Responses to concluding observations and recommendations


Progress achieved in CEDAW Implementation


Articles 1 and 2: Review of laws and measures to eliminate discrimination


Articles 3 and 4: Measures to Accelerate Equality between Women and Men


Article 5: Measures to end Sex Role Stereotyping and Prejudice


Article 6: Suppression of trafficking and exploitation of prostitution


Articles 7 and 8: Political, Public and International Participation


Article 9: Nationality


Article 10: Education


Article 11: Employment


Article 12: Health


Article 13: Economic and Social Life of Women


Article 14: Rural Women


Article 15: Equal Rights of Women


Article 16: Marriage and Family Life






Association of South East Asian Nations


Bar Association of the Kingdom of Cambodia


Commune Committee for Women and Children


Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey


Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women


Cambodia Gender Assessment


Cambodia Millennium Development Goals


Cambodian National Council for Women


Concluding Observations


Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Trafficking


Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey


District Office of Women’s Affairs


Domestic Violence


Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia


Gender-Based Violence


Gender Mainstreaming Action Group


Gender Mainstreaming Action Plan


Gender Responsive Budgeting


Judicial Police Officer


Health Equity Funds


Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual and Transgender


Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries


Ministry of Civil Service


Ministry of Economy and Finance


Ministry of Industry and Handicraft


Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction


Maternal Mortality Rate


Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports


Ministry of Health


Ministry of Interior


Ministry of Justice


Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training


Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation


Ministry of Women’s Affairs


Ministry of Rural Development


Second National Action Plan to Prevent Violence Against Women


National Committee for Combatting Human Trafficking


National Committee for Sub-National Democratic Development


Non-Formal Education


National Institute of Statistics


Second National Plan of Action for Counter Trafficking In Persons


Neary Rattanak IV


National Strategic Development Plan


National Social Security Fund


Provincial Department of Women’s Affairs


Private Recruitment Agency


Royal Government of Cambodia


Sustainable Development Goals


Small and Medium Enterprise


Technical and Vocational Education and Training


Technical Working Group


TWG on Gender sub-group on Gender-Based Violence


United National Security Council Resolution

UN Women

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women


United States Dollar


Violence Against Women


Violence Against Children


Victim Support Section


Women and Children’s Consultative Committees


1.The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) is pleased to submit the sixth periodic report under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) setting out developments, achievements and progress relevant to the period from 2013–2017. Previous reports submitted to the CEDAW Committee include the Follow-up Report on the Concluding Observations (COB) 15 and 21(a), (b), and (c) in 2015, the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports submitted in 2010 and reviewed by the Committee in October 2013, and the combined first, second and third periodic reports submitted in 2003 and reviewed by the Committee in 2005.

2.Cambodia’s economy has achieved robust growth in the 7 per cent growth rate range from 2014 to 2017 compared to other least developed countries. The poverty rate decreased from 47.8 per cent in 2007 to 13.5 per cent in 2014. Cambodia is classified as a lower middle-income economy since 2015.

3.Cambodia’s estimated population in 2016 was 15.5 million with 51.4 per cent female and 48.5 per cent male, and an annual population growth rate of 1.46 per cent. About 80 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, while rural to urban migration has increased rapidly in the last decade. Almost one-third (28.7 per cent) of the population is under the age of 15 years, 66.1 per cent are between the ages of 15–64 years, and 5.1 per cent are 65 years and over.

4.In Cambodia, over one-fourth (27.1 per cent) of all households are headed by women, and the proportion widowed is five times higher among women than it is among men. The adult literacy rate (aged 15+) is increasing, with female literacy at 73.6 per cent and male literacy at 86.4 per cent. Life expectancy at birth for women has risen to 71.8 years and to 67.7 years for men, with overall higher rates in urban (76.8 per cent) than rural areas (67.6 per cent).

5.Samdech, the Prime Minister as honorary vice president to the Cambodian National Council for Women (CNCW), has issued recommendations annually to support CNCW’s role as the national mechanism for coordinating and providing advice to the RGC on matters related to the promotion of the status and roles of women and the social welfare for women to ensure protection of their rights.

6.This report has been prepared according to the guidelines through a process of consultations, reporting and meetings with all government ministries and agencies, including sub-national level authorities and institutions, senior government officials, Technical Working Group members and 23 civil society organizations (CSOs).

7.This report is organized into four sections: Part I includes the responses to the concluding observations from the combined fourth and fifth and follow up reports; Part II has additional information on CEDAW implementation by Article; Part III is the conclusion and Part IV is the Annex.

I.Responses to concluding observations and recommendations

Parliament Involvement in CEDAW

8.In 2012, the Senate established a group of senate members to promote the implementation of gender equality and the Cambodian Millennium Development Goals (CMDGs) and created a Department of Women’s Affairs and Gender to support the Senate’s work to review draft laws, proposals and other issues related to gender.

9.In 2015, CNCW, in collaboration with UN Women and the CEDAW Committee, held a dialogue with 55 participants (37 female) from the Senate’s Technical Committee on Women and Children and the National Assembly’s Commission 8, which includes a focus on Women’s Affairs. This dialogue examined the CEDAW principles and framework, including application to national legislation and policy formulation processes. These Parliamentary Committees have supported the monitoring of the implementation of CEDAW, the Optional Protocol and Concluding Observations and promoted gender equality in national policies and laws in line with CEDAW principles.

Legal Status of the Convention

Publish the Convention and its Optional Protocol in the Official Gazette and continue reviewing legislation to incorporate all provisions of the Convention

10.The Optional Protocol was published in the Official Gazette in the third week of August on 23 August 2009, and the Convention was registered in the Official Gazette in the 4th quarter of 2017. The Convention, Optional Protocol, Cambodia’s reports to CEDAW (2003 and 2010), and the Committee’s COB reports (2006 and 2013) have been published and widely disseminated. From 2013–2016, the CNCW distributed 29,300 pamphlets on CEDAW and the 52 COBs nationwide and the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) published and distributed another 5,000 CEDAW pamphlets to lawyers and law enforcement officials.

11.The 1993 Constitution of Cambodia states that, “The Kingdom of Cambodia shall recognize and respect the human rights as stipulated in the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the covenants and conventions related to human rights, women’s and children’s rights” (Article 31). It states that “men and women have equal rights before the law and enjoy equal participation in political, economic, social, and cultural life; equality in marriage and the family, employment and equal pay for equal work” and “explicitly prohibits all forms of discrimination against women” (Articles 35 and 45).

12.The following laws and legislative measures have been recently introduced: Amendments to the Law on Election of Members of the National Assembly (LEMNA 2013), the Law on Regulating Concentrated Acid (2011) and the Law on Juvenile Justice (2016). A Law on Surrogacy is being developed (2017) to protect Cambodian women from exploitation and ensure that the rights of any children born through surrogacy are protected.

13.In 2016, the Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MoWA) held a consultation with 48 stakeholders (33 women) as part of the review process on the Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Protection of Victims (DV Law). The recommendations, including the review by NGO CEDAW, will be part of the legislative review process starting in 2017.

14.The MoJ continued to train prosecutors, court clerks, gendarmes, police, and law enforcement officials on the Criminal Procedure Code, the Criminal Code, the Civil Code, the Civil Procedure Code and other legal provisions protecting women’s rights. In 2015–2016, the MoJ developed and circulated the Explanatory Notes on the Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation and the Law on Child Adoption to judges, prosecutors, court clerks and law enforcement officials across the country.

Legal Framework and implementation of the Convention

Consider adopting legislation governing gender equality, including a definition of discrimination against women (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 11)

15.The Rectangular Strategy for Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency Phase III (2013) recognizes gender equity as a key component of national development, capacity building, and human resources development, and highlights the need to “further improve the status of women, who are the backbone of Cambodian society and economy.”

16.One of the key priorities on the Rectangular Strategy Phase III is strengthening governance through “continuing legal and judicial reforms to ensure social justice and promote the rights of people along with integrity, transparency and accountability of civil service.” Article 31 of the Constitution recognizes international conventions, including CEDAW, so the substance of the Convention exists in Cambodian law. Article 45 of the Constitution prohibits all forms of discrimination against women. The 2009 Criminal Code, Section 2, Chapter 5, Articles 265–273, stipulates the punishment of people who commit acts of discrimination, regardless of whether they act directly or indirectly.

17.The first National Gender Policy has been formulated to provide a longer-term policy framework for gender equality in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The policy includes a definition of gender discrimination, based on CEDAW, as “providing differential treatment to individuals on the grounds of their sex. This involves systemic and structural discrimination against women or men in the distribution of income, access to resources, and participation in decision-making.” The National Gender Policy will be finalized in 2018.

Strengthen measures to create awareness of the Convention and the Optional Protocol among judges, prosecutors and lawyers, and continue integrating training on the Convention in curricula for civil servants and judicial officers and in the education system

18.From 2014 to 2017, CNCW conducted meetings with sub-national level authorities and line department officials to disseminate and monitor the implementation of CEDAW, and provided information on relevant domestic laws, legal texts and recommendations of the government. The meetings reached 5,932 participants, (3,789 women) in all 25 provinces.

19.Line ministries, provincial departments, local authorities, development partners and CSOs have implemented the recommendations of the Queen Mother and the RGC on disseminating information on CEDAW to target groups through 1) Trainings, workshops, and meetings related to CEDAW, reaching 35,368 participants (25,116 women), and 2) Newsletters, publication of CEDAW documents and reports and on CNCW’s website.

20.The MoJ integrated the Gender Mainstreaming Action Plan (GMAP) into their Strategic Plan 2014–2018. From 2014–2016, they conducted dissemination workshops and provided training on CEDAW, gender, and national laws related to women’s rights to 3,650 (1,204 female) judges and prosecutors, court clerks and court officials, law enforcement officers and MoJ officials throughout the country.

21.The National Program for Public Administrative Reform 2015–2018 incorporates mainstreaming gender issues in the civil service, which includes mandatory training and improvements in the training curriculum for new recruits, current civil servants, and senior management. The GMAP for the Civil Service Phase III 2014–2018 of the Ministry of Civil Service (MCS) includes six strategies to promote gender equality in the civil service.

22.The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) Education Sector Plan (ESP) 2014–2018 includes actions to develop the capacity of trainers at the Teacher Training Centers and teachers on gender mainstreaming. It involves actions to mainstream gender for education staff at all levels through pre-service and in-service teacher training programs. The Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation (MoSVY) Strategic Plan 2014–2018 includes an objective to promote gender mainstreaming with planned annual training activities for national and sub‑national officials on gender and CEDAW.

Legal Aid and Access to Justice

Develop a comprehensive legal aid scheme in accordance with UN GA Resolution 67/187, in particular Guideline 9 (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 13 (a))

23.Women have equal rights to seek legal defense from the Bar Association of the Kingdom of Cambodia (BAKC) as per the Constitution (Article 39), and there are provisions for legal assistance for poor people who cannot afford to pay fees. The BAKC reports the number of female lawyers increased from 133 in 2012 to 206 in 2017, thereby increasing the availability of female lawyers to represent female defendants, accused and victims.

24.The BAKC has continued to institutionalize gender-sensitive legal service training at the Lawyer’s Training Center (LTC). The LTC, in collaboration with UN Women, developed a training curriculum for representing victims of gender-based violence (GBV). Trainings began in December 2014 and have continued each year since.

25.From 2012–2015, in accordance with the 2005 Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence and the Protection of Victims, 143 Judicial Police Agents of MoWA were appointed to advocate for the legal rights of survivors of violence against women (VAW) and to support survivors. In late 2016, 94 officials (87 female) at the national and provincial level were assigned as Judicial Police Officers (JPOs) responsible for protecting GBV survivors and assisting them in seeking justice through the legal system. They received legal training and on-going support for the provision of services through multi-sectoral reconciliation processes.

Provide adequate funding to the Bar Association and women’s organizations providing free legal counselling (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 13 (b))

26.The national budget allocated by the MoJ to the BAKC for the provision of lawyers and legal services for the poor increased from 300 million riels in 2014 to 400 million riels in 2016, and to 600 million riels for 2017. The number of poor women receiving legal assistance increased from 106 in 2014 to 233 in 2016. (See Annex Table 1).

27.Since 2012, the RGC has allocated a budget of 200 million riels per year to CNCW to support access to legal services for female victims of all forms of violence. This budget is provided to the JPOs of the Provincial Departments of Women’s Affairs (PDWA) who are responsible for the implementation. From 2012–2017, the JPOs assisted 283 female survivors of violence to access legal services through the CNCW budget package. In addition, some non-governmental legal aid organizations provide pro-bono services for GBV survivors.

Investigate and prosecute allegations of corruption in the administration of justice (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 13 (c))

28.The RGC continues to attach a high priority to the fight against corruption as outlined in the Rectangular Strategy III and National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) 2014–2018. The RGC is committed to enhancing the effectiveness of three key measures, including 1) strengthening education to “stop corrupt practices” though the dissemination of the Anti-Corruption Law, 2) preventing corruption, through implementing internal rules and existing laws and regulations for civil servants and public services, and 3) strengthening the capacity of the Anti-Corruption Unit.

Provide effective redress to all victims of sexual and GBV against women committed during the Khmer Rouge Regime and develop effective non-judicial transitional justice programmes (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 15 (a)):

Ensure the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) takes into account the needs of victims of sexual and GBV outside forced marriage

29.Due to the multitude and complexity of the crimes committed during the Khmer Rouge regime and the advanced age of victims and the accused, the ECCC selected crimes that were most representative of all other crimes. With regard to GBV crimes, the ECCC limited their investigation and hearings to forced marriage and rape, and only victims whose crimes fell under these categories were admitted to participate in judicial proceedings and were entitled to claim reparation. The Co-Investigating Judges did not investigate into rape outside the context of forced marriage under the argument that the Khmer Rouge had a policy to prevent rape occurrences by reeducating or killing anyone who was suspected of “immoral” behavior.

Extend the “Promoting Gender Equality and Improving access to justice for Female Survivors and Victims of GBV under the Khmer Rouge Regime” project

30.The Victim Support Section (VSS) of the ECCC received funding from the UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women to expand the project from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018. The project includes the following activities: Outreach and awareness-raising on GBV during the Khmer Rouge regime, Access to legal services, Provision of financial support for skills training to poor families of GBV survivors and Empowerment of survivors of GBV at ECCC.

Expand access to psychological services for victims of all forms of sexual and GBV under the Khmer Rouge regime

31.The VSS/ECCC and its NGO partner Transcultural Psychosocial Organization (TPO), provided the following psycho-social support services: a) Self-help groups, which brings a group of women with a similar experience of GBV in the past together to share their experience, find support from each other, and contribute to the healing process. b) Counseling and medical treatment for Civil Parties with severe trauma and other forms of mental health problems. c) Testimonial Therapy, an innovative approach that combines individual truth telling with a public ceremony where the suffering is acknowledged. d) Psychological briefing and de-briefing were provided during Civil Parties’ participation in the ECCC’s hearings.

Reparation to victims of GBV

32.The proceedings in Case 002/02 started on 30 July 2014 and 12 Civil Parties, 2 experts and 2 witnesses were called to testify against the accused on GBV crimes, forced marriage and rape in that context. The VSS/ECCC in cooperation with its partners and civil parties filed 22 proposed reparation projects with the Court as of 30 May 2017. Four projects were sent to the RGC for approval while 17 projects require 5 million USD of external funding, of which 2.5 million USD has been collected. The projects benefit all Civil Parties and younger generations, including GBV survivors. Of particular note is the project “Phka Sla Kraom Angkar: Forced marriages under the Khmer Rouge Regime,” which is a judicial reparation project for Case 002/02 implemented by NGOs and designed for Civil Parties who are survivors of forced marriage and GBV under the Khmer Rouge. (See Annex for more information).

Ensure provisions of CEDAW and UNSCR 1325 (2000) continue to be reflected in implementation of 2nd NAPVAW (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 15 (b))

33.The Second National Action Plan to Prevent Violence Against Women 2014‑2018 (NAPVAW II) is the key policy framework to end violence against women and girls. NAPVAW II identifies three priorities: a) domestic violence, b) rape and sexual violence, and c) violence against women with increased risk and includes five strategies: primary prevention, legal protection and multi-sectoral services, policies and laws, capacity building, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E).

34.NAPVAW II includes a focus on women, peace, and security, as compliance to the internationally committed promises to implement the United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR). One output deals with both CEDAW and UNSCR 1325, “Compliance to the internationally agreed upon commitments to address VAW, particularly within the framework of UNSCR 1325.” For legal aid and access to justice, the plan includes a legal and reform process, which considers VAW within the framework of international standards including UNSCR 1325. To ensure effective coordination of prevention and response interventions by key stakeholders, the plan involves increasing the capacity of the Cambodian National Police at all levels to respond to VAW in a gender-sensitive way, and to fulfill responsibilities under UNSCR 1325.

35.Training on relevant laws have been incorporated into the curriculum of the Royal Academy of National Police, Judicial Professionals, and Royal Military Police. Judicial Police have received training on Standard Operating Procedures for All Trafficking in Persons legal instruments. Minimum Standards for Basic Counseling for Women and Girls Survivors of GBV and other gender sensitive approaches for supporting VAW survivors are being incorporated into the new curriculum at the Royal Police Academy. Both Operational Standards and Codes of Conduct for police have been implemented, which include ethical codes that are reflective of CEDAW and UNSCR 1325.

36.NAPVAW II recognizes that increased coordination at all levels with all relevant stakeholders is essential to reducing VAW. TWGG-GBV members committed a total of 3.7 million USD for implementation of NAPVAW II in 2017. The draft Preventing Violence Against Women and Girls — A strategy to implement prevention priorities in the NAPVAW was developed in 2017 to enhance coordination efforts.

37.NAPVAW II includes coordination efforts with police, local authorities, communities and other stakeholders for the implementation of the 2010 Village/Commune Safety Policy Guideline, which includes actions to combat and prevent trafficking of women and children, domestic violence, and other forms of VAW. Protocols have been reviewed to be more gender-responsive and include prevention of rape and protection of survivors.

National Machinery for the advancement of women

Harmonize and strengthen the national machinery for the advancement of women (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 17)

38.The institutional mechanism for realizing gender equality at the national level includes the CNCW and MoWA, and is strengthened through the Technical Working Group on Gender (TWGG) and the Gender Mainstreaming Action Groups (GMAGs) in line ministries.

39.The CNCW established by Royal Decree in 2001 is an inter-ministerial mechanism, whose members include Secretaries of State and Under Secretaries of State from 24 government ministries and agencies. The CNCW is mandated to “assist the Royal Government to coordinate, follow up and evaluate the implementation of national policies, laws, orders and measures relating to the promotion of status, roles and social welfare of Cambodian women” and to follow up on the implementation of international conventions in relation to women’s rights, including CEDAW.

40.MoWA’s five-year Strategic Plan for Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment 2014–2018, Neary Rattanak IV, aims to strengthen the institutional capacity to promote gender equality through program-based approaches and good governance. The plan includes a comprehensive set of strategies to strengthen MoWA’s role as catalysts, policy advocates, advisors and facilitators for promoting gender equality, and to ensure other government agencies incorporate measures to promote gender equality in their programs and budgets.

41.The TWGG, led by MoWA, is an important forum for discussion on gender-related policies, laws and strategies, and includes representatives from 31 government agencies, 14 development partners and 15 NGOs/CSOs. Three working groups (TWGG sub-groups) have been formed to coordinate the implementation of MoWA’s three main thematic programs: Gender-Based Violence (2012), Women’s Economic Empowerment (2013), and Women in Leadership and Decision-Making (2015).

42.GMAGs have been established in line ministries and institutions and are responsible for developing GMAPs, which provide a mechanism for institutionalizing gender mainstreaming into sectoral policies and programmes. By 2016, 30 out of 31 line ministries and institutions had developed GMAPs, 24 of which have been updated and six are under review.

Budgetary allocation increases, reviews and annual adjustments

43.MoWA continues to promote Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB) as a tool for gender mainstreaming across sectors and engage with the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF). In 2016, 28 government ministries and institutions received funds from the national budget and development partners for implementing GMAPs, an increase from 16 ministries and institutions in 2013.

44.The Budget Strategic Plan 2016–2020 is an important tool of the Public Financial Management Program Phase III and serves to link the budget process to the policy framework. The national budget allocated for gender activities increased from 2015–2018 by 72 per cent from 4,301 million Riel to 7,389 million Riel. In 2018, the national budget allocation for gender mainstreaming in the four sectors is as follows: social sector (43 per cent), national defense, security and public order (22 per cent), general administrative sector (20 per cent) and the economic sector (15 per cent).

45.From 2015 to 2016, the national budget allocation for the five ministries prioritized to implement GRB in line with key government reform programs (Public Administrative Reform and Public Financial Management Reform) increased an average of 13.6 per cent. The budget for the Secretariat of Anti-Human Trafficking (NCCT) increased by 655 per cent to 3,815 million riels in 2016. (See Annex Table 2).

46.From 2015 to 2017, MoWA’s program-based budget allocation increased 15 per cent per year, from 35,290 million riels to 40,674 million riels to 42,741 million riels. The CNCW received an annual program-based budget of 808.8 million riels in 2016 and 2017. In 2017, MoWA’s annual program-based budget allocation increased to 42,741 million riels.


Include in Neary Rattanak IV a strategy aimed at modifying or eliminating patriarchal attitudes and stereotypes that discriminate against women (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 19 (a))

47.Neary Rattanak IV includes a core program for institutional strengthening and capacity development towards gender equality through gender mainstreaming and women’s empowerment in the context of economic growth, social protection and services, and crosscutting issues. The strategies under the Education of Women and Girls, and Behavioural Change component aim to promote social welfare and positive attitudes towards gender equality. They include a) Improve technical capacity of relevant officials on gender-mainstreaming in the education sector, b) Coordinate the development and implementation of the National Action Plan for Upholding Social Morality and Women’s and Khmer Family Values, and c) Promote positive images of empowered women and girls and gender sensitive role models for men and boys.

48.Primary prevention is one of the main pillars of NAPVAW II and targets the promotion of gender equality and non-violent relationships, and addresses harmful norms against women and girls. NAPVAW II includes specific interventions to 1) enhance knowledge and skills of children, youth and adolescents to promote and build gender-equitable, non-violent relationships, and to improve their attitudes, behaviors, and practices on human rights (including sexual rights, gender equality and sexuality), 2) enhance positive parenting knowledge, understanding and skills among parents and couples to build safe, gender equitable and non-violent families and environments, 3) change social environments and norms by strengthening gender equality in the community and workplace to promote cooperation to prevent and respond to VAW, and 4) increase media promotion of gender-equitable social norms, images, and messages, and capacity of media to report appropriately and sensitively to prevent VAW.

Conduct public information/awareness-raising campaigns addressing attitudes and stereotypes that discriminate against women, with community, media and CSOs (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 19 (b))

49.The National Committee for Promoting Social Morality and Women’s and Khmer Family’s Values promoted the following activities through government institutions and sub-national authorities between 2014–2016: 1) Disseminated information on the situation, status and role of women in Cambodia among youth, family and community through seminars, training courses, forums and meetings with a total of 354,217 participants (211,815 women), 2) Promoted the positive role of women in society and gender equality through radio, television, websites, brochures and magazines, including national television broadcasts (126 times, each for 15–20 minutes) and national radio programs, “Our Life, Our Society,” 3) Organized 18 consultative forums with youth and students to address the misconceptions of young people in society today and to raise awareness on the value of gender equality in society, and 4) Provided training and education at the commune level on enhancing social morality and the value of supporting women and family in society today.

50.MoWA has conducted the following activities: 1) provided Training of Trainers (TOT) for national and provincial level officials on the empowerment of women, gender equality, gender inclusiveness and social equity, 2) conducted TOT with 560 participants at the national and sub-national levels on the links of social morality to gender equality and facilitation skill on education and social well-being, 3) organized discussion forums with 360 students (217 female) on social morality and ethics, and 4) reached 1,382 participants (672 female) through broadcasting educational programs through forums and radio on the prevention of domestic violence, anger control methods and ways to bring happiness to family in order to change attitudes, and to work together towards eliminating all types of violence in society.

51.Public awareness campaigns to promote gender equality are a key activity involving multiple stakeholders at the national and sub-national level. MoWA has coordinated efforts with government agencies, NGOs/CSOs, the private sector, local authorities, communities, and the media in on-going events including the theme-based annual International Women’s Day activities, the annual 16-Days Campaign of Activism to End Violence Against Women, the ‘ Good Men Campaign ’ (2011–2015) and the 1 Billion Rising Campaign events organized by the local CSO, Gender and Development for Cambodia (GADC), all aimed at changing harmful attitudes and behavior towards women.

Explore use of information and communications technologies, including social media (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 19 (c))

52.A media advisory group under the leadership of MoWA and the Ministry of Information was formed to improve media responses to VAW. A Prakas on the Media Code of Conduct for reporting VAW was prepared in 2016 and 2017, with support from the Club of Cambodian Journalists. MoWA developed an Information and Communication Strategy for primary prevention in 2017 for all stakeholders involved in the media.

53.The Ministry of Information disseminated information on national policies that focus on promoting gender equality and enhancing the role and status of women’s rights in public, political, economic, social, and cultural and educational programs through television, radio, newspapers, magazines and newsletters, and other communication platforms. The Cambodian Magazine of the Ministry of Information has featured articles on young women entrepreneurs, women’s awards, women in sports, and the history of women’s struggles in education and art.

54.The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications set up a technical working group to regularly monitor the spread of pornography and negative information and images of women on the Internet. The group has requested Internet users and website owners to close the accounts and remove pornographic content from social media and other communication technologies.

Establish M&E mechanism for evaluating progress on eliminating gender stereotypes (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 19 (d))

55.Neary Rattanak IV and NAPVAW II include comprehensive M&E frameworks involving annual work plans, regular progress reports, mid-term and final evaluations, a national congress, and numerous formal multi-stakeholder coordination groups working to implement activities and review progress. The monitoring framework includes specific indicators to measure gender equality and women’s empowerment, outlines the roles of the National Institute of Statistics (NIS), line ministries and research institutions in data collection as well as identifies data sources. Relevant sources of information include the national surveys (ie. CSES, CDHS), government management information systems (ie. MoWA, MoH, MoEYS and MCS), baseline surveys and follow-up studies, national violence surveys, and pre- and post-test intervention assessments and campaign studies.

56.CNCW conducted regular sub-national monitoring visits to review implementation of national laws, policies, regulations, measures and social norms related to women’s rights and gender equality. From 2013–2016, the CNCW conducted 53 monitoring visits in 25 provinces with a total of 3,067 participants (1,919 females) from relevant institutions, departments, local authorities, CSOs and vulnerable women. This program is supported by the Prime Minister’s recommendations aimed at advancing women’s rights in the economic, social and public spheres in Cambodia, including addressing problems faced by women across all aspects of their life.

Violence against women

Ensure cases of VAW are prosecuted and not systematically diverted to mediation (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 21 (a))

57.The Minimum Standards for Essential Services for Women and Girl Survivors of GBV was drafted in 2017 under NAPVAW II, and covers 10 standards including Mediation as part of Legal Protection Services. Mediation Guidelines were developed and the “ Book for Judicial Professionals and Mediations Guidelines for Responding to Violence Against Women ” has been reviewed to strengthen the legal responses to VAW.

58.Under NAPVAW II, multi-sectoral Coordinated Response Mechanism (CRM) networks, involving relevant government departments and officials (health, police, justice, social affairs, and local authorities), were established in eight provinces in 2016 and 2017 to facilitate effective, efficient and timely responses for GBV survivors. In 2016, the Referral Guidelines for Women and Girl Survivors of GBV and the Implementation Mechanisms was completed, and training on the guidelines was conducted in seven provinces. More training courses are planned for 2017 and 2018.

59.Mediation is widely practiced, however there are ongoing efforts to ensure that the methods best practice a women-centered approach. Operational Standards and Codes of Conduct for police officers, who are regularly called on to provide emergency assistance to GBV cases, have been implemented. The Ministry of Interior (MoI) and the Cambodian National Police are currently developing a new curriculum at the Royal Police Academy, which incorporates the Minimum Standards for Basic Counseling for Women and Girl Survivors of Gender-Based Violence and other gender-sensitive approaches.

Ensure all women can lodge formal complaints about domestic and sexual violence, de-stigmatizing victims and raising awareness of criminal nature (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 21 (b))

60.In November 2016, MoWA and MoJ issued a Prakas assigning MoWA and PDWA officials as Judicial Police Officers with the authority and legal competency over the administrative area of the DV Law. MoWA trained the JPOs on legal procedures and multi-sectoral reconciliation processes to legally protect women’s rights. They also continued disseminating the DV Law, reaching 2,899 people (1,970 female).

61.In 2016, A Minimum Standard for Basic Counseling for Women and Girl Survivors of Gender-Based Violence document was finalized to ensure the application of a client-centered human rights approach in delivering services to GBV survivors. The rollout of the guidelines and training for service providers was conducted in seven provinces and a nation-wide training plan is being developed.

62.In 2015, the PDWA reported that relevant institutions intervened and facilitated support to 708 victims of domestic violence, 179 cases of rape and 35 cases of trafficking in persons. The number of GBV survivors receiving counseling increased from 2,565 in 2014–2015 to 3,067 in 2015–2016. This is an indication of increases in both access to support services by GBV survivors and efforts to de-stigmatize victims of GBV violence. Despite efforts to disseminate information and IEC materials promoting rights of women at increased risk of violence, women with disabilities still face challenges accessing services, and lesbian, bisexual, and transgender women face difficulties receiving both health and legal services.

63.From 2015–2017, CNCW provided support to 223 female survivors of violence through JPOs, including 84 cases of domestic violence, 134 cases of rape, 4 trafficking cases, and 1 case of sexual harassment. Of the victims, 104 were under the age of 18. The JPOs effectively coordinated with local authorities and court officials to speed up the procedure on cases of violence against women and children, particularly juvenile cases by referring the cases to the court for legal action.

Ensure public awareness-raising campaigns address all forms of VAW (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 21 (c))

64.MoWA has coordinated joint efforts involving government ministries and institutions, NGOs/CSOs, media, private sectors and communities in annual International Women’s Day events and the annual 16-Days Campaign of Activism to End Violence Against Women. Examples of multi-stakeholder collaboration to address harmful attitudes and behaviors towards women include the MoWA-led “Good Men Campaign” (2011–2015), the 2016 “#WhyStop” and the 2015 “Sexual Harassment Stops Here” 16-Days Campaigns, and the 2015 and 2016 “Engaging Men and Boys” Campaigns organized by CARE Cambodia.

65.Enhancing prevention is one of the strategies of the second National Plan of Action for Counter Trafficking in Persons 2014–2018 (NPA-CTIP II). Significant prevention activities on human trafficking including public awareness raising efforts have occurred. The NCCT has organized the National Day for Counter Trafficking in Persons on the 12th of every December at the national and sub-national levels in 25 municipalities and provinces together with government ministries, institutions and development organizations. The events highlighted the importance of prevention and protection of victims of trafficking and the prosecution of perpetrators, through the cooperation and management of migrants. The NCCT and NGO partners have aired radio, TV spots and talk shows on prevention of trafficking and promotion of safe migration, while MoEYS has mainstreamed safe migration and prevention of trafficking messages in youth camps.

Protection orders issued and shelters available for women victims of violence (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 21 (d))

66.The MoJ created a mechanism for meetings between judges, prosecutors and judicial police commissioners. They also developed forms for protection orders and instructed the court and prosecution offices throughout the country to use the formula on the ‘temporary protection order’ and ‘protection order’ as stipulated in the DV Law and the regulation issued in July 2011. From 2014–2016, a total of 19 protection orders were issued in six of the 12 provinces with forms and systems in place.

67.NAPVAW II identified the lack of access to safe shelter, including the limited number of facilities, as a gap in essential services for women victims of violence. The number of shelters for women victims of violence has fluctuated over the years (from 6 to over 20). In 2017, there are 6 shelters available for women victims of violence operated by NGOs in Phnom Penh and 4 provincial capitals, including one temporary shelter for men in Siem Reap. There are no government-funded shelters.

Raise awareness among medical practitioners on handling cases of VAW (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 23)

68.The Ministry of Health (MoH) has intensified efforts to promote awareness of health care providers on the management of cases of VAW. The MoH launched the National Guidelines for Managing Violence Against Women in the Health System in 2014 and approved the Clinical Handbook for Health Care for Women and Girl Survivors of Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence in 2016. Training of Trainers was conducted in 2016 and training occurred in 11 target provinces with health care providers in 2017. The training will cover health care staff in nine National Hospitals, 79 Referral Hospitals, and 1,029 Health Centers throughout the country in the next few years.

69.The MoH has implemented the government policy on forensic examinations in accordance with the 2007 Criminal Procedure Code Chapter 6: Costs of forensic examinations. Article 171 states that the costs of forensic examinations are the responsibility of the applicant. When an investigating judge, prosecutor or judicial police officer requests a forensic examination, additional forensic examination or cross-forensic examination, the costs are the state’s responsibility.

Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution

Institutional efforts to strengthen the implementation of the Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 25 (a))

70.The National Committee for Counter Trafficking (NCCT) is the key mechanism to counter trafficking in persons and sexual exploitation, with structures at the national and sub-national level. In 2014, a Royal Decree modified the NCCT membership, structure and key activities to be more effective.

71.The NPA-CTIP II aims to deepen and consolidate the response at the national and sub-national levels. The NCCT established six national thematic working groups, comprising government officials and CSOs, to facilitate a holistic and comprehensive response to human trafficking, targeting prevention, victim protection, law enforcement, justice, international cooperation and migration. The Provincial Committees for Combatting Trafficking in Persons have a clear structure, with national budget allocated for implementation of the NPA-CTIP II, and are chaired by a Provincial or Deputy Governor. A Migration Working Group established in 2012 aims to promote and protect the safety, rights and interests of migrants in a gender responsive way using a multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral approach.

72.The RGC recognizes migration as a priority to balance labour force in all development sectors. Under NCCT, a special migration-working group was created comprising ministries, relevant institutions, and development partners, to promote and protect the safety, rights, and the interests of migrants in a gender responsive way, and is currently led by the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MoLVT).

73.The MoJ distributed the Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation, and accompanying Explanatory Notes on the content of each article, to facilitate the understanding of the content and application of the Law. The MoJ produced a register book for criminal and civil cases for the Capital and Provincial Courts of First Instances as a method of monitoring the court system, especially cases involving women.

74.The government continued to improve the legal framework and mechanisms, including the completion of the Guidelines on Forms and Procedures for Identification of Victims of Human Trafficking for Appropriate Services Provision (2015) and the passage of the Law on Juvenile Justice (2016).

75.MoWA, through the NAPVAW II, the TWGG-GBV mechanism and the involvement in the Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Trafficking (COMMIT), has contributed to anti-trafficking efforts of the government. MoSVY has continued to train relevant government officials on the Policy and National Minimum Standards for the Protection of the Rights of Victims of Human Trafficking (2009), which aims for improved continuity of care for victims engaged with multiple service providers, from shelters to counselors and prosecution authorities. Training has continued with government officials and NGO shelters on the Minimum Standards on Residential Care for Victims of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation. MoSVY is currently drafting a Guideline for the Reintegration of Victims of Human Trafficking.

Dissemination of information on labour migration (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 25 (b))

76.The second Labour Migration Policy for Cambodia 2015–2018 sets out a framework for effective governance of labour migration, empowerment and protection of the rights of female and male migrant workers, and enhancement of the impact of migration on development. The MoLVT is developing guidelines for the identification and referrals of victims of human trafficking, and has established a Labour Migration Information System (LMIS) with support from partner organizations to collect sex and sector-disaggregated data on the number of Cambodian workers that migrate through regular channels.

77.The MoLVT issued eight Prakas in 2013 to supplement the implementation of Sub-Decree 190 on The Management of Sending Cambodian Workers Abroad through Private Recruitment Agencies. These regulations aim to increase the government’s effectiveness in the management of labour migration and companies as well as the processing and resolution of complaints. The legal requirements for establishing and operating Private Recruitment Agencies (PRAs), including minimum standards, penalties, rewards and responsibilities towards migrant workers are defined, including the MoLVT complaint mechanism and standards for inspections for PRAs.

78.Migration Resource Centers have been established in four provinces to assist migrants and their families. With the support of the International Labour Organization (ILO), a curriculum for pre-orientation was developed and endorsed by the government.

79.The government has integrated the topics of labour migration and human trafficking, including safe migration, recognizing signs of human trafficking, and tricks of brokers, into the permanent agenda of the ‘Safe Village, Safe Commune’ public forum. The aim is to strengthen government officials and citizen participation at multiple levels in the prevention, dissemination and implementation of laws and policies to combat human trafficking and provide justice for victims. A total of 57,277 dissemination activities involving 8.24 million participants (3.84 million females) have taken place between 2013–2016.

80.From 2013–2016, the government (MoI) held 86 consultation meetings and workshops on combatting human trafficking, with 5,122 participants (1,676 women) from relevant institutions, development partners, NGOs/CSOs, provincial/ district/commune councils, law implementers, government officials, teachers, students, monks and villagers. The NCCT conducted 481 trainings on the Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Women and related regulations. The trainings involved 24,227 participants (9,225 women) from relevant government institutions, law implementers, teachers, NGO/CSOs, and tourism and hotel personnel.

81.MoWA has conducted many awareness campaigns on safe migration and the prevention of trafficking for marriage. These efforts are communicated through the media (ie. radio talk shows) and, in several provinces with community members, through the PDWA/District Office of Women’s Affairs (DoWA) and local authority structures.

Institutional efforts to ensure prosecution and punishment of traffickers and persons responsible for the sexual exploitation of women (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 25 (c))

82.From 2014–2017, the combined efforts of the MoI and MoJ to enforce the Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Women resulted:

Type of Offense


Arrests/Defendants (No.)

Survivors (female)

Human Trafficking


186 (74 women, 24 foreigners)

552 female (< Age 15 =80; Age 15-17 =77)

Commercial Sex


246 (116 women, 24 foreigners)

629 female (< Age 15=148)

Source: MoI and MoJ 2014–2017.

83.In 2016, 84 cases involving 97 Trafficking in Persons victims (24 women, 40 girls) and 133 defendants were sent to investigating judges at provincial/municipal courts, while 138 cases involving 150 Trafficking in Person victims (64 women, 74 girls) and 155 defendants were forwarded to the trial judges at provincial/municipal courts. (See Annex Tables 3 and 4).

84.From 2014–2016, training for judges, prosecutors and police on the investigation and prosecution of Trafficking in Persons cases has incorporated national, regional and international laws and other legal instruments. The training of laws is integrated into the curriculum of the Royal Academy of National Police, Judicial Professionals and Royal Military Police. The curriculum has been widened at the Royal Academy of Judicial Professionals and Lawyer Training Center to train prosecution officers and specialized judges in the adjudication of trafficking in persons and labour and sexual exploitation cases. There has been specialized training and support for female police officers through development partners/NGOs on anti-human trafficking, criminal code and procedures, forensics, and commercial entertainment establishments.

Strengthen bi-lateral and multilateral cooperation to combat human trafficking for domestic servitude and sexual exploitation (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 25 (d))

85.Cambodia has concluded bilateral labour migration and trafficking agreements with Thailand, among which includes signing a Memorandum of Understanding in 2016 for Bilateral Cooperation in Counter Trafficking.

86.In 2016, Cambodia adopted the Action Plan for the implementation of the 2015 Cambodia and Vietnam Agreement for Bilateral Cooperation on Counter Trafficking in Persons and Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking in line with the 2009 Standard Operating Procedures for the Identification and Repatriation of Trafficked Victims endorsed by both countries.

87.In 2016, Cambodia signed a Bilateral Agreement with China for Strengthening Cooperation in Counter Trafficking in Persons and adopted the Action Plan. Focal points and a working group for both countries are currently being established.

88.Cambodia and the Republic of Korea endorsed a Memorandum of Understanding for the deployment of Cambodian workers under the employment permit system, implemented by the MoLVT.

89.In 2015, the COMMIT Cambodia Taskforce, chaired by MoWA and co-chaired by MoI, MoSVY and MoJ, successfully organized the 1) the Tenth Senior Officials Meeting of COMMIT to review progress over the past 10 years and establish goals for future counter-trafficking efforts, and 2) the Fourth Inter-Ministerial Meeting to endorse the Fourth COMMIT Sub-regional Action Plan 2015–2018 and a new COMMIT Joint Declaration.

Data on migrant domestic workers who are victims of trafficking, and information on referral mechanism and efforts to identify, support and protect victims from re-trafficking (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 25 (e))

90.The main international destinations for Cambodian migrants are Malaysia, Thailand and the Republic of Korea. In late 2011, Cambodia introduced a ban on domestic workers to Malaysia, sharply reducing migration outflows. From 2013‑2017, 77,42 documented Cambodian female migrant workers (38.8 per cent of 199,097 workers) were deployed abroad to four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, Japan and Singapore) through 77 registered PRAs with the MoLVT and under the Employment Permit System with the Republic of Korea.

91.In 2016, Cambodian embassies in five destination countries intervened in 223 migrant worker cases and arranged for their safe return home to Cambodia. In 2017, Cambodian embassies in six destination countries intervened in 606 cases of Cambodian victims overseas, including 307 females, and arranged for their safe return home to Cambodia.

92.In 2014, the MoLVT received 79 complaints from 635 (243 female) migrant workers, of which 22 cases involved recruitment agencies. A total of 42 cases were resolved, 36 were still in process and one was unresolved. In 2016, the MoLVT received 54 complaints from 187 (129 female) migrant workers, involving 28 recruitment agencies. In 2017, 19 cases were resolved, 13 are still being processed and 17 were dismissed as invalid.

93.From 2014–2016, the number of victims of trafficking assisted included:


Assisted in country

Assisted in Repatriation

Assisted in Centers

Referred to PoSVY/ NGO/Family

Reintegrated/ Training








589 (486 F)

414 (26 F)

161 (68 F)

86 (63 F)


244 (109 F)


455 (373 F)


Source: MoSVY 2014–2016.

94.The Referral Directory for Services for Returned Migrants and Survivors of Trafficking was updated in 2014 under the NPA-CTIP II as part of strengthening victim support services. Data collection efforts, including the systematic reporting of information, tools for monitoring and evaluation, and the evaluation and dissemination of data, require on-going continued improvements.

Measures to tackle root causes of prostitution (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 27)

95.Neary Rattanak IV includes a number of key activities to address discrimination against marginalized women and girls, including those engaged in prostitution. These include coordinating the revision of regulations, formulating guidelines and building the capacity of relevant actors to provide legal protection for women engaged in prostitution and women working in the men’s entertainment sector. MoWA, in collaboration with other agencies, is committed to undertaking studies to identify the root causes of women working in prostitution in order to design effective interventions and programs for women seeking new employment opportunities outside the sex industry. This includes identifying solutions and discussions on punishing purchasers of sex services.

96.The NPA-CTIP II aims to effectively prevent all forms of human trafficking and labour and sexual exploitation; to protect victims, enforce the law, and punish perpetrators of human trafficking and labour and sexual exploitation. To achieve this, the four strategies identified are: a) strengthening law and policy enforcement and enhancing cooperation, b) enhancing prevention, c) enhancing the criminal justice response to human trafficking, and d) protecting victims with gender and age appropriate and qualitative support.

97.Significant progress to date has been with the training of law enforcement officials on relevant existing laws, the prevention activities carried out in partnership with NGOs, development partners and line ministries, and the increased coordination among law enforcement, judiciary and social service sectors for investigation and prosecution. Among the key areas of research identified to help inform future activities of the NPA-CTIP II include risk factors for trafficking and sexual exploitation, best practices in prevention and laws and policies, and evaluation of successful vocational training programs.

Participation in political and public life

Ensure Neary Rattanak IV provides effective strategies, including temporary special measures, to increase representation of women in decision-making positions (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 29)

98.Neary Rattanak IV recognizes that women in decision-making positions and gender mainstreaming are important crosscutting issues. The plan includes a strategic objective to promote gender equality in decision-making at all levels and mainstream gender in policies, plans, sectoral programs and key reform programs of the RGC. The key strategies are: 1) increase the proportion of women participating in the civil service, 2) strengthen the capacity and ability of women civil servants and women in decision-making to fulfill their roles and responsibilities, 3) increase the proportion of women in political positions, and 4) strengthen gender-responsive national and sectoral strategies.

99.The MCS drafted a National Policy and Strategy for the Promotion of Women Leadership in the Civil Service (2015), in line with the GMAP in the Civil Service Sector Phase III 2014–2018 and the National Program for Public Administrative Reform (2015–2018). In 2017, the National Committee for Sub-national Democratic Development (NCDD) adopted the Strategy and Action Plan to Increase Women in Sub-National Management Positions 2017–2019.

100.In 2016, the Royal School of Administration, in collaboration with the MCS, MoI and MoWA, provided a special 100-hour training course for 80 female leaders (Secretary and Under Secretary of States) on three reform areas of Public Administration, Decentralization and De-concentration, Public Finance and related policies of the government.


Measures to facilitate birth registration of children born to Vietnamese mothers and their acquisition of citizenship (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 31 (a))

101.The Law on Nationality (1996), Chapter 1, Article 1 states that the law has the objective to determine Khmer citizenship for those persons who fulfill the conditions under this law and who are living in the territory of the Kingdom of Cambodia or abroad. Chapter 2, Article 4, point 2 states Khmer citizenship/nationality can be obtained by having been born in the Kingdom of Cambodia through a) a child born of a foreign mother and father (parents) born and living legally in the Kingdom of Cambodia, and b) a child born of unknown parents and/or newborns in the Kingdom of Cambodia.

102.According to the Constitution and the Law on Nationality (Chapter 1, Article 1 and Chapter 2, Article 4), all women, regardless of nationality, living legally in Cambodia have the right to register the birth of their child and apply for citizenship for their newborn. All births are to be registered with the commune/sangkat office within 30 days of being born. Children not registered within 30 days of being born can receive a birth certification under national guidelines, which affords children the same rights as a birth registration. The Birth Registration Guidelines and Birth Certification procedures stipulate the processes to be followed, the necessary requirements and the proper documentation needed.

Consider acceding to the 1954 Convention relating to Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 31 (b))

103.The RGC will consider future action with regards to these Conventions after reviewing the requisite legal, policy and institutional mechanisms necessary before joining any international treaty.


Measures to increase access to education for girls (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 33 (a))

104.The ESP 2014–2018 aims to increase the number of communes/sangkats with lower secondary schools and establish upper secondary schools in all districts/khan. From 2013–2016, the number of lower secondary and upper secondary schools increased from 1,622 to 1,684 and 433 to 463 respectively, and 50 per cent of lower secondary schools were upgraded to upper secondary schools. A total of 139 communes/sangkat (2.5 per cent of total) do not have a lower secondary school due to geographical constraints and low population numbers (Koh Kong and Ratanakiri provinces). Of these 139 communes, 39 sangkats in Phnom Penh do not need lower secondary schools and 36 communes in Ratanakiri do not require additional buildings.

105.Access to clean water in lower and upper secondary schools for both sanitation and toilet usage has increased; all provinces are estimated at 60 per cent or above, except for two provinces (Pursat and Pailin). MoEYS has constructed more latrines and separate toilet facilities for girl students in secondary schools to encourage more regular attendance. Only 11.8 per cent of lower and 1.5 per cent of upper secondary schools have yet to develop adequate latrine facilities.

106.MoEYS has implemented the Child Friendly School Policy at primary and lower secondary schools to improve the learning environment. This policy includes safety and security for students while also promoting awareness within communities around the importance of education for girls.

107.Schools in collaboration with local authorities, NGO/CSO partners, school support committees, teachers, parents and communities have conducted outreach activities to increase school registration for early childhood and primary school education. The government guarantees free registration for all students as supported by increases in state budget allocation and improvements in budget management for school operations.

Measures to ensure retention of women and girls in schools (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 33 (b))

108.The government policy is to provide scholarships for poor students, with at least 60 per cent for female students. Through the national budget, scholarships for poor students cover 809 lower secondary schools with 70,494 students (42,382 or 60.1 per cent female) and another 120 upper secondary schools with 3,600 students (2,160 or 60 per cent female).

109.In 2016/17 academic year, the number of dormitory buildings for students and teachers increased from 7 to 30, allowing housing capacity to reach 3,788 students. Of the 2,418 students staying in the dormitories, 1,096 (45 per cent) are female. Of the 938 new students staying in the dormitories, 820 students (87 per cent) are female, demonstrating a commitment by the government to support women and girls’ access to higher education.

110.All Teacher Training Centers, (Regional Teacher Training Centers, Provincial Teacher Training Centers, and Pre-school Teacher Training Colleges) have dormitories, and of the 3,056 teachers in training staying in these dormitories, 1,957 (64 per cent) are women.

111.In line with the Policy on Technical Education, MoEYS prepared a master plan on Technical Education development in 2014 and followed up with a technical education curriculum and curriculum standards in 2016 to better serve student and community needs. Proposed revisions to the general secondary education curriculum in 2017/2018 will strengthen links between life skills, vocational training, the labour market and higher education institutes.

112.In secondary schools, vocational training and life skill programs have been upgraded to better equip female students, including those who may not continue with higher education. In 2015, a mechanism for career counseling for secondary students was introduced, including the training of teachers.

Intensify age appropriate education in schools on Sexual Reproductive Health (SRH) rights, gender relations and responsible sexual behavior, to combat teenage pregnancies (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 33 (c))

113.MoEYS launched a life skill curriculum for primary school (Grades 5–6), lower secondary school (Grades 7–8), upper secondary school (Grades 10–11), and for youth out of school. The curriculums for each level include: basic reproductive, sexual and health education, including HIV/AIDS, hygiene and gender concepts (Grades 5–6); gender roles, sexuality and gender expression (Grades 7–8); human rights, gender equality, gender roles, sexual harassment and gender-based violence (Grades 10–11).

114.In 2016, MoEYS provided 3,500 life skill books on SRH for Grades 5–6 and trained 1,756 primary school teachers (59 per cent female) in three provinces. They have distributed training manuals and conducted information sessions on how to deliver the SRH life skill curriculum to secondary school teachers.

115.Public schools are using a training manual for young people on gender equality and human rights, A Young People ’ s Tool Kit, as part of MoWA’s advocacy efforts to increase awareness of the importance of girls’ participation in social, economic and political life.

Institutional efforts to enhance the quality of education by training teachers and ensuring adequate remuneration (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 33 (d))

116.MoEYS has integrated gender into pre-service and in-service teacher training programs at all levels as well as for school management. Gender has been mainstreamed throughout the education system, including for teachers through teacher training programs, with students through the education curriculum, and for leaders and staff in the management and administration sections through professional development activities.

117.MoEYS developed a draft on the teacher training system outlining standards and a conceptual paper on professional career path development for educators. The Phnom Penh and Battambang Regional Teacher Training Centers have been transformed into Institutes of Pedagogy.

118.MoEYS has encouraged and trained basic education teachers (in primary and lower secondary schools) to receive bachelor degrees, including upgrading the capacity of 1,700 primary school teachers (28.7 per cent female), 51 existing education inspectors (21.5 per cent female) and appointing 31 new female inspectors (9.6 per cent).

119.MoEYS has collaborated with development partners and NGOs to further improve the quality of teaching, especially in math and sciences, labs for science, computer and foreign languages, and library packages through the New Generation School pilot programs in selected secondary schools throughout the country.

120.MoEYS has implemented key policy actions of medium-term salary reform for 2015–2018. The minimum salary for teachers increased from 400,000 riels in 2013 to 950,000 riels in 2017, and will increase to over 1 million riels in 2018. The lowest-ranking teachers working in remote and disadvantaged areas receive a salary of more than 1 million riels. The salaries of basic education teachers and new highest-ranking teachers increased to over 1 million riels in 2017. Incentives for teachers working in remote and disadvantaged areas increased from 80,000 riels to 100,000 riels and 120,000 riels, depending on the location. Contracted teacher’s salaries have increased to an average of 660,000 riels per month, and the allowances for contracted staff increased from 140,000 to 500,000 riels per month. The overtime allowances for extra hours and shifts have doubled since April 2017.

Employment and economic empowerment

Measures to eliminate occupational segregation and to narrow the gender pay gap (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 35 (a))

121.The National Employment Policy 2015–2025 provides a framework to improve the livelihoods and dignity of people, promote social harmonization, create decent job opportunities, increase work productivity, and enhance skill and human resource development. Key measures include assessing the employment needs of both men and women at the sectoral and sub-sectoral levels, promoting employment through enterprise development, and transforming informal sector businesses into more formal businesses.

122.The tri-partite dialogue mechanism between the government, employers and workers produced a steady increase in the monthly minimum wage for workers in the garment and footwear industry over the last four years: 100 USD in 2014, 128 USD in 2015, 140 USD in 2016, and 153 USD in 2017. In 2018, the monthly minimum wage for workers in this industry will increase to 170 USD. With other benefits, workers earn between 187 USD and 198 USD per month. The garment industry has generated more than 600,000 jobs for people, 90 per cent of which are women.

123.The government is providing employment services at the national and sub‑national levels through the National Employment Agency (NEA), technical and vocational training programs, and registered private recruitment agencies. In 2016, 116,583 women (55.03% of the total) were provided jobs through the NEA while more than 1.15 million Cambodians were provided with employment services to work overseas.

124.In 2017, the government issued a sub-decree (No. 17) offering tax incentives to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that voluntarily register with the General Department of Taxation by the end of 2018. The Ministry of Industry and Handicrafts has prepared a draft for Cambodia’s SME Policy Framework.

Measures to enforce labour laws, particularly in the garment and low paid sectors (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 35 (b))

125.The MoLVT has continued to work in partnership with the Better Factories Cambodia program within the garment and footwear industry. Efforts were made to improve mechanisms to promote decent work within the sector and to extend initiatives across other sectors.

126.In 2014, 49 labour inspection groups were established nationwide comprising 607 members (84 women) and trained on labour inspection, medical labour inspection, and labour conflict resolution procedures. These labour inspection groups have been issued uniforms and transportation means to conduct inspections at enterprises and institutions to promote compliance with the Labour Law, the Law on Social Security Schemes, the Law on Associations and other relevant legal regulations.

127.In 2016, the MoLVT conducted 8,763 labour inspections, slightly fewer (6.7 per cent) than in 2015. This has resulted in: (a) reduction in labour conflicts; (b) harmonization between employees and employers; (c) stronger compliance with the labour law and regulations (d) increased buyers’ confidence in businesses that promote decent living conditions of employees. In 2016, the national and provincial child labour inspection groups inspected 397 brick factories that employ a total of 5,363 workers, and urged employers and communities to comply with the Labour Law and decent working conditions, particularly the prohibition of child labour as stipulated in the labour regulations.

128.The MoLVT established a working group to prevent fainting incidents and work-related accidents in factories and enterprises. A road traffic safety working-group has been set up to assist workers registered in the social security scheme, and they have collaborated with various health clinics for the provision of services for work and traffic related accidents.

129.The MoLVT developed Prakas No. 194 in 2014 on the Working Conditions, Occupational Safety and Health Rules of Entertainment Establishments Services Enterprises, Establishments and Companies to strengthen the implementation of the Labour Law and sensitize entertainment workers on the duties, rights and benefits as stated in the Labour Law. The MoLVT implemented Prakas No. 194 through mandatory inspections in which violence and indecent assault is referenced as per Article 8.

Consider acceding to the ILO Domestic Workers Convention (No. 189) of 2011 and the Convention on the Protection of All Migrant Workers and Members of their families (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 35 (c))

130.Cambodia has ratified all eight core ILO Conventions. The country is a signatory to the UN International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (1990).

131.In preparation for the implementation of Convention 189, the MoLVT carried out the following activities: a) In 2015, the MoLVT conducted two sessions to raise awareness on the Convention No. 189 and Recommendations No. 201. Tri-partite consultations were held to develop a roadmap to identify priority actions towards implementing the Convention. b) In 2015, the MoLVT held two workshops (140 participants) to promote awareness on the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. c) The RGC has issued Sub-Decree No. 190 on The Management of Sending Cambodian Workers Abroad through Private Recruitment Agencies, and its related Prakas and legal regulations, and has secured bilateral agreements on labour migration with other countries.


Ensure medically safe modern methods of abortion are available and accessible (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 37 (a))

132.Safe abortion has been provided in accordance with the 1997 Abortion Law and the 2002 MoH regulation on the implementation of the Abortion Law. Between 2007 and 2016, the MoH trained 1,733 health care service providers (medical doctors, midwife physicians and midwives) and 647 health facilities on safe abortion. Trained health care providers in the 647 health facilities have applied consistent and safe abortion services according to the WHO Guidelines using manual Vacuum Aspiration. In 2015, 21,541 safe abortions and 9,081 spontaneous abortions with post-abortion care were conducted. The MoH will continue to train health care service providers on safe abortion skills at health centers and raise awareness on safe abortion services to ensure women, especially in rural areas, have increased access to safe abortion services.

Provide free anti-retroviral treatment for women and men living with HIV/AIDS (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 37 (b))

133.The MoH has implemented the National Strategic Plan for Prevention of HIV from Mother to Child 2008–2015, which provides care to all pregnant women including blood tests for anemia, HIV/AIDS and STIs. In 2015, 1,216 health facilities provided these services. In 2015, 80 per cent of pregnant women were voluntarily tested for HIV, up from only 15 per cent in 2008.

134.The percentage of pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral treatment (ART/V) increased from only 27 per cent in 2008 to 67.7 per cent in 2013 to 83.3 per cent in 2015. The mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV infection declined from 13 per cent in 2013 to 6.2 per cent in 2015. The percentage of pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS decreased to 0.28 per cent in 2014 from 2.9 per cent in 1998.

135.The RGC has prioritized the elimination of new HIV infections by 2025 in line with the global strategies and the National Strategic Plan for Comprehensive and Multi-sectoral Response to HIV/AIDS Phase IV 2016–2020, especially for vulnerable women suffering from HIV including female entertainment workers, pregnant women and women survivors of sexual violence. As a result of multiple prevention, screening, treatment and care interventions including the 100 per cent condom use for entertainment establishments, Prakas 066, the HIV prevalence rate for female entertainment workers decreased to 3.2 per cent in 2016 from 45.8 per cent in 1998.

Measures to combat discrimination against pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 37 (c))

136.All pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS are provided free anti-retroviral treatment and counseling on family planning. Should pregnant women decide they do not want to have children, they are counseled by trained health care service providers on safe abortion methods prior to any abortion services conducted. In addition, routine post-abortion health care follow up, including family planning methods, is provided. It is against the 1997 Abortion Law to force any woman to have an abortion against her will.

137.Since 2010, no formal reports from the public and private sector of discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS have been received. Cambodia is on the way to achieve the target of Zero Stigma and Discrimination of the Three Zeros Strategy by 2020.

Intensify provision of SRH information and services to women (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 37 (d))

138.The Fast Track Initiative Roadmap (FTIRM) for Reducing Maternal and Newborn Mortality 2016–2020 is an extension of the first FTIRM 2010–2015 and outlines the priorities for reducing maternal and child mortality in line with the targets established for the SDGs.

139.Family planning counseling and increasing the use of modern contraceptive remains a priority in the Fast Track Initiative Roadmap for reducing maternal mortality. Nationally, the percentage of married women of reproductive age using modern contraceptive methods increased from 19 per cent in 2000 to 24.9 per cent in 2010 to 39 per cent in 2014. The modern Contraceptive Prevalence Rate for married women of reproductive age in rural areas increased at a higher rate, from 17.6 per cent in 2000 to 39.9 per cent in 2014, compared to women in urban areas, from 23.2 per cent in 2000 to 32.8 per cent in 2014. Although contraceptive use has increased among married women, it fell somewhat short of the CMDG 2015 target of 60 per cent.

140.The total demand satisfied for family planning among married women increased from 42 per cent in 2000 to 75 per cent in 2010 to 83 per cent in 2014. The total unmet need for family planning among married women decreased from 25 per cent in 2000 to 17 per cent in 2010 to 12 per cent in 2014. This includes an unmet need for spacing (5 per cent) and for limiting (6.9 per cent) among married women in 2014. The unmet need is slightly higher among rural women than urban women (12 per cent and 10 per cent, respectively).

141.Antenatal Care (ANC) coverage increased from 38 per cent in 2000 to 95 per cent in 2014. The number of births preceded by two ANC visits increased from 25.4 per cent in 2000 to 90.5 per cent in 2014. In 2014, 66.4 per cent of pregnant women had four ANC visits prior to giving birth. The proportion of pregnant women delivering by Cesarean Section increased from 2.56 in 2010 to 5.37 per cent in 2014, above the CMDG target of 4 per cent. The MoH continues to disseminate information and conduct outreach activities to pregnant women and their families, especially in the more remote areas and provinces.

Strengthen the implementation of programmes and policies aimed at providing affordable access to health care for women (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 39)

142.The NSDP 2014–2018 recognizes the Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSP) goals and priorities as the means to promote sustainable development in the health sector. The NSDP commits the government to four health priorities: 1) Improving sexual, reproductive, women’s and children’s health, 2) Reducing morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, 3) Reducing morbidity and mortality from non‑communicable disease, and 4) ensuring equitable access to quality health services.

143.The national budget has increased by 22 per cent from 2012 to 2015, and this includes the government contributions to the Health Equity Funds (HEF) as part of the countrywide expansion of HEFs for the poor. In 2016, all public hospitals provided free treatment and counseling as well as special care to the poor through the country-wide expansion of HEFs and by issuing ID Poor cards, a government program for identifying households in need of assistance. A total of 3.8 million people utilized these services, and women are the direct beneficiaries. HEF covers poor women, women with disabilities and older women.

144.The MoH launched an updated National Health Care Policy and Strategy for Older People in 2016 in line with international goals and guidelines, such as the SDGs and the 2015 WHO World Report on Ageing. The goals are to promote healthy ageing founded on a holistic, multi-sector life course approach and to establish an accessible, responsible health system of services for older people that include prevention treatment, rehabilitation and palliative care services. Key targets are to incorporate older people health services in existing MPA and CPA packages, to develop and implement norms and standards for older people health care at all levels, to collect disaggregated data on older people health, and to improve risk protection for older people.

145.The MoSVY finalized the updated National Policy for the Elderly in 2017. Two important programmes under the MoSVY 2014–2018 Strategic Plan pertaining to older people include: 1) The community older people development program, and 2) family-based care for older people program. A total of 569 Older People’s Associations (OPAs) have been established at the commune/sangkat level throughout the country with engagement in health care, rice/cow banks, micro-credit, funeral assistance and social activities. These OPAs are particularly important for women, as 10 per cent of elderly women are the sole adults in the household compared to only 2 per cent of elderly men.

146.The MoSVY Strategic Plan 2014–2018 includes objectives, activities and indicators relating to ensuring the rights of women with disabilities in line with national policies, the CEDAW Convention, and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Other government ministries and institutions, development partners and NGOs/CSOs are also in coordination with the plan.

Rural women, natural disasters and climate change

Step up efforts to facilitate access by rural women to basic services/facilities and include ICT in information dissemination strategies for economic empowerment (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 41 (a))

147.The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD) established the National Action Plan and Provincial Action Plan for the Rural Development Sector (2014–2018), which incorporates key elements in the MRD GMAP 2012–2016. The plan aims to eliminate gender inequality, reduce poverty and improve the living conditions and livelihoods of women in rural areas.

148.The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) developed the Gender Mainstreaming Policy and Strategic Framework in Agriculture 2016–2020, which strengthens gender mainstreaming of the Cambodian Agriculture Sector Strategic Development Plan 2014–2018. It includes three main strategies to promote women’s economic empowerment through women’s access to goods, mainstreaming gender into the agriculture sector, and increasing the equal participation of women and men in the agriculture sector.

149.The greatest outreach of financial services in rural areas is through Micro‑Finance Institutions (MFIs), with 68 MFIs registered with the National Bank and NGOs providing credit and loans. In 2017, these institutions provided over 3.99 billion USD in loans, an increase from 2.95 billion USD in loans in 2015. According to the Cambodia Microfinance Association, more than 70 per cent of loans were provided to women, who now have as much access as men to financial services from both commercial and MFIs.

150.Though women run 65 per cent of all enterprises, men’s businesses are bigger than women’s enterprises on average. Therefore, women are engaging in less profitable businesses than men, and access to financial and business development services are crucial to the growth of women’s enterprises.

151.The MRD has expanded a micro-credit scheme with low interest rates to enable people in rural areas, especially women, to obtain loans for small businesses and agriculture activities. In 2017, the credit scheme released capital totaling 1.31 million USD to 6,035 clients (4,989 women or 82.7 per cent) in 15 provinces.

152.From 2013–2017, the MRD conducted trainings with rural communities on the roles of Village Development Committees (VDCs) and community development activities for 880 VDCs in 6,160 villages with 30,806 villagers, including 9,104 women (29.6 per cent). Vocational training programs provided skills training and services, such as business information to support women’s rural entrepreneurs, job creation, animal raising, food processing, agricultural education and technology transfer. From 2015–2017, a total of 9,270 people have participated in trainings, including 4,481 women (48 per cent).

153.The MRD has made important progress in promoting access to improved water supply and sanitation in rural areas in line with NSDP and CMDG targets. The percentage of rural population with access to improved water supply increased from 44.2 per cent in 2013 to 53 per cent in 2015. Access to improved sanitation reached 56 per cent in 2015, up from 37.5 per cent in 2013. A National Strategic Plan for Rural Water Supply Sanitation and Hygiene 2014–2025 was approved in January 2014.

154.MRD has made important progress in rehabilitating rural roads at the provincial, district, commune and village level. The number of rural roads registered under MRD totals 45,241 kilometers. Improvements in rural road infrastructure have made travel easier for everyone, and women have better access to health centers, schools, markets and employment opportunities, thereby contributing to overall poverty reduction efforts in rural areas.

155.The NCDD aims to expand the participation of women at the sub-national levels. In 2015–2106, public services were moved closer to local communities via 24 One-Window Service Offices that provide a number of administrative services in 13 sectors. Women have benefited directly from these services. In 2016, One-Window Service Offices in the target areas provided a total of 609,638 administrative services such as small business registration, motorcycle registration, land registration, construction licenses and notary services.

156.Annually, the 14 Women Development Centers (WDCs), in conjunction with the PDWA, have provided vocational skills training, which includes financial literacy, small business enterprise, and sewing/tailoring, for about 3,000 poor women. Many women have since applied their skills towards income-generating activities and obtaining employment at factories. Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) centers have conducted training for the service providers at the 14 WDCs on computer skills and e-communication to enhance understanding of social media and technology.

157.Furthermore, 399 producer and saving groups were formed with 5,629 villagers (4,860 women or 86.3 per cent) in 11 provinces to expand the variety of income-generating activities. As part of the WDC vocational training program, 354 women were trained on budget management, savings and loans. These efforts have led to increases in household income and improvements in livelihood.

158.The Ministry of Industry and Handicraft (MIH) has streamlined registration procedures and fee services for SMEs, including online license registration training, with the aim to improve the business environment, especially for women owners. The MIH has decentralized the registration process for SMEs to the sub-national levels in 25 provinces thereby bringing the services closer to the people, and a greater number of women entrepreneurs (248) have been able to register their businesses into the system.

159.Older Cambodian women are not familiar with the use of ICT whereas younger women are. ICT in agriculture involves how farmers can use ICT to solve agriculture issues, increase productivity and improve markets for smallholder farms and value chains. The 2015 Agriculture Extension Policy aims to address gender issues in all agriculture development sectors and service provisions. Current use of mobile phones as tools for rural women to plan when to harvest, link with markets and increase revenues.

Develop indicators that better reflect regional and socioeconomic variables (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 41 (b))

160.The UN Minimum Set of Gender Indicators is an important reference for the collection of gender disaggregated data for Cambodia’s national and sectoral development and M&E plans. Most indicators have been included in government information management systems and national surveys, including VAW surveys. The NSDP 2014–2018 includes 12 core indicators specifically related to SDG 5 (Gender Equity) and another 13 core indicators related to gender equality in health, education and economic participation.

161.The Health Management Information System (HMIS) of the MoH contains gender related statistics and the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) contains comprehensive data on the health of women, disaggregated by age, residence and province, marital status, number of children, education, and wealth status.

162.The Education Management Information System (EMIS) of the MoEYS includes a comprehensive set of education statistics (23 Tables) and indicators (26 Tables) for all formal education levels disaggregated by sex, residence, and province, while the Non-Formal Education (NFE) program includes information on 23 indicators by program type, class, age, sex and province.

163.The LMIS of the MoLVT was designed to gather important information on employment disaggregated by sex, age, residence, etc., and the CSES includes comprehensive data on the socio-economic status of women disaggregated by residence, marital status, age, education level, employment, labour participation, etc.

Ensure women are involved in decision-making on policies and programmes for disaster prevention and management, especially climate change adaptation and mitigation (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 41 (c))

164.Gender has been mainstreamed into the Cambodia Climate Change Strategic Plan 2014–2023 and the National Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction 2014‑2019. New institutional arrangements for climate change have been put in place, including the establishment of the National Council for Sustainable Development and its General Secretariat in March 2015.

165.Neary Rattanak IV includes a Gender and Climate Change Action Plan, and Gender and Climate Change Committees in line ministries have been established. The Mainstreaming Climate Resilience into Development Planning Project 2016–2018, led by a consortium of agencies with four government institutions, involves an outcome for enhanced institutional and technical capacity to integrate gender concerns in climate change initiatives. These include development of a strategy, guiding principles and implementation plans for mainstreaming gender concerns into climate change adaptation and mitigation investments.

166.The Agriculture Services Programme for Innovation Resilience and Extension 2015–2022 is the first national programme that provides smallholder farmers with access to quality information services, including supporting climate resilient agriculture. Over 36,000 households with 110,000 people (50 per cent women) have participated in a range of different agriculture extension activities. The Climate Change Adaptation Development Plan has been completed in 16 districts, and vulnerability reduction analysis assessments have been conducted with 1,500 participants (300 women).

Access to land

Efforts to improve women’s access to land and tenure security (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 43 (a))

167.In 2015, the government introduced the Land PolicyWhite Paper” in response to socio-economic development and land reform, serving to support people’s livelihoods. The “White Paper” (Points 5 and 7) includes key guidelines and activities for achieving gender equality in the land sector and equity between men and women in the land registration process. In addition, the aim is to increase women’s involvement in decision-making, monitoring, implementation and initiatives in the land sector.

168.The short, medium and long-term gender mainstreaming strategic plans in the land sector incorporate capacity development strategies to raise awareness of land related work with the public, especially ethnic minorities and female head of households. These plans are monitored and evaluated by relevant line ministries.

169.The RGC has made significant progress to providing land titles to women, widows and indigenous women in line with national policies and plans. From 2013 to 2017, a total of 4,620,653 land titles were granted, equal to 66 per cent of the projected 7 million titles to be issued by 2030. In 2017, 42,278 (20.65 per cent) out of 204,684 land titles were provided to women, and 6,442 land tittles (3.15 per cent) were provided to widows. Recently, the RGC granted 2,167 temporary occupancy titles, in principle, to community people residing in informal settlements on state private land in some areas in Phnom Penh.

Measures to protect women and girls from further (forced) eviction (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 43 (b))

170.The 2014 National Housing Policy focuses primarily on families who have low and medium incomes. The policy contains important mechanisms for increasing tenure security for informal settlements and improving access to adequate housing for poor and vulnerable groups. The policy aims to ensure that all people have access to decent housing and that resettled households have access to adequate housing and/or livelihood opportunities.

171.The 2014 National Housing Policy recognizes that relocation of informal settlements should be conducted in a transparent, accountable, participatory and voluntary manner, and used as a matter of last resort. It allows for temporary occupancy of informal settlements during the assessment period, while encouraging direct participation from affected communities. Social Land Concessions and Economic Land Concessions have been made in line with procedures stipulated in relevant policies and sub-decrees.

Investigate and prosecute cases of intimidation and harassment by law enforcement personnel against women human rights defenders advocating for land rights (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 43 (c))

172.The Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction (MLMUPC) created a land conflict department comprising 33 groups at the national level, and 21 mobile land conflict resolution groups at the capital and provincial levels. The department is responsible for (1) reviewing land conflict cases (2) conducting investigations (3) monitoring and (4) collaborating with institutions and partners to deal with the land conflicts.

173.The land conflict department has achieved the following: (1) 76 complaints were received; (2) 31 cases were resolved for 132 families, equal to 27.8 hectares of land; (3) 16 cases were not addressed as the investigation revealed that the complaint was outside the jurisdiction of the committee; (4) 4 cases were withdrawn and 694 cases are in the process of being resolved. The land conflict resolution-working group within the MLMUPC received 443 land conflict cases, 101 cases were resolved (18 cases were completely resolved) and 83 cases were referred to relevant authorities. In total, 1,184 cases were received, 212 cases were resolved, of which 60 cases were completely resolved and 152 cases were referred to the relevant authorities.

Ensure evicted communities are relocated to sites that enable women to have access to places of employment, schools, health centers, community centers and other services (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 43 (d))

174.The National Housing Policy recognizes that resettlement of communities is only to take place on sites close to basic services, infrastructure, and employment opportunities. It includes measures for integrating new settlement structures into commune/sangkat and urban/municipal land use plans and emphasizes collaboration with development partners, civil society and the private sector for development and housing projects.

175.The RGC has granted 7,637 low-priced public housing units to civil servants, uninformed servants and poor communities in cooperation with private investment companies, and prepared community development plans. The RGC successfully resolved residential issues for 492 families living in the “White Building” in central Phnom Penh, through a transparent participatory process, which was well received by the affected communities and the public in general.

176.From 2012 to 2016, social land concessions were granted to 7,430 veterans and military families and 7,644 poor households. Another 2,681 poor families received land as part of the social land concession distribution and economic development plans in cooperation with development partners and international organizations.

Disadvantaged groups of women

Collect and analyze data disaggregated by age and sex to inform policymaking (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 45)

177.The 2014 Cambodia Gender Assessment (CGA) Policy Brief No. 9 on Rights of Vulnerable Groups of Women and Girls outlines the policy and legal context for vulnerable groups of women, analyzes data sets by sex and age, and includes policy recommendations. The National Social Protection Strategy for the Poor and Vulnerable 2011–2015 identifies 17 different vulnerable groups. The National Social Protection Policy Framework 2016–2025 comprises two main pillars of Social Assistance and Social Insurance. The updated 2017 National Policy on the Elderly addresses the social welfare, healthcare, economic needs and inclusion of older adults by creating goals within government to address each of these areas.

178.There is considerable disaggregated data being compiled in all sectors for monitoring and evaluation purposes as well as to inform policy changes. The data is gathered through national surveys (CDHS, CSES, Population Census, Agriculture Census, etc.), special surveys on violence against women and girls, and standard information systems within government agencies (MAIS, EMIS, HMIS, etc.). The ID Poor program has achieved full coverage in rural areas and the pilot urban ID Poor mechanism incorporates vulnerability criteria for health, disability, education and debt.

Marriage and Family Relations

Provisions related to marriage (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 47)

179.Article 45 of the Constitution provides assurances for the right to equality of men and women, the right to non-discrimination, and the right to equality in marriage based on the provision of Article 78 of the Law on the Implementation of the Civil Code enforced in 2011. Article 9 of the 1998 Law on Marriage and Family has been abrogated. Article 950 of the Civil Code states that a woman may not remarry until 120 days have elapsed from the day of the dissolution or annulment of her previous marriage. This is intended to allow for the determination of fatherhood of any children. The principle of this provision is not to restrict the rights of women to marry, but for the sole purpose of determining fatherhood. Article 950, paragraph 2, of the Civil Code states that “in the case that a women becomes pregnant before the previous marriage was dissolved or annulled and has given birth, or in the case that a woman has a medical certificate from a doctor declaring that she is not pregnant, the marriage can proceed without the 120-day waiting period”.

180.The government (MoI) has simplified numerous civil administrative registration processes for citizens at the commune and district level, including the posting of services and fixed service charges at public offices, for the following documents: Birth Registration and Birth Certificate, Marriage Registration and Certificate, Family Book, Residential Book, National ID card, and Death Certificates. An electronic civil registration system will be strengthened to improve the quality and efficiency of services nationwide in the next five years, with ongoing capacity development for civil servants and local authorities nationwide. From 2002 to 2016, the total number of all civil registration records issued and recorded was 16,287,732, including 8,072,808 females.

181.The PDWA and DoWA, with the Commune Committees for Women and Children (CCWC) and the Women and Children’s Consultative Committees (WCCC) and with the assistance of development partners and NGOs/CSOs, have conducted awareness-raising sessions at the community level on the importance of marriage registration for the protection and promotion of women’s rights.

Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action

Use the Beijing Platform for Action to implement the provisions of the Convention (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 48)

182.Neary Rattanak IV includes a core program for institutional strengthening and capacity development towards gender equality through gender mainstreaming and women’s empowerment in the context of economic growth, social protection and services and cross cutting areas. These thematic areas are within the 12 critical areas in the Beijing Platform for Action.

183.MoWA submitted Cambodia’s progress report on the Implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995) and the outcomes of the Twenty Third Special Session of the General Assembly (2000) to mark the 20th anniversary of the Beijing Women’s Conference held in 1995. The 2015 report included achievements and challenges in relation to the 12 critical areas related to women and a section on emerging priorities and recommendations for the post-2015 Agenda.

Millennium Development Goals and post-2015 development framework

Integration of a gender perspective to achieve the MDGs and SDGs (see CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/4-5, para 49)

184.The RGC’s policy stresses inclusive growth with a gender equality component. The CMDGs included four key gender targets: a) To reduce significantly gender disparities in upper secondary and tertiary education, b) To eliminate gender disparities in wage employment in all sectors, c) To eliminate gender disparities in public institutions, and d) To reduce significantly all forms of violence against women and children. In 2013, MoWA developed the MDG Acceleration Framework Cambodia Action Plan, which stressed the role of gender equality in contributing to other MDGs and highlighted three areas to address women’s economic empowerment. The three areas included jobs training for women, support for women’s micro and small enterprises, and rural livelihoods.

185.In 2016, all line ministries reviewed key indicators on gender mainstreaming to include SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls . MoWA led a series of consultative workshops that resulted in a comprehensive monitoring framework for SDG 5. This framework includes nine key gender targets and 25 indicators linked with the responsible ministries, data sources and data cycles. This information has been integrated into respective line ministries’ GMAPs and strategic plans.

II.Progress achieved in CEDAW Implementation

Articles 1 and 2: Review of laws and measures to eliminate discrimination

186.Article 31 of the Constitution recognizes CEDAW and the Convention’s definition of discrimination against women. Article 45 of the Constitution states that all forms of discrimination shall be abolished, and national laws reflect this principle.

187.National law ensures equality between men and women and human rights and fundamental freedoms in political, civil, economic, social and cultural fields, regardless of marital status. The 2007 Civil Code (Article 2) and 2006 Civil Procedure Code (Article 2) reflect the principles of the Convention, ensuring the legal protection of the rights to equality. Examples include equal age of marriage without discrimination (Article 948), women’s right to use their husband’s surname or their own (Article 965), and the rights as husband and wife to use and enjoy joint property (Article 974).

188.The 2009 Criminal Code and the 2007 Criminal Procedure Code, Section 2, Chapter 5, Articles 265 to 273 explicitly prohibits discrimination against women and stipulates punishments. Article 3 of the Criminal Procedure Code also embodies the principle of equality.

189.The National Strategic Development Plan 2014–2018 emphasizes the cross-cutting nature of gender mainstreaming through policies and programs, and promotes the empowerment of women in all spheres, including education, economic development, legal protection, health, HIV/AIDS and nutrition.

190.The 2014 Cambodia Gender Assessments provides a comprehensive analytical overview of gender in all sectors as well as policy recommendations. The CGAs have been the basis for mainstreaming gender in line ministries and guiding overall policy making, planning and programming for women’s empowerment.

Articles 3 and 4: Measures to Accelerate Equality between Women and Men

191.Neary Rattanak IV responds to the Rectangular Strategy to empower women in the economy, education, and public leadership, dismantle gender behavioral norms and stereotypes, combat gender-based violence, trafficking and sexual exploitation, and further mainstream gender in policies.

192.At the sub-national level, Provincial and District Departments of Women’s Affairs implement MoWA’s five-year strategic plan, Neary Rattanak IV, and work with line departments, offices and other relevant units under their respective jurisdiction.

193.Provincial/Capital and Municipal/District/Khan WCCCs are the sub-national mechanisms to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women and children under the jurisdiction of the provincial and district councils. The CCWCs act as an advisory body to the Commune Councils on issues related to women and children, such as maternal and child health, hygiene/sanitation, community pre-school, gender equality and child protection.

194.Gender has been mainstreamed in the National Program for Sub-National Democratic Development 2010–2019 and the three-year Implementation Plans (IP3) by emphasizing gender equality and women’s empowerment in local governance through equal participation and access for women and men in leadership and decision-making positions. Through the NCDD’s Social Accountability Framework, which aims to strengthen the demand for good governance at the local levels, the PDWA and DoWA are instrumental in elevating women’s voices in demanding gender equality in service delivery.

195.The Ministry of Civil Service developed a Gender Mainstreaming Policy and Strategic Plan Phase III 2014–2018 with the aim to eliminate gender inequality in the civil service by increasing participation, opportunities for advancement, and the number of women civil servants and women leaders, empowering women civil servants through increased capacity, and improving knowledge and capacity on gender analysis.

196.The RGC has introduced several budgetary reforms to increase transparency and gradually shift to programme budgeting, which is a prerequisite to implement GRB. The number of ministries implementing programme budgeting increased from 7 in 2013 to 15 in 2016, and is expected to reach 24 ministries by 2018.

197.The Constitution (Article 46) recognizes maternity as a social function and guarantees women’s rights to leave and benefits, as outlined by measures to protect women’s maternity rights defined in the 1997 Labour Law. These rights include leave entitlements (90 days), wages (half pay) and perquisites, additional one hour per day for breastfeeding, and restrictions on heavy labor following return to work. Female public service officials are entitled to three-month maternity leave with full pay, and those with children under 1 year of age are entitled to leave work one hour early with full pay.

198.MoWA set up a working group on disability in 2015 to promote and empower women and girls with disabilities. The goal is to mainstream disability issues into laws, policies and GMAPs of all ministries in line with CEDAW, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the National Disability Strategic Plan 2014–2018.

Article 5: Measures to end Sex Role Stereotyping and Prejudice

199.The 2014 CGA Policy Brief 2: Attitudes: Gender Relations and Attitudes provides a detailed analysis of women and girls in Cambodia, underlining the gender stereotypes, social norms and attitudes that prevent the nation from achieving gender equality and realizing women’s equal rights. The key policy recommendations, including those from CEDAW COB in 2013, have been integrated into Neary Rattanak IV, NAPVAW II, and other national plans and policies to address gender inequalities and promote the empowerment of women and girls in all aspects of life.

200.The formulation of the Minimum Standards of Essential Services is an important step to harmonize basic standards for various social services. Under Standard 2: Access to Appropriate Support Services, all shelters must comply with the Minimum Standards on Residential Care for Victims of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation developed by MoSVY. Referral systems are in place in some provinces/municipalities, and training on the Referral Guidelines for Women and Girls Survivors of GBV and the Implementation Mechanisms started in 2017.

201.Women with disabilities experience higher levels of controlling behaviors from partners and are more likely to suffer from family non-partner violence. One in five Cambodian men aged 18-49 had raped a woman once, either within or outside a relationship. Findings from these surveys informed NAPVAW II, resulting in increased efforts on prevention activities targeting men and boys and addressing discrimination and violence against women and girls with disabilities.

202.Women who experienced intimate partner violence in the last 12 months, as a proportion of those who had ever experienced intimate partner violence, has reduced from 89 per cent in 2000 to 60 per cent 2014. This suggests that women were more able to act against or stop the violence, or were more able to leave their violent partner. Violence against women remains prevalent as one in five ever-partnered women aged 15–64 has experienced physical and/or sexual violence in their lifetime, with eight per cent experiencing violence in the last 12 months.

203.The percentage of women who have experienced intimate partner violence and sought help from others increased to 43.4 per cent in 2014, up from 31.4 per cent in 2005. Most women sought help from family members, friends and neighbors, while less than 1 per cent sought help from medical personnel. About 49 per cent of the women who reported experiencing intimate partner violence had never told anyone about the violence and 24 per cent of the women had sought help from formal services.

204.The 2014 CDHS revealed that women were twice as likely as men to believe that a husband is justified in beating his wife under certain circumstances (50 per cent of women vs. 27 per cent of men). This highlights the continued acceptance of harmful gender norms and the need to continue to challenge the beliefs and attitudes that still prevail.

205.The first national Action Plan to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Children 2017–2021 was developed in response to the findings from the 2013 Cambodian Violence Against Children (VAC) Survey.

206.NAPVAW II identified violence against women with increased risk as a priority. In 2014, MoJ officials joined the “Cambodian Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual and Transgender (LGBT) Law Conference for Equal Rights” organized by the East West Management Institution with more than 60 lawyers, law students, LGBT activists, and human rights defenders to discuss ways to ensure the LGBT community has equal rights and protections under the law.

Article 6: Suppression of trafficking and exploitation of prostitution

207.The Constitution prohibits trading of humans, the exploitation of prostitution, and obscenity, which affects the reputation of women (Article 34). The Law on the Suppression of Trafficking and Exploitation of Prostitution and the Criminal Code specify a range of punishments targeting the abolishment of trafficking and exploitation of prostitution.

208.The RGC is implementing the NPA-CTIP II involving multiple stakeholders at the national, sub-national, regional and international levels, for a coordinated approach to prevention and response activities. Despite the wide dissemination of laws and policies throughout the country and through various means, many women are still deceived into working overseas without proper documentation, in part due to poverty, limited livelihood opportunities and low education.

Articles 7 and 8: Political, Public and International Participation

209.The Constitution ensures the equal rights of women and men to participate in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the nation (Article 35). The Rectangular Strategy Phase III involves promoting women in the public sector through increasing the gender balance in line ministry management and strengthening women’s ability to pursue leadership both at management and technical levels. The government continues to implement affirmative actions that designate at least one woman in a leadership position at (i) the municipal, provincial, city, district and khan level, (ii) the Committee for Women and Children at the commune/sangkat level, and (iii) the village level.

210.Women’s participation in the national assembly was 21 per cent in 2008 and 20.3 per cent in 2013, below the CMDG target of 30 per cent in 2015. The proportion of female members in the senate was 14.75 per cent in 2013 and 16.4 per cent in 2015, below the CMDG target of 30 per cent.

211.The number of women in leadership positions has increased through incentives and appointments. In 2015, there was one female Deputy Prime Minister (10 per cent), three female Ministers (10.7 per cent), 38 female Secretaries of State (20.5 per cent) and 48 Under-Secretaries of State or holders of equivalent ranks (17.6 per cent).

212.Following the election in 2014, the number and percentage of women councilors increased at the provincial (15 per cent) and district (13.8 per cent) levels. In 2017, the first female chair in a provincial council was elected and six women were elected to the position of Chair at the District/Municipal/Khan councils.

213.The proportion of female members of Commune/Sangkat councils decreased slightly to 16.8 per cent in 2017, below the 2015 NSDP target of 25 per cent. The number of female Chiefs and first Deputy Chiefs of Communes/Sangkats elected in 2017 increased to 128 (7.8 per cent) and 234 (14.2 per cent), up from 5.8 per cent and 11.6 per cent in 2012.

214.The number of women civil servants has increased steadily at the sub-national level, however it is still low compared to men, especially in decision-making positions. As of mid-2016, women made up 12 per cent of Provincial/Capital managerial positions and 22 per cent of District/Municipal/Khan level managerial positions. In 2017, the first female provincial governor, one female chair of a provincial council and six female chairs of District/Khan councils were appointed.

215.The proportion of women in the civil service increased to 40 per cent in 2016, up from 38 per cent in 2014. However, the proportion of women’s representation in the decision-making levels is lower at 22 per cent. There are still challenges in recruiting women for positions in fields of engineering and Information Technology (IT) at the national level, as well as for leadership and technical positions at the sub‑national level.

216.From 2012–2017, women represented about 14 per cent of judges. Raising the number of women in the judiciary is challenging due to the academic and technical requirements. The number of female prosecutors increased from 15 in 2013 to 23 in 2017. The number of female lawyers increased from 158 in 2013 to 206 in 2017, representing about 20 per cent of the total number of lawyers registered with the BAKC.

217.Overall, there are 3,200 female police officers (5.75 per cent) out of 55,597 police at the national and sub-national levels. In 2016, the number of women in management positions in the police force was 1,313, with 533 and 780 women police at the national and sub-national levels respectively. In 2016, women in the military account for five per cent.

218.In 2017, there were six women Ambassadors and 43 women (24.43 per cent) out of a total of 170 diplomatic officials held positions as counselor general, counselor, deputy counselor, attaché, and accountant.

219.The RGC continues to provide opportunities for women to participate, represent and enhance their capacity through attending national forums, international conferences and training programs. In 2015, 922 female (21.7 per cent) government officials from 14 ministries attended training courses overseas as part of career development. In 2016, this increased to 1,053 women (24.2 per cent) government officials from 18 different ministries and institutions.

220.Cambodian women have participated in UN Peacekeeping Missions under the National Center for Peacekeeping Forces, Mine and Explosive Remnants of War Clearance. From 2016 to 2017, 202 women (4,763 total) were deployed in eight countries in different capacities, including mine clearance, civil engineers, medical personnel and security. Cambodia is ranked 35 out of 121 countries and 3rd out of 10 ASEAN countries for participation in UN Peacekeeping Missions and ranks higher for women’s participation in UN Peacekeeping Missions at 26 out of 121 countries and 2nd out of 10 ASEAN countries.

Article 9: Nationality

221.The Constitution (Article 33) guarantees equal rights to nationality for every Cambodian citizen. Women have the rights to decide their nationality, will not lose their nationality regardless of their marriage and have equal rights to men with respect to the nationality of their children.

222.The MoI issued Prakas No. 6744 in August 2015 detailing all civil registration services, including fees, processes, validity, documents required and the responsible institution. Government institutions and local authorities, in partnership with development partners and NGOs/CSOs, have conducted training, awareness-raising and outreach campaigns at the sub-national level to increase citizen demand for birth registration and facilitate the accurate and timely birth certification process in accordance with the law.

223.Birth registration has been adopted in Cambodia to support national planning, provide evidence of every birth, stillbirth, death, adoption, and marriage, and provide a secure repository for public records. In 2014, 82 per cent of all children aged 0–4 years have a birth certificate or registration, with higher rates in Phnom Penh and other urban areas (93 per cent and 87 per cent respectively) than rural areas (79 per cent).

Article 10: Education

224.The Constitution (Article 65) guarantees equal rights for all citizens to access quality education at all levels. The MoEYS ESP 2014–2018 has two main gender equality policies: a) Ensuring equitable access for all to education services, and 2) Enhancing the quality and relevance of learning.

225.Early Childhood Education (ECE): There has been steady progress in access to Early Childhood Education services with 64.1 per cent of five-year-olds attending pre-schools in the 2015/16 school year, an increase from 56.5 per cent in the 2012/13 school year. The Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) Policy, the National ECCD Action Plan, the ECCD National Committee, a Prakas for managing private preschools, and a Prakas for recognition of ECCD national core trainers and sub-national core trainer have laid the foundation for quality expansion of ECE.

226.Primary Education: Solid progress has been achieved in primary school enrollment from 97 per cent in 2012/13 to 98.4 per cent in 2016/16, and gender equality at the primary level has improved with gender parity (1:1 ratio). Overall completion rates at primary school increased to 84.1 per cent in 2015, with girls’ rates higher than boys at 86.6 per cent. The number of primary schools increased from 6,910 in 2012/13 to 7,085 in 2015/2016. Over 90 per cent of the schools are in rural areas.

227.Secondary Education: Enrollment and attendance at lower secondary levels have only moderately improved. Net enrollment rates at lower secondary schools decreased slightly to 56.5 per cent in 2016, below the 2015 CMDG target of 74 per cent. The overall completion rates at lower secondary school declined to 40.3 per cent in 2015, however the completion rates for girls increased from 25.5 per cent in 2012 to 41.8 per cent in 2015. In 2015/16, female students in lower and upper secondary schools represented 51.1 per cent and 50.1 per cent respectively of all students.

228.Technical Education: The Master Plan for Technical Education at Upper Secondary Level aims to better equip students with the knowledge and skills to meet the demands of the labour market. The number of students in the four Technical High Schools increased from 897 in 2012/13 to 1,026 in 2015/2016, with females representing 42.6 per cent of the total number of students.

229.Tertiary/University Education: Considerable progress has been made in Higher Education, with over 227,000 students enrolled in associate, bachelor and post-graduate studies in 2015, including 4,200 receiving scholarships. Women represented 45.9 per cent of all students in bachelor degree programs in 2015, an increase from 38.5 per cent in 2009, but only 20 per cent in post-graduate study programs. Women accounted for 46 per cent of scholarships in associate and bachelor degree programs in 2015, up from 15 per cent in 2007. Of the 44,558 students enrolled in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects, only 25.5 per cent are women.

230.Non-Formal Education Programs: In 2012, a NFE policy review, capacity assessment and mapping exercise were completed, leading to the development of the Country Literacy Acceleration Plan in 2014, revisions of guidelines for Functional Literacy Programs and re-entry programs, and preparation of guidelines for equivalency programs for lower and secondary education programs in 2014 and 2015. (See Annex for more details).

231.Revised guidelines for strengthening the Management and Leadership of the Community Learning Centers were developed for 2014–2016, with a focus on appropriate skills training for income-generation activities. Of the 5,112 female students enrolled in the IGA programme in 2015, 91.6 per cent completed the classes, up from 77.4 per cent in 2013.

232.Teachers and Education Staff: In 2015/16, the percentage of female MoEYS staff nationwide, in urban and rural areas increased to 46.2, 54.6 and 43.4 per cent respectively. The percentage of female secondary school teachers nationwide increased to 40.3 per cent, with more female teachers at lower secondary schools (44.6 per cent) than at upper secondary schools (30.6 per cent). Women represented 95 per cent of all pre-school staff, 54.1 per cent of all primary school teachers, and about one-quarter of non-teaching staff in primary and secondary schools.

Article 11: Employment

233.The Constitution guarantees women’s rights to equal employment opportunities and equal payment, assigns housework equal value as work outside the home, and prohibits the exploitation of women in employment (Articles 36 and 45). The 1997 Labour Law prohibits discrimination on the account of sex in hiring, work assignment, training, advancement, promotion, remuneration, social benefits, and discipline or termination of employment contracts (Article 12), and the Criminal Code penalizes discrimination related to employment (Article 267).

234.The first Operational Strategy for Women ’ s Economic Empowerment (2014‑2018) builds on the MDG Acceleration Framework Cambodia Action Plan 2013–2015, which prioritizes the enhancement of micro, small and medium enterprises led by women.

235.In 2014, the labour force participation rate was 83 per cent, 78 per cent for women and 88 per cent for men. This is a slight decline from 80 per cent for women in 2009. The total unemployment rate for both women and men (0.1 per cent) is very low but this statistic does not adequately capture the issues of unemployment or underemployment in Cambodia.

236.In 2015, employment of women in the wage sector was 42.2 per cent and employment of women in the agriculture sector was 45.7 per cent. The proportion of women employed in the industrial sector decreased to 45.5 per cent in 2015 from 73.7 per cent in 2010. In services, women represent 32 per cent of the labour force.

237.For Phnom Penh, the share of employment for women aged 18 and above in the industrial sector is higher than other areas, 54 per cent compared to 44 per cent in other urban and rural areas. The share of employment for women aged 18 and above in the service sector is higher for urban areas than rural areas, 38 per cent compared to 30 per cent.

238.The percentage of women who are self-employed or work for themselves without wages was 54 per cent in 2014, a slight increase from 52 per cent in 2009, and higher than men (45 per cent). The share of women as unpaid family workers decreased to 6 per cent in 2014 from 24.5 per cent in 2009 at similar rates as men (5 per cent and 22 per cent respectively).

239.The National Policy on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (2017‑2025) was launched in October 2017. From 2014–2016, the MoLVT conducted training courses regarding industrial, technical, handicraft, services, tourism and agricultural skills for 43,195 people and provided career and job services to 99,708 people, including 66,508 females.

240.From 2009 to 2015, women accounted for 21 per cent of all students enrolled in formal Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programs. The proportion of women enrolled in priority sectors increased from 14 per cent to 26 per cent. This is skewed towards ICT/business with women accounting for 50 per cent of all students studying in this sector. Women overall represent 18 per cent of graduates from formal TVET programs.

241.Under the 2002 Law on Social Security Schemes, the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) was established in 2007, and the accident insurance scheme was rolled out in 2008, followed by the healthcare incentive scheme in 2016. From 2008–2017, the NSSF registered 9,318 enterprises under the accident insurance scheme covering 1,175,027 employees (820,987 women) and has provided benefits to 170,641 employees (127,309 women) who have had work-related accidents. From 2016 to 2017, 906,461 employees (750,246 women) have been registered under the health incentive scheme, and 312,682 members (250,146 women) have used the healthcare services provided by healthcare service providers registered with the NSSF. This scheme is being extended to those working in the informal economic sector.

242.MoSVY facilitated the recruitment process for disabled persons in the public and private sectors. Employment opportunities and physical rehabilitation services were provided free of charge to 21,554 disabled persons (5,264 women), including 445 girls. Employment was secured for 52 disabled persons (12 females), and 192 people (53 women) participated in vocational training during this period.

Article 12: Health

243.The Constitution ensures the right to health for all citizens and makes provisions for free health care for poor citizens (Article 72). The Health Sector Strategic Plan 2008–2015 places high priority on health care service delivery for both men and women. The RGC has introduced several programs aimed at improving reproductive health and reducing maternal, child and newborn mortality rates, including nutrition.

244.Cambodia is one of only ten countries in the world that achieved their 2015 MDG targets associated with improving maternal health (CMDG 5) and reducing child mortality (CMDG 4). By 2015, the Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) declined from 437 per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 170 in 2014. Cambodia is committed to the SDG 2030 to eliminate maternal mortality with a target of reducing the MMR to 70 per 100,000 live births.

245.The proportion of births attended by skilled health professionals increased to 89 per cent in 2014 compared to 32 per cent in 2000, exceeding the 2015 CMDG target of 87 per cent. The Total Fertility rate in 2014 is 2.7 children per women, down from 3.0 in 2010, exceeding the 2015 CMDG target of 3.0. Women in rural areas have 2.9 births during reproductive age (15–49 years) compared to 2.1 for women in urban areas.

246.The level of teenage pregnancy (ages 15-19) increased to 12 per cent in 2014 from 8 per cent in 2010. Fertility is concentrated among married 18–19 year old women. In 2014, the percentage of teenage (18 and 19 years old) pregnancy was 18.4 per cent and 31.3 per cent respectively. The level of teenage pregnancy is strongly associated with education and wealth; 37 per cent of teenagers with no education began childbearing compared to 18 per cent of women with primary education, and 18 per cent of the poorest teenagers began childbearing compared to only 7 per cent in the wealthiest quintile.

247.MoWA is working with the Provincial WCCCs in Ratanakiri province on an action plan to prevent early marriages and premature pregnancies among the ethnic minority population. The percentage of teenagers who have begun childbearing is highest in Mondulkiri and Ratanakiri provinces (34 per cent). MoWA has set up a strategy for positive parenting as a part of health promotion and VAW prevention.

248.The proportion of undernourished women in the reproductive age group declined from 19 per cent in 2010 to 14 per cent 2014. A higher percentage of younger women aged 15-19 years are undernourished compared to women over 30 years of age (27.5 per cent vs. 7.2 per cent), with little difference between urban and rural areas. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased from 11 per cent in 2010 to 18 per cent in 2014.

249.The overall prevalence of anemia in women of reproductive age has remained almost the same from 2005 (47 per cent) to 2014 (45 per cent). The prevalence is higher among rural women (47 per cent), women with primary education or less (47 per cent), pregnant women (53 per cent) and those who live in poorer households (53 per cent).

250.The National Strategy for Food Security and Nutrition 2014–2018 has led to the preparation of the Fast Track Road Map for Nutrition 2014–2020. The National Action Plan for Zero Hunger Challenge in Cambodia 2016–2025 was developed to provide a comprehensive road map to achieve SDG 2, and as a basis for ensuring that every person, especially women and children, realize their fundamental right to adequate food.

251.The prevalence of HIV per population aged 15–49 years declined to 0.6 per cent in 2015, meeting the NSDP target of 0.5 per cent for 2015. The number of Voluntary Confidential Counseling and Testing Centers increased from 12 centers in 2000 to 25 centers in 2014. New HIV infections continue to decrease, especially among women. In 2005, new HIV infections totaled 4,401 of which 2,575 or 58.5 per cent were women, while in 2016 this number had decreased to 645 new HIV infections, of which 50 per cent were women.

252.The National Strategic Plan for Comprehensive and Multi-sectoral Response to HIV and AIDS 2015–2020 identifies the key priorities as the Three Zeros Strategy, the elimination of the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2020, and the implementation of the 95-95-95 HIV treatment plan by 2025.

Article 13: Economic and Social Life of Women

253.The Constitution and prevailing laws guarantee equal rights, opportunities, and participation in all areas of economic and social life for both men and women.

254.The National Population Policy 2016–2030 provides a clear analysis of demographic trends along with related development challenges, including youth, gender, migration, urbanization and the elderly.

255.The government, strengthened by the Land Policy ‘ White Paper ’ in 2015 and the 2014 National Housing Policy, is working to ensure equitable access of socially and economically disadvantaged people to land and decent housing, especially rural women and the urban poor.

256.The MLMUPC is on target to achieve 70 per cent of land registration by 2018 and expects to reach 100 per cent by the year 2030. Of the total agricultural land (3,389,000 hectares) in Cambodia, approximately 12 per cent (412,000 hectares) was owned by women-headed households, slightly less than in 2009 (13.2 per cent).

257.About two per cent of households reported having had a previous conflict over land ownership of agricultural land, with Phnom Penh households higher (5 per cent) than other areas (less than 2.5 per cent). On-going land conflicts are less common, only 0.3 per cent (0.8 per cent in 2009), with higher rates in Phnom Penh (0.8 per cent).

258.The government has provided subsidized water supply connections for 63 widows and 443 poor households and installed 1,079 water connections supplying water to 25,707 rooms in Phnom Penh and the surrounding area. The reduction in water connection fees helps improve the livelihoods of poor households, and workers and students living in rented rooms in Phnom Penh and nearby areas.

Article 14: Rural Women

259.The Constitution (Article 61) states that the “State shall promote economic development in all sectors and remote areas, especially agricultural and handicrafts industries, and with attention to policies relating to water, electricity, roads, means of transport, modern technology and systems of credit.”

260.The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries through the Gender Mainstreaming Policy and Strategic Framework in Agriculture 2016–2020 has made substantial progress in improving women’s participation and agriculture livelihoods in rural areas.

261.The Ministry of Public Works and Transport has constructed new bridges and roads connecting to rural areas and neighboring countries, improving women’s access to economic opportunities, healthcare services and education.

262.The 2013 Agriculture Census found that women’s organizations were the most numerous out of all local interest groups, with 34 per cent of villages reporting such organizations. As of 2016, women represented 41 per cent of 1,138 commune extension workers and 9 per cent of 9,276 village extension workers. As of 2016, 857 Agriculture Cooperatives with 87,986 members (60.4 per cent women) were registered, and women are serving in the executive committees. Women represent 35 per cent of the 475 inland community fishery groups. By 2017, the number of women village veterinarians was 963 (out of 12,510 people) and they play an important role in improving the community’s skills in animal rearing and care as well as in producing animal waste for biogas. As a result, 26,450 biogases were established and about 30 per cent of all users were women. The total number of biogas beneficiaries was 145,400 people (48 per cent women).

263.Under the legal framework of the Ministry of Environment, there are 151 natural resource protection communities in 270 villages covering 248,857 hectares of land and benefiting 36,058 households (143,195 total, 71,570 women). At the community level, only 40 female (3 per cent) out of 1,221 national park rangers are involved in decision-making and policy formulation, At the national level, only 17 per cent of female officials in the nature conservation and protection administration are involved in decision-making and policy formulation.

Article 15: Equal Rights of Women

264.The Constitution guarantees women’s equal legal rights and prohibits all forms of discrimination. Articles 2, 3 and 6 of the 2007 Civil Code establish the principle of equality for women and men in civil affairs. Article 44 of the Constitution guarantees women’s equal right to ownership, and Article 40 protects the right of women and men for freedom to travel, reside and settle within the country and abroad.

Article 16: Marriage and Family Life

265.Article 45 of the Constitution states that “All forms of discrimination shall be abolished. Men and women have equal rights in all fields, especially in marriage and family life.” The Law on Marriage and the Family (1989) is now comprehensively regulated in the Civil Code (2007) and based on the principle of equality of men and women, as per Article 2.

266.Please see Annex for additional information.


267.Cambodian women face difficulties as social norms on gender relations continue to constrain development of women’s potentials and women’s empowerment in the economic, social, public and political life. Access to financial resources, business development services, markets and land ownership remains a priority for the government.

268.Household poverty and lack of employment opportunities in rural areas are contributing to the migration of women and men and increase the risk of exposing them to labour exploitation and other risks. Increasing the institutional capacity as well as human and financial resources of law enforcement agencies and the police force to prevent human trafficking and sexual exploitation remains a priority.

269.Household economic factors, including families migrating for work, are contributing to dropout rates and slowing the pace of enrollment and completion rates of girls in upper secondary and tertiary education. Utilization of both public health facilities and health equity funds by poor households is still limited, and there are fluctuations in health care outcomes across different provinces, especially in remote communities where access to health care is difficult and costly.

270.The RGC will continue to review national legislation and policies to comply with CEDAW and to enhance institutional capacities towards improving the implementation of the policy on gender equality and women’s empowerment. The RGC commits promoting positive social norms through the implementation of national laws, policies, plans, and programs at all levels, as well as partnering with a wide range of stakeholders.

271.The RGC is improving the Public Financial Management Reform and Public Administrative Reform programs and increasing the national budget allocations for gender mainstreaming, as well as initiating the process of gender-responsive budgeting. Cambodia is committed to increasing female representation in public and decision-making positions through policies and administrative measures, prioritizing and providing opportunities for women’s technical capacity and soft-skill development.

272.The RGC is continuing to combat VAW/GBV and VAC through the National Action Plan to Prevent Violence Against Women and the Action Plan to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Children. This is a long-term endeavor, which requires multi-sectoral cooperation from all stakeholders to ensure the effective implementation of policies, guidelines and procedures, and continue to follow the progress.

273.Cambodia will continue to build upon its significant progress in the last decades, in reducing the gender gap in health and survival with a score of 0.980 and in educational attainment with a score of 0.897. The nation will redouble its efforts to further increase women’s economic participation and political empowerment to achieve gender equality.