases involving minor victims of kidnapping and trafficking in persons in the eight Trial Courts equipped with the Case Monitoring System.

Trial courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

Total

Total

Kidnapping

Trafficking in persons

Totals

5

-

-

5

3

2

Average per court

1

-

-

1

1

1

El Salvador runs a Shelter for Victims of Trafficking in persons, which began to operate on 29 April 2006. It is being coordinated by the General Directorate for Migration and Aliens, together with Fundación Huellas, with the support of the Inter-Institutional Subcommittee, part of the National Committee against Trafficking in Persons and the IOM. From May to December 2006, 51 children were offered comprehensive assistance in the above shelter, most of them female and Salvadoran.

Figure 71

Victims of trafficking, assisted at the shelter of the Directorate General for Migration

(May to December 2006)

Nationality

Number

Gender

Number

Age range

Number

El Salvador

26

Male

4

0 - 3

5

Nicaragua

10

Female

56

4 - 6

3

Mexico

9

7 - 9

3

Guatemala

6

10 - 12

6

Honduras

5

13 - 15

6

Colombia

4

16 - 18

28

19 - 21

4

22 - 24

3

25 - 27

2

28 - 30

0

Over 30

0

Total 60

In 2005, the General Directorate for Migration and Aliens returned 36 boys and 16 girls aged between 20 days and 17 years to their countries of origin. During 2006, 28 boys and 27 girls aged between 7 months and 17 years were returned. As a general rule, the reasons for deportation were family reunification, the repatriation of victims of trafficking, and migration documents not being in order. The children's nationalities are detailed in the following tables.

Figure 72

Minors returning to their countries of origin (2005)

Country of origin

Number of children

Guatemala

10

Nicaragua

15

Honduras

25

Mexico

2

Ecuador

2

Belize

2

Bolivia

1

Total

57

Figure 73

Minors returning to their countries of origin (2006)

Country of origin

Number of children

United States

4

Mexico

 22

Nicaragua

 4

Honduras

 18

Cuba

 1

Guatemala

 6

Total

 56

El Salvador has established cooperation agreements on migration with countries in the region of Central America and Mexico through the Care Protocols and Memoranda of Understanding and also through a Repatriation Reference System between migration bodies, consulates and child protection institutions.

C. Refugee children

According to information from the General Directorate for Migration and Aliens, over the last three years El Salvador has granted refugee status to 3 girls and 1 boy of Colombian origin forming part of family groups.

D. Children in conflict with justice

The legislation applicable to minors who are alleged to have committed crimes is the Juvenile Criminal Justice Act, Law on Surveillance and Control of Execution of Measures for Young Offenders, and the General Regulation of Centres of Internment for Young Offenders, and also the law regulating Executive Body institutions responsible for designing and applying children's and youth policies, particularly the ISNA.

The Juvenile Criminal Justice Act establishes the specialized jurisdiction of Youth Magistrates, who are responsible for applying a special procedure for the judging and handing down of criminal penalties to persons aged over 12 and under 18 who are alleged to have broken the law, and also for the rights and guarantees to which such people are entitled. Children aged between 16 and 18 are only subject to the following measures laid down in the Juvenile Criminal Justice Act: social and family guidance and support, reprimand; imposition of rules of conduct; community service; probation; and imprisonment as a final resort. Children over 12 and under 16 are subject to the same measures and also some of those laid down in article 45 of the Law of the Salvadoran Institute for Full Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA): namely return home with or without supervision; foster care placement; substitute care placement and institutional placement.

Various reforms were introduced to the Juvenile Offenders Act by means of Legislative Decree No 395 of 28 July 2004, published in Official Gazette No 143, Volume 364 of 30 July 2004. The main changes were as follows:

The name of the Juvenile Offenders Act was changed to the Juvenile Criminal Justice Act (LPJ);

The system of protection for minors’ rights to identity and privacy was changed, amending Article 5 (b), which prohibits the publication of information that directly or indirectly makes their identification possible, without prejudice to the exception laid down in Article 25 of the Act. Two paragraphs were introduced under which the competent magistrate may - as of right or upon the application of one party - authorize the publication of information on the minor’s likeness or identity in order to facilitate his or her location in cases of evasion from justice and in the presence of serious objective risk to the safety of victims, witnesses or any other person. The measure is to be suspended once the minor has been located and handed over to the competent authority;

Article 30 regulating provisions prohibiting the police from keeping criminal records was amended and replaced by another entitled “Registration”. This reform upheld the above prohibition, except in cases determined by the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic or the competent magistrate. It also establishes that storing of the records will be confidential and only for purposes strictly related to court proceedings, though records will be accessible to duly authorized persons directly participating in current trial proceedings and will not be used in trials of adults relating to cases in which the same person could be involved;

The rights of victims or the injured parties are extended by an amendment to Article 51, incorporating the following rights: i) to be informed of the results of the proceedings and the follow-up to the final outcome, irrespective of whether or not they have played a part in the proceedings; ii) to play a part in conciliation, withdrawal and hearing of the case and also in any other hearings that affect their interests, in accordance with the terms of this Act; iii) to contest the discharge, acquittal or cessation of the proceedings, even when they have not played a part in the trial; iv) not to have to reveal their identity or that of their relatives under certain circumstances; v) to be provided with protective measures, and vi) to receive medical or psychological assistance, where required;

A point was added to Article 58 specifically establishing that the Salvadoran Institute for Full Development of Children and Adolescents is the body responsible for administering minors’ certificates and ensuring they are accessible and comply with the purposes for which they were created;

The crimes allowing mediation were restricted, amending Article 59 that originally allowed conciliation for all types of crimes or petty offences, except for those affecting broader interests. When the reform was approved, mediation was prohibited for the following crimes: i) manslaughter and murder; ii) extortion; iii) crimes of deprivation of liberty, kidnapping and aggravated offences against individual liberty; iv) crimes relating to sexual liberty; v) crimes that affect broader interests of society - and vi) crimes committed by minors who have reconciled the same class of intentional offence;

The maximum term for carrying out preliminary investigations was extended from 30 days to 60 days through the reform of Article 68;

Under the reform of Article 103, decisions that previously granted the right to special appeal only if they affected the rights of the defendant, can now also be appealed against if they are contrary to the interests of the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic. These decisions are as follows: i) decisions imposing or denying an interim measure; ii) decisions imposing or denying joinder of causes of action; iii) decisions ordering the merit of holding a case hearing or denying it. The right of appeal was also extended to decisions that impose a fine for infringement of the Juvenile Criminal Justice Act;

Article 14 establishing the punishment of a fine for breach of obligations was amended, clarifying that the said breach could be committed not only by the official in charge of applying and complying with this Act but also a public employee, public authority or agent of authority;

A specific procedure was established for imposing fines, because previously the only instruction was to follow the procedure laid down in the Code of Criminal Procedure, through the amendment of Article 117;

The responsibility for administering Intermediate Imprisonment Centres was changed by the reform of Article 119. The intermediate centres were established to comply with the detention order for those over 18 years of age who require special treatment or whose presence at the centre could be prejudicial to minors. Like the other prisons, these centres came under the responsibility of ISNA, but under the terms of the reform issued through Legislative Decree No 20 of 15 June 2006, published in Official Gazette No 126, Volume 372, of 7 July 2006, responsibility for them passed to the Executive Body in the Government Branch.

The Juvenile Justice Unit of the Supreme Court of Justice produced a report analysing the statistical data, which showed the good results achieved under the juvenile criminal justice system. These data and analyses were circulated during the course of 2006 through lectures, forums, seminars and other education and training events to judicial operators and other target groups relating to the juvenile criminal justice system. The statistical data produced by the Supreme Court of Justice indicate that the number of crimes attributed to minors has fallen by approximately 10 per cent compared to the years before the entry into force of this specialized criminal justice system. In 1994, the Ministry of Justice records showed that 15% of crimes were attributed to persons aged over 16 and under 18; while this percentage fell to 5.82% during the period from January 2000 to June 2006.

Figure 74

Crime attributed to minors compared to adult crime

Criminal proceedings brought before criminal courts and juvenile courts (2000 to June 2006)

Adults

Minors

% of adults

% of total

340,477

19,819

5.82

5.50

Source: Supreme Court of Justice. http://www.csj.gob.sv/idioma.htm/Estadísticas.

Another significant result of the criminal justice system is the relatively widespread practice of dejudicialization, in other words the application of outcomes alternative to the judicial process allowed under current law, including: mediation (LPJ; Article 59); referral to community programmes (Article 37); waiver of the right of action (art. 70), only for illegal acts punishable by imprisonment for a minimum term of under three years; and action for an injunction due to the exclusion of responsibility, withdrawal or other legal proceedings (Article 38).

This practice of dejudicialization may take place, at least partly, with the following information.

Figure 75

Cases entering and alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. Period 2000 – 2004

Cases entering

Alternative dispute resolution mechanisms

Number

Number

Percentage

15,402

11,862

77

Source: Administrative Systems Unit. Supreme Court of Justice (CSJ)

Note that during the period 2000-2004, out of a total of 15,402 cases entering the Juvenile Court, 11,862 – or 77% – culminated in an alternative dispute resolution mechanism.

Another important achievement of the juvenile criminal justice system is the less frequent use of custodial sentences, both as an interim measure and as a punishment or definitive sentence, as the following table shows.

Figure 76

Types of measure imposed. Period: 1 January 2002 – 31 Aug 2004

Type of Measure

Number

Percentage

Definitive measure

1,065

100.00

Imprisonment

284

26.67

Non-custodial

781

73.33

Interim measure

4,458

100.00

Imprisonment

1,706

38.27

Non-custodial

2,752

61.73

Source: Administrative Systems Unit, Supreme Court of Justice

Over the period 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2004, out of a total of 1065 definitive measures handed down, 284 (26.67%) involved imprisonment, while 781 (73.33%) were measures that did not involve custodial sentences. Over the same period, out of a total of 4,458 interim measures imposed, 1,706 (38.27%) were imprisonment, while 2,752, or 61.73%, did not involve custodial sentences. Statistics recorded previously by the Courts for the Enforcement of Measures on Juvenile Offenders confirmed this encouraging practice of imposing fewer custodial sentences, as may be seen in the following table.

Figure 77

Custodial and non-custodial measures under the control of Courts for the Enforcement of Measures on Juvenile Offenders. Period 1995 – 2002

Courts

Imprisonment

Non-custodial measures

Totals

1st Court of Enforcement of Measures of San Salvador

60

100

160

2nd Court of Enforcement of Measures of San Salvador

80

277

257

Court of Enforcement of Measures of Santa Ana

98

112

210

Court of Enforcement of Measures of Santa Miguel

31

115

146

Court of Enforcement of Measures of San Vicente

36

62

98

Totals

305

666

971

Percentages

31.4%

68.9%

100%

Source: Attorney-General’s Office for the Protection of Human Rights, Human Rights of Children and Young People - Compendium of decisions and special reports on children and young people, San Salvador, 2004

With regard to the application of youth justice administration, the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic set up the Department of Juvenile Crime in March 1995, recruiting a group of prosecutors and training them in the application of the special legal system applicable to children in conflict with the law. This special training enabled the Prosecutor to guarantee the set of rights and guarantees designed to assist children accused of breaking the law. These rights must be guaranteed from the beginning of the investigation or, if applicable, when the minor is located and placed under the order of the Prosecutor. From that moment, the minor is guaranteed the right to a defence counsel, which takes effect when the minor is summoned by the specialist prosecutor through the juvenile criminal justice process, who from that time orders the separation of captured adults and minors in preventive custody. In the same way, in line with domestic law, the principles and provisions laid down in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (Riyadh Guidelines) and the United Nations Standard Minimum rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (Beijing Rules) are taken into consideration.

It should be emphasized that the juvenile justice process is extremely short because the Prosecutor's office is allowed only 60 days to conduct the investigation. Once the minor has been located and placed into the order of the Prosecutor, he or she must therefore be brought before a judge within 72 hours. The judge must hold a hearing to formulate the charges, when any appropriate cautionary measure is handed down. The main aim of this is to guarantee an education in responsibility as established by the guiding principle of the Juvenile Criminal Justice Act, in harmony at all times with the relevant tenets of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the best interests of the child. Within 60 days, a criminal action is brought and if an alternative dispute settlement mechanism is not forthcoming, the process culminates in a case hearing, at which it is always preferable to impose the measure that is most likely to re-educate the minor in conflict with the law.

The Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Republic keeps a register of criminal offences allegedly committed by persons under 18 years of age. In 2006, out of a total of 7,953 person under 18 years of age who were investigated by the Office of the Attorney General, 6,678 were detained for the purposes of judgement and 1,275 were not ordered to be taken into custody because this restriction was not justified, as indicated in the following table:

Figure 78

Type of detention for persons under 18 (2006)

Total

Detention in flagrante delicto

Interim detention

Administrative detention

Detention with court order

No detention

6,574

53

48

3

1,275

Total

7,953

See annex XXI for other cases.

As far as the judgement of children in conflict with the law is concerned, during 2004-2006, 12,575 children were tried in specialized juvenile courts, most of whom were male, as shown in the following table:

Figure 79

Persons under 18 years of age tried in juvenile courts at national level, by gender and age

Description

Total

Grand total

Subtotals by year

Subtotals by gender

2004

2005

2006

2004

2005

2006

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

Total

12,575

4,469

3,855

4,251

11,437

1,138

4,130

339

3,526

329

3,781

470

Aged under 12

18

6

5

7

14

4

4

2

4

1

6

1

Age 12

164

49

60

55

142

22

37

12

56

4

49

6

Age 13

430

146

141

143

373

57

133

13

124

17

116

27

Age 14

951

340

268

343

830

121

296

44

234

34

300

43

Age 15

1,873

712

534

627

1,652

221

633

79

475

59

544

83

Age 16

3,483

1,304

983

1196

3185

298

1,209

95

911

72

1,065

131

Age 17

5,656

1,912

1,864

1,880

5,241

415

1818

94

1722

142

1701

179

According to the Juvenile Criminal Justice Act, children who are tried may be subject to interim or definitive measures other than imprisonment , as shown in the following table:

Figure 80

Statistical data on interim and definitive measures handed down to minors in Juvenile Courts at national level

Juvenile courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

Interim

Definitive

Interim

Definitive

Interim

Definitive

Interim

Definitive

Totals

5,843

4,521

1,322

1,337

354

1,425

444

1,759

524

Interim and definitive custodial sentences by specialised courts for minors during the period are shown in the following table:

Figure 81

Statistical data on interim and definitive custodial measures handed down to minors in Juvenile Courts at national level

Juvenile courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

Interim

Definitive

Interim

Definitive

Interim

Definitive

Interim

Definitive

Total

1,790

1,424

366

402

86

440

131

582

149

Children in conflict with the law found guilty of committing a punishable offence are detailed in the following table:

Figure 82

Number of minors sentenced or found guilty in Juvenile Courts at national level

Juvenile courts

Total

2004

2005

2006

Total

1,085

281

376

428

During the period 2004-2006, more than 3,600 children accused of breaking the law were reported to ISNA, as shown in the following table.

Figure 83

Total population covered, classified according to gender (2004, 2005 and 2006)

Gender

2004

2005

2006

Adolescents

%

Adolescents

%

Adolescents

%

Female

121

9.3%

101

9%

79

7%

Male

1,187

90.7%

1,069

91%

1,102

93%

Total

1,308

100%

1,170

100%

1,181

100%

The minors reported to ISNA were referred to Rehabilitation Centres or followed up by ISNA to monitor the alternative measures imposed by the Juvenile Courts.

Figure 84

Total Population in the care of the ISNA Rehabilitation Subsystem by care area, 2004– 2006

Care area

2004

2005

2006

Young people

%

Young people

%

Young people

%

Rehabilitation centres

1,206

92.2%

1,111

95%

1,113

94%

Alternative measures

102

7.8%

59

5%

68

6%

Total

1,308

100%

1,170

100%

1,181

100%

ISNA detention centres have a capacity for a total of 760 minors, as follows: Tonacatepeque, 460; El Espino, 100; Ilobasco Centre (male) 150; and Ilobasco Centre (female), 50.

At the time of writing, 487 people were in custody, as shown in the following table:

Figure 85

Minors and persons over 18 detained in ISNA Detention Centres. (June 2007) *

Population/Age

Aged 18 and over

Aged under 18

Over-18s in the Intermediate Centre, in compliance with Article 119 of the Juvenile Criminal Justice Act

Male definitive inmates

153

129

30

Female definitive inmates

8

5

Interim male inmates

19

154

Interim female inmates

2

17

Subtotal

182

305

Total per centre

487

*These include young people serving custodial sentences who committed crimes when they were minors. In other words, they have passed their 18th birthdays and are still serving their custodial sentences.

The four rehabilitation centres employ a total of 196 staff. These staff members have been duly trained by ISNA and external bodies to perform their functions.

Minors under the responsibility of the ISNA take part in programmes of reintegration, teaching or vocational training and also programmes of formal education, recreation, culture, health and vocational training in accordance with the Juvenile Criminal Justice Act and the Detention Centre Regulation. The Centres also run therapy and Alcoholics Anonymous communities. At the date of this report, 42 people were taking part in special rehabilitation programmes involving supervised release. Due to the reintegration programmes, the percentage of reoffenders is 27%. Minors in conflict with the law also benefit from programmes run by the National Youth Secretariat, such as the Granja Escuela Izalco, mentioned previously, ‘deportevías’ (street sports) events held in Offenders’ Centres and the Nehemías Project, when 97 in people in conflict with the law are offered reintegration opportunities.

More than 10,500 children have been offered special rehabilitation care by ISNA and NGOs authorised by the Institute.

Figure 86

Number of children offered special rehabilitation care

Table showing population cared for in centres and shelters run by NGOs and ISNA

2004

2005

2006

NGOs

2,520

2,464

2,765

ISNA

939

955

930

3,459

3,419

3,695

Source: Child Information System and reports of ISNA regional branches.

The National Youth Secretariat has also run various schemes to prevent juvenile delinquency, such as the Juvenile Rescue Centre Project, which looks after 80 gang members, located in las Primaveras, Quezaltepeque, las Brisas, Colonia IVU; or the Solidarity Support Project, which seeks to establish a culture of social solidarity between young people in situations of high-risk and vulnerability. One project worthy of particular mention is the Youth Secretariat’s Mano Extendida (Outstretched Hand) project which sets out to rehabilitate young people by educating them and integrating them into society and the employment market, isolating them from antisocial behaviour and high-risk environments. This project runs schemes and plans with the aim of preventing young Salvadorans from becoming involved in violence or criminal activities, joining gangs, truanting from schools, becoming drug addicts or destitute or having underage pregnancies. The programme diagnoses young people affected by violence, gangs, truancy, drugs, destitution and underage pregnancy and maps out strategic partners for preventing risk in young people. It supports young people at risk and in conflict with the law, runs violence-prevention activities in schools and communities and establishes alliances for this purpose with strategic partners.

ISNA has also established a procedure for supervising of detention centres with the aim of ensuring that they operate more effectively and to prevent any infringement of the human rights of children and adolescents under its responsibility. In accordance with its functions, the ISNA Monitoring and Evaluation Department is responsible for:

Examining the documents of private agencies legally registered and authorised to shelter children and adolescents with the aim of finding out the background and working context of these institutions and checking that they possess working plans, forms for entering information in the Child Information System (SIPI), and an agreement with the ISNA Steering Board to allow the work of monitoring and evaluation;

Analysing the working programmes, projects and plans of legally registered entities for the purposes of comparing them with Childhood Care Models drawn up by the Registration and Supervision Division;

Delimiting supervision strategies for legally registered entities;

Implementing monitoring and evaluation processes for agencies requiring immediate and urgent intervention to correct or rectify their actions and establish spot monitoring mechanisms for the entities involved;

Preparing reports with suggestions for reinforcing entities whose work is affected by anomalies or shortcomings. Technical resources are deployed for this purpose or the necessary actions are promoted, including legal actions, to ensure that the entities are able to resolve their problems and shortcomings;

Carrying out checks on monitoring visits, half-yearly evaluations and reports, and

Carrying out an evaluation process every six months on legally registered agencies.

ISNA has run training courses for police and juvenile detention centre officials with the aim of safeguarding the personal integrity of children and adolescents under its responsibility. Trained rehabilitation staff members include: 13 members of technical teams (psychologists, social and legal workers); 63 guidance counsellors; 16 school teachers, and 15 workshop instructors. Eleven seminars have been implemented, delivered by the Public Prosecutor’s Office For The Protection Of Human Rights, and a degree course for community teachers delivered by the Universidad Don Bosco and UNICEF. The training courses offered an opportunity to cover various topics, including human rights, conflict resolution and educational mediation, teamwork, public safety, accident protection for children and young people, techniques for evaluating sex offenders, occupational accidents, HIV/AIDS and participation in local environmental management.

In order to offer an educational response in line with the needs of all children, especially those at social risk or educational disadvantage, the Ministry of Education set out four strategic lines of action in its National Education Plan 2021 that respond, support and guide the needs of teachers and students and also those of parents, with the aim of providing educational opportunities for girls who are victims of sexual exploitation. Action is taken both in educational establishments and with teaching staff to care for children who are victims of sexual or abuse exploitation in this area. These include: inter-institutional coordination; the management of educational support for effective access to the curriculum; the development of prevention programmes in educational establishments through the network of psychologists; the implementation of strategies and measures to guarantee access to education, mainly for those in situations of risk; the design and development of processes of educational guidance for teachers and information and awareness programmes aimed at the educational and non-educational community, which were broadcast on state television Canal 10, in a programme entitled Franja de la Calidad Educativa. Representatives of the various institutions making up the working group on the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents took part in these programmes.

Various activities were carried out with schools, namely: information campaigns against the sexual abuse of children and adolescents, with the aim of guiding students to prevent any type of abuse that they may fall prey to in schools; prevention programmes through the network of psychologists and student support from the social service of the Modular Open University; individual psychological care for those who require it. In some schools the care was more focused on students who have been victims.

The following measures were taken with staff of educational institutions, teachers and psychologists: discussions with the aim of preventing sexual abuse by the educational establishment; donations of CDs and printed material from the ILO containing information helping to prevent sexual abuse within the school; specialized bibliographic material; support for parents within the schools; regional workshops with teachers - and access to education within public institutions.

Measures taken in coordination with other institutions included: handing-out of printed material; implementation of prevention programmes by agreement with private universities; discussions on the topic in schools, and development of the topic with parents in the schools.

E. Children subject to exploitation and the worst forms of child labour

The Salvadoran Constitution states that children under 14 must continue with their compulsory education by law and cannot be employed in any type of work. It also states that children under 16 may not work longer than six hours a day and thirty-four weeks in any type of job. It also prohibits children under 18 from working in unhealthy and hazardous jobs or night-work.

This constitutional is enshrined in the Labour Code, specifically in Articles 105 (prohibition of persons under 18 years of age working in hazardous jobs), 106 (definition of hazardous jobs), 107 (prohibition of children from working in bars, restaurants, pool halls or similar establishments), 108 (definition of unhealthy jobs), 114 (prohibition of minors under fourteen from working), and 116 (working day and job restrictions for minors under the age of 16).

Following this legal imperative, and under its commitment to strengthen society and the family, the Salvadoran government promoted the setting-up of a social protection network aiming to promote equal opportunities and the integration of vulnerable groups in situations of poverty, including children defined as being in situations of child labour and those who are at risk or sexually exploited for commercial purposes.

According to the 2003 Multipurpose Household Survey, the country’s population of children aged between 5 and 17 is 1,986,286. According to data in the preliminary report "Entendiendo el trabajo infantil en El Salvador, 2003-2005" (Understanding child labour in El Salvador, 2003-2005) 288,221 children and adolescents are working (paid and unpaid) in El Salvador. In relative terms, this represents 14.5% of the population of children aged 5 to 17.

Figure 87

Main reasons why parents allow their underage children to work

Male

Female

Main reason why parents allow them to work

Urban

Rural

Total

Urban

Rural

Total

Total

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

To supplement household income

34.6

39.5

37.9

36.0

53.3

43.8

To help in the family business

41.4

44.8

43.7

52.3

40.0

46.8

To support themselves

13.5

8.6

10.2

7.5

4.1

6.0

Not enough money for studies

4.6

2.6

3.2

0.9

0.9

1.2

Others

5.9

4.5

5.0

3.3

1.5

2.2

Source: DIGESTYC EHPM. Child Labour form, fourth quarter of 2003.

It is estimated that 46,657 children and adolescents have been prevented from working and withdrawn from work through direct action programmes, in coordination with ILO/IPEC.

The fight against child labour is the main responsibility of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, which receives technical and financial cooperation from the IPEC/IOL programme and has earmarked the following resources for this goal.

Figure 88

Ministry of employment and social security

Ministry of employment and social security contribution tocombatting child labour

Dollars

Actions/year

2004

2005

2006

Total

Technical Committee

4,800.00

4,800.00

9,600.00

Agricultural inspection

(inspections of sugarcane farms)

14,285.0

14,285.0

14,285.0

42,855.0

“Prohibition of Hazardous Child Labour”

Community training

2,667.0

2,667.0

2,667.0

8,001.0

Building a website on child labour

4,000.0

4,000.0

Child labour unit

10,114.3

10,114.3

10,114.4

30,343.0

Loans to workers’ centres

3,667.0

3,667.0

3,667.0

11,001.0

Careers workshops

1,000.0

1,000.0

Employment mediation

1,000.0

1,000.0

TOTAL

34,733.3

36,533.3

36,533.4

107,800.0

INSAFORP

6,667.0

6,666.0

6,667.0

20,000.0

El Salvador adopted the following measures with the aim of eradicating child labour in the country and effectively complying with the commitments it assumed on ratification of ILO Convention 182:

In 2000, El Salvador become one of the first countries in the world to ratify ILO Convention 182 of 1999 concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labour;

The government signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the ILO on 13 June 1996 and renewed this on 25 November 2009. In this it ratified its national commitment against child labour and laid the bases for receiving technical cooperation to help devise a National Plan against Child Labour;

The Government Plan drawn up by the President Elías Antonio Saca included a commitment to “pursue efforts to eradicate child labour” within the area of Social and Family Reinforcement;

A participative effort by the entire country made it possible to devise and launch a National Plan against the Worst Forms of Child Labour 2006-2009;

In 2002, a National Committee for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was set up by the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, subsequently formalized by Executive Order No 66 of 16 June 2005, and a Technical Committee was appointed to support the work of the National Committee for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour;

The struggle against child labour was incorporated in the 2021 Education Plan from 2004;

On 18 February 2005, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the ILO, , setting out new commitments by the El Salvador Government, most specifically relating to efforts to eradicate child labour in farming;

The Ministry of Employment and Social Security worked in cooperation with ILO-IPEC to implement programmes aimed at working children and their family groups. Funding of $ 370,000 was allocated to measures in vocational training and other areas;

A permanent form on child labour was developed and incorporated into the Multipurpose Household Survey (EHPM). In 2001, at the request of ILO-IPEC, a special form on child labour was developed within the EHPM. The General Directorate for Statistics and Censuses of the Ministry of the Economy subsequently incorporated it as a permanent form from 2005;

Child labour variables were permanently incorporated into the Ministry of Education’s School Enrolment Census from 2004;

Workbooks were developed for fourth, fifth and sixth grade elementary school pupils to prompt them to reflect on the special conditions of children working in the country. A total of 3,000 exercise books were delivered;

Training courses were developed for teachers on catering for the educational needs of working children;

35 local and municipal committees were set up for monitoring child labour, mainly in the municipalities of Sonsonate, Jiquilisco, Usulután and Jucuarán;

Micro-enterprise initiatives were fostered in communities with the highest rates of child labour;

A Child Labour Unit was set up within the Ministry of Employment and Social Security on 25 November 2002, and also within the General Directorate of Statistics and Censuses;

Training courses on child labour were held by the Ministry of Employment and Social Security within the framework of institution-building. These were aimed at technical staff from various public institutions that make up the Technical Committee for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour;

Communication and awareness campaigns on the subject of child labour were rolled out nationwide through the media and other channels, namely: posters, information leaflets and talks. This awareness gained force when the current Government entered office, in other words from 2004;

The Unit for the Eradication of Child Labour was reinforced by recruiting five technicians and also 10 employment inspectors who work full-time to combat child labour in its worst forms. This increase was made possible by a budget increase of $2.5 million allocated to the Ministry of Employment and Social Security in 2006. This was used to recruit a total of 106 new employment inspectors, including the 10 mentioned above. It is also important to emphasize that the 2006 recruitment campaign increased the total number of Ministry of Employment and Social Security inspectors to 159. All of them have been made aware of the issues and have received training in the care of minors affected by the scourge of child labour in its worst forms;

Government backup has been provided to non-governmental organisations implementing projects to encourage them to adopt procedures and strategies for the eradication of child labour;

A working party against the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents has led to greater openness and a multi-institutional approach. This was set up on 1 November 2004 and on 31 October 2006 an agreement was signed to extend its operation for a further two years;

Greater national and international coordination has been achieved to combat trafficking and other crimes against children and adolescents;

Support has been given to the work of the Ministry of Education in its efforts to cater for the special educational needs of the working student population through direct action programmes with education as their main thrust. The project is also being implemented to set up a total of 96 remedial classes that cater for 5,000 children rescued from high-risk jobs.

During 2005 and 2006, a degree course in child labour was developed for university lecturers. The course was taken by 25 lecturers and administrators from the Universidad Pedagógica de El Salvador.

The Solidarity Network programme was set up to care for the education and health of poor families in the country’s most deprived municipalities.

In 2005, the Government of El Salvador also began to deploy its “Opportunities Plan”, which includes a set of social programmes designed to significantly reduce extreme poverty, strengthen the infrastructure of the poorest municipalities and extend the network of basic services in terms of coverage and quality. The programmes involved in the plan include “Solidarity Network” and “Microloans for Comprehensive Development”, designed to offer direct benefit to 100,000 families from the poorest municipalities in the country. It is hoped that this venture will help to rescue children working in the worst forms of child labour because one condition of the scheme is that financial transfers cannot be made directly to families unless children in the beneficiary household are enrolled at school and attending regularly.

One of the main achievements over this period was the preparation and publication of the “National Plan for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in El Salvador 2006-2009”, which was launched in September 2006. The plan takes the form of a strategic public management tool designed to guide national efforts to eradicate the worst forms of child labour. As the plan is implemented, it will help to comply with the undertakings assumed by El Salvador, in line with the contents of the White Paper, to guarantee that nationally produced goods and services will be untainted by child labour. The plan constitutes a State tool of public policy to guide the efforts of all institutions that make up the National Committee for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour. As a sign of their good intent, the institutions participating in the National Committee have already allowed for the implementation of National Plan undertakings in their operational plans and they are drawing up action plans for the activities that each will carry out during 2007. In order to ensure that the measures will be sustainable, the Plan also seeks to guarantee the necessary financial, physical, human, methodological and technological resources for the implementing institutions to ensure that they are appropriate and sufficient to increase the coverage and quality of services aiming to eradicate the worst forms of child labour. The mission of the 2006-2009 National Plan is as follows: to be the key instrument for guiding measures that will rid the country of the worst forms of child labour; a country where children can develop holistically, plan their futures and be offered tangible opportunities for making their plans come true. The National Plan contains seven strategic areas of action: reinforcement of the legal framework; institution-building; educational facilities; health care, recreation, culture and sport; increasing income and communication and social awareness. All these contain specific goals and the governmental department responsible for each area, with the relevant timing milestones.

In its capacity as coordinator of the National Committee for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, with the contribution of ILO-IPEC, is carrying out a set of direct action plans that as we have seen take a holistic approach. These have become strategic areas of action of the National Plan for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour.

Note that assistance has also been given to the parents of children benefiting from the Child Labour Eradication projects to ensure support for the projects. The figures shown in the tables below therefore reflect the number of measures delivered to the children and also to the parents of those children, with services offering vocational training, income generation, literacy training, medical checkups, etc. It should be clarified that out of the total of 93,639 people and 7,098 children included in the tables, one child and one parent may have benefited from more than one service. In other words, these tables reflect the number of beneficiaries per service and are not an objective indication of the number of children or parents. Information is also given on direct action programmes and the total numbers of children and adolescents benefiting from those programmes.

Figure 89

Services offered to benefiting children (October 2003-March 2007)

Type of service

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

93,639

54,710

38,929

Remedial classes

26,715

16,242

10,473

Vocational training

3,397

2,056

1,341

Psychological counselling

294

209

85

Health services

1,475

850

625

Diet

8,984

5,492

3,492

Educational books and materials

44,837

25,293

19,544

Wages

617

365

252

Other services*

7,320

4,203

3,117

Source: Child Labour Eradication Unit.

Figure 90

Ministry of Employment and Social Security

Services offered to parents of benefiting children and adolescents

(October 2003-March 2007)

Type of service

Total

Male

Female

Total

7,098

2,053

5,045

Vocational training

2,223

980

1,243

Income generation

375

30

345

Literacy training

928

337

591

Medical checks

816

259

557

Other services*

2,756

447

2,309

Source: Child Labour Eradication Unit. Ministry of Employment and Social Security

Figure 91

Projects delivered during stage 1 of the ILO-IPEC limited duration programme (2002-2006)

Project name

Gradual eradication of child labour in the sugarcane sector within the municipalities of Zacatecoluca, San Vicente, Tecoluca and Verapaz, (OEF)

Sugar cane

Paracentral

2,073

Eradication of hazardous child labour in sugarcane production within the municipalities of Aguilares, El Paisnal, Nejapa, Guazapa and Suchitoto (FUNDAZUCAR)

Sugar cane

North

2,036

Gradual eradication of child labour in the fisheries sector within the municipalities of San Dionisio, Jucuarán y Usulután (OEF)

Fisheries

East

1,910

Eradication of the worst forms of child labour in sugarcane growing in the Department of Sonsonate, municipalities: Nahulingo, Izalco, San Julián, Armenia, CuisN’ahuatl and Sonsonate (FUSAL)

Sugar cane

West

1,858

Eradication of the worst forms of child labour: fisheries, Usulután (FUSAL)

Fisheries

East

1,542

Institution-building project for the prevention, investigation and prosecution of commercial sexual exploitation crimes against minors (National Civil Police (PNC)) (San Salvador).

Commercial

sexual

exploitation

Central

Institution-building

Helping to eradicate the worst forms of child labour (COMUS), Usulután.

Fisheries

East

70

Preventing commercial sexual exploitation in the city of San Salvador. (CONAMUS)

Commercial

sexual

exploitation

Central

200

Care for and withdrawal of victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the city of San Miguel. (PADECOMSM)

Commercial

sexual

exploitation

East

32

Preventing the phenomenon of child commercial sexual exploitation in the urban area of the city of San Miguel. (ISNA)

Commercial

sexual

exploitation

East

Institution-building

Eradication of child labour in Barranca Honda refuse tip in the municipality of Chalchuapa, department of Santa Ana. (Fundación Nehemías)

Refuse tips

West

40

Care for children in situations of child commercial sexual exploitation in the municipality of San Salvador and its surroundings (ISDEMU)

Commercial

sexual

exploitation

Central

35

Gradual eradication of child labour in the waste sector within the municipalities of San Luis Talpa, department of La Paz (OEF, El Salvador).

Refuse tips

Paracentral

90

Gradual eradication of child labour in the Usulután markets. (CRS)

Markets

East

Gradual eradication of child labour in the waste sector within the municipality of Tecoluca, department of San Vicente. (OEF, El Salvador).

Refuse tips

Paracentral

68

Eradication of child labour in the sugarcane sector in the municipality of Chalchuapa, department of La Paz. (OEF, El Salvador).

Refuse tips

West

169

Source: IPEC-ILO, El Salvador.

During the development of Direct Action Projects within the framework of stage one of the Limited Duration Programme (above table), the Ministry of Employment and Social Security worked with the Implementing Agencies through its Unit for the Eradication of Child Labour (UETI) in order to achieve institutional coordination and reach out to the people who benefit from such projects. These coordination measures included the following:

Visits to the project location. Unit technicians visited the direct action projects in order to work and offer the institutional services of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security in addition to the government services offered by Members of the National Committee for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour;

Institutional backup to NGOs: to stimulate the appropriation of procedures and strategies for the eradication of child labour. Discussions and workshops were run with the participation of ILO-IPEC;

Talks with the target communities. The UETI coordinated activities with the Implementing Agencies as part of its aim of socialising the National Plan for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour;

Celebrations for the International Day of the Child. During October 2006, the UETI, in conjunction with FUNDAZUCAR, held celebrations for the International Day of the Child in various schools at national level, with cultural, sports and recreational activities.

The Ministry of Employment and Social Security runs a training programme for Employment Inspectors with the aim of increasing the efficacy and efficiency of institutional action. The topics covered include, for example, gender equality, combating the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents and systems for inspecting employment and discrimination at work.

Annex XXII sets out the topics covered in the “Continuing Development Programme for Inspectors” throughout the period 2004–2007 and the number of officials benefiting from the scheme.

F. Children belonging to minorities or indigenous groups

The National Committee for Culture and Art (CONCULTURA) has set up an Indigenous Affairs Unit, which has organised the following activities in conjunction with the Ministry of Education: the teaching of N’ahuatl in the microregion of Sonsonate, in the Municipalities of Juayúa, Nahuizalco, Salcoatitán, Santa Isabel and Ishuatán; teaching of N’ahuatl at Casas de la Cultura de Santo Domingo de Guzmán in Sonsonate, and Tacuba in Ahuachapán, an initiative of the private organization Institute for the Preservation of the N’ahuatl Language (IRIN); preparation of texts in N’ahuatl for the preservation of the language and the setting-up of clubs for N’ahuatl-speaking adults - and participation in the “Bilingual Intercultural Education in Central America” project (indigenous education).

The Ministry of Education and CONCULTURA also jointly developed the Project for Preservation of the N'ahuatl Language in El Salvador. The project basically consisted of drawing up a sociolinguistic map of El Salvador through local research; the preparation of language learning booklets; procedural guides for language teaching - and the training of teachers from 25 schools in the departments of Sonsonate and Ahuachapán.

Linguistic conferences were also held that led to new know-how and research into the language.

Achievements of the above project, which has been ongoing since 2006 with the participation of MINED, include:

a) Drawing up of a “Teacher Profile for Bilingual Intercultural Education” and “Technical-Educational Guidelines for Bilingual Intercultural Education in Central America”, awaiting approval;

b) Profile of Indigenous Peoples in El Salvador (CONCULTURA document /2004), giving information on their historical background, their current situation and their future prospects.

CONCULTURA has worked on indigenous culture with the Salvadoran Institute for Women’s Development (ISDEMU), including components of promoting identity, indigenous rights, traditional health and medicine, research and publications on indigenous matters, support for the development of indigenous women, etc.

In the area of literacy, 52% of participants in the Basic Literacy Programme for adults are women, of which a significant percentage of whom are indigenous women from the Department of Sonsonate.

An equal opportunities plan has also been developed that involves 16 municipalities from the Department of Sonsonate, where most of the indigenous population is concentrated: Sonsonate, Nahuizalco, Santo Domingo de Guzmán (which also benefits from the Solidarity Network Programme), Nahuilingo, Sonsacate, San Antonio del Monte, Acajutla, Izalco, Armenia, San Julián, Santa Isabel Ishuatán, CuisN’ahuatl, Caluco, Juayúa, Santa Catarina Masahuat and Salcoatitán.

In the area of gender equality, the Indigenous Affairs Unit is working to implement the National Women's Policy in two areas of action, namely:

The Gender Information and Indicator System: gender and equality information and indicators as established in the Fourth World Conference on Women and the Millennium Development Goals;

Institution-building: research into the situation of gender in El Salvador; changing the discriminatory practices occurring in the classroom and in community dynamics.

As far as campaigns carried out for indigenous children are concerned, CONCULTURA is developing the project “Revitalisation of the N’ahuatl language”, in conjunction with Universidad Don Bosco and MINED. The following table shows the coverage for children benefiting from the project during the reporting period.

Figure 92

Pupils benefiting by school and municipality

Year

School

Municipality

Pupils

2004

Dr. Mario Calvo Marroquín

Izalco

105

Pablo Sexto

Nahuizalco

75

2005

Dr. Mario Calvo Marroquín

Izalco

209

Cantón Quebrada Española

Izalco

72

Pablo Sexto

Nahuizalco

150

Cantón Anal Arriba

Nahuizalco

40

Caserio Santa Teresa

Armenia

73

2006

Dr. Mario Calvo Marroquín

Izalco

388

Cantón Quebrada Española

Izalco

145

Pablo Sexto

Nahuizalco

213

Cantón Anal Arriba

Nahuizalco

80

Caserio Santa Teresa

Armenia

233

Total

1783

Source: CONCULTURA

All the schools are located in the Department of Sonsonate, in the west of the country, where the highest percentage of indigenous people of nahua-pipil descent live.

On 1 February 2006, an Educational Support Committee for Indigenous Affairs was set up, which binds CONCULTURA and the Ministry of Education to ensure the education of indigenous people by drawing up a policy aiming to promote the recognition and appreciation of indigenous cultures in the country.

No data are currently available to indicate the number of indigenous minors although it is hoped to obtain information in 2008 as a result of the National Population Census of 2007.

G. Drug abuse

It is calculated that 150,000 minors between the ages of 12 and 17 consume alcohol, 110,000 tobacco and 53,000 drugs, including stimulants and tranquillizers. No up-to-date data are available on the number of these children who receive treatment, care and/or assistance to recover from alcoholism and drug addiction.

Among the dissemination and impact activities, the National Youth Secretariat organizes anti-drugs lecture cycles with the aim of teaching students to avoid taking drugs, and their consequences through education and information. The Secretariat hopes to reach out to more than 6,500 baccalaureate students in public and private schools in areas that been identified as having a high rate of drug consumption, namely San Salvador, Ilopango, Ciudad Delgado, Soyapango, San Miguel, Santa Ana and Sonsonate.

1. Tobacco and alcohol programmes

A National Drugs Commission has been set up in the country, the main function of which is to coordinate the efforts made by the various segments of society, particularly by institutions guiding members who make up the National Drugs Commission (CNA): National Council of Public Security, Ministry of National Defence, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Public Security and Justice and Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare.

The following are some of the activities coordinated:

Drug prevention lectures for third-cycle and baccalaureate students; the Programme was delivered within the framework of the Social Peace Plan promoted by the President. The central theme of the lectures is “Drugs and their Effects” and they take the form of a presentation that explains to students the short- and long-term consequences of drug taking in clear and objective language with the aim of guiding them to take informed decisions that will lead them to reject drugs. A discussion space is then set up, where pupils can express their views and concerns on the topic. The programme began in July 2007 and will continue indefinitely. It is aimed at the public and private sector. Between that date and January this year, a total of 1,506 students were contacted in 10 educational establishments;

Culture of legality. This programme has been implemented since 2004 by the Ministry of Education, National Council of Public Security and National Drugs Commission, under the auspices of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Commission (CICAD/OEA). This aims to prevent violent behaviour and illicit activities such as drug use and trafficking. Its aim is to develop pro-social forms of behaviour and attitudes in third-cycle students through improved knowledge of and respect for regulations and the rule of law. During 2006, a harmonization activity was carried out to incorporate part of the contents of the Culture of Legality in the new third-cycle Social Science Curriculum. In 2007, a pilot project was carried out to adapt the programme to the community environment in high-risk communities covered by the National Council of Public Security. During the first stage of the project, 6,390 students benefited in 97 educational establishments. When the programme was adapted to the community environment, 220 young people resident in four high-risk communities were helped;

Segundo Paso” (Second Step). This programme sets out to provide children with the fundamental skills to ensure that they grow into independent, public-spirited and understanding young people and adults. These qualities are incompatible with the taking of drugs and with violent and irresponsible behaviour. The version for preschool age children (aged 4 to 6) consists of 25 lessons covering areas such as Empathy, Dealing with Feelings and Problem Solving. Between 2005 and 2006, a pilot test was carried out in two public sector nursery schools on 127 children in the four-year old sections. The results were satisfactory because the students in the experimental group assimilated the concepts of the programme and reduced their antisocial be