United Nations


Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Distr.: General

24 September 2011

Original: English

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Sixth periodic report of States parties

Angola *


Paragraphs Page

Abbreviations and acronyms4


II.Implementation of the provisions set forth in the Convention7–2515

Articles 1 and 2: Legislative measures establishing the principle of the equality of men and women and eliminating discrimination against women7–95

Article 3: Measures to ensure the full development and progress of women106

Article 4: Adoption of special measures to protect women11–226

Article 5:Measures needed to put an end to practices based on the inferiority of women to men23–3711

Article 6: Measures intended to eliminate traffic in women and the exploitation of prostitution38–4413

Article 7: Measures intended to ensure women’s participation in public life and politics in Angola in equality with men45–4914

Article 8: Measures needed for women to participate in the representation of the country internationally and to work for international organizations50–5215

Article 9: Ensure that women do not lose their citizenship upon marrying foreigners and can pass citizenship on to their children53–5516

Article 10: Necessary measures intended to eliminate all barriers that hinder access to education, sports and health56–8117

Article 11: Measures needed to provide women access to jobs and salaries equal to those of men and adoption of special measures to protect women during pregnancy and after giving birth, and to protect against dismissal82–11420

Article 12: Measures intended to give women the same access as men to health and family planning services, and adequate services during pregnancy, birth and the prenatal period115–14324

Article 13: Measures needed to allow women access to the right to loans and financing and to participate in all aspects of cultural life144–15328

Article 14: Measures needed to ensure rural women the ability to participate in rural development and planning and to obtain the same benefits as men154–18129

Article 15: Equal treatment in entering into contracts and management of assets182–18933

Article 16: Equal rights of men and women in all matters related to marriage and family190–25134


Statistics on the position of women in Angola40

List of tables

Table No. 1Ministerial positions and respective assistants (2010)

Table No. 2Federal Government (2009)

Table No. 3Local government (managers) (2009)

Table No. 4Local government (management positions) (2009)

Table No. 5Municipal and town government (2009)

Table No. 6Office of the Attorney General (2009)

Table No. 7Participation by women in the Bar Association of Angola (2009)

Table No. 8Distribution of officials by province and gender (2009)

Table No. 9Women in the National Assembly (2008)

Table No. 10Representation of and participation by women in the Diplomatic Corps

Table No. 11Graduates by area from the Universidade Agostinho Neto in 2006/07

Table No. 12Students by level of education for the period 2004–2008

Table No. 13Statistics on Domestic Violence (2009)

Abbreviations and acronyms

CEDAWConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

MINFAMUMinistry of Family and Women’s Promotion

SADCSouth African Development Community

MINARSMinistry of Welfare and Social Reintegration

MINSAMinistry of Health

INACNational Institute of the Child

HIVHuman Immunodeficiency Virus

AIDSAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

MEDMinistry of Education

MAPESSMinistry of Public Administration, Employment and Social Security

NEPADNew Partnership for Africa’s Development

PCGJoint General Program

CNENational Electoral Commission

OGEState Budget

IGTGeneral Labor Inspectorate

GBVGender-based Violence

MICSMultiple Indicator Cluster Surveys

TIPIntermittent Treatment of Malaria

NVLive Births

CNTNutritional Treatment Centers

STDSexually Transmitted Diseases

DDAAcute Diarrheic Diseases

GDPGross Domestic Product

NGONon-governmental organization

BPCBanco de Poupança e Crédito

BCIBanco de Comércio e Indústria

COMURCommittee to Support Rural Women

UNACANational Union of Peasants

UNDPUnited Nations Development Program

MIREXMinistry of Foreign Relations

GEPEResearch, Planning and Statistics Office

EAPEconomically Active Population


1.Through the approval of the 1st Constitutional Law in 1975 the Angolan State recognized the equality of Men and Women before the Law, and simultaneously prohibited discrimination based on a person’s gender, skin color, religious or political affiliation.

2.Upon acceptance of the Convention against All Forms of Discrimination against Women, by means of Resolution No. 15/84 published in Series I of the Official Gazette of September 19, 1984, Angola became a Party State, a member of a very important international instrument in favor of women.

3.Upon ratification of the Convention, the Angolan State made a commitment to promote actions and strategies to protect the human rights of Angolan women, and to fight against the stereotypes that place women in a position inferior to that of men.

4.In its implementation of the Convention thus far, the Angolan State has acted with the conviction that development cannot be achieved without the empowerment of women at all levels.

5.This is why, now that peace is achieved, the fight against poverty, illiteracy, maternal and infant mortality, the construction and rehabilitation of schools and hospitals, among other actions, are central concerns of the Angolan Government.

6.In response to the concerns expressed by the Committee in 2004, essentially with regard to the popularization of the CEDAW, with women, means of social communication, non-governmental organizations, the promotion of gender equality in all programs and measures intended to fight violence against women, and the strengthening of the Ministry of Family and Women’s Promotion, among others, as may be seen in the following report, the Angolan Government has implemented a number of actions and measures that have safely and increasingly concretely demonstrated that the condition of women in Angola is a matter of the greatest concern at the highest levels.

II.Implementation of the provisions set forth in the Convention

Articles 1 and 2Legislative measures establishing the principle of the equality of men and women and eliminating discrimination against women

7.All of Angola’s laws comply fully with Article 1 of the Convention, because since independence, with its establishment of the principle of equality between men and women, and prohibition of any kind of discrimination based on gender, it has revoked all the discriminatory laws inherited from the colonialists, including those against women and those regarding children born out of wedlock. The existence of these discriminatory laws in the legal codes, of a substantive or adjectival nature, does not mean they are used or applied, and they will be removed all at one time as part of the pending legal reform package whose completion is expected to occur soon.

8.The present Constitution establishes the principles of universality and of the equality of all Angolan citizens (Articles 22 and 23). Article 26, no. 2, goes further and provides that: “the constitutional and legal precepts regarding fundamental rights must be interpreted and integrated in harmony with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and of all people and the international treaties on this subject, ratified by the Republic of Angola”. However, it is Article 13 that very clearly shows that the Convention is a domestic legal instrument that has been fully adopted in the Angolan legal system and is an integral part thereof (Article 13, no. 1): “General or common international law, received pursuant to this Constitution, forms an integral part of the Angolan legal system.”

9.In 2007 the Angolan Government approved and ratified the following instruments concerning women’s rights:

(a)Protocol to African Letter on Human Rights and People’s Rights with regard to the rights of women in Africa;

(b)The Protocol on Gender and Development of the SADC was signed in 2008, and ratified in 2010;

(c)The 2004 Solemn Declaration of Equality between Men and Women in Africa was also signed;

(d)Various seminars were organized to disseminate the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) to the Members of Parliament, judges, attorneys, focal points, federal and provincial non-governmental organizations, and a team to monitor the CEDAW was created jointly in 2006 with the Committee for Multisector Gender Coordination.

Article 3Measures to ensure the full development and progress of women

10.In 2005 a process was begun to develop a National Gender Policy, in response to one of the concerns of the Beijing Platform. A consulting process was carried out on the national and provincial level in which various parties played a role, such as gender focal points, universities, public interest organizations, Women’s Associations and individuals. The National Gender Policy proposal’s main points are:

(a)Education, health and nutrition services;

(b)Participation and representation in political and public life;

(c)Equality between men and women in the exercise of citizenship;

(d)Access to resources and opportunities;

(e)Water, Energy and Trade.

Article 4Adoption of special measures to protect women

11.The Angolan State has adopted positive regulations that discriminate to the benefit of women. Articles 69 et seq. of the General Labor Act prohibit the employment of women in unhealthy jobs. They protect women during pregnancy by prohibiting them from working at night. Provision is made for part-time work for women with family responsibilities, and there are regulations to protect mothers. Employers are required, when possible, to establish nurseries in the workplace.

12.Women are entitled to one hour per day without loss of salary for breastfeeding (incentive for mothers to breastfeed), and they may be absent from work one day per month without loss of salary when they are responsible for children under fourteen years of age, in order to accompany them.

13.Under the social security reform, starting at the age of fifty-five women are credited one year for each child up to a total of five children, towards satisfying the age requirement of sixty years for retirement.

14.With a view to increasing women’s participation in decision-making bodies at all levels, in 2005, in accordance with the Declaration on Gender and Development of the SADC, the Angolan Parliament approved Law 02, the Law on Political Parties, on July 1, 2005. One of the articles of this Law contains a provision setting forth the requirement that political parties include in their bylaws a quota for women of not less than 30%.

15.We can say that although women are represented in the various sectors of national life, and specifically in decision-making, the biggest constraint among women continues to be not making their ideas reality and obtaining support and understanding from men. The tables and graphs below show the increase in participation by women in decision-making bodies at the national level.

Ministerial positions and respective assistants (2010)

WOMENSecretaries of StateMENVice MinistersMinisters Ministers of State

Change in women’s participation in Federal Government (2002–2009)




% w omen


% women






Vice ministers






Change in women’s participation in provincial government




% w omen


% women






Deputy governors





Participation by women in the public administration – provincial level (2009)

Participation by women in public administration at the provincial level/2009WOMENMENAdvisorsConsultantsSection HeadDivision HeadDepartment HeadAssistant DirectorsDirectorsDelegates

Participation by women in the public administration – provincial level (2009)

Participation by women in administration at the municipal level/2009Municipal DirectorAsst. Municipal DirectorTown AdministratorAsst. Town AdministratorDivision HeadSection head WOMENMEN

Participation by women in decision-making bodies of the public administration – Office of the Attorney General (2009)

Participation by women in Office of the Attorney-General/2009Attorney GeneralDeputy Attorney GeneralAsst. Attorney GeneralProvincial Attorney GeneralAsst. Provincial Attorney GeneralMunicipal Attorney GeneralMENWOMEN

1.Strengthening the Ministry of the Family and Women’s Promotion

16.One of the concerns expressed by the Committee in 2004 had to do with the strengthening of the Ministry’s institutional capacity.

17.This Ministry revised its 1997 Bylaws, which in 2008 were submitted for approval to the Council of Ministers. The Multisector Gender Coordination Council, created in 1999, was made a consulting entity of the Ministry.

18.In order to respond to families’ concerns, work being done on family counseling was increased. Centers were created throughout Angola. People are being trained to work in the areas of family and legal counseling, and statistical databases broken down by gender have been created.

19.In view of the need for research in the areas of family and women, a specific Research Center was established to handle these issues as an innovation to respond to the Committee’s final comments.

2.Joint Gender Program

20.The Program represents the need to strengthen the country’s ability to advocate for and integrate gender and human rights into various development processes in Angola, thereby contributing to the empowerment of Angolan women. The main areas of focus in this regard are:

(a)Strengthen the capabilities of MINFAMU and the Multisector Gender Coordination Committees on the national level and in selected provinces, and also of women’s organizations;

(b)Support the development of policy and dialog, especially National Gender Policy, and ensure that gender and human rights are integrated into the Strategic Policy and Framework of HIV/AIDS subject to review during the term of this Program;

(c)Improve protection of the civil and political rights of women, including the review and reform of key laws, using CEDAW as a guide. This includes the development of an implementation plan based on international recommendations from Beijing Plus 15, and implementing an awareness campaign to ensure that the provisions of the CEDAW and other legal provisions such as the Family Code are made well known through the implementation of an advocacy strategy, training and support services related to violence against women and children;

(d)Support women and their families in order to empower them socially and economically, through the creation or support of community-based cooperatives, and training and information on Human Rights, GBV, HIV and AIDS.

3.National Family Council

21.Performance of a variety of activities, including participation of social partners, periodic meetings of the National and Provincial Councils to determine National Family Policy, National and Provincial Forums to define programs to benefit rural women, and activities concerning gender violence.

4.NEPAD Project

22.Using funds from the Angolan Government and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) / Spain, we are about to implement the Project called “Support of Gender Issues in Angola”, whose general objective is to promote the development of conditions to protect women who are victims of domestic violence, and also to train the sectors about the multisector and integrated approach of the CEDAW through:

(a)Significantly improving working conditions at Family Counseling Centers;

(b)Creating conditions that facilitate counselors’ performance of their work;

(c)Providing a legal environment for the defense of women who are the victims of violence;

(d)Improving systems for the management of statistical information on domestic violence in Angola;

(e)Working with five pilot sectors (justice, education, health, agriculture and finance), training them in the multisector and integrated approach of the CEDAW, and developing an action and monitoring plan;

(f)Developing and maintaining a statistical database that is broken down by gender.

Article 5Measures needed to put an end to practices based on the inferiority of women to men

23.A draft Law Against Domestic Violence has been prepared, and is presently before the National Assembly for approval. This proposal draft law establishes the principles of the Convention and of the protection of women and children. The bill centers around gender; it is intended to ensure that women are not discriminated against within their families, and at the same time prevent women from being agents of violence.

24.The adoption of measures was based on education aimed at the issues arising from the rules of conduct the majority of the ethnolinguistic groups follow, which are based on patriarchal values that traditionally assign men the role of head of the family.

25.The process of introducing gender issues in education began in 1999 with the development of the indicative national education program for girls during the three-year period 1999–2002, which evolved into the National Gender Program in the Context of the Educational System, 2001–2005, the means of whose execution are assured by the National Gender Commission.

26.The objectives of the indicative national education program for girls for 1999–2002 were as follows:

(a)Avoid gender stereotypes in classrooms;

(b)Encourage equity between the sexes;

(c)Implement educational policies and strategies conducive to girls’ inclusion and development.

27.Acceleration of the elimination of gender disparities in education and learning, with emphasis on the implementation of the Education Action Plan for everyone by 2015, and the National Gender Plan in the context of the educational system and the creation of Professional Centers for women in some provinces.

28.Everyone is quite aware that education is the best means to achieve gender equality and self-affirmation of women. The political drive is a plus, because it contributes to the expansion of a well-equipped educational infrastructure with qualified teachers and reform programs, mainly in rural areas where, it is important to note, women make up 53% of the population. The process of educating women is clearly related to activities concerning the eradication of poverty, because when women are trained, literate, educated and given jobs, they become empowered to enter into the economic and social life of the country in a balanced manner, from the standpoint of gender.

29.The strengthening of the literacy system through peasants’ associations and cooperatives contributes to the reduction of illiteracy levels in women. According to data from the Ministry of Education (2009) there are around 1,717,052 who are potentially illiterate.

30.Training activities have taken place regarding issues of gender, the environment, HIV and AIDS, citizenship, gender violence and home economics, among others.


31.The biggest constraint in the attempt to provide full education to women arises from cultural aspects that hold women responsible for domestic work, and, therefore, make young girls responsible for their younger siblings.


32.The challenges are the following:

(a)Increase the rate of school attendance of girls and women;

(b)Expand social partnerships, particularly sharing by families in the maintenance and care of schools;

(c)Maintain the Committees of parents and persons in charge of Education;

(d)Train and educate teachers;

(e)Continue the 16 Days of Activism Campaigns against Gender Violence, in order to sensitize the population to report cases of violence;

(f)Influence decision-making bodies to adopt measures that bring violence issues into the open through the distribution of informative materials;

(g)Engage in discussions on radio and television, at schools, police stations, visit prisons, and held meetings at various levels with various entities.

33.These campaigns have contributed to an increase in reports and, therefore, more use of family counseling services. We can say that during 2009, countrywide, the Family Counseling Centers of the Provincial Offices recorded 8,866 cases of family conflict and gender violence. The table below shows an increase of 67.9% in cases, compared to cases in 2008. Violence of an economic nature was the most common, at 55.8%, while sexual violence represented 0.2% of total cases. It should be pointed out that by gender, the cases reported by men were 18.7% compared to 81.2% (see table No. 13).

Statistical data on changes in domestic violence

Type of v iolence



Change (%)



1 564



1 445

2 424



2 847

5 493











5 279

9 658


34.All of Angola’s Family Counseling Centers are being restructured around these actions and activities. Their purpose is to provide legal assistance to people, to educate and inform them of their rights, and to provide psychosocial assistance to victims of violence. The Family Counseling Centers arose to reinforce the service work being done by partners from non-governmental organizations, such as the Organization of Angolan Women (OMA) — which created the first counseling center for victims of violence in 1987, and created in 2000, in Luanda, the first shelter for women who have been victims of violence — and offered a number of seminars in various provinces to train Legal Advisors. Training programs are about to be launched on the national level for family counselors through the Project to Support Gender Issues in Angola in order to standardize the services provided and enable Family Counseling Centers to perform better.

35.With the objective of eliminating violence within the family, the Angolan Government joined with the Provincial Governments, Judges of the Attorney General’s Office and the Courts, traditional authorities, associations, non-governmental organizations, churches, experts and individuals, in preparing the initial draft of the Law Against Domestic Violence and the National Action Plan Against Domestic Violence, which is before the Council of Ministers for approval and will then go for ratification before the National Assembly. The fight against domestic violence in general and against women [sic] in particular is one of the greatest concerns of the Angolan Government.

36.The objectives of the draft Law Against Domestic Violence are to prevent, punish and (eradicate gender-based violence), protect the victim, and create shelters. There was extensive cooperation in the process of developing the draft law. Expert teams were created in the provinces, consisting of officials from the Attorney General’s Office, the courts, police, Military Prosecutor, political parties and public interest organizations related to the issues of human rights and women’s organizations and associations, which performed analyses and presented suggestions at conferences held in the provinces. It should be noted that community representatives and traditional authority representatives participated in this process.

37.At the national level consultations took place with members of the National Parliament, focal points, political parties, women’s associations, universities, and there were discussions among various social communication entities.

Article 6Measures intended to eliminate traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution

38.The Angolan Government has developed, through the competent Ministerial Department, programs to get children and adolescents off the street, and to provide psychosocial rehabilitation, medical support, literacy education and creation of nurseries for their children.

39.Between January 2005 and July 2009, approximately 890 young people involved in prostitution were helped at the Ilumba Center; of these, 300 were reintegrated into the labor market. Of these, 400 were trained in childcare, sewing, pastry making, and giving manicures and pedicures.

40.The institutions that work to protect minors, adolescents and others have made efforts to ensure de facto regulations to solve problems such as the traffic in women, adolescents and children, victimization related to prostitution and other situations related to the sexual and commercial exploitation of women and girls.

41.The Council of Ministers approved Resolution No. 24 of October 20, 1999, on the National Action Plan Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children in Angola, presented by the National Institute for Children (INAC).

42.Work is in progress to achieve, among other aspects:

(a)Ensuring the restoration of the rights of those who have been exploited, victims of sexual abuse or maltreated, assuring them protection and the ability to exercise their rights as citizens, and opportunities that enable them to live with dignity;

(b)Holding legally responsible the exploiters, abusers and violators, through application of the law and appropriate penalties, in order to eliminate or weaken the “networks” of exploitation and traffic, and thus break their impunity;

(c)Strengthen partnerships with social organizations that offer support to girls and women who have been victims of this phenomenon, with professional training and full education for girls and women recovered from the streets.


43.These are the constraints:

(a)The culture, in the form of habits and customs, which sometimes does not value women or give them opportunities, causes girls and women not to feel supported, heard or protected within their families;

(b)The level of illiteracy among women is one of the factors preventing their development;

(c)Women and girls have little access to information;

(d)Making the counseling techniques at Family Counseling Centers standard and uniform.


44.The challenges are as follows:

(a)Sensitize society through the media and holding talks, workshops and meetings, so that cultural aspects cease to be one of the factors preventing the promotion of women’s equality within their families and thereby eliminate domestic violence;

(b)Fight sexual traffic in and exploitation of women and girls, including exploitation for commercial purposes;

(c)Emphasize technical and professional training of women and girls;

(d)Encourage every woman to be a gender cheerleader.

Article 7Measures intended to ensure women’s participation in public life and politics in Angola in equality with men

45.The conditions created around the process of organizing the second elections in Angola offered women an opportunity to enter political and public service in the context of a legislative package that included Law 3/97 of March 13, financing of political parties; Law No. 3/05 of July 1, on the Structural Principles that govern the Electoral Register System; Law 6/05 of August 10 (Electoral Law) and Law 10/05 of July 14 (Law on Electoral Conduct).

46.Active and passive participation in the electoral process is guaranteed to all Angolan citizens over 18 years of age, in full exercise of political rights and in perfect enjoyment of their mental faculties. There is absolutely no discrimination based on gender, religious beliefs or political choices. The political parties are responsible for ensuring active participation by the minimum number of women, in the sense of competing on the same conditions as men and therefore having the ability to attain the political positions resulting therefrom.

47.Restrictions on the right to vote apply to those aged under 18 on voting dates, to those declared insane by the health services and to criminals who have lost their civil and political rights, temporarily or permanently. These restrictions also apply to foreigners and immigrants, as this act covers Angolans exclusively.

48.For the Government that resulted from the 2008 legislative elections the percentage of women in the National Assembly increased from 15% to 38.6%. This change also occurred in other decision-making areas.

Representation in National Assembly


49.In terms of women’s participation in non-governmental organizations and associations, the advocacy work undertaken by the Government resulted in incentive for the creation of the Network of Women Ministers and Members of Parliament in 1999. This network includes, aside from Ministers and Deputies, Assistant Governors, current and former Ambassadors; the Federation of Women Entrepreneurs of Angola in 2001; Association of Policewomen in 2004; Association of Women Journalists 2008; Association of Women Living with HIV and AIDS in 2006 and Association of Women Jurists.

Article 8Measures needed for women to participate in the representation of the country internationally and to work for international organizations

1.Representation and participation in international organizations

50.Since achieving independence in 1975, Angola has endeavored to abide by International Legal Instruments. Thus, in the mid-nineteen eighties Angola joined some international gender conventions, namely the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (September 17, 1986) and the Convention on the Political Rights of Women (1986).

51.The diplomatic corps is structured as follows: Ambassadors, Minister Advisors, Advisors, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Secretaries, Attachés (this is merely an entry category, as diplomats become 3rd secretaries as soon as they complete their probation period) and Consuls General, who do not constitute a diplomatic category. Except for the Ambassador, all, including the Consul, are appointed pursuant to a proposal of the Minister of Foreign Relations.

52.One obtains access to a diplomatic career by taking a civil service examination, without distinctions based on race, gender or religious beliefs. The table and graph below show an increasing trend towards the achievement of balance as to gender.

Note: We can point, among such representatives, to an Angolan who is Secretary General of the InterAfrican Coffee Organization and another who is the 4th Vice Chairman of the African Sports Organization.

Evolution of Diplomatic Corps composition


Article 9Ensure that women do not lose their citizenship upon marrying foreigners and can pass citizenship on to their children

Law on Citizenship

53.A foreign man who marries an Angolan women, or a foreign woman who marries an Angolan man, may become Angolan citizens after five years have passed, provided that a request to do so is made and subject to examination of the spouse. Marriage to a foreigner does not affect the citizenship of the Angolan spouse. Therefore, no Angolan loses his or her citizenship as a result of marrying a foreigner.

54.The only Angolans who lose their citizenship are those who voluntarily become citizens of another country and renounce Angolan citizenship; those who exercise, without authorization from the National Assembly, functions of sovereignty in favor of a foreign country; minor children born abroad of Angolan parents, who become citizens of that country and upon reaching adulthood renounce Angolan citizenship; children adopted by foreigners who, upon reaching adulthood, renounce Angolan citizenship.

55.The Law on Citizenship now in effect also provides the right to citizenship to a child of a father or mother who is an Angolan citizen and is born in Angola, or a child of a father or mother who is an Angolan citizen and is born abroad; thus, the law is very broad. It guarantees that any female child born to an Angolan woman, regardless of the father’s nationality, is an Angolan citizen, whether that child is born abroad or in Angola.

Article 10Necessary measures intended to eliminate all barriers that hinder access to education, sports and health

1.Education and professional training

56.Access to education is a right guaranteed by the Constitution of the Republic of Angola. Article 79, no. 1, of the Angolan Constitution states that the Government will promote access to literacy training, education and sports, and will encourage the participation of various private agents in making such access a reality.

57.The Educational System in Angola was negatively affected at all levels by low attendance (41% of children were not in the school system in 1997, a difference of 50,000 students) because of the war that lasted until 2002.

58.In 2008 the Educational System had 5,736,520 students (the majority of them in elementary school, see table no. 12 – students by level of education), 191,867 teachers, of whom 65% have teacher training, and 50,516 classrooms.

59.The ability to admit new students (registrations) increased from 2,558,136 to 5,736,520. In other words, between 2002 and 2008 3,178,384 new places were created in Angola’s school network. In order to achieve the strategic objectives of reducing regional inequalities and contributing actively to national development, the Government provided incentives to increase the number of students from the interior provinces, which resulted in attendance of 66.3% in the interior and 33.7% on the coast.

60.Special Education, a form of education that was greatly expanded in 2004, includes more than 10,000 students from the eighteen provinces who are at various levels of schooling, including higher education.

61.Private and Charter Schools, which were established in 1992 by Decree No. 21/91, were intended to help reduce the number of students not in the educational system. They are important allies in increasing access to schooling, and are thus a partner of the Ministry of Education. Between 2001 and 2007, the number of schools grew to 368, with a total of 3,000 classrooms and 8,223 teachers for 153,940 students in private schools (developed by churches and public interest organizations). We have a total of 713 charter schools with 2,052 classrooms for 143,640 students for primary and secondary education (Cycles I and II).

62.In terms of higher education, in 1997 the public university had 7,916 students, 39% of whom were women whose preferences were for the areas of Education, Business and Law.

63.With the liberalization of the education sector, private schools began to be another alternative for families. Various private universities came into being whose monthly fees ranged from USD 150.00 to USD 300.00. In order to improve education, the Government created the Ministry of State for Higher Education, which then began to coordinate the sector. At present, the public university has 8 departments, higher institutes and various satellites in approximately 8 of the country’s provinces, and there is a higher percentage of women studying medicine, economics or education (see table no. 11 of graduates by type of study from the Universidade Agostinho Neto).

64.As a general matter, since the implementation of Educational Reform there have been improvements in the System’s main indicators, as the table below shows.

Changes in main indicators of the Ministry of Education from 2004 to 2007




% (Incr./Decr.)

Failure R ate (TR)



(-) 10%

Dropout R ate (TA)



(-) 2%

System L osses (PS)



(-) 12%

Completion R ate (TC)



(+) 12%

Rate of W orking T eacher T raining (TFPE)



(+) 16.6%

New S tudent A dmission R ate (TANA)



(+) 16.2%

New C lassroom R ate (TNSA)



(+) 0.5%

New T eacher A dmission R ate (TANP)



(+) 10.54%

Textbook/ S tudent R atio R(M/A)



(-) 1/21

Teacher/ S tudent R atio R(P/A)



(-) 1/7

Literacy R ate (TAL)



(+) 12%

Gross E ducation R ate (TBE)

Start education



(+) 25.5%

Primary education



(+) 9%

Secondary education



(-) 6.3%

Source: GEPE ( Office of Educational Statistics and Planning ) /MED ( Ministry of Education ) .

65.The indicators show that the majority of children are in the first four grades. There is a slight gender disparity in Basic Education in favor of boys that tends to increase at the more advanced levels.

66.The improvement in the literacy training system provided by peasant associations and cooperatives has reduced illiteracy in women, who according to Ministry of Education data (2009) account for roughly 1,717,052 of potentially illiterate persons.

67.Around 30% of the population over age 15 is illiterate, and the majority of these are women. The literacy and return to school program is operated by 6,698 literacy teachers and 109 supervisors. Starting in 2009 learning will be accelerated through use of independent study and certification of skills through various formal and informal educational environments, which will enable 60% of students to learn to read and write in the space of 3 months.

68.The School Snack Program is about to be implemented throughout Angola. Between 2005 and 2008, around 944,721 primary school children benefited from this program, which is intended to keep children from dropping out of school due to lack of food, and to improve their ability to learn.

69.National languages were introduced to the educational system to prevent linguistic exclusion and preserve cultural identities. This project involves 12,000 students in 240 classes and is in the experimental phase. The Angolan Government has carried out training activities concerning the issues of gender, environment, HIV and AIDS, citizenship, gender violence and home economics, among others.

70.Dropping out of school continues to be a concern. According to the MICS the highest dropout rates occur in those over 10 years of age.

71.Information on reproductive health has been introduced into the primary school curriculum with the support of the UNFPA. In order to solve some problems, the NGOs that work in the areas of AIDS and Human Rights have been collaborating with the schools, holding talks, discussions and conferences.

2.Access for women to professional training in science, technology and continuing education

72.Based on the courses of study attended, women prefer Education, followed by Business and Law, Medicine, Engineering, and finally Agrarian Sciences. This conclusion, taken by itself, is symptomatic of the influence of social preconceptions on the professions women choose.

73.This situation is in line with the trend found in professional training, where women choose to take courses in Administration, Secretarial Work, Sewing and Tailoring, and Cooking.

3.Financing and educational reform

74.Although the Government is the main source of educational financing, the resources allocated to this sector, even when supplemented by contributions from development partners, families and some small revenues from schools, are still well below the basic financial resources needed.

75.Indeed, an analysis of the Government’s expenditures on Education shows that the amount of the Federal Budget allocated to this sector never reached 10% of the total budget. It is below the averages for education in Africa, which are 17.8% and 16.7% in the SADC countries. The goal of the Education for All Program is 20% by the year 2015.

76.Expenditures on education, as a percentage of GDP, dropped to 1.8% in 1994 and increased slightly in 1995 to around 2.5%. Even so, these are very low percentages compared to most African countries. In 2009 education expenditures were 7.9% of the total Federal Budget.

77.It should be noted that investments in the period 2004 through 2008 totaled AOA 551,737,426,520.00, equal to cumulative growth of 140.77% and a growth rate of 188.09% compared to the investments made in 2008.

Education expenditures in Kwanzas (2004–2008)








Federal budget

69 637 027 360


200 620 366 399






51 031 062



3 265 346 418


36 214 205 032



2 771 420 202


59 817 713 369



2 405 286 895


570 398 007


Higher education

4 524 661 497


18 390 613 430


Adult education

7 626 434


1 304 040 301


Other services

56 662 685 914


84 272 365 198


Source: MINFIN .

4.Elimination of illiteracy in women

78.Despite the efforts that have been made to increase investments in Education, particularly the 1997 reintroduction of the National Literacy Campaign in whose implementation the Ministry of Education and Culture is working with public interest organizations, illiteracy rates among the adult population remain high.

79.The illiteracy rate among women is between 70% and 79%; it is 50% in men. This alone demonstrates the work that lies ahead for the Government and its social partners. Of adults over 19 years of age, with the incidence higher for women, three-fourths never attended school or did not attend long enough to reach a level at which there was mastery of reading and writing.

80.As part of the strategy to increase literacy and education among adults, the MEC is giving priority to achieving literacy and providing training to women and girls. Some binding protocols have already been entered into with social partners, namely the Caritas of Angola, the Organization of Angolan Women, the Eduardo dos Santos Foundation and the Abundant Life Association. These protocols have established that the responsibilities of the MEC include training trainers, certification of knowledge, donation of basic teaching materials and, pursuant to a private-public partnership agreement, the compensation of trainers.


81.Notwithstanding the work performed by the Government and public groups regarding sensitization to behaviors, attitudes and practices, early pregnancies still occur that contribute to girls’ dropping out of school, thus delaying the possibility of their timely education. This fact in no way contributes to increasing girls’ school attendance rates:

(a)The role traditionally assigned to women (domestic work) often prevents a girl from attending school, because she is literally required to perform, first and foremost, the duties of a mother;

(b)The high level of illiteracy in women is still a serious obstacle to empowerment.

Article 11Measures needed to provide women access to jobs and salaries equal to those of men and adoption of special measures to protect women during pregnancy and after giving birth, and to protect against dismissal


82.Article 76, no. 1, of the Angolan Constitution establishes the right to work as a right and duty of all persons. Number 2 of this same article establishes the right to professional training, fair compensation, time off, vacations, protection, and work health and safety.

83.Even though the General Labor Law was approved in 2000, it fully embodies the constitutional principles set forth in the Constitution approved this year, 2010, concerning equal treatment at work.

84.In terms of job discrimination, our Law is not discriminatory. Article 3, no. 1, of the General Labor Law expressly states the following: “All citizens have the right to work that is freely chosen, with equal opportunity and without any discrimination based on race, color, gender, ethnic origin, marital status, social position, religious or political beliefs, union affiliation or language.”

85.As a corollary to the prohibition on discrimination, nos. 1 and 3 of Article 164 of the General Labor Law establish the following:

1. “Employers are required to offer, for the same job or for a job of equal value based on working conditions, qualifications and the work to be performed, the same compensation to all workers, without any discrimination and in compliance with the provisions of this law.”

3. “The categories, classification criteria and professional promotion, and all the other bases for calculation of compensation, namely the evaluation criteria of the positions, must be the same for workers of both sexes.”

86.However, because of the potential risks to genetic function, unhealthy and dangerous jobs are prohibited, such as underground work, subject to its performance in work locations or places provided with adequate equipment that is effective at eliminating the risk.

87.The list of occupations in which women may not engage:

(a)The conditions to which the work of women in these conditions are subject (no. 4);

(b)Periodic review (no. 5); also with regard to the term and organization of the work (Art. 271).

88.The break between one day’s work shift and the start of the work period on the following day is increased to 12 hours; pursuant to no. 6 of Art. 97 the rule is 10 hours.

89.The law also provides for not working at night without authorization from the Labor Inspection Department (IGT) (letter (b), no. 1). The IGT must respond within 3 business days; if it does not do so, authorization is deemed granted.

90.Authorization granted in exceptional situations (no. 2):

(a)Force majeure – that causes an abnormal change in the operation of the center;

(b)When the raw materials being processed are subject to rapid change and run the risk of unavoidable loss if the work does not continue;

(c)If one has agreed, if the work is organized by shifts.

91.Exceptions to night work (no. 4):

(a)Workers who perform functions of a management or technical nature that involve responsibility;

(b)Workers who work in health and well-being services, provided that they do not customarily perform manual labor.

92.Workers who are subject to working at night for the reasons noted above, and who are responsible for children under the age of 10, must be excused when they offer and demonstrate reliable reasons (no. 5), reference to no. 4 of Art. 104.

2.Protection of mothers

93.Access to special rights subject to provision of proof to the employer that one is pregnant, by presenting a document issued by the health service, unless one’s condition is obvious; therefore, women have the right to:

(a)Not perform tasks that are inadvisable in their condition, assurance by employers of work that is appropriate to their condition (a);

(b)Not to engage in extraordinary work or to be transferred (b);

(c)Not be authorized by the IGT to work at night (c).

94.The last prohibition is applicable until three (3) months after the birth, and may be extended if a medical document states that the need for such extension is justified (no. 3). A woman must not be dismissed except in case of a serious disciplinary violation (d) for one year after giving birth (no. 4).

3.Maternity leave

95.Maternity Leave of 3 months starts – 4 weeks before the expected birth date.

96.Exceptions are:

(a)Extension of time period – 4 weeks in the event of multiple births (no. 3);

(b)Extension – time necessary to reach 9 weeks if the birth occurs after the expected date at the beginning of the leave (no. 4);

(c)Prohibition on return to work – if the worker does not have 6 weeks of rest after the birth (no. 5);

(d)Advance of maternity subsidy – reimbursed by Social Security (no. 6);

(e)The leave counts for purposes of time worked (no. 7);

(f)Maternity leave in unusual situations (Art. 274);

(g)Abortion or stillbirth – obligatory 6 weeks of leave following the date of a miscarriage or stillbirth (no. 1);

(h)Death of the child before the leave (no. 2);

(i)Leave ceases provided that 6 weeks have passed since the birth;

(j)The worker returns to her job one week after the death.

97.Supplementary leave (Art. 275)can be enjoyed after the leave period has endedThere is no advance notice to the employer and it is not paid leave (no. 2).

98.On absences during pregnancy (Art. 276), during pregnancy, and up to 15 months after giving birth, women workers are entitled to be absent 1 day per month, without loss of salary, for medical treatment and caring for their child.

99.An exception is that the right not available in period after giving birth when working part time (reference to Art. 270).

100.On termination of the contract at the woman worker’s initiative (Art. 277), the contract may be terminated during pregnancy and for up to 15 months after giving birth, without any indemnification obligation, by means of one week’s advance notice.

101.Regarding protection against dismissal (Art. 278), during pregnancy and for up to 12 months after giving birth women enjoy special rules and regulations protecting against individual dismissal.

102.With respect to supplementary vacation (Art. 279), vacation period is increased by 1 day for each child up to 14 years of age.

4.Women and Government

103.The total number in government today is 310,683; 34,175 are in the federal government and 276,507 are in local government. These numbers do not include the women working for the Ministries of Defense and the Interior, or National Assembly members. Women represent 33% of the total (102,525). The Education sector has the highest concentration of women – 67% in 2008 and 55% in 2009, followed by Health, with approximately 21% in each of these two years.


104.Discrimination against women in terms of employment:

(a)Discrimination still exists, in terms of the right to work, against people who are seropositive and people who have disabilities;

(b)Some gaps still exist in terms of employment opportunities for women in the private sector;

(c)With regard to the right to freely choose one’s profession, job, promotion, etc., the procedures of the government’s General Inspectorate need to be strengthened, in order to better ensure compliance with the policies approved in this area;

(d)Social security exists for women who work in the formal sector, specifically in cases of reform, unemployment, illness, disability, old age or any other inability to work. There are laws and decrees that govern the prerequisites for exercising this right.

105.The study of the informal sector in Luanda (Mário Adauta) estimates the gross unemployment rate at 32.3%, and for women at 35.6%, seven percent higher than for men.

106.The unemployment rate varies significantly depending on the population groups under consideration. It varies a great deal among age groups, and is high in the 19-year-old age group. The numbers are indicative of the high dropout rate in the capital, which, combined with the poverty of the families, drags this segment of the young population into inactivity.

107.Concrete calculations of the real unemployment rate in Angola do not exist. Estimates provided in the Report on Human Development in Angola (UNDP, September 1997) say that urban unemployment is 30–35% of the population over 10 years of age (this number rises to 45% if the age range used is 7 or older).

108.It should be noted that professional training plays a very important role in employment policy. Between 2003 and 2006 there has been significant growth in the institutions, companies and persons licensed to engage in professional training and rehabilitation. In 2009, 421 professional training centers, both public and private, were registered. There has been growth compared to earlier years, as the data below show.

Professional training




Training skills

27 809

60 516

62 685

Professional training centers




Training of Civil Servants (ENAD)

Training performed




Training participants

3 467

2 098

2 434

109.The process of professional training is a priority in the context of promoting conditions to increase the value of human resources. For that reason, since 2004 infrastructure conditions have been created that make it possible to provide more resources to the National Professional Training System and to develop Initial Training and Ongoing Training activities, and to make adjustments in occupational profiles to suit the labor market.

110.If training is broken down by occupation, one sees that the specialty of civil construction, followed by and including electricity and computers, totaled more than 60%. These indicators clearly show that trainees’ interests coincide with the needs of the labor market, and therefore with the supply of jobs.

111.Through direct intervention the employment market absorbed around 44% of the persons trained. The remaining 56% opted for other self-employment solutions or independent work.

5.Social protection

112.We estimate that around 4% of the population of Angola is over 60 years of age, which is equal, in absolute numbers, to around 605,000 elderly, all of whom are living in extreme poverty.

113.Law No. 7/04, Social Protection Bases, which revokes Law No. 18 of October 27, 1990, has as its purposes: national solidarity reflected by redistribution of financing through resources obtained from taxes; the well-being of people, families and the community, which is achieved through social promotion and regional development that gradually reduces social inequalities and regional asymmetries; prevention of situations of want, dysfunction and marginalization through the implementation, in cooperation with those at whom the activities are aimed, of special protective activities for the most vulnerable groups; ensuring minimum subsistence levels for people and families in situations that are especially serious, whether because of their unforeseeability or size, or because of the recipients’ complete inability to recover or participate financially.

114.The persons to whom this Law applies specifically include: people or families who live in extreme poverty; women in disadvantaged situations; children and adolescents with special needs or in risk situations; elderly who are physically or financially dependent and/or isolated; people with disabilities, in situations involving risk or social exclusion; unemployed persons at risk of marginalization (see table below).

Obligatory social protection




Average p ension

19 700.00

22 644.00

25 495.27


16 355

21 367

26 466

Insured p ersons

524 736

625 342

757 910


66 598

71 318

59 951

Dependency r ate




Article 12Measures intended to give women the same access as men to health and family planning services, and adequate services during pregnancy, birth and the prenatal period


115.Issues related to medical and health care of children, mothers, people with disabilities, people with AIDS, the elderly, etc., today are addressed in the Constitution, as Article 77, no. 2, states: To guarantee the right to medical and health care the Government must:

(a)Develop and ensure the functionality of a health service throughout Angola;

(b)Regulate the production, distribution, trade in and use of chemical, biological and pharmaceutical products and other means of treatment and diagnosis;

(c)Incentivize the development of medical and surgical education and medical and health research.

116.The Government is going to carry out concrete programs to implement no. 2, letters (a), (b) and (c), and no. 3 of the article in question as the following shows: “Private and public interest initiatives in the areas of health, welfare and social security are supervised by the Government and are carried out according to the conditions established by the Law.”

117.The process of political, administrative, economic and social normalization has created the conditions for the implementation of an extensive national reconstruction program in which the health sector is one of the first priorities.

118.In the 2009 Executive Plan, the Department of Health began to implement the directives contained in the Angolan Executive Plan on improving equal access to health by strengthening primary care.

119.In this document we will present the indicators for high impact interventions related to child survival and maternal health taken from the most recent national surveys performed by MINSA and from existing government data.

Population (millions)16,557

Annual growth rate 3.3%

Urban population 66%

Rural population 34%

Population under 15 years of age 47–50%

Population over 18 years of age 60%

Life expectancy at birth 40/43 years

Fertility rate 6.9 children per woman

Access to basic health services 30%

Doctors per resident1/15,109

2.Health and development

120.The most important indicators of health and development are as follows:

Percentage using contraceptives6.6%

Prenatal care coverage60%

Extended essential obstetric care19.2%

Births attended by qualified persons47%

Low birth weight index23.3%

Maternal mortality rate1,500/100,000 live births

Mortality in children under 5250/1,000 live births

Government expenditure per capita61

Health expenditures per capita1.8

Health expenditures (% of OGE (budget))6.68

Human Development Index0.484 (157)


121.The Fertility Rate is estimated at 6.9 children per woman, compared to a contraceptive use percentage of only 6.6%, one of the lowest in Africa.

4.Reproductive health services

(a)Maternal health

122.The Reproductive Health situation in Angola is not very different from the other countries of the African continent. Angola is one of the countries with the most problematic indicators (high fertility rates, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and low use of contraceptives).

123.The Maternal Mortality Rate in 2001 was estimated at 1,500 per 100,000 live births (MICS, 2001). Since 2007 there has been a slight drop in the Institutional Maternal Mortality Rate, from 417/100,000 live births in 2007 to 359/100,000 live births in 2008. Direct causes of maternal death include pregnancy, giving birth and postpartum complications, which occur in around 15% of all pregnancies. The most common cause is hemorrhage (25%), followed by pregnancy induced hypertension (20%), infections and uterine ruptures. According to the analysis performed in November 2004 of the Reproductive Health situation, only 19.2% of units provide Extended Essential Obstetric Care.

124.Prenatal care has improved, increasing from 251,114 women (52%) cared for in 2007 to 316,751 (60%) in 2008. Fifty percent of births still take place outside health care institutions, which is certainly due to the lack of services in more distant places, failure to use services and scarce resources.

125.There was an increase of 98% in prenatal consultations on Intermittent Treatment of Malaria (TIP) compared to the years 2007 and 2008. Distribution of treated mosquito nets to pregnant women increased from 258,987 (26%) in 2007 to 391,472 (39%) in 2008.

126.Angola’s big challenges in terms of reproductive health are to improve universal coverage at the municipal level of routine provision of the full essential package of maternal and child care and services, and to ensure the provision of emergency obstetric care and basic and complete neonatal care to women.

127.The health system must improve the level of care and service given to other diseases resulting in changes in the economic and social order that have a significant impact on health, such as cervical, breast and prostate cancer.

Direct and indirect causes of maternal deaths by disease (2005–2008)















Puerperal infection





Uterine rupture










Other direct causes















Other indirect causes





(b)Child health

128.The Ministry of Health has performed three nationwide surveys of child survival indicators that show improvement in these indicators. The percentage of children being breast fed only at 6 months increased from 14% in 2001 to 31% in 2007. Counseling and voluntary testing for HIV in pregnant women increased from 2% in 2001 to 45% in 2007. The coverage of the pentavalent and measles vaccines increased to around 80%, and the actual use of SRO in children with DDA, the coverage of vitamin A in children from 6 to 59 months and the children under 5 who sleep under treated mosquito netting are indicators that showed improvement.

129.Nutrition activities have been aimed mainly at improving coverage of micronutrient supplements (vitamin A for children and for women who have just given birth, iron for women who are pregnant or have just given birth, iodized salt for the population in general), the periodic worming of children, improving care of infections such as diarrhea, malaria, acute respiratory infections and other infections that are nutritionally detrimental, and improving technical capabilities on the central and municipal levels in order to improve the nutritional care provided to children under 5 and women who are pregnant or have just given birth.

130.The chronic malnutrition rate (weight/height indicator) in children aged 12 to 59 months dropped from 45% (2001 MICS) to 29.2% in 2007, and the indicator (low birth weight) that demonstrates the quality of prenatal care also dropped by nearly 50%.

131.The activities related to handling and caring for acute malnutrition were focused on treating serious cases at 26 Nutritional Therapy Centers (CNT) in 10 provinces.

132.In 2008, 5,487 children were admitted to CNTs with severe malnutrition. Of these, 3,920 (71.4%) were cured.

133.Between 2006 and 2007, 1,793 technicians in 12 provinces were updated on how to handle nutrition, so as to improve the quality of treatment provided.

134.Starting in 2007, MINSA gradually began to purchase therapeutic milk, specifically F75 and F100, which are specifically for the treatment of children with serious malnutrition.

135.Iodine supplementation is assured through the consumption of iodized salt by families, and the salt consumption rate, of duly iodized salt, increased from 35.5% in 2001 to 44.7% in 2007.

(c)Fight against HIV and AIDS program

136.According to studies done of pregnant women (2007–2008), 2.1% of the general population is HIV positive. We estimate that by 2008 33,886 cases of HIV and AIDS had been reported, mainly in women, 3.1%.

137.It is noteworthy that Angola has gone from having 2,085 patients in treatment in 2004 to 17,079 in 2008, and that 39,437 people are being monitored.

138.Seropositivity has been kept at around 2.1%, which is a much lower rate than in the countries neighboring Angola. There are 104.3 women living with the virus and 58,510 orphans of parents with AIDS.

139.Seroprevalence in pregnant women is estimated at 3.1%. In order to improve reproductive health the network of birthing rooms throughout the country has been expanded, and partners have been trained.

140.Vertical transmission reduction programs will be carried out in 29 locations in hospitals and health centers, with expansion of the counseling and testing network, which increased from 11 units in 2004 to 211 in 2008. Of these, 114 provide counseling to pregnant women.

141.The Strategic Sectors Plan was developed to help fight HIV and AIDS. Activities will be carried out in this regard intended to train workers and their families about HIV and AIDS.

142.At the same time, a variety of activities are being developed in the area of HIV and AIDS prevention.


143.Increase and improve access to primary health care, especially maternal and child care:

(a)Control the spread of STDs, HIV and AIDS, with the emphasis on vertical transmission;

(b)Reduce maternal mortality;

(c)Sensitize people about family planning;

(d)Reduce births to young mothers.

Article 13Measures needed to allow women access to the right to loans and financing and to participate in all aspects of cultural life

144.Angolan law contains provisions in the area of economics regarding bank loans, which are based on the equality of men and women.

1.Access to financial resources, sports and culture

145.Legally no gender-based discrimination exists regarding access to credit. However, the conditions demanded by financial institutions reduce that access because women do not own assets that can serve as collateral. Therefore, they do not rely on formal financial institutions to finance their activities, except in rare cases of women who already have small- or medium-sized companies that have been formally organized.

146.In most cases women who are starting a small business rely on their families and/or the community. Among the ways used to obtain credit are the “kixikila” or “dikelemba”, which is a rotating fund set up among people with complete trust in each other; rules are established on the functioning of the group and the “kilape”, which consists of buying a good on credit.

2.Women and tourism

147.In 2007 the World Tourism Day slogan was “Tourism Opens Doors for Women”, in recognition of women’s importance to tourism and of the fact that tourism is the economic activity growing the most worldwide. It has a decisive role to play today in the inclusion of women and the reduction of social inequalities.

148.Because of its extreme importance to economic, social and environmental activities, tourism has contributed significantly to the Millennium Objectives having largely been achieved, through creation of jobs for many women.

149.In 2008 in Angola, 45,100 women were working at hotel and tourism establishments; of these 21,700 worked at restaurants and similar establishments, 13,000 at guesthouses, 7,800 thousand at hotels and 2,500 at travel and tourism agencies.

150.The public sector (federal and local bodies) employs 303 women. Women represent more than 40% of the entire workforce of the hotel and tourism industry.

151.At present many hotel and tourism units are about to be built in Angola, which may increase the number of women working in the sector and provide more jobs to Angolan women.


152.The biggest constraint on women’s participation in this sector is related to their level of education. The picture is about to change with the appearance of more employment opportunities and with women’s commitment to obtaining training. Having women who are more professional should result in a larger number of and better access to jobs.

153.In conclusion, tourism offers women a great opportunity to obtain secure, long-term employment. It is a means by which they can increase their economic power and thus their economic and social independence.

Article 14Measures needed to ensure rural women the ability to participate in rural development and planning and to obtain the same benefits as men

154.The Angolan Government is looking after women in rural areas. Many of them will benefit from microcredit; the goal is to minimize the problem of peasant women.

155.Women’s participation in decision-making bodies is evolving and one can already see, in the preparation and planning of programs to develop Angola, that attention has been given to gender issues.

156.Insofar as the right to benefit directly from social security programs is concerned, decision-making bodies that will handle this matter are about to be implemented.

157.Angola has already developed mechanisms related to formal and informal training and education related to literacy.

158.Mutual assistance and cooperative groups already exist, but they are limited due to cultural factors that still cause some women not to participate.

159.Community activities do exist, but they come up against negative cultural factors that still keep some women from joining in the activities performed. Many of these women prefer to go to the country to gather their products than participate in the activities being performed.

160.Efforts are already underway regarding access to agricultural loans, and one of the Ministries providing support is the Ministry of Agriculture. Today women who have benefited from agricultural loans are going from province to province to market their products.

161.In terms of dwellings, the Ministries of Agriculture and Youth and Sports have already created projects to benefit the population, mainly young people. Power, water, electricity and transportation are reaching rural areas.

162.The rural sector of Angola (agriculture, forestry and fishing) is the second largest productive sector in the country, immediately behind oil. Although the rural sector’s contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) has decreased over the years, as a direct and immediate consequence of the war, its importance is obvious given the number of people who depend on it (probably between 60% and 70% of the population). Women are the main producers of the foodstuffs on which their families survive. This population includes risk groups such as displaced people and a large portion of the country’s poor population. Therefore, the rural sector plays a central role in the government’s policies and strategies. With the approval of Law 14/91 (Law on Associations), rural women have begun to take part in community activities, albeit timidly, mainly all the projects of non-governmental, national and international organizations.

163.The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development developed an agricultural development program in 1996 that was never implemented due to the military instability that began again in 1991. The most important areas planned as part of this strategy focus on:

(a)Macroeconomic management;

(b)National food supply safety;

(c)Reactivation of the rural economy;

(d)Legal and institutional reform and training of staff;

(e)Management of the environment, natural resources and forestry.

164.There is no policy on gender. It is felt that activities are taking place at the family level. The Ministry focuses on gender in the human resources department of the Institute of Agrarian Development.

1.Literacy Program

165.Rural women are one of the groups marginalized by the educational system. Around 59.5% of women are illiterate. Many communities do not have schools, and there are women who still do not know Portuguese. In 2000 the Ministry of Education and Culture launched a Literacy Campaign in National Languages for Rural Women.

2.Health in rural areas

166.In Angola access to health care is free for the entire population. However, the Government is developing policies that will require people to share in healthcare costs. The main problem in rural areas is the lack of health infrastructures and technical personnel, both of which were affected during the armed conflict. Due to the long distances that separate maternity hospitals in rural areas, the NGOs, with assistance from MINSA and through a process of community selection, have trained traditional partners whose job is to sensitize pregnant women to get prenatal care and to have clean births. The program includes the exchange of experiences among provincial maternity hospitals so that midwives can identify risky situations.

3.Microcredit program for rural and urban women

167.In order to empower rural women, since 1999 the Government has been implementing, through MINFAMU, a National Microcredit Program in seven Angolan provinces (Luanda, Bengo, Cabinda, Kwanza – Sul, Benguela, Huambo and Namibe), and approximately five thousand rural families have benefited. The alleviation of poverty is one of the Program’s goals. Components of the Program include:

(a)Identification and training of target groups in the nature and importance of and opportunities for employment and profit that can be obtained through microcredit;

(b)The regular inventory and classification of small businesses at the provincial and local levels in the context of the program as a way of ensuring that people, especially women, have access to small loans;

(c)Encouraging self-employment through the introduction of productive activities and service providers who can generate a regular income base, so as to improve the standard of living of people who benefit from microcredit to that of all people.

168.The number of women engaged in income generating activities is increasing steadily.

169.Microcredit, which is one of the services of Microfinance, is a valuable tool in reducing poverty, whose incidence is higher among women. Thus the term the feminization of poverty.

170.Today there are a number of institutions that offer microcredit:

(a)Banco Sol;

(b)Novo Banco;


(d)Banco Keve;




(h)Products such as:

(i)Government Program for Peasants;

(j)Microcredit for Consumption;

(k)Credit for Young People;

(l)BPC microcredit; and

(m)World Vision Program.

171.The total number of direct beneficiaries of Microcredit is 115,863, of whom 70% are women; 579,315 families have benefited indirectly.

172.The number of women in business is increasing steadily, empowering them economically and developing jobs.

173.Together with the above, every two years since 2004 there has been a National Microfinance Forum dedicated to the discussion, analysis and evaluation of the condition of microfinance in Angola. Particular attention has been given to the effects of poverty on women’s lives.

174.Forty-five thousand families will benefit per province, except in Luanda, where the number is 50,000 because of its high demographic density (over 4,000,000 inhabitants). A total of 815,000 families will benefit.

175.In this context, the hoped-for results consist mainly of training community activists and improving family members’ skills.

Summary of the main indicators concerning rural women

Main i ndicators c oncerning r ural w omen


% of rural population who are women


% girls and young women (from 5 to 18 years of age)


% girls under 1 year of age


% girls who are 5 years of age or younger


% women of procreating age (14–49)


Average age


Median age


Fertility rate in urban women


% of women practicing contraception


% receiving prenatal care


% of at-home births


Average number of years of education


% of women who have not completed any level of school (potentially illiterate)


% of women of working age (10 –60 years of age)


Source: Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS), INE-GMVP, 1996 .

4.Non-governmental organizations

176.NGOs’ work in rural areas is concentrated in the development of agriculture, health and education.


177.The National Confederation of Peasants’ Associations (UNACA) is the main organization operating in rural areas, with both men and women members.

178.COMUR (Rural Women’s Committee), an NGO established in 1992, following the Geneva Declaration on the economic promotion of rural women, is led by the First Lady of the Republic, and, under the mandate of the International Steering Committee (CDI), is also involved in advocacy and sensitization activities in the sub-region of the SADC and receives support from the FAO. It is also carrying out a pilot development project in two communities. Its activities are focused on: food safety, granting microcredit, rural trade, health and literacy education, professional training in sewing, supporting the associations with basic kits for agriculture and establishing nurseries and playgrounds.

179.In 2001 the Women’s Network established an Award for Creativity in Rural Women in the total amount of USD 500, a replica of the Global Award. The award (a total of five annual awards of USD 500 each) will be given to women or organizations that display creativity of exceptional value in their efforts to improve the quality of life in rural areas. The purpose of the award is to call the attention of the national community to the contributions made by award recipients to sustainable development, food safety and peace, and thereby bring even more visibility and support to their projects. The winners will be announced on July 31 and the awards handed out on October 15 of each year.

6.Families headed by women

180.The fact that the war took place mainly in rural areas had as an immediate result the migration of women to urban centers in search of safer conditions. On the other hand, the number of families headed by women in rural areas rose significantly because men were recruited into the army. These women, who generally do not have husbands, are among the poorest because they do not have male laborers.

7.HIV and AIDS

181.Access to information about HIV and AIDS in rural areas is non-existent. HIV is a serious problem due to cultural issues in an eminently patriarchal society with strong gender inequalities. Polygamy is accepted in the rural societies and most men have more than one wife. Their mobility enables them to go to nearby towns and villages, increasing the risk of contagion and propagation of HIV and AIDS.

Article 15Equal treatment in entering into contracts and management of assets

182.There is no discrimination against women in Angola in terms of entering into contracts or management of assets.

183.In terms of marriage, wives are free to manage their own property (Article 54, no. 1 and no. 2, letters (a) and (b) of the Family Code).

184.In terms of profession, women are free to choose their own professional activity (Article 47 of the Family Code).

185.This Code also establishes restrictions applicable to both spouses (regardless of the marriage regime chosen) in terms of the sale or encumbrance of assets:

(a)One spouse’s assets that are used by the other spouse in his/her work;

(b)One spouse’s assets or common assets used by both spouses in the home or for work.

186.Agreement between the spouses is required to sell or encumber the assets described above (Article 56).

187.A woman may bring any kind of legal action without the consent of her husband, even an action against her husband. There are no legal restrictions that prevent a woman from bringing legal action just because she is married.

188.Angolan women are entitled to hold their own personal documents, without authorization from their husbands, and to hold their own passport and go to any location in Angola or outside it without restrictions or subordination, even if they are married, just as men may.

189.The law requires that when a married couple is choosing where to reside that both (husband and wife) mutually agree on the common residence where they will live, taking into account the needs of their professional lives and the interests of their children (Article 44 of the Family Code).

Article 16Equal rights of men and women in all matters related to marriage and family

190.Law No. 1 of February 20, 1988, approved the Family Code, which is in perfect harmony with the Constitution and the political principles that govern Angola. It establishes equality in the rights and duties of both men and women, and in all matters related to family life, whether regarding personal relations between the couple, the education of children, or property matters.

191.Article 3, no. 1 of the Family Code states the following: “Husband and wife are equal within the family; they enjoy the same rights and have the same duties.”

192.Article 21 of the same Code states: “Marriage is based on the equality and reciprocity of the rights and duties of the spouses.”

193.Article 20 of the Family Code states: “Marriage is a voluntary union between a man and a woman, formalized pursuant to the law, whose purpose is to establish a fully common life.”

194.Article 35, no. 1 of the same Code stresses the fact that: “It is essential for the validation of the marriage for each party to expressly state his/her desire to contract marriage with the other party.”

195.This same legal code also establishes the following:

Article 21 states: “Marriage is based on the equality and reciprocity of the rights and duties of the spouses.”

196.Article 43 reaffirms: “The spouses are mutually bound by the duties of respect, fidelity, cohabitation, cooperation and assistance.”

197.Article 74 states as follows: “A marriage is dissolved upon:

he death of one of the spouses

By a court ruling that one of the spouses is presumed dead

By divorce”

198.Article 75, no. 1, states as follows: “When a marriage is dissolved by death, the surviving spouse retains the rights and benefits received by reason of the marriage, and the common assets are divided among the surviving spouse and the heirs of the deceased spouse.”

199.Number 2 states: “In the division of assets, the surviving spouse may, on a preferential basis, make up his/her marriage portion from common assets that have been used in home life or as an individual or common work tool.”

200.No. 3 states: “Debts contracted with third parties or between the spouses will be subsequently settled by the marriage portion of the borrower in the common assets and by the borrower’s individually held assets.”

201.No. 4 states: “Dissolution of a marriage by death results, in accordance with the law, in the transfer to the surviving spouse of lease rights.”

202.Article 76 states as follows: “Either of the spouses may petition the Court for a judicial ruling of the presumed death of the other spouse once three years have passed since the date of the last news of that spouse, and provided that strong indications exist that death has occurred.”

203.Article 78 says that: “Spouses may petition for divorce in the event of the complete and irremediable deterioration of the principles on which their union was based, when the marriage has lost its meaning for the spouses, for the children and for society.”

204.Article 127, no. 1, states: “Father and mothers hold, in respect of their children, equal duties and rights.”

205.Number 2 of the same articles reinforces this: “Parental duties and rights must be exercised in the interest and to the benefit of the children and of society.”

206.This principle of the equality of the rights and duties of men and women in family relations is demonstrated in the area of relations between parents and children, in that the father and mother, whether or not themselves united by marriage, have equal rights and duties in relation to their children.

207.Article 131 of the Family Code establishes that: “The father and mother must cooperate in the provision of care, protection and assistance to their children, exercising their rights and duties with equal responsibility, and must contribute, through their good example, to the raising of their children.”

208.The reciprocity of rights between parents and children does not represent a relationship of equality, as the two [sic] parents in relation to the children are greater. This is expressed not only in Art. 131 but in all the other articles of this code, except for the restricted instance of Art. 132, which refers to the duties of children to their parents.

209.Article 4 of the Family Code says: “Children deserve special attention within the family, which is responsible, in cooperation with the State, for ensuring them the utmost protection and equality in order that they may achieve their full physical and psychological development, and for reinforcing their education and reinforcing the bonds between the family and society.”

210.The concept of guardianship appears in our national legislation as follows:

Article 221 of the Family Code states: “Guardianship involves the suppression of parental authority and the guardianship, education, development and supervision of the personal and property interests of minors and the defense and protection of the property interests of persons of legal age placed under judicial restraint.”

Article 236, no. 1, also states: “Guardianship must be exercised in the interests of the person under guardianship and of society.” Number 2 states: “In exercising parental authority, guardians have the rights and duties of parents.”

211.Our legislation states the following with regard to trusteeship: Article 89, no. 1, of the Civil Code states: “When a need arises to provide for the administration of the assets of a person who has disappeared and whose whereabouts are unknown, and who has not left a legal representative or attorney-in-fact, the court must appoint a temporary trustee.”

212.Number 2 states: “A trustee must also be appointed for the absent party of the legal representative does not desire or is unable to perform his duties.”

213.Number 3 states: “A special trustee may be appointed for certain transactions, when circumstances so require.”

214.The Civil Code also specifies who should be appointed as temporary trustee. Article 92, no. 1 states that “a temporary trustee shall be chosen from among the following persons: the spouse of the absent party, one or some of the heirs presumptive, or one of some of the parties interested in the preservation of the assets.” Number 2 states: “In the event of a conflict of interest between the absent person and the trustee or between the absent person and the spouse, ascendants or descendants of the trustee, a special trustee must be appointed pursuant to the provisions of no. 3 of Article 89.” Therefore, how the absence may be justified: “After the passage of two years without knowledge of the absent person who has not left a legal representative or attorney-in-fact, or, otherwise, after five years, the Public Prosecutor or any of the interested parties may request justification of the absence – Article 99 of the Civil Code.” The following persons have standing to request justification of absence: a spouse who is not legally separated as to persons and assets, the heirs of the absent person and anyone with a claim on the absent person’s assets subject to that person’s death. Article 100 of the Civil Code. Finally, it is the heirs and other interested parties to whom the assets of the absent person have been delivered that are appointed permanent trustees – Article 104, Civil Code.

215.On the subject of adoption, Article 197 of the Family Code states: “Adoption is intended to ensure the social, moral and affective protection of the minor, and it establishes a bond of kinship that is the same as that which connects children to their natural parents.”

216.Law No. 7 of August 27, 1980, the Law on Adoption and Placement of Minors, revoked Articles 1,973 through 2,002 of the Civil Code and approved the new legal framework on adoption. This Law “sought to reduce the effects of the two wars of National Liberation on the lives of thousands of children, which orphaned them and resulted in their abandonment.”

217.The Family Code has integrated the main points of this law. However, it has expanded the bond created by adoption, as its Article 8 equates adoption to the kinship created by a blood connection. Adoption occurs by means of a court decision (Article 212, no. 1 of the Family Code).

218.The effects of adoption between the adopter and the adoptee are set forth in Article 198, given names and surnames are covered in Articles 208 and 209, and support obligations are covered by Article 249, no. 1 and no. 2, letters (b) and (c); all are from the Family Code.

219.Effects are also caused in terms of succession – Article 2,133 of the Civil Code.

220.Adoption, as a form of protection for children deprived of a family, is covered in Articles 20 and 1 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

221.The principle of the equality of the rights and duties of men and women in all aspects of family life, which is drawn from the Constitution, prohibits any discrimination based on gender.

222.The principle of equality gives rise to the principle of monogamy or monandry, according to which the conjugal ties are of an exclusive nature. A person who is married, whether man or woman, may not contract another marriage, under penalty of committing the crime of bigamy.

223.When one speaks of equality as to rights and duties, the intention is not to forcibly impose the same tasks on men and women within the family. Tasks should be divided in a harmonious, balanced manner, in the spirit of solidarity that should be established among family members.

224.The law must also refrain from establishing what a woman’s role within the family should be, because when this occurs she is placed in a subordinate position. Today it is recognized that it is not enough to simply state the principles related to equal rights; rather, it is necessary to go further and carry out “positive actions” that will gradually ensure actual parity between men and women in all areas of life in society.

225.With regard to the right to choose one’s surname, Article 36, no. 1 of our Family Code provides: “Upon marriage, one of the parties may declare that he/she is adopting the surname of the other party, or the two parties may choose to adopt a common surname based on the surnames of each.

226.This declaration must be made immediately after the marriage occurs. This establishes the principle that the spouses may choose to have a common family surname formed from the surnames of each and used by both the husband and the wife.

227.The declaration made by the parties being married may consist of a unilateral expression of intent, in the case of adoption of the other party’s surname, which only one of the spouses need do. Or, it may consist of a bilateral act resulting from agreed intent, in the case of the establishment of a common family name.

228.In either case, the declaration is voluntary and irrevocable. It may be changed only in exceptional circumstances.

229.The right to use the name lasts throughout the life of the marriage and after its dissolution by death. It ceases in the event of dissolution by divorce, as provided by numbers 2 and 3 of the aforementioned Art. 36.

230.Our labor law is very clear regarding choosing one’s profession and occupation. It’s Art. 3 states:

No. 1 – All citizens have the right to freely chosen work, with equal opportunities and without discrimination based on race, color, gender, ethnic origin, marital status, social position, religious or political beliefs, union affiliation or language.

No. 3 – All citizens have the right to freely choose and engage in a profession, without restrictions, save for the exceptions established by law.

No. 4 – The conditions under which work is provided must respect the liberties and dignity of the worker and enable him/her to satisfy normally his/her needs and those of his/her family, protect his/her health and enjoy decent living conditions.

231.The duty of contributing to household expenses is one of the aspects of the duty of material assistance the spouses have to each other. Today, with the establishment of the principle of equality between the spouses, this duty to contribute is incumbent on the husband as well as the wife, regardless of the property regime chosen by the couple, and it is related to the financial position of each spouse. This contribution may come from earnings from work, from personal income or from the provision of services to the family group. All the above is based on the couple’s financial and professional positions.

232.Within a family in which the woman neither has money nor engages in professional activity outside the home, all of the work referred to as “domestic work”, which she performs to help her family survive, is undervalued. It is not assigned an economic value and because it is free it is not appreciated. Historical reasons are the cause for it being seen as a duty of women that should be done in addition to work performed outside the home, if applicable.

233.The current marriage regime, aside from providing for the contributions made by the spouses to household expenses in the form of money or services, also governs the legal status of the assets whose ownership by the spouses occurred before or after the marriage. The regime determines the power of the spouse to administer these assets, the power to contract debts during the marriage, responsibility for their payment, etc.

234.It should be noted that the regimes regarding the economic aspects of marriage have evolved over time with the changes that have occurred in the family structure.

235.According to Article 49 of the Family Code, two marital property regimes are permitted: community property for assets purchased after marriage — partial community property — and individual property. Both are governed by the law. Another property system may be chosen; this is done by a bilateral declaration of the parties in the initial declaration that is confirmed upon marriage. The general supplementary regime continues to be community property for property purchased after marriage. There is no mandatory regime regarding assets, as occurred in the Civil Code.

236.Article 50 of the Family Code establishes the principle of the immutability of the property regime. The separation of property under the partial community property regime may take place by judicial order, according to Articles 825, no. 1, 1,237, no. 1, letter (b), and 1,319, of the Code of Civil Procedure.

237.If a marriage is dissolved by divorce, the effects of the divorce on the spouses occur as of the time cohabitation permanently ceases (Article 82, no. 1).

238.Article 51 of the Family Code stipulates that joint marital property is characterized by each spouse holding the right to one half of the property and by the impossibility of dividing that property while the marriage continues (Articles 73, no. 1 and 80, letter (a)).

239.All income received during the life of the marriage is part of the community property, whether it comes from common property or individually held property.

240.The presumption of the common nature of the property may be eliminated by a simple admission of the other spouse, although this admission is insufficient vis-à-vis a third party creditor.

241.Property acquired free of charge may transfer through succession or donation and real subrogation presumes the replacement of one asset by another (Article 52 of the Family Code).

242.In terms of copyrights, the provisions applicable appear in the Copyright Law, Law 4/90 of March 10, 1990, and in terms of intellectual property rights, in chapter II of Law 3/92, the Intellectual Property Law of February 28.

243.Personal rights are set forth in Articles 70 et seq. of the Civil Code.

244.Personal property is that property used personally by each spouse and for work purposes that are directly related to that spouse’s professional activity.

245.Property that is partially joint and partially individual is considered, based on whether the joint or individual portion has the higher value, either community property or individual property.

246.Article 53 of the Family Code says that under the regime of separate property there are two individual, independent sets of property, that of the husband and that of the wife. If there is any question regarding the ownership of the chattel property, each person owns half as a co-owner.

247.Under the regime of community property acquired after marriage, each spouse is entitled to ordinary administration of his/her own property and of the joint property, and may be entitled to administer the property of the other spouse in the event of that spouse’s absence or impediment, when that spouse has not appointed an agent. Insofar as special administration, disposal or encumbrance of property is concerned, both spouses must act in the case of real estate or commercial establishments, or repudiation of an inheritance.

248.Under the regime of separate property, all acts of ordinary or special administration may be performed by each spouse with regard to that spouse’s own property, and ordinary administrative acts may be performed regarding the individual property of the other spouse in cases of absence or impediment.

249.Under the two property regimes there is property that is specially protected: the chattel property used in the home or as a tool used by one or both for work, and the right to the lease of the family residence. These assets may be disposed of only when both spouses agree.

250.Article 22, no. 1 of the Family Code provides that the promise of marriage has no legal effect, even when accompanied by the presentation of goods or valuables to the other person or their family. The tradition of asking for the bride’s hand and “purchasing” her (alambamento) has not been given legal protection, but it is not prohibited. The law does not require the return of goods given at the time marriage is promised. This was a deliberate omission by the law to prevent coercion of the betrothed couple, and especially the woman, to enter into marriage against their/her will.

251.According to Article 24 of Law 68/76 of October 12, the age at which one may marry is the age of majority (18). Adolescents may be permitted to marry, on an exceptional basis; the age allowed is 15 for girls and 16 for boys, which is intended to take into account the differences in physical development of each sex.


Statistics on the position of women in Angola

Participation by women in decision-making bodies of the Government

Table No. 1

M inisterial positions h eld and respective assistants / 2010





% w omen

Ministers of S tate




0 . 0





32 . 1

Secretaries of S tate




21 . 0

Deputy ministers




20 . 6





23 . 8


76 . 2

23 . 8

100 . 0

N ote : Present composition of the government, based on the new Constitution of the Republic of Angola .

Table No. 2

Federal Government / 2009





% w omen






Asst. d irectors





Department h eads





Division h eads





Section h eads

1 925


2 348

















T otal

3 194


3 893


Table No. 3

Local government (managers) / 2009





% w omen

G overnors





Vice g overnors





Table No. 4

Local government (management positions) / 2009





% w omen





0 . 0






Asst. d irectors





Department h ead



1 183


Division h ead





Section h ead

2 240


2 768












T otal

3 698


4 510


Table No. 5

Municipal and town government / 2009





% w omen

Municipal m anager





Asst. m unicipal m anager





Town m anager





Asst. t own m anager





Division h ead





Section h ead





T otal

1 719


1 939


Participation by women in the judiciary

Table No. 6

Office of the Attorney General / 2009





% w omen

Attorney General





Vice Attorney General





Assistant Attorney General





Provincial Prosecutor





Asst. Provincial Prosecutor





Municipal Prosecutor





T otal





Table No. 7

Participation by women in the Bar Association of Angola / 2009





% w omen































Kwanza S ul















Lunda N orte















Licensed trainees





Participation by women in government

Table No. 8

D istribution of officials by province and gender / 2009





% w omen


C abinda

6 746

3 569

10 315



Z aire

4 859

1 261

6 120



U íge

15 076

2 353

17 429



L uanda

48 611

28 345

76 956



K uanza N orte

5 786

2 043

7 829



K uanza S ul

11 641

6 379

18 020



M alange

7 554

3 755

11 309



L unda N orte

6 682


7 147



L unda S ul

4 442


5 251



B enguela

19 116

14 127

33 243



H uambo

15 056

10 140

25 196



B ié

16 475

4 838

21 313



M oxico

7 133

3 057

10 190



K uando K ubango

5 106

1 946

7 052



N amibe

6 063

2 574

8 637



H uíla

18 426

11 244

29 670



C unene

4 327

4 092

8 419



B engo

5 058

1 528

6 586



208 157

102 525

310 682


Participation by women in politics

Table No. 9

Women in the National Assembly / 2008

Political p arties




% women





















NOVA D emocracia





T otal





Participation by women in international relations

Table No. 10

Representation of and participation by women in the Diplomatic Corps





% women






Minister a dvisors










1st s ecretary





2nd s ecretary





3rd s ecretary















Source: Ministry of Foreign Relations, 2010 .

Participation by women in education

Table No. 11

Graduates by area from the Universidade Agostinho Neto in 2006/07





% women

D ept. of A grarian S ciences





Dept. of Sciences





Dept. of Law





Dept. of Economics





Dept. of Engineering





Dept. of Education





Dept. of Medicine





Higher Institute of Nursing





ISCED [Istituto Superior de Ciencias da Educação]/Benguela






























Pole (ISCED) – K. Sul





ESP – Lunda Norte





Economics Center – Cabinda




0 . 0

Economics Center – Lubango





Law Center – Benguela




0 . 0

Law Center – Cabinda




0 . 0

Law Center – Huambo




0 . 0

Law Center – Huíla




0 . 0

S ource : Educational s tatement for the 2006/07 s chool y ear of Universidade A. Neto .

Table No. 12

Students by l evel of e ducation for the period 2004 – 2008








323 470

334 220

366 200

389 637

502 350

Schooling begun

678 780

895 145

842 361

938 389

893 661


3 022 461

3 119 184

3 370 079

3 558 605

3 757 677

Secondary cycle I

197 735

233 698

270 662

316 664

370 485

Secondary cycle II

159 341

171 882

179 249

194 933

212 347


30 397

34 442

37 676

41 945

46 698


67 328

74 235

76 363

85 903

96 635


61 616

63 185

65 210

67 085

69 014


4 381 787

4 754 129

5 028 551

5 398 228

5 736 520

Source: GEPE/Ministry of Education. The table shows the number of students enrolled during the period 2004 through 2008.

Women and domestic violence

Table No. 13

Statistics on Domestic Violence / 2009

No. of cases

Type of violence







1 113

1 465




1 520

2 270




4 446

4 954













1 665

7 201

8 866






Source: GEPE-MINFAMU – Data from Provinces of Bié, Huambo, K. Norte, K. Sul, Kunene, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Namibe, Uíge and Zaire .