Inspections carried out

Orders issued

Directives issued

Warnings issued

Orders issued to institute disciplinary and administrative proceedings

Subjected to disciplinary action

Subjected to administrative action


















































17.It should be emphasized that criminal prosecution for crimes involving gender-based violence (bride kidnapping, forced marriage, etc.) lies within the competence of the internal affairs agencies. However, the Office of the Procurator supervises the activities of those agencies in implementing legislation in this area.

18.In that connection, the main focus of the Office of the Procurator is on the implementation of a set of preventive measures. The Office is constantly working to avert and prevent bride kidnapping and forced marriage (in 2017, more than 111 different forums and events – lectures, meetings, round tables – were held on this topic, and eight articles published).

19.In accordance with Act No. 179 of 17 November 2016 on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Kyrgyz Republic (the Criminal Code, the Family Code), the Criminal Code establishes criminal liability for violations of the legislation on the age of marriage that occur in connection with the celebration of religious ceremonies (article 1551). Since the criminalization of such acts, a total of 17 cases have been recorded, and 10 criminal actions have been brought following investigations. As a result of the investigation and judicial review of these criminal cases, eight convictions were handed down and 22 persons were given suspended sentences.

Article 4

20.Kyrgyzstan continues to apply temporary special measures aimed at hastening the advent of real equality between women and men. Information on the special measures established by the law regarding the representation of women and men in State bodies is presented in Table 2.

Table 2

Extract from Kyrgyz laws on temporary special measures

Title of the act

Extract from the act

Act on Election Commissions and the Holding of Elections and Referendums

Part 2, article 5:

“The Zhogorku Kenesh of the Kyrgyz Republic (hereinafter – the Zhogorku Kenesh) shall elect the members of the Central Commission for Elections: one third of its members shall be nominated by the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (hereinafter – the President), one third – by the parliamentary majority and one third – by the parliamentary opposition; however no more than seventy per cent of the members shall be persons of the same sex; members of the Commission shall be dismissed from their office in the cases stipulated by this Act”

Constitutional Act on the Elections of the President of the Kyrgyz Republic and of Representatives to the Zhogorku Kenesh of the Kyrgyz Republic

Part 3, article 60:

“In determining the electoral lists of political parties, the following rule shall apply to the representation:

–no more than 70 per cent of the candidates shall be of the same sex, and the difference in the order of ranking in the lists of candidates of women and men nominated by political parties shall not exceed three positions;”

Local Council Elections Act

Part 7, article 49:

“In drawing up lists of candidates for city councils (kenesh), political parties shall ensure that the representation of persons of the same sex does not exceed 70 per cent, while the difference in the order of ranking in the lists of candidates of women and men nominated by a political party shall not exceed two positions.”

Act on the Regulations of the Zhogorku Kenesh of the Kyrgyz Republic

Paragraph (9), article 4:

“The Zhogorku Kenesh shall carry out its activities guided by the following principles:

(9) Ensuring that in the representation in the bodies of the Zhogorku Kenesh no more than 70 per cent of persons are of the same sex.”

Paragraph (15), part 1, article 20:

“1. The Speaker (Toraga) of the Zhogorku Kenesh shall:

(15) Appoint officials of the staff and the management of the Jogorku Kenesh in accordance with these Regulations, respecting the principle of representation which requires that no more than 70 per cent of persons be of the same sex;”

Constitutional Act on the Status of Judges

Part 2, article 15:

“Judges of the Supreme Court, including the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court, shall be elected by the Zhogorku Kenesh on the recommendation of the President based on the proposal of the Judicial Selection Board, taking into account the need to ensure a gender representation with no more than seventy percent of persons of the same sex.”

Judicial Selection Board Act

Paragraph (1), part 1, article 3:

“The Board shall:

(1) Conduct competitive selection for vacant positions of judges of the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Chamber and local courts, taking into account the need to ensure a representation with no more than seventy per cent of persons of the same sex;”

Act on State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Opportunities for Men and Women

Article 24:

“The Zhogorku Kenesh shall, through the adoption of laws, establish the legal basis for the State policy on gender equality in all spheres of State and public life.

The Zhogorku Kenesh, within the limits of its competence and taking into account the need to ensure a representation with not more than seventy per cent of persons of the same sex, shall:

–Select judges of the Supreme Court (including judges of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court) on the recommendation of the President;

–Approve the composition of the Judicial Selection Board;

–Select the members of the Central Commission for Elections and Referendums;

–Select the members of the Audit Chamber;

–Select the Deputy Ombudsman on the recommendation of the Ombudsman (Akyikatchy).”

21.The mandatory requirements adopted in 2007 with regard to electoral legislation to the effect that “in drawing up the list of candidates, a political party must take into account the fact that the representation must not consist of more than 70 per cent of persons of the same sex, and that the difference in the lists of candidates of women and men nominated by political parties shall not exceed three positions” (part 3 of article 60 of the Constitutional Act on the Elections of the President of the Kyrgyz Republic and of Representative to the Zhogorku Kenesh of the Kyrgyz Republic) have enabled a significant increase in the representation of women among the representatives to the parliament.

Table 3

Representation of women in the parliament of Kyrgyzstan

Women in the total


Overall number of representatives

Number of women

Per cent

Elections without gender quotas













Elections with gender quotas

























22.As at 31 December 2018, out of a total of 120 parliamentarians, the number of women was 19 (15.8 per cent).

23.At the same time, the gender composition within the parliamentary parties remains imbalanced (currently there are 6 parties).

Table 4

Representation of women in parties in the Zhogorku Kenesh of the Kyrgyz Republic

Number of women parliamentarians

Total number of representatives in the party




Per cent



Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan





Republic – Ata-Zhurt




















Ata Meken








24.Despite the existence of gender quotas, the practice of “squeezing out” women candidates after the elections has led to a decline in the numbers of women’s representation in parliament. To date, since Kyrgyzstan gained its sovereignty, the country’s legislature has not achieved the minimum target of 30 per cent women’s representation in parliament, which was recommended in the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action to improve the status of women. The ensuing public debate on this issue led to amendments to the electoral legislation in 2017, according to which “… in the event of the early termination of a representative’s term of office, his or her mandate shall be transferred to the next registered candidate:

(1)From among the female candidates, in the event of the termination of the mandate of a female representative;

(2)From among the male candidates, in the event of the termination of the mandate of a male representative.

In the event of the absence of the sex concerned in the list of candidates, the mandate of the representative shall be transferred to the next candidate from the same list.”

25.Kyrgyzstan applies certain special legislative measures to ensure the representation of women and men in certain State bodies (no more than 70 per cent of persons of the same sex): representatives of the Zhogorku Kenesh, the Central Commission for Elections and Referendums, representatives of city councils, auditors of the Audit Chamber, judges of the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court and deputies of the Ombudsman (Akyikatchy). Thanks to such special measures, the aforementioned State bodies are able to maintain the necessary minimum representation of women and men.

26.However, the legislation does not provide for special measures to ensure gender representation at the level of local councils (aiylny kenesh ), in which the situation with regard to the representation of women remains problematic.

Table 5

Fluctuations in the representation of women in the local councils (kenesh)


Proportion of women representatives (per cent)









27.In order to solve this problem, representatives of the Zhogorku Kenesh initiated and adopted at the first reading a bill on amending the Act on the Election of Representatives of Local Councils, which contains a proposal to set as a temporary special measure a quota for women of 30 per cent of the seats in the local councils (aiylny kenesh) (articles 46, 47, 52, 59 and 62). This task is included in the Strategy for Improving the Legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic on Elections 2018–2020.

28.In order to address the problem of women’s representation in executive and local government bodies, the National Plan of Action for Achieving Gender Equality for 2018–2020 includes the task of developing and introducing appropriate special measures to ensure that the representation of women reaches at least 30 per cent of the political and special positions.

Figure 1

Number of State civil servants as of 1 January 2018

Figure 2

Number of municipal employees as of 1 January 2018

Table 6

Number of employees in administrative posts

Categories of administrative posts

On the staffing table


Occupied by women

Higher administrative posts awarded on the basis of special procedures



174 (29%)




5 (14%)

Posts awarded through patronage



14 (15%)


2 370

2 255

742 (32%)


7 166

6 491

2 968 (45%)


6 858

6 379

2 871(45%)


17 130

15 838

6 774 (42%)

29.Breakdown of State administrative civil servants by length of service:

•Less than 1 year: 1049 (6.6 per cent), of whom women make up 468 (44 per cent)

•From 1 year to 3 years: 2455 (15.5 per cent), of whom women make up 1090 (44 per cent)

•From 4 to 5 years: 1923 (12.1 per cent), of whom women make up 805 (42 per cent)

•From 6 to 10 years: 3014 (19 per cent), of whom women make up 1296 (43 per cent)

•From 11 to 15 years: 2271 (14.3 per cent), of whom women make up 952 (42 per cent)

•From 16 to 20 years: 1897 (12 per cent), of whom women make up 782 (41 per cent)

•From 21 to 25 years: 1582 (10 per cent), of whom women make up 688 (43 per cent)

•From 26 to 30 years: 834 (5.3 per cent), of whom women make up 355 (40 per cent)

•More than 30 years: 813 (5.1 per cent), of whom women make up 365 (44 per cent).

Table 7

Number of employees in local administrative posts

Category of administrative posts

On the staffing table


Women employed




1 (6%)




2 (50%)




362 (47%)


2 768

2 357

954 (40%)


5 464

4 820

1 646 (34%)


9 103

7 976

2 965 (37%)

30.Breakdown of local administrative employees by length of service:

•Less than 1 year: 755 (9 per cent), of whom women make up 257 (34 per cent);

•From 1 year to 3 years: 1524 (18 per cent), of whom women make up 477 (31 per cent);

•From 4 to 5 years: 1524 (14 per cent), of whom women make up 418 (35 per cent);

•From 6 to 10 years: 1853 (22 per cent), of whom women make up 682 (37 per cent);

•From 11 to 15 years: 1263 (15 per cent), of whom women make up 445 (35 per cent);

•From 16 to 20 years: 876 (10 per cent), of whom women make up 308 (35 per cent);

•From 21 to 25 years: 449 (5 per cent), of whom women make up 172 (38 per cent);

•From 26 to 30 years: 298 (4 per cent), of whom women make up 115 (39 per cent);

•More than 30 years: 280 (3 per cent), of whom women make up 116 (41 per cent).

Figure 3

Number of persons with special needs in the State civil service

31.With regard to the adoption of special measures aimed at implementing the provisions of the Convention relating to the need to provide women with appropriate services during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period, besides the general rules set out in this report with reference to articles 11 and 12 of the Convention, additions have been made to the new Criminal Enforcement Code, which entered into force on 1 January 2019 and provides for special measures to benefit pregnant women (articles 45, 54 and 98).

Article 5

32.Bearing in mind the Committee’s concern, expressed in its concluding observations, regarding the persistence of stereotypes and patriarchal attitudes with regard to the roles and responsibilities of men and women in the family and society, in 2016 the Ministry of Labour and Social Development and the National Statistical Committee took part in a national study entitled “Gender in the perception of society”, within the framework of a joint programme of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women), the United Nations Population Fund and the International Organization for Migration, aimed at developing an evidence base for the promotion of gender-sensitive policies and programmes.

33.Kyrgyzstan has taken further measures to strengthen the legal framework for combating bride kidnapping and early marriage. For example, in addition to the amendments introduced in 2013 to articles of the Criminal Code, in particular article 154 on arranging a coerced de facto marriage relationship with a person who is under the age of 17 and article 155 on forcing a woman to marry, kidnapping a woman for the purpose of marriage or preventing her from marrying, the Act of 17 November 2016 on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Kyrgyz Republic (Family Code) was adopted.

34.In accordance with the aforementioned Act of 17 November 2016, article 1551 was added to the Criminal Code, which states that parents (persons in loco parentis) of persons in respect of whom a religious ceremony of marriage has been performed, persons who have performed a religious ceremony of marriage and adult persons in respect of whom a religious ceremony of marriage with a minor has been performed in violation of the law on marriage age are subject to punishment in the form of imprisonment for a term of three to five years. Article 14, paragraph 3, of the Family Code contains a provision stipulating that persons guilty of violating the requirements of the Code on the age of marriage are criminally liable under Kyrgyz law.

Table 8

Data from the Judicial Department of the Supreme Court of the Kyrgyz Republic regarding the work of courts of the first instance in criminal matters


Backlog of cases at the beginning of the period under review

New cases during the period under review

Cases considered leading to a judgment

Cases terminated

Cases remanded to the Office of the Procurator

Total cases completed

Data on individuals

Convictions by sex

Criminal cases terminated













































35.The responsible ministries and agencies have developed and approved guidance documents, which as a group constitute the organizational and legal framework for comprehensive preventive efforts, namely:

•Plan for the implementation of the Preventing Early Marriage Act, approved in Joint Order No. 1084 of 21 December 2017 by eight Government agencies: the Ministries of Labour and Social Development; Internal Affairs; Education and Science; Culture, Information and Tourism; and Health; the State Commission on Religious Affairs; the State Agency for Youth, Physical Education and Sports, reporting to the Government; and the Ombudsman.

•Order No. 410 of the Spiritual Directorate of Muslims of Kyrgyzstan, dated 21 December 2016, on prohibiting imams from holding a religious wedding ceremony (nikah) with persons under 18 years of age.

•Ministry of Internal Affairs Order No. 1105 of 26 December 2017 on a methodological guide for the prevention of early marriage among minors.

•Instructional letter No. 03-6/6440 of the Ministry of Education and Science, dated 9 November 2017, on the campaign aimed at students of general educational institutions on the prohibition against participating in a religious marriage ceremony (nikah) before the minimum age for marriage.

36.In order to strengthen the capacity of the responsible State bodies and other law enforcement authorities through a partnership between the responsible State bodies and the Spiritual Directorate of Muslims of Kyrgyzstan, along with the League of Defenders of the Rights of the Child, which is a non-governmental foundation, and with the support of the United Nations Development Programme, training of their representatives as trainers was carried out, using a specially developed training manual, for authorized bodies and representatives of children’s and women’s organizations in the framework of the project entitled “Support for the implementation of the Act to Prevent Religious Marriages Involving Minors”. Subsequently, the trained trainers trained specialists from interested organizations in all regions of the country.

37.Work has also been carried out to publicize in the media the negative consequences and unlawful nature of bride kidnapping and early marriage, including through a practical guide specially developed by the Centre for the Study of Democratic Processes, which is a non-governmental foundation. The guide seeks to inform the public about legislation aimed at preventing the celebration of religious ceremonies with minors. From 10 to 24 June 2018, an information campaign in the form of a flash mob called Alakachuu – Bull Kylmysh (bride abduction is a crime) was conducted at the national level among students and pupils. The use of innovative forms and methods of informational and educational work among the population, especially young people, has contributed to a noticeable public response to the problem and the activation of citizens who do not accept such negative practices.

38.Act No. 63 on Protection and Defence against Domestic Violence of 27 April 2017 defines, on the basis of international standards, the fundamental principles that are to guide those bodies responsible for the enforcement of the Act, whose number has increased and includes 11 authorized bodies. For each of them, the Act sets out specific tasks and establishes a mechanism for inter-agency coordination and cooperation in the enforcement process. In particular, it provides for the referral of victims of domestic violence to the necessary legal, medical and psychological assistance, social support and counselling services.

39.The Act on Protection and Defence against Domestic Violence includes various innovative norms:

•The internal affairs agencies are obliged to respond without fail to complaints from any person regarding domestic violence, i.e. not only from victims.

•Instead of two types of orders, namely, a temporary protection order and a court order, a single protection order has been introduced.

•For the first time, plans have been made to introduce re-education programmes for perpetrators of violence with the goal of changing their violent behaviour.

40.The mechanism for implementing the updated legislation on law enforcement activities has been developed through a number of implementing regulations and departmental acts: Government Decision No. 642 on approval of the form of the protection order, dated 3 October 2017, and Order No. 970 of the Ministry of Internal Affairs on approval of the instruction on the organization of the activities of the internal affairs agencies of the Kyrgyz Republic regarding protection and defence against domestic violence, dated 14 November 2017. Draft decisions by the Government on a programme of remedial measures directed at perpetrators of domestic violence with a view to changing their violent behaviour and on the procedure for protecting and defending against domestic violence have also been drawn up, detailing the mechanisms for cooperation and coordination among the responsible State bodies.

41.The measures taken by the Government demonstrate a strengthened response to domestic violence. However, the number of complaints of domestic violence by citizens remains, on average, more or less constant, and the data on the number of protection orders issued and criminal proceedings instituted, etc. confirm that trend.

Table 9

Information on measures taken by the internal affairs agencies to implement the requirements of Act No. 63 on Protection and Defence against Domestic Violence, dated 27 April 2017





9 months of 2018

Registered domestic violence cases






Temporary protection orders issued by the internal affairs agencies of the country






Criminal prosecutions brought for domestic violence






Number of persons subjected to administrative action for domestic violence






Number of registered internal affairs agencies dealing with offences in the field of family and domestic relations






42.The unified State hot-line service for crisis management (System 112), run by the Ministry of Emergency Situations, receives calls from citizens about domestic and gender-based violence against women and children. All incoming calls are registered by the System 112 dispatchers and, depending on the nature of the call, are forwarded to the relevant emergency services, mainly the 102 and 103 services, for the organization of a response and, if necessary, for the provision of assistance. System 112 monitors the organization of responses to incidents.

43.Statistical reporting on calls to System 112 has been maintained since 2016, given the goals and objectives of the National Plan of Action to achieve gender equality in the Kyrgyz Republic, which was approved by Government Decision No. 786 of 20 November 2015. In 2016, 94 calls to System 112 were registered involving various cases of gender-based violence, including 85 in respect of gender-based violence against women, 8 in respect of violence against children and 1 in respect of violence against men. In 2017, 169 calls were registered, including: gender-based violence against women – 144; violence against children – 24; violence against men – 1. In the first half of 2018, System 112 registered 79 calls, of which 61 were related to gender-based violence against women and 18 to violence against children.

44.The analysis of citizens’ calls to System 112 relating to gender-based violence shows that there is a growing awareness among the population of the need for trained assistance from the State.

45.In order to ensure effective implementation of the amendments to legislation, the responsible ministries and departments, as the authorized bodies, have prepared and issued a joint order under which an interdepartmental working group has been set up to develop legal mechanisms for the introduction of a sustainable system of coordination and cooperation among State bodies for the prevention and detection of and response to domestic violence and the provision of legal assistance to victims of gender-based violence. An Instruction has been drawn up on the procedure for the interaction between internal affairs agencies and health-care organizations when reports of violence are received from health-care organizations.

46.In February 2018, the Interdepartmental Commission on Civil Protection approved the Regulation on the procedure for intersectoral cooperation to prevent, combat and respond to gender-based violence in emergency situations (Minutes No. 23-5 of the meeting with the Prime Minister on 28 February 2018). An important event was the adoption of the Civil Protection Act No. 54 of 24 May 2018, which includes a gender perspective that seeks to reduce the risks of violence against women and children in emergency and crisis situations (article 2, paragraph 8; article 3, paragraph 2; article 5, paragraph 2, subparagraphs (1) and (16); and article 7, paragraph 10). In order to bring the existing normative legal acts into line with the Civil Protection Act, a draft Government decision on the approval of the Regulation on cooperation between State authorities and local self-governance bodies, as well as other organizations and citizens, which is aimed at reducing the risks of violence against women and children in emergency and crisis situations, and a draft instruction on the measures/actions to be taken by management bodies and bodies within the civil protection sector dealing with the prevention and response to such situations have been developed.

47.Work is continuing on the introduction of international standards for the treatment of victims of gender-based violence by State bodies, and Ombudsman (Akyikatchy) Order No. 48 of 12 May 2017 approved an instruction on the organization of the work of the Office of the Ombudsman aimed at protecting victims of gender discrimination and gender-based violence. The Expert Council on the assessment of the quality of clinical guidelines/protocols adopted and approved, by Order No. 42 of the Ministry of Health, dated 17 January 2017, a practical guide for psychological assistance for victims of gender-based violence, on the basis of which training was provided to medical personnel.

48.In 2017, the Kyrgyz Association of Women Judges, a non-governmental association, working within the framework of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project entitled “Prevention of gender-based violence in Kyrgyzstan” and with the support of the United States Department of State, prepared a report studying judicial practice in Kyrgyzstan with regard to crimes against women and girls during the period 2012 to 2015. This report, based on the analysis of deficiencies in the work of law enforcement agencies, also recommends improving the qualifications of responsible staff through extensive training.

49.As a result, more than 600 internal affairs officers, at least 100 procuratorial staff and at least 100 representatives of other bodies have been trained in the implementation of the Act on Protection and Defence against Domestic Violence. To that end, in partnership with the Centre for the Study of Democratic Processes, the following training materials have been developed and used to train internal affairs officers, prosecutors, representatives of the judiciary and other State authorities responsible for preventing and responding to gender-based violence:

•Practical handbook for staff of the internal affairs agencies on work with gender-based and domestic violence

•Training and methodological package entitled “Implementation of prosecutorial oversight in the field of combating gender-based violence”

•Teaching aid entitled “Prevention of gender-based violence against women”

•Practical handbook for juvenile affairs inspectors of the internal affairs agencies on the prevention of family and gender violence against minors

•Practical handbook for staff of the investigative services of the internal affairs agencies of Kyrgyzstan on the effective investigation of gender crimes committed against women and minors.

50.In 2017, for the first time, an analysis of State and administrative (departmental) statistics on gender discrimination was carried out, with a focus on violence and human trafficking. Based on the results of the analysis, the forms for recording and reporting such acts were improved in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Office of the Procurator, the Judicial Department of the Supreme Court and the National Statistical Committee. Updated reporting forms have been introduced through the following departmental acts:

•Ministry of Internal Affairs Order No. 963 of 13 November 2017 approving the forms for departmental reporting on protection orders that have been issued in respect of perpetrators of domestic violence and victims of domestic violence, and instructions on how to prepare departmental statistical reports on protection orders that have been issued and on perpetrators of domestic violence and victims of domestic violence.

•Decision No. 17 of 9 November 2017 of the National Statistical Committee on the approval of State statistical reporting on crime statistics.

51.In 2018, staff of the statistical services of internal affairs agencies, the National Statistical Committee, crisis centres, elders’ (aksakal) courts and charitable foundations were trained to collect statistics on gender, domestic violence and human trafficking using manuals that had been developed on data collection for employees of territorial State statistical bodies and organizations providing social services and assistance to the population, employees of internal affairs agencies and employees of health-care and judicial system organizations.

52.Efforts are being made by educational organizations to increase gender sensitivity and eliminate gender prejudices and stereotypes. In particular, the set of courses covering general humanitarian and socioeconomic disciplines includes courses on gender policy, gender sociology, women’s studies, gender policy in Central Asia, the sociology of sex and gender, problems of gender relations, family studies, the sociology of the family, and human beings and society. The number of hours devoted to gender considerations varies from 34 to 136 hours, depending on the specifics of the curriculum. Targeted seminars on the subject of gender-sensitivity training and education for teachers and heads of general education establishments are being systematically held at several higher education institutions.

53.The Kyrgyz Academy of Education has developed and incorporated 72 hours of thematic courses on gender matters as part of the professional development of teachers at various levels. With the support of international organizations (UNESCO and UNDP), a model programme for teaching gender theory and model gender curriculums in various disciplines have been developed, and libraries with information and reference literature on gender have been set up in central and regional universities. A gender collection has been set up at the National Library of Kyrgyzstan.

54.Both the informal and the formal education systems have been involved in efforts to change the stereotypes influencing the role and place of women in society, politics and family life. In the sector of informal education, there are currently 12 adult education centres in all regions of Kyrgyzstan and they offer a wide range of opportunities, ranging from communication and personal development, vocational education and supplementary training and courses to complete basic education and other courses, after which a certificate is issued, which leads to full participation in society and integration through adult education. The topics of the courses for women include the following: “Public speaking and self-confidence are key to success”, “Women and discrimination”, “Women as leaders”, “Women in social development”, “School of democracy”, “Life and politics”, and “From conflict to cooperation”.

55.In order to promote the proper understanding of maternity as a social function and recognition of the common responsibility of men and women for the upbringing and development of their children, the Ministry of Education and Science, together with non-governmental organizations and with the support of the United Nations Population Fund, has set up “paternity schools” in various regions of the country using innovative forms and methods of work and colourful materials. A national campaign entitled “Vigilant Husband” has been mounted to help identify the dangerous signs of deterioration in children’s health. Between 2017 and 2018, the Ministry of Health implemented a project to raise awareness of reproductive health, family planning and safe abortion among women of reproductive age (5,000 women under 49 years of age and 2,000 girls aged 13–16 years).

56.Throughout the reporting period, as in previous years, the annual “16 Days without Violence” campaign was carried out. In 2018, in order to draw public attention to the problem of gender-based violence through the joint efforts of the Ministry of Labour and Social Development, local authorities and self-government bodies, and non-governmental and international organizations, numerous informational and other special events were held throughout the country. The campaign in 2018 gained particular attention owing to the death of Burulai Turdaaly Kyzy, a student at a medical college, in the building of the district internal affairs agency. At the end of the trial in connection with her death, her acquaintance, who had kidnapped her for the purpose of marriage, was sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment with confiscation of property for murder. As part of the campaign, special banners were prepared on the subject of domestic violence and forced and early marriage, which were posted on the streets of cities. The Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in partnership with NGOs and international organizations, have given lectures at vocational high schools and higher education institutions and have broadcast, in conjunction with the Public Television and Radio Broadcasting Company of Kyrgyzstan, the Pyramid television channel and a number of regional channels, special programmes, including a film entitled Ala-kachuu (bride abduction) and a music video with the theme song Kyz Kadyry, performed by a well-known singer. It should be pointed out that innovative forms and methods are being used in awareness-raising activities with the involvement of new technologies (for example, the special mobile application for smartphones called “Circle of Safety”, developed during the hackathon organized by “Open Line”, which is a non-governmental foundation) and using modern methods for mobilizing activities (for example, street art conducted by the Women’s Help Centre, which is a non-governmental organization, and dedicated to the memory of Burulai, whose death led to the launching of the “16 Days without Violence” campaign in 2018).

Article 6

57.In Kyrgyzstan, activities to combat trafficking in persons are regulated by the Constitution, international instruments ratified by the country and national normative acts: the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime of 15 November 2000, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children of 15 December 2000, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air of 15 December 2000, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (ratified by Act No. 74 of 15 April 2003); the Agreement of 25 November 2005 on the cooperation among member States of the Commonwealth of Independent States in combating trafficking in persons, human organs and tissues, concluded in Moscow (ratified by Act No. 193 of 5 December 2006); article 171 of the Criminal Code; and article 122 of the Code of Offences; Government Decision No. 743 of 15 November 2017 on the Programme of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic on combating human trafficking in the Kyrgyz Republic for the period 2017–2020 (this is the third such programme, the previous two decisions were implemented over the periods 2002–2005 and 2008–2011), and the Act on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking, which designates the State Migration Services, reporting to the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, as the authorized body responsible for coordinating activities to prevent and combat human trafficking.

58.The Ministry of Internal Affairs, together with the International Organization for Migration, has developed: draft Criteria for the Identification of Victims of Trafficking in Persons and a number of instructions regulating the mechanism for the referral of victims of trafficking in persons, and a draft Government Decision on the establishment of a National Referral Mechanism for Victims of Trafficking in Persons. The approval of these normative documents will complete the formation of a unified legal framework for the creation and functioning of a referral mechanism for victims of human trafficking. In 2018, the Ministry of Internal Affairs’ statistical machinery on trafficking in persons was improved; in particular, it became possible to collect data on criminal cases involving labour and sexual exploitation. The facts relating to trafficking in children are taken into account separately.

59.The Global Programme against Trafficking in Persons and the Global Programme against the Smuggling of Migrants, initiated by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in cooperation with the European Commission, continue to be implemented. Kyrgyzstan has been selected as one of the countries implementing the programmes.

60.The State Migration Service, which reports to the Government, has held field working meetings in all provinces of the country, whose main task has been to establish coordination councils on preventing and combating trafficking in persons at the regional level and to present a model regulation for a coordination council. The coordination councils include representatives of the entities referred to in article 9 of the Act on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Persons, representatives of the Ombudsman (Akyikatchy) in each province, and representatives of international and non-governmental organizations and local youth organizations. For the first time, religious leaders have been involved in the work of the coordination councils.

61.Information and awareness-raising activities aimed at preventing trafficking in persons are being carried out on an ongoing basis. For example, in 2018, awareness-raising seminars were held in all regions of the country (covering 32 districts) and in the city of Bishkek, with the main objective of raising awareness of government bodies and non-governmental organizations in the field of preventing trafficking in persons, as well as of strengthening their cooperation and cooperation. A total of about 200 personnel of State bodies participated in the seminars, including the staff of authorized representatives of the Government in the provinces, provincial procuratorial and internal affairs bodies, national security agencies, border services, labour and social development departments, family medicine centres, pedagogical centres, the office of the mayor of Bishkek, and regional centres, as well as representatives of the Ombudsman and the Spiritual Directorate of Muslims in the regions and 36 non-governmental organizations.

62.As part of the training, five information and reference guides containing materials on victims of trafficking in persons, international and national legislation, resources on trafficking in persons and information materials developed by non‑governmental organizations were prepared and distributed to interested organizations and institutions.

63.In order to minimize the negative consequences of trafficking in persons, ongoing efforts have sought to inform the population about the risks of illegal migration and trafficking in persons, and information and education work is being carried out among State officials on combating trafficking in persons. Law enforcement agencies have also been working effectively to combat trafficking in persons, with the establishment of mechanisms for the exchange of information on traffickers and their methods of work, and the strengthening of inter-State cooperation on the protection of the rights of victims of trafficking.

64.According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, six criminal cases of trafficking in persons were opened in 2013, 18 in 2014, 10 in 2015, 8 in 2016, 7 in 2017, and 1 in the first half of 2018. The cases registered include: the sale of a child (60 per cent), labour exploitation (23 per cent) and sexual exploitation (17 per cent).

65.During the reporting period, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Office of the Procurator acted on requests for mutual legal assistance in accordance with the Minsk Convention on Legal Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Matters of 22 January 1993 and the Chisinau Convention on Legal Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Matters of 7 October 2002. For example, in the first half of 2018, eight international investigation requests from the law enforcement agencies of Kyrgyzstan were transmitted through the diplomatic channel to the competent authorities of foreign States (Turkey, China, Belgium and the United Arab Emirates). In turn, materials received from the competent Estonian authorities at the request of the Military Prosecution Office of the Osh garrison in Kyrgyzstan have been forwarded to the Office of the Prosecutor of the Kyrgyz Republic.

66.Diplomatic missions and consular offices of Kyrgyzstan have established close cooperation with the competent authorities of foreign countries, as well as with practicing lawyers and lawyers’ offices on the protection of the rights and legitimate interests of Kyrgyz nationals. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs provides ongoing political and diplomatic assistance through intergovernmental agreements on mutual legal assistance in criminal and civil matters.

67.The main countries to which Kyrgyz nationals travel in search of work are the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates. Kyrgyz nationals who have been victims of trafficking or are in a difficult situation in their lives have, in cooperation with the law enforcement agencies of their country of residence and with the assistance of the International Organization for Migration, received assistance up to and including return to their home country.

68.In the first half of 2018, 37 Kyrgyz nationals (25 women and 12 men) and 13 children received assistance:

Table 10Data on assistance received in 2018

Victims of trafficking in persons and the number of women in that group


Sexual slavery


Labour slavery


Forced marriage


In Turkey


In Russia


Internal migrants


Vulnerable migrants and the number of women in that group


In Russia


In Turkey


In Finland, Germany, Kazakhstan

1 each

Internal migrants


69.Comprehensive assistance has been provided to all victims, including the provision of safe housing (for those who wish), as well as rehabilitation and reintegration assistance. Multiple consultations with a psychologist, psychotherapist or lawyer, as well as classes providing group psychological support, art and occupational therapy, have been conducted.

70.In accordance with Regulation No. 571 on the return to the Kyrgyz Republic of Kyrgyz children who find themselves outside Kyrgyzstan without parental care, which was approved on 21 October 2013, during the period 2011–2018, the Ministry of Labour and Social Development returned 89 children who found themselves without parental care in the Russian Federation.

71.Bearing in mind paragraph 22 (c) of the Committee’s concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of Kyrgyzstan on the implementation of the Convention, the Office of the Procurator has verified the existence of registered statements and complaints regarding violence by police officers against women engaged in prostitution, including forced testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. A check showed that no such complaints had been received. However, unofficial information provided by organizations defending the interests of women who are subject to intersecting forms of discrimination has been taken into account; those organizations stress that the women concerned do not file such complaints with law enforcement agencies because they are afraid and distrustful.

72.The Office of the Procurator has developed guidelines for prosecutors on how to ensure the precise and uniform implementation of the Act on HIV/AIDS in the Kyrgyz Republic, which also deals with the issues of forced HIV testing, and the stigmatization of and discrimination against persons living with HIV/AIDS.

73.In order to implement paragraph 22 (c) of the concluding observations, the Ministry of Internal Affairs issued Order No. 946-r of 14 December 2017 on improving the activities of the internal affairs agencies of the Kyrgyz Republic when working with representatives of vulnerable groups of the population. The Order sets out, in particular, the following requirements:

•To strengthen efforts, in the course of preventive activities, raids and investigative measures, to monitor procedures aimed at informing victims from vulnerable groups about their right to submit appeals to crisis centres and relevant public organizations, and to explain the security issues involved.

•To ensure strict compliance with the norms of Instruction No. 49 of 21 January 2014 on efforts to prevent HIV infection carried out by the authorized State bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and on drug control and the enforcement of sentences, with mandatory explanation of the right to voluntary treatment in institutions in the field of HIV prevention in the Kyrgyz Republic.

•When collecting primary information in response to a request, to use only non‑discriminatory and non-stigmatizing language in communications, to fully implement measures provided for by the legislation of the country to prevent violence, and to ensure the safety and protection of victims who belong to vulnerable groups.

74.The Order was studied in conjunction with other normative acts on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women through a process of cascading training sessions that were conducted in 2018 throughout the country, covering more than 600 employees.

Article 7

75.Article 4 of the State Civil Service and Municipal Civil Service Act enshrines the principle of equal access for citizens to employment, regardless of sex, race, language, disability, ethnicity, religion, political or other opinion, origin, property or other status. Article 23 of the Act establishes the rule that competition for vacant posts must ensure equal access for all citizens to the State and municipal civil services.

76.This norm has been implemented in Regulation No. 706 on the procedure for the civil service competitions and career development in the State and municipal civil services of the Kyrgyz Republic, which was approved by the Government on 29 December 2016. If candidates receive an equal number of points, the commission established for the competition shall recommend a candidate of an ethnic origin or gender that is less well represented in the State or local government body concerned. In cases where candidates with equal number of points represent the same ethnicity and gender, the decision shall be made by a simple majority vote of the commission members present at the meeting (para. 50). We will provide further information on measures taken to raise awareness among employees, employers and their organizations about equality in employment and occupation.

77.The State Personnel Service is a State body charged with developing, implementing and ensuring the sustainable functioning of the unified State personnel policy in the bodies of State administration and local self-government of Kyrgyzstan.

78.The principle of equal access for citizens, regardless of gender, race, disability, ethnicity, religion, political or other beliefs, origin or property status, provided that they meet the qualification requirements, and the principles of transparency, impartiality and openness are also reflected in the procedure for the staffing of the National Civil Service and Municipal Service Personnel Reserve of the Kyrgyz Republic.

79.In the area of departmental training for State and municipal civil servants, advanced training courses have been planned and organized independently by the State and local authorities in accordance with the requirements for the post, taking into account the specifics of the service concerned. The State Personnel Service organizes the development of relevant information, as well as training and methodological materials, and provides for distance learning within the framework of the State’s staffing needs. In 2017, 3,736 civil servants, 2,496 of whom were men and 1,240 women, were trained under Government orders for the training of State and municipal civil servants.

Article 8

80.In the leadership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (minister, three deputies and a state secretary), the first deputy minister is a woman, which amounts to 20 per cent. Three of the 29 heads of foreign missions of Kyrgyzstan are women, or 10.3 per cent. Three of the 19 heads of the structural units of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are women, i.e. 15.7 per cent. Thus, women make up l3.2 per cent of the senior staff of the diplomatic service (7 out of 53 senior positions are held by women), which is almost three times higher than the number recommended in the concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of Kyrgyzstan. The overall ratio of women to men in the Ministry is 40 per cent to 60 per cent, respectively; for foreign missions of Kyrgyzstan the ratio is 36 per cent to 64 per cent.

Article 9

81.Under article 14 of the Citizenship Act, ethnic Kyrgyz who are foreign nationals or are stateless, former Kyrgyz nationals returning to Kyrgyzstan for permanent residence, and foreign-national or stateless women married to a Kyrgyz national and arriving for permanent residence in Kyrgyzstan are granted Kyrgyz nationality under a privileged procedure.

82.Kyrgyz nationality is also retained by a child under the tutorship or guardianship of Kyrgyz nationals, if the parents or one of the parents of that child residing in the territory of Kyrgyzstan relinquishes or loses Kyrgyz nationality and does not participate in the upbringing of the child.

Article 10

83.According to the norms of the Education Act, all citizens of the Republic have equal rights to receive free basic, general secondary and higher professional education. Kyrgyz legislation stipulates the same conditions for the choice of a profession or specialization by men and women, as well as access to education in educational institutions of all categories.

84.Currently, there are 1,390 preschool educational establishments operating in the country (compared to 927 in 2013), which are raising 187.1 thousand children, or 23.5 per cent of that age group. The coverage of preschool education in urban areas is 34.2 per cent, in rural areas – 17.9 per cent.

Table 11

Number of children in pre-school establishments, broken down by place of residence


Urban areas

Rural areas






132 481

37 137

39 938

27 681

27 725


152 216

40 184

42 768

34 515

34 749


161 380

41 673

43 654

37 914

38 139


173 633

42 935

45 611

42 269

42 818


187 078

44 831

48 412

46 123

47 712

85.The number of pupils enrolled in first grade grows every year:

Table 12

Number of pupils enrolled in first grade


Total children


Proportion of each sex in the overall number of pupils






113 891

55 359

58 532




120 881

59 031

61 850




129 426

62 922

66 504




139 968

68 442

71 526




140 799

68 495

72 304



86.There are some differences in the enrolment of girls and boys. The ratio of girls to boys in primary and basic education shows that girls are less likely to enrol in lower secondary school (grades 1–9) than boys. However, girls are more likely to be enrolled in upper secondary education (grades 10–11), while boys drop out after grade 9. That is due to the increase in the number of young people who are forced to enter a profession at an earlier age for financial reasons. Some young people move on to vocational schools, secondary vocational schools or short-term courses that prepare them for entering the labour market as soon as possible.

87. At the beginning of the 2017/2018 academic year, 53.2 per cent of students in higher educational institutions were women. As in the past, a high proportion of those who enrolled in the following areas were women: 86.6 per cent in teacher training, 79.8 per cent in journalism and information, 76.8 per cent in the humanities, 75.1 per cent in physical sciences, 67.7 per cent in life sciences, 66.6 per cent in services, 59.9 per cent in social and behavioural sciences, 55.6 per cent in mathematics and statistics, 54.9 per cent in business and management and 50.1 per cent in health care.

Table 13

Distribution of students at training institutions for higher professional training by specialization (as of the beginning of the 2017–2018 school year)

As a percentage of the whole

Proportional representation










By specialization:






Teacher training















Social and behavioural sciences





Journalism and communications technology





Business and management










Life sciences










Mathematics and statistics





Computer science










Production and reprocessing





Architecture and construction





Veterinary science





Health care















Environmental protection





Security services





88.The same analysis can be applied to students working towards postgraduate degrees:

Table 14

Number of students working towards postgraduate degrees

(as a percentage of the whole)






Doctoral degree ( aspirant )













Post-doctoral degree ( doktorant )













Article 11

89.The programme to promote employment and regulate internal and external labour migration until 2020 was approved by Government Decision No. 485 of 6 September 2013. The main objective of the programme is to create conditions for productive employment and reduce unemployment and the imbalance between supply and demand in the labour market by intensifying measures to promote employment, taking into account the fuller and more rational use of labour resources and the protection of the rights of Kyrgyz nationals working abroad.

Table 15

Number of unemployed actively seeking employment



Active in the labour market

Community paid employment

Occupational training





19 861

6 514

4 479


7 089

3 726

1 778




21 078

7 335

2 019


7 586

4 223





24 861

8 114

1 294


8 894

4 665





25 235

8 547

1 055


8 829

4 920





21 076

7 587



7 994

4 257





19 704

7 206



6 801

4 449


90.According to the above data, more than a half of those taking active measures in the labour market are women. They are mainly involved in landscaping and other lighter forms of work and account for about 35 per cent of the total number of persons involved in this type of work.

91.The employment rate for 2013–2017 ranged from 35 to 37 per cent.

92.The distribution of female and male employment differs significantly by type of economic activity. The proportion of women among the employed population is highest in the service sector, in particular: health care and social services – 83.6 per cent, education – 80.6 per cent, hotels and restaurants – 58.4 per cent, as well as manufacturing – 47.0 per cent.

93.Government Decision No. 203 of 26 March 2012 approved a methodology for forecasting labour market demand in order to introduce a mechanism for monitoring labour market demand and strategic planning for training and retraining. The Ministry of Labour and Social Development has prepared a forecast of labour demand (Needs Map) for the period 2018–2022 on the basis of data provided by Government ministries and departments. In general, based on the updates to the Needs Map, the priority sectors continue to be industry, construction, agriculture, transportation and communications, education, services and health care.

94.Government Decision No. 100 on optimizing the sponsoring activities of the Kumtor Gold closed joint stock company was adopted on 26 February 2013, as a result of which agreements on the concession of rights of claim under the previously concluded emergency loan agreements were concluded, and the right of claim was transferred from the Ala-Too Finance microcredit agency to the Aiyl Bank open joint stock company. On 24 March 2014, Government Decision No. 178 on the liquidation of the Ala-Too Finance microcredit agency, which reported to the Ministry of Youth, Labour and Employment, was adopted. In connection with the amendment to the Promotion of Employment Act No. 214 of 3 August 2015, its article 12, which establishes the procedure for the provision of financial support by the authorized State body to the officially unemployed who wish to engage in entrepreneurial activities, was declared null and void.

95.During the reporting period, the State adopted a number of initiatives aimed at changing the social and cultural patterns of behaviour of men and women in order to eliminate prejudices and discriminatory practices. For example, in order to eliminate discrimination and ensure respect for gender equality, the Labour Code provides for the possibility of taking leave to care for a child, which is available not only to mothers, but also to fathers, grandfathers and grandmothers, other relatives or the guardian who actually cares for the child. The introduction of such a norm has had an impact on changing the traditional cultural family roles of men and women.

96.According to unofficial data, 1 million people in Kyrgyzstan are employed in the informal sector of the economy, which, according to estimates by the National Statistical Committee, accounts for about 24.5 per cent of GDP; of the 1 million, 0.6 million are women, working mainly in the areas of trade, services and agriculture.

97.The issue of women’s uncounted work in the household, including during the time when they bear a reproductive burden, remains a major problem. Domestic work in Kyrgyzstan is largely female. Women spend an average of 4.2 hours a day in the household every day, spending 17.4 per cent of their time on this. For men, such activities do not exceed 5.7 per cent. It can be seen, then, that women spend 3 times more time on domestic work and 2 times more time on raising children than men. Men’s free time amount to almost a quarter of a day, which is 1.2 times more than women’s.

98.Article 9 of the Labour Code prohibits discrimination in the field of labour, including on the basis of sex. Chapter 24 of the Labour Code also contains specific provisions on the regulation of the work of women and other persons with family responsibilities. This section of the Code provides a number of guarantees and rights to working women, including additional guarantees for pregnant women and women with children, as well as guarantees regarding the termination of employment contracts and regulations on business trips, overtime, night work, weekends and non‑working holidays, etc.

99.However, there exists non-compliance with the labour regulations for women employed in State and municipal services. Women continue to work outside working hours and on public holidays without receiving the benefits or incentives provided for in the law. In addition, some pregnant women and nursing mothers, who have separate legal grounds for absence from the workplace, try not to use those protections, as such actions can cause discontent on the part of their employers.

100.The State, with special concern for women’s health, prohibits the use of women’s labour in heavy and hazardous work and in harmful and/or dangerous working conditions, as well as in underground work, except for non-physical work or work in sanitary and domestic services, and provides constraints on work involving manual lifting and the moving of heavier loads exceeding the maximum permissible standards (article 303 of the Labour Code).

101.Bodies of the State Inspectorate for Environmental and Technical Safety, which reports to the Government, carry out permanent monitoring and oversight functions to detect violations of women’s labour rights. However, no cases of violation of the labour rights of women were identified between 2013 and 2018.

102.Between 2013 and 2017, 706 persons suffered from work-related accidents with loss of capacity to work for one or more days, and 117 suffered fatal accidents.

Article 12

103.Various legal instruments guarantee equal access to health-care services for all citizens, both men and women, in particular the Protection of Citizens’ Health Act, the Act on the Reproductive Rights of Citizens and Guarantees of Their Implementation, the National Reproductive Health Care Strategy for the period up to 2015, approved by Presidential Decree No. 387 of 15 July 2006, and the Den Sooluk health-care reform programme for the period 2012–2018, approved by Government Decree No. 309 of 24 May 2012.

104.Among the sectoral policies, the National Reproductive Health Strategy for the period up to 2015 occupies an important place. Measures taken within the framework of this Strategy have contributed to the fact that more than 98 per cent of pregnant women are now registered at an early stage of pregnancy, and that 62.5 per cent of maternity hospitals have introduced effective perinatal care in accordance with the World Health Organization integrated programme for safe motherhood and effective perinatal care.

105.The implementation of the Den Sooluk health-care reform programme for the period 2012–2018 provides an opportunity, based on a multisectoral approach, to carry out targeted activities to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and improve the health of the population, giving priority to the health of mothers and children, access to health services and reducing the financial burden for the most vulnerable groups of the population.

106.The expansion of effective perinatal care is a key factor in reducing maternal and infant mortality. Ministry of Health Order No. 315 of 20 June 2008 approved the Perinatal Programme for 2008–2017. However, this programme does not have specifically allocated funding.

107.Under the leadership of the Ministry of Health, measures are being taken to reduce anaemia among women and children. Vitamin A is being purchased for women in childbirth and children under 5 years of age, as well as salt iodization tests and premix for flour fortification.

108.According to data from the Ministry of Health, the infant mortality rate declined from 20 per 1000 live births in 2012 to 19.9 in 2013, 20.2 in 2014, 18.0 in 2015, 16.6 in 2016 and 15.6 in 2017.

Figure 4

Infant mortality rate

109.The under-5 child mortality rate (1–4 years) has also tended to decline over the past five years. It should be noted that the causes of child mortality differ by age group. According to the Ministry of Health, the main causes of infant mortality (up to 1 year) in 2017 were perinatal conditions (62.4 per cent), birth anomalies (19.2 per cent) and respiratory diseases (16.7 per cent). From 0 to 5 years of age, the main causes are perinatal conditions – (52.4 per cent), birth anomalies (17.7 per cent), respiratory diseases (13.9 per cent), and injuries and poisoning (5.9 per cent).

110.With funding from donor organizations (under the sector-wide approach), work is being carried out to improve the equipment available in regional maternity hospitals within the framework of the Den Sooluk health-care reform programme.

111.According to the Ministry of Health, the maternal mortality rate in the country is characterized by a wave-like but downward trend. The maternal mortality rate per 100,000 live births was 50.3 in 2012, 39.2 in 2013, 50.7 in 2014, 38.5 in 2015, 30.3 in 2016 and 31.2 in 2017.

112.The causes of maternal mortality are diverse; they go beyond the health sector and are conditioned by a number of economic, social and cultural factors, demographic structure, behavioural skills, health literacy and others.

Figure 5

Indicators for maternal mortality for the period 2012–2017(per 100,000 live births)

113.In general, the structure of the causes of maternal mortality has changed. In 2012, bleeding was the most prevalent cause (29.5 per cent), followed by extragenital diseases (23.1 per cent), hypertension conditions (22.6 per cent) and sepsis (21 per cent), whereas in 2017 extragenital diseases (39.6 per cent) were the leading cause, followed by sepsis (22.9 per cent) and bleeding (14.6 per cent).

Figure 6

Causes of maternal mortality from 2012 to 2017

114.In order to strengthen the provision of high-quality antenatal care, the Ministry of Health approved 42 clinical protocols on antenatal care and childbirth management, with subsequent implementation in the training of health care personnel. A particularly worrying situation is the widespread low level of availability of neonatologists, anaesthesiologists and intensive care specialists (at the regional and district administrative levels).

115.Statistics show that the incidence of anaemia among women during pregnancy was 34.9 per cent in 2012, 35.2 per cent in 2013, 34.3 per cent in 2014, 34.6 per cent in 2015, 31.2 per cent in 2016 and 33.5 per cent in 2017.

116.The abortion rate in the country in 2017 was 12.3 per 1,000 women of reproductive age. The number of abortions among adolescents aged 12–19 was 1,778 in 2012, 1,697 in 2013, 1,975 in 2014, 1,443 in 2015, 1,523 in 2016 and 1,454 in 2017. The data on abortion are not fully reliable owing to the problem of unreliable recording and informal payments for abortions performed in early stages of pregnancy, which do not require lengthy procedures.

117.In 2017, contraceptive prevalence in the country was 25.0 per cent for women of reproductive age. The overall contraceptive prevalence rate has fallen significantly over the past 20 years, from 60 per cent (according to the Demographic and Health Survey of 1997) to 36 per cent in 2012 (Demographic and Health Survey of 2012). Traditional methods have been reduced from 11 per cent to 2 per cent between 1997 and 2014. The intrauterine device remains the most popular method used. The total fertility rate increased by 18 per cent from 3.4 in 1997 to 4 and, accordingly, the unmet need for family planning increased by more than 60 per cent, from 11.6 per cent to 19 per cent. The proportion of women in 2015 whose birth interval was less than 3 years was 18.9 per cent, less than 2 years – 21 per cent, and less than one year – 9 per cent. Several types of contraceptives are available to women with insurance as part of the supplementary compulsory medical insurance scheme and the package that supplies drugs on preferential terms under the programme of State guarantees relating to the provision of medical and health care within the Government’s compulsory health insurance fund. Pharmacies are the main channel for the provision of contraceptives to the private sector and are used by 24 per cent of users. The public sector is still the main source of contraceptives, but over the past 15 years there has been a general shift in the supply of modern contraceptives from the public sector to the private sector. In 2018, government procurement of contraceptives for vulnerable population groups (combined oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices) was carried out using budget funds.

118.Cervical cancer mortality rates were 7.3 in 2012, 7.4 in 2013, 7.1 in 2014, 8.6 in 2015, 7.2 in 2016 and 7.3 in 2017.

119.Breast cancer in Kyrgyzstan ranks first in the complex of malignant neoplasms and mortality among cancers affecting the female population. Over the past 10 years, these figures have tended to increase. Breast cancer incidence was 19.1 per cent in 2012, 21.6 per cent in 2013, 19.4 per cent in 2014, 18.5 per cent in 2015, 19.3 per cent in 2016 and 9.0 per cent in 2017. The one-year mortality rate for breast cancer was 16.2 per cent in 2012, 16.0 per cent in 2013, 24.4 per cent in 2014, 18.5 per cent in 2015, 16.6 per cent in 2016, and 15.0 per cent in 2017.

120.Given the high rates of morbidity, the failure to treat and the mortality from breast cancer, the lack of countrywide measures to prevent and diagnose breast cancer, low awareness among the population and the lack of oncological alertness on the part of doctors at all levels, a Breast Centre has been established at the National Centre for Oncology and Haematology. Since the beginning of 2018, the Ministry of Health, together with non-governmental and international organizations, has organized field teams of specialists, including a breast examiner, to conduct ultrasound breast examinations of women living in the regions.

121.The weak infrastructure found among treatment and preventive care organizations, with their problems with the supply of hot and cold water, electricity, heating and sewage systems, has an impact on the quality of service delivery and the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Of the country’s 147 hospitals, 112 operate in adapted buildings.

122.Alcohol dependence among women persists. In 2017, the rate of alcoholism among women was 6.8 cases per 100,000 persons; it was 10.9 in 2012, 7.4 in 2013, 5.7 in 2014, 5.6 in 2015, and 6.4 in 2016.

123.The incidence of drug addiction among women per 100,000 persons was: 1.3 cases in 2012; 0.4 cases in 2013; 1 case in 2014; 0.4 cases in 2015; 0.5 cases in 2016; and 0.3 cases in 2017 (according to the eHealth Centre).

124.Sexually transmitted infections among women:

•The incidence of syphilis (cases per 100,000 population) was 13.3 in 2012, 19.4 in 2013, 21.8 in 2014, 10.6 in 2015, 8.8 in 2016 and 7.4 in 2017.

•The incidence of gonorrhoea (cases per 100,000 population) was: 10.6 in 2012, 9.3 in 2013, 11.1 in 2014, 7.8 in 2015, 5.0 in 2016 and 3.0 in 2017.

125.In 2012, tuberculosis centres were transferred to the single-payer system. The Tuberculosis V programme for the period 2017–2021 was approved by Government Order No. 448-r of 3 October 2017. An action plan to optimize the system of tuberculosis care for the population of the Kyrgyz Republic for the period 2017–2026 was approved by Government Order No. 9-r of 17 January 2017.

126.The tuberculosis incidence among women in Kyrgyzstan (rate per 100,000 persons) was 85. 1 in 2012, 87.7 in 2013, 88.5 in 2014. 83.6 in 2015, 81.7 in 2016 and 77.5 in 2017. National mortality and morbidity rates in both the public and penitentiary health systems are continuing to fall.

127.Construction work has begun for the Bishkek City Tuberculosis Hospital, with support from KfW (the German development bank) and a budget of 6.3 million euros. In 2013, a reference laboratory module was commissioned, also with support from the German development bank and a total budget for the project of 5 million euros.

128.Data from biobehavioural studies indicate that the prevalence of HIV infection among drug users was 14.3 per cent in 2016 (14.6 per cent in 2010 and 12.4 per cent in 2013, which are variations within the limits of statistical error).

129.In 2017, in order to streamline HIV/AIDS activities, the functions of the Country Coordinating Mechanism for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria were merged into those of the Coordination Council on Public Health, which reports to the Government of Kyrgyzstan.

130.All AIDS patients currently receiving antiretroviral therapy are given their medication in a timely manner, records are kept of antiretroviral drugs received and issued, and drugs are issued during the course of treatment in line with the clinical guidelines approved by the Ministry of Health, which have been updated in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations. The most recent clinical guidelines were approved by Ministry of Health Order No. 903 of 10 October 2017. Antiretroviral drugs are available in sufficient variety and quantity. In January 2018, 3,597 persons living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral therapy.

131.Thirty-six needle-exchange sites are in operation, including 11 sites at Ministry of Health prevention and treatment facilities, 12 sites managed by non-governmental organizations, and 13 sites within the penitentiary system of the State Penal Correction Service. As at 1 September 2017, the 11 sites in operation at Ministry of Health facilities were serving 5,408 injecting drug users, including 829 women. The needle-exchange sites within the State Penal Correction Service were serving 1,533 clients, including 21 women. On 1 September 2017 3,052 persons received antiretroviral therapy, including 430 children (262/168). Of the 528 newly diagnosed persons, 357 persons living with HIV were accepted for outpatient treatment, including 158 for antiretroviral therapy, 16 of them children.

132.As at 1 November 2018, 8,214 nationals of Kyrgyzstan were registered as living with HIV. According to the Spectrum projection programme, an estimated 7,600 persons are living with HIV. Meanwhile, the proportion of cases of sexual transmission has increased from 44.3 per cent in 2012 to 62 per cent in 2018, while the number of women living with HIV accounted for 22 per cent of the total in 2012 and 36 per cent in 2018.

133.The prevalence of HIV infection in Kyrgyzstan has remained at 10–13 cases per 100,000 persons since 2008, which is the lowest indicator (after Armenia and Azerbaijan) in the region of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

134.In 2018 research was carried out to study negative stereotypes about women and men with disabilities, and in that context various infographics were produced, together with recommendations for media campaigns to eradicate gender stereotypes about women with disabilities.

135.The Expert Council for Quality Assessment of Clinical Guidelines/Protocols developed guidelines for the provision of medical and social care for transgender, transsexual and gender-nonconforming persons, which was approved by Ministry of Health Order No. 42 of 18 January 2017. Medical and social care for transgender, transsexual and gender-nonconforming persons is designed to help them to safely and effectively achieve maximum comfort in their gender identity, improved health and quality of life, psychological well-being and self-realization based on respect for dignity, equality and human rights.

Article 13

136.According to the Constitution, Kyrgyzstan is a social State. New mechanisms have been introduced to promote gender-oriented social policy to ensure equal rights and opportunities for men and women regarding the rights to receive State benefits, loans, mortgages and other forms of financial credit.

137.There have been some changes to the main forms of social support for socially vulnerable categories of citizens. An increase in pensions has brought the average pension close to the minimum subsistence level. In 2017, the average pension was 5,235.4 soms, which was 1,019 soms more than the subsistence minimum, which in 2017 was 4,392.8 soms. Almost 40 per cent of pensioners have a total pension that is below the subsistence minimum. For this category, the basic part of the pension has been indexed, and it was increased by 100 soms on October 1, 2018.

138.At the end of 2018, 673,000 pensioners were registered with the Social Fund pension agencies.

139.For the past five years, pensioners have represented about 11 per cent of the total population. Women account for 65 per cent of pensioners, and men account for 35 per cent.

140.Under the State Pension Social Insurance Act, women who have given birth to five or more children and have cared for them to the age of eight years are entitled to an old-age pension at the age of 53 years after 15 years of contributions, which is five years earlier than the retirement age of 58 years for women.

141.On 1 April 2018 a revised version of the State Benefits Act came into force, with provisions for three forms of State benefit.

•A lump-sum payment of 4,000 soms for the birth of a child (balaga suyunchu) is paid after the birth, irrespective of family income.

•The State Benefits Act came into force on 1 January 2018. Previously, a lump-sum payment for the birth of a child was a means-tested benefit that was paid only to children in low-income families. Monthly allowances are paid to low-income citizens (families) with children under 16 years of age (ui-bulogo komok), provided that the per capita average of the total family income does not exceed the guaranteed minimum income for each family member;

•A monthly social allowance is paid irrespective of the total per capita family income.

142.The monthly social allowance is paid, irrespective of the family’s total average per capita income, to a specific category of individuals, those who are unable to work and are not entitled to pension benefits. Since 2010, the monthly social allowance has not been linked to the guaranteed minimum income.

143.According to data from the Ministry of Labour and Social Development, on 1 November 2018, the average low-income family allowance and the monthly social allowance were 877.1 soms and 3,062 soms, respectively.

Figure 7

Average State benefits over the period from 2009 to 1 October 2018

Averagemonthly social allowanceAveragelow-incomefamilyallowanceAverageguaranteed minimumincome

144.By 2018, the monthly allowance for low-income families and the monthly social allowance had increased by 2,235 soms and 705 soms, respectively, compared with 2009.

145.At present, the guaranteed minimum income is 900 soms, the monthly allowance for low-income families with children under 16 years of age is 810 soms, the amount of monthly social allowances for each child with disabilities is 4000 soms.

146.In 2009, the benefits system was reformed in order to ensure targeted service delivery and streamline cash allowances. Under Presidential Decree No. 511 of 13 November 2009, monthly cash allowances have been paid in lieu of benefits since 1 January 2010. They are granted on the basis of category and are not means-tested. Twenty-five categories of persons are entitled to these allowances. The cash allowances range from 1,000 soms to 7,000 soms a month.

147.The Government’s major strategy documents highlight microfinance as a means of improving access to finance for a large part of the population, as well as a means of poverty reduction. Improving access to financial services is a key factor in ensuring continued economic growth.

148.The regulations for granting temporary disability and maternity benefits and the regulations for granting funeral benefits were approved by Government Decision No.434 of 18 September 2018, which sets out the procedures for granting those benefits.

149.According to the regulations for granting temporary disability and maternity benefits, the following women are entitled to maternity benefits: workers who are in an employment relationship with an employer; owners of sole-proprietor enterprises; members of rural (farming) households; and officially registered unemployed persons entitled to unemployment benefits. On 1 November 2018, the average amount of maternity benefit was 7,625 soms. However, the average maternity benefit for women living and working in areas where the regional factor is not applied is about 4,000 soms, while the benefit is over 22,000 soms in areas where the regional factor is applied.

Article 14

150.Poverty in rural areas of Kyrgyzstan has a gender aspect, and households headed by women are at a disadvantage and experience a higher rate of poverty and a lower level of food security. The Ministry of Agriculture, Food Industry and Land Reclamation has implemented a number of projects to address poverty and gender issues. In particular, there is provision for women’s participation (up to 30 per cent) in the discussion of veterinary activities, the training of veterinary professionals at the Skryabin National Agrarian University and the management of pasture committees.

151.There are plans to establish milk collection and cooling centres through partnership agreements with dairies and to provide support for women’s groups in setting up small-scale milk processing facilities. Livestock communities receive support to diversify their income sources. Assistance with new income-generating activities, carried out in collaboration with private and/or public partners and with a focus on women, will help to consolidate livestock income.

152.Information campaigns, regional round tables for leaders and members of women smallholders’ groups, processing enterprises headed by women, heads of agricultural cooperatives, farming and peasant households, and chairs of pasture committees. Fifty-one self-help groups involving 301 women have been formed, 17 rural funds have been set up, and 236 self-help groups have been set up in 43 villages across the country, with the participation of 1,490 people, including 1,352 women. They were offered training workshops on agronomy, economics and marketing and consultations with agronomists.

153.Meetings, practical consultations and information events are held on a regular basis for the local community of the project areas in order to disseminate information to low-income individuals, women and heads of household on project goals and objectives and community pasture management plans, and to receive feedback.

154.The database on vulnerable households and women heads of households in the communities is continuously updated. Communication has been established with women leaders, activists and processors of agricultural products.

155.Livestock production contributes to poverty reduction and shared prosperity when access to pasture and veterinary services is expanded for extremely poor livestock owners, including families headed by women. About 190,000 rural households in Chui and Talas regions will benefit from the improved services provided by associations of pasture users and private veterinarians. According to the 2009 national census, about 10 per cent of these households are headed by women.

156.More than 1,400 days of training have been provided for women clients. The training is intended to raise awareness of legislation on rural community pastures and to increase the knowledge of beneficiaries on veterinary topics such as foot-and-mouth disease, common horse diseases, methods of collection and delivery of samples of pathological materials to the veterinary laboratory, and modular dermatitis in cattle. Over 13.5 per cent of direct beneficiaries have been women, compared to the planned 10 per cent. Women accounted for 54 of the more than 400 participants in various training courses.

157.A total of 3,548 social mobilization activities were carried out, with 110,164 participants, including 27,319 women. Training courses have been held for communities on the following topics: basic pasture management, monitoring of pasture conditions, and procurement procedures at the community level. A total of 222 training sessions were attended by 5,528 project beneficiaries, including 612 women.

158.A project to improve agricultural productivity and nutrition was launched in September 2016 and will continue until 30 June 2022. One component of the project is measures to improve nutrition and includes a situational analysis of the quality and quantity of food available to the village communities (aiyl aimaks). The target groups of the project are women (aged 18 to 49 years), children (under 5 years) and adolescent girls (12 to 17 years). The total number of people covered is about 153,795. The total includes 38,260 women of reproductive age, 5,462 pregnant women, 9,231 adolescent girls and 17,409 children under 5 years of age. Events have been held in 11 districts and 7 regions of the Kyrgyz Republic.

159.The State Investment Programme funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation includes a water-sector project focused on national water resources management. The implementation period is from 2015 to 2018. As part of the project, steps have been taken to increase communication and disseminate information on the activities of the water users association for women living in the service area. This has included the provision of support to women members of the association’s boards and leadership for holding meetings for the rest of the women in the community. Training modules have also been developed. Training modules on enhancing the role of women in Kyrgyz water users’ associations and on gender policy and women’s involvement in the management of water users associations are included in the project’s programme to support the water users associations. A total of 221 persons were trained in the context of the project. Regional support departments have conducted training for members of water users’ associations, involving a total of 2,582 such members. The associations have a total of 486 administrative units and 267,430 members, including 26,500 women. Four of those administrative units have women directors.

160.A project to assist public seed banks for the period 2015–2017 provided support to 221 public seed banks, of which 176 received seeds and fertilizer for one sowing season and 45 received seeds and fertilizer for the autumn and spring sowing seasons. The total number of farmers who are members of public seed banks was 5,657, including 806 women. A total of 625 self-help groups have been established, with 4,300 farmers, including 3,703 women. In addition, the project supported 73 self-help groups with a total of 474 members (including 417 women) established under the UN-Women Regional Migration Programme. In total, the project has supported 698 self-help groups involving 4,774 households and 4,120 women. A total of 10,431 farmers, including 4,926 women, received seeds and fertiliser as direct beneficiaries of the project. Thanks to the high-yielding varieties of certified summer crops and the application of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers, as well as the knowledge and skills in agrotechnology acquired during the project, and the favourable weather conditions, the project beneficiaries were able to achieve yields that were higher than the average achieved by non-participants living and cultivating the same crops in the same area, and higher than the average data from the National Statistical Committee.

161.The Agricultural Productivity Promotion Project provided its beneficiaries, who were mainly farmers, farmers’ organizations and rural households, with comprehensive assistance to increase productivity in their households. One project component has resulted in the establishment of a total of 302 self-help groups throughout the country, with a total of 2,050 members, including 1,879 (91.6 per cent) women. During implementation of the project, 1,456 training sessions were conducted in all regions, and 4,283 people received training (including 2,187 women, or 51.06 per cent). As a result, women were able to increase productivity, even with the low level of resources that the project provided. This project enabled women to improve their financial situation and, in particular, the nutrition of their families.

162.The “One Village, One Product” project has trained 342 groups with a total of 2,378 members, including 1,464 women. The members of these groups have been trained in production, marketing and the conduct of business negotiations in order to promote their products as the Issyk-Kul brand. The experience of this project is now being disseminated in other regions of the country.

163.In 2018, a study on the prevalence of negative gender stereotypes affecting rural women was conducted, and recommendations were developed on that basis for a media campaign to reduce their stigmatization in the urban community. The results of the study have been discussed at round tables.

Article 15

164.Under the Constitution, all citizens in Kyrgyzstan are equal before the law and the courts. Civil legal capacity commences for a citizen at birth and ceases upon death. Women enjoy all civil rights and duties on an equal basis with men. According to the Constitution and legislation governing the judicial system, there is a single judicial system, which functions to protect the rights of all citizens, both women and men.

165.Legislation provides that citizens, both women and men, have the right to own, inherit and bequeath property. Women are entitled to set up legal entities on their own or together with other citizens and legal persons, to engage in any transaction that is not contrary to the law and to assume obligations.

166.In accordance with the Constitution, national legislation and international human rights instruments, all citizens, both women and men, have the rights of freedom of movement, to choose their place of residence and domicile in Kyrgyzstan, and to leave the country freely. Restrictions may be placed on the rights of citizens to freedom of movement and choice of place of residence and domicile within the borders of Kyrgyzstan only where justified by law. However, a record is kept of their place of residence in the country, in order to ensure that citizens can exercise their rights and fulfil their responsibilities in respect of other citizens.

Article 16

167.According to article 54 of the Family Code, a mother and father who are married to each other are recorded in the registry of births as the parents of the child, as certified by either one of them. In the case of a child born to an unmarried mother, in the absence of such joint registration by the parents, or in the absence of a court paternity ruling, the surname of the child’s father will be replaced in the register of births by the surname of the mother and the first name, patronymic and nationality of the father will be recorded as indicated by the mother.

168.Pursuant to article 18 of the Civil Registration Act, the following provisions apply to the recording of the surname, first name and patronymic of a child upon registration of the child’s birth:

•The surname of the child will be recorded as the surname of the parents.

•If the parents do not share a surname, the child’s surname will be recorded as the surname of the father or of the mother, as agreed between the parents.

•The first name of the child will be recorded as agreed between the parents.

•If there is no agreement between the parents regarding the first name and/or surname of the child (in cases in which the parents do not share a surname), the courts shall rule on the disputed matter.

•Unless ethnic-national custom specifies otherwise, a child’s patronymic will be recorded on the basis of the father’s first name;

•If the mother is not married to the father of the child, and paternity has not been established, the child’s first name will be recorded according to the mother’s wishes, and child’s patronymic will be recorded on the basis of first name of the person recorded on the birth certificate as the child’s father; the child’s surname will be the mother’s surname;

•If the mother is not married to the father of the child, and has expressed the wish that information about the child’s father should not appear in the registration of the child’s birth, the child’s patronymic will be as specified by the mother;

•If both parents are unknown, the local office of the Government Children’s Ombudsman will decide on the child’s surname, first name and patronymic.

169.Over the past ten years, there has been an upward trend in the annual number of marriages. However, the number of terminated marriages also increased, resulting in a higher number of children with divorced parents. The age of first marriage has remained more or less the same, just over 23 years for women and 27.1 for men.

Article 17

170.In February 2015 an official delegation took part in meetings of the Committee to present the fourth periodic report of Kyrgyzstan on implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

171.The Committee issued concluding observations on the fourth periodic report, which were discussed extensively at round tables by participants who represented State bodies, non-governmental and international organizations, the expert community and the media.

172.An interdepartmental working group was established by order of the Government. The working group conducted multilateral and bilateral working meetings, which included consultations with relevant non-governmental organizations, and prepared a draft plan of action for implementation of the concluding observations of the Committee on the fourth periodic report of the Kyrgyz Republic on implementation of the Convention. The plan of action was adopted by Government Order No. 123-r of 19 April 2017.

173.In 2018 a report containing a summary of information provided by officials from ministries, departments and other State bodies on the implementation of paragraphs 22 (c) and 28 (b) and (d) of the concluding observations was submitted to the Committee.