Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women
3-21 October 2011
Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
1.The Committee considered the combined sixth and seventh periodic reports of Mauritius (CEDAW/C/MAR/6-7 and Corr.1) at its 1004th and 1005th meetings on 7 October 2011 (see CEDAW/C/SR.1004 and 1005). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/MUS/Q/6-7 and the responses of the Government of Mauritius are contained in CEDAW/C/MUS/Q/6-7/Add.1.
2.The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for its combined sixth and seventh periodic report, which were detailed and generally followed the Committee’s guidelines for the preparation of reports, and took into consideration previous concluding observations, although they lacked reference to the Committee’s general recommendations and some sex-disaggregated data on the situation of women in some of the areas covered by the Convention, in particular in respect to girls’ absence from school and women victims of trafficking. The Committee expresses its appreciation for the detailed written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by the Committee at its pre-session working group, and the further clarifications to most of the questions posed orally by the Committee.
3.The Committee commends the State party for its high-level delegation, headed by the Minister of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare of Mauritius. The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for the oral statement by the head of the delegation, which provided an overview of recent advances and challenges to the achievements of gender equality in the State party. The Committee appreciates the constructive dialogue that took place between the delegation and the members of the Committee, while noting that some questions were not fully answered.
4.The Committee welcomes the ratification by the State party of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women on 31 October 2008; the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict on 12 February 2009; and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography on 14 June 2011.
5.The Committee notes with appreciation the adoption of several new acts aimed at combating discrimination and violence against women, including the Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act that was passed by parliament in 2009, which provides, inter alia, for repatriation of victims of trafficking, return of victims of trafficking to Mauritius and compensation to victims of trafficking, and the Employment Rights Act that was passed by Parliament in 2008 and which introduced the payment of maternity allowance applicable to all confinements, and also five continuous working days as paternity leave to all married male workers.
6.The Committee notes with appreciation various policies and plans adopted by the State party with the aim of promoting gender equality and accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women, particularly all forms of domestic violence, such as the National Gender Policy Framework in March 2008 and the National Action Plan to Combat Domestic Violence formulated by the Family Welfare and Protection Unit in 2007.
7.The Committee notes the slight increase in the number of women in Parliament at the general elections of 2010. The Committee also notes with appreciation the increase in women’s representation in the judiciary system since the consideration of the last report whereby 56 per cent of judges and magistrates are women.
8. The Committee notes with appreciation the efforts undertaken by the State party to improve women’s and girls’ access to health services, and the adoption of the HIV and AIDS Act in 2006.
9.The Committee notes with satisfaction the adoption of various measures to enhance employment opportunities for women, such as the continuous training courses delivered for women through the Women Empowerment Programme project; and the revision carried out by the National Remuneration Board in 2008 with regard to the wage gap between women and men for field-crop and orchard workers, as well as for livestock workers.
C.Principal areas of concern and recommendations
10.The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement all the provisions of the Convention and views the concerns and recommendations identified in the present concluding observations as requiring the priority attention of the State party between now and the submission of the next periodic report. Consequently, the Committee urges the State party to focus on those areas in its implementation activities and to report on action taken and results achieved in its next periodic report. The Committee calls upon the State party to submit the present concluding observations to all relevant ministries at the National Assembly and at regional levels, to the municipal and village councils, and to the legislative branch and the judiciary, in order to ensure their full implementation.
11.While reaffirming that the Government has the primary responsibility for,and is particularly accountable for, the full implementation of the obligations of the State party under the Convention, the Committee stresses that the Convention is binding on all branches of the State apparatus. It invites the State party to encourage the National Assembly, in line with its procedures, where appropriate, to take the necessary steps with regard to the implementation of the present concluding observations and the Government’s next reporting process under the Convention.
Visibility of the Convention
12.Despite efforts made by the State party to incorporate the Convention’s principles into national law and the Government’s intention to undertake a review of the Constitution, the Committee reiterates the concerns expressed in its previous concluding observations that not all provisions of the Convention have been incorporated into national law, and more particularly that, without this, the Convention’s provisions are not enforceable in the State party’s courts.
13.The Committee urges the State party to accelerate the process of incorporation of the Convention within a fixed timeframe so that it becomes fully applicable in the domestic legal system. It calls upon the State party to ensure that the Convention and related domestic legislation are made an integral part of the training of judges, lawyers and prosecutors, with a view to enabling them to directly apply the provisions of the Convention and to interpret national legal provisions in light of the Convention, so as to firmly establish a legal culture that is supportive of women’s equality and non-discrimination.
Definition of discrimination against women
14.The Committee reiterates its concern, expressed in its previous concluding observations, that the exemption to the prohibition of discrimination has been maintained in section 16 (4) (c) of the Constitution with regard to personal status law, including adoption, marriage, divorce, burial and devolution of property on death, in contravention of articles 2 and 16 of the Convention. The Committee is further concerned that the legal review of the Constitution aimed at bringing it into compliance with the Convention is not advancing at the desired pace.
15.The Committee calls upon the State party to repeal section 16 (4) (c) of the Constitution,which discriminates against women, and to adopt allnecessary measures to bring the Constitution into compliance with articles 2 and 16 of the Convention. The Committee further recommends that these measures include the re-opening of a target-oriented dialogue with religious communities, ensuring the participation of women on both sides, and the introduction of education campaigns on equality and non-discrimination aimed at bringing about a change in the prevailing patriarchal attitudes within the different segments of society and their respective representatives. The Committee calls upon the State party to hasten the review of the Constitution and to update the Committee in its next report on the progress achieved, as provided for in the Government Programme 2010-2015.
Temporary special measures
16.The Committee is concerned that the State party is not accelerating the realization of substantive equality between women and men through the use of temporary special measures. The Committee is concerned in particular that the Equal Opportunities Act 2008, which, upon proclamation, will replace the 2002 Sex Discrimination Act, does not include provisions for temporary special measures.
17.The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)Introduce temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25(2004) in areas covered by the Convention where women are underrepresented or disadvantaged, as recommended in the previous concluding observations;
(b)Raise awareness among parliamentarians and Government officials about the necessity of temporary special measures;
(c)Provide comprehensive information on the use of such measures in relation to various provisions of the Convention, and on their impact in its next periodic report; and
(d)Include a specific provision in the Equal Opportunities Act 2008 before it is promulgated and in other appropriate legislation, unequivocally stating that temporary special measures aimed at achieving substantive equality of women and men shall not be considered discriminatory.
Stereotypes and cultural practices
18.While the Committee notes with satisfaction the measures taken to raise awareness of traditional gender-role stereotypes and the adoption of the 2008 National Gender Policy Framework, the Committee is deeply concerned about the persistence of discriminatory cultural norms and practices as well as patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in family and society whereby men are largely still considered the main breadwinners and women are considered as having the primary responsibility for child-rearing and domestic tasks. The Committee is also concerned about the lack of a mechanism to review and monitor all measures taken by the State party to achieve these goals in order to assess the effectiveness of the measures. The Committee is further concerned that the State party, since the consideration of the last report, has not adequately engaged with the media with a view to hastening structural change towards gender equality.
19.The Committee urges the State party to:
(a)Step up its efforts to change traditional perceptions on gender roles in the family and society;
(b)Carry out awareness-raising campaigns to eliminate gender-based stereotyping;
(c)Take the necessary measures to ensure the effective implementation of the National Gender Policy Framework and to closely monitor the implementation of this policy, including through the establishment of monitoring mechanisms;
(d)Inform the Committee in its next periodic report on the progress made in the implementation of the policy, including by providing a description of the measures taken and a comprehensive assessment of the impact and results of the policy;
(e)Establish partnerships with the media in order to accelerate change in the prevailing societal understandings of gender roles, including through mediacampaigns and the allocation of minimum air time for gender issues on a regular basis; and
(f)Systematically monitor the effectiveness of the measures taken in order to ensure achievement of identified targets and to report on this to the Committee in its next periodic report.
Violence against women
20.While taking into account the legal and administrative measures taken by the State party to combat domestic violence, including the amendments to the Protection from Domestic Violence Act in 2007 and 2011, the launching of the National Plan to Combat Domestic Violence in November 2007, and the establishment of the National and Area Domestic Violence Committees, the Committee is concerned that violence against women remains a serious problem in the State party. The Committee is also concerned about the low number of shelters and the fact that only one of the three shelters in the State party is operated under the aegis of a ministerial office.
21.The Committee recalls its general recommendation No. 19 (1992) on violence against women, its previous concluding observations (CEDAW/C/MAR/CO/5, paras. 18 and 19) as well as the recommendations made by the Committee against Torture (CAT/C/MUS/CO/3, para. 16) and by the Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review of Mauritius (A/HRC/11/28, paras. 25-28) and urges the State party to:
(a)Give high priority to implementing its obligations under the Convention to eradicate and bring to an end all forms of violence perpetrated against women and girls within the State party;
(b)Step up its efforts for the establishment of additional shelters; provide women victims of domestic violence with alternative safelivingsettings; and provide information in its next periodic report on the outcome of the Cabinet decision of 2011 that confirmed an increase in the number of shelters in the State party to nine;
(c)Strengthen its support for local non-governmental organizations (NGOs)which offer legal aid and shelter to women and girls who are victims of domestic violence, and allocate a greater portion of the Government budget to these NGOs; and
(d)Step up its efforts to put in place effective monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to ensure the effectiveness of measures taken under the Action Plan to CombatDomestic Violence,and inform the Committee on this in its next periodic report.
22.While noting with appreciation the efforts undertaken by the State party to enforce the law in cases of domestic violence, the Committee remains concerned about the low number of cases of domestic violence reported to the police, whereby abused women suffer in silence and are sometimes forced to “take the blame” due to family and societal pressures. The Committee is further concerned that the protection that is envisaged by the 1997 Protection from Domestic Violence Act and its 2007 and 2011 amendments, may in fact not be providing adequate protection for women, and the Committee is also concerned that many women who have obtained protection orders are still subjected to attacks by their spouses. The Committee again expresses its deep regret at the State party’s failure to criminalize domestic violence, including marital rape, despite the Committee’s previous concluding observations.
23.In accordance with article 2 of the Convention, and taking into account the Committee’sgeneral recommendations No. 28 (2010) on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention and No. 19 (1992) on violence against women as well as the concluding observations of the Committee against Torture (CAT/C/MUS/CO/ para. 16), the Committee urges the State party to:
(a)Accelerate its efforts to combat impunity for domestic violence offences by eliminating all obstacles preventing abused women from reporting domestic violence offences to the police, by bringing all perpetrators to justice and offering reparations to women who are victims of domestic violence;
(b)Continue its efforts to raise awareness among women and girls about the criminal nature and harmful effects of all forms of violence on their health, eradicating the underlying cultural justifications for such violence and practices, and encouraging women and girls to report acts of violence to the competent authorities;
(c)Ensure that investigation and ex-officio prosecution of cases of domestic violence proceed, in order to signal to the community that domestic violence is a serious crime and will be treated as such;
(d)Adopt all relevant administrative and legislative measures to offer effective protection to women who file complaints about violenceagainst them, including by providing for restraining measures under the Protection from Domestic Violence Act once a complaint has been filed and further to provide training to judges and magistrates on the scope of domestic violence legislation;
(e)Collect disaggregated data on the number of complaints, prosecutions and convictions, and on sentences imposed on perpetrators of sexual and domestic violence, and provide such data to the Committee in its next periodic report; and
(f)Take all legislative measures to categorize domestic violence as a crime and accelerate its efforts to criminalize marital rape and to include it in the Sexual Offences bill.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
24.While the Committee notes the ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography and the adoption of the 2009 Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, the Committee is concerned at the fact that the State party remains a country of source, destination and transit for trafficking in persons, and at the proliferation of sex tourism in the country, essentially generating sexual exploitation of women and girls and augmenting the vulnerability of sex workers. The Committee is also concerned about the lack of information on the real extent of the sale and sexual exploitation of young girls because of the taboo surrounding sexuality and the lack of a centralized information system. The Committee notes with concern the absence of sex-disaggregated data with regard to both trafficking and prostitution as well as the lack of a national plan of action to address both trafficking and sexual exploitation in the State party.
25.The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)Ensure the effective implementation of the newly adopted law and introduce effective prevention measures, and timely prosecution and punishment of traffickers;
(b)Continue raising awareness about human trafficking, including by dissemination of information and training of the judiciary and law enforcement officials on the new law, to ensure strict application of the relevant criminal provisions;
(c)Adopt a comprehensive national action plan and develop a coordination mechanism to address trafficking and sexual exploitation and ensure the allocation of sufficient human and financial resources for the effective implementation of the action plan;
(d)Address the root causes of trafficking and exploitation of women by increasing its efforts to improve the economic situation of women and girls, in particular women migrant workers, thereby eliminating their vulnerability to exploitation and traffickers;
(e)Collect sex-disaggregated data on the number of sex-workers and trafficked persons as well as data on the number of complaints, investigations, prosecutions and sentences in relation to trafficking and prostitution and include such data in its next periodic report.
26.While noting the increase in women’s representation in parliament following the general elections in 2010; the 2010 Government’s shift in paradigm from a “Women in Development” to a “Gender and Development” approach; the launching of the National Platform on Women in Politics in 2011; and the Government’s intention to introduce a Local Government Bill (2011) aimed at ensuring adequate representation of women in local authorities, the Committee remains concerned about women’s participation in political and public life and the fact that women continue to be underrepresented in senior positions in government and diplomatic services. In this regard, the Committee notes that only two out of 22 Ministers of the current Government are women. It also notes with concern that systematic barriers continue to impede women’s equal participation in political life, such as negative cultural attitudes, doubts about women’s leadership capabilities, lack of temporary special measures in the form of quotas for women and lack of capacity-building of potential candidates, limited financial resources, and lack of logistical support for women candidates.
27.The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)Pursue sustained policies aimed at the promotion of the full and equal participation of women in decision-making in all areas of public, political and professional life;
(b)Fully utilize the Committee’s general recommendation No. 23 (1997) on women in political and public life and adopt temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 (2004), in order to accelerate the full and equal participation of women in public and political life;
(c)Step up its efforts in connection with enacting the Local Government Bill under which the State party is invited to secure the participation of women in the electoral process;
(d)Implement awareness-raising activities on the importance of the participation of women in decision-making for society as a whole and develop targeted training and mentoring programmes for women candidates and women elected to public office; and
(e)Provide womenin parliament and in the public servicewith the necessary assistance, such as childcare facilities, to enable their full and effective participation in public life.
28.Noting with appreciation the continuous efforts to reduce illiteracy, and the awareness-raising and self-esteem-promoting activities by the National Women’s Council, the Committee is however concerned about the level of illiteracy among women and the disparities between women in urban and rural areas in this regard. The Committee is also concerned about the lack of sex-disaggregated data on the chronic absenteeism of children from school at primary level and the implications for dropout at the primary and secondary levels and is also concerned about dropout of pregnant teenage girls. The Committee is concerned about continuing segregation with regard to choice of subjects in schools, where girls still take up traditional subjects. The Committee is further concerned about the low number of women and girls enrolled in vocational and industrial training courses, and the implications for employment opportunities for girls who do not complete their formal education.
29.The State party is invited to sustain all measures to raise awareness on the importance of women and girls’ education and to step up all other activities to address regional disparities and ensure equal access to education, and to encourage pregnant teenage girls to continue school after giving birth.The State party should provide sex-disaggregated data on absenteeism at primary level in its next periodic report and should further adopt and enforce all effective measures to combat this phenomenon while putting in place monitoring mechanisms to assess the appropriateness of the measures adopted to achieve the stated goals and to reduce drop-out rates at primary and secondary levels. The Committee urges the State party to adopt policies to encourage women and girls to choose non-traditional fields of education, including technical and vocational training, by taking affirmative action such as introducing quotas for female students in technical and vocational areas of study.
30.While noting the adoption of the Employment Rights Act (2008), and the State party’s administrative measures to repeal gender-based discriminatory wage-gap provisions for workers in the field-crop, orchard and livestock industries, the Committee reiterates its concern regarding the persistence of wage gaps between women and men in both public and private sectors. It also notes with concern that the equal remuneration provision under the Employment Rights Act does not reflect the principle of equal remuneration for work of equal value. The Committee remains concerned about horizontal and vertical segregation in the labour market and the concentration of women in low-skilled jobs with low pay and poor working conditions. The Committee is further concerned about the weak enforcement of labour laws.
31.Recalling the Committee’s previous concluding observations (CEDAW/C/MAR/CO/5 paras. 27-29) and the recommendation made by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (E.C.12/MUS/CO/4 paras. 17, 18 and 21), the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)Adopt policies and concrete legislative measures to accelerate the eradication of employment discrimination against women and to work towards ensuring de facto equal opportunities at all levels for women in the labour market;
(b)Provide information on all measures taken under the National Gender Policy Framework (2005-2015) and any other measures adopted to achieve the stated goals, and their impact;
(c)Ensure that job evaluation systems based on gender-sensitive criteria be developed with the aim of closing the existing wage gap between women and men and implementing equality (equal pay for work of equal value), in line with the Committee’s general recommendation No. 13 (1989);
(d)Amend section 30 of the Employment Rights Act to provide maternity leave subject to 12 consecutive working months regardless of the number of previous employers, in view of the fact that women tend to change jobs frequently, and amend section 20 of the Act to ensure compliance with article 11 of the Convention and International Labour Organization (ILO)Convention No. 100 (1951) concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value;
(e)Accelerate its efforts to make use of temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s generalrecommendation No. 25 (2004), by applying numerical goals with timetables or quotas in respect of women’s access to the labour market, including non-traditional jobs, and the promotion of women into the upper levels of the public and private sectors; and
(f)Strengthen labour law enforcement, in particular with regard to equal pay for work of equal value and to sexual harassment provisions and evaluate the effectiveness of section 38 of the Employment Rights Act to combat sexual harassment in the workplace.
32.While welcoming the State party’s efforts to include education on sexual and reproductive health and rights at both primary and secondary school levels, the enactment of the HIV and AIDS Act (2006), and the Criminal Code Amendment Bill which seeks to revise section 235 of the Criminal Code on abortion, the Committee reiterates its deep concern about the prevalence of teenage pregnancies in the country, which leads to unsafe abortions among girls and women. The Committee is also concerned about the maintenance of the provision in the Criminal Code criminalizing abortion, despite its previous concluding observations, and about punitive measures faced by women and girls if they pursue an abortion. The Committee is deeply concerned about the prevalence of clandestine abortions and the ensuing high rate of health complications among women and girls. The Committee is also concerned about the vulnerability of sex workers to contraction and transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.
33.In line with its previous concluding observations (CEDAW/C/MAR/CO/5, para. 31) and its general recommendation No. 24 (1999) on women and health, the Committee calls upon the State party to:
(a)Expedite the enactment of the Criminal Code Bill which seeks to amend section 235 of the Criminal Code on abortion in order to remove punitive measures imposed on women who undergo abortion and decriminalize abortion under certain conditions specifically when pregnancy is harmful to the mother’s life and health,and also in cases of rape and incest; hasten the consultation process with the relevant stakeholders while ensuring that women are included in this consultation;
(b)Accelerate its efforts in raising awareness among pregnant teenagers and their families about the serious health risks of clandestine abortions;
(c)Ensure the provision of skilled medical aid and access to health facilities for women and girls suffering from health complications due to unsafe abortions;
(d)Provide age-disaggregated data on abortion health complications due to unsafe abortions, teenage pregnancies, and also provide sex-disaggregated data on HIV/AIDS;
(e)Ensure provision of effective and age-appropriate education on sexual and reproductive health and rights at all school levels and incorporate it in the school curricula, in order to combat teenage pregnancies and inform youth about the high risks associated with unsafe sex;
(f)Provide medical check-ups and contraceptives and also develop counselling programmes and provide vocational training aimed at availing sex workers with options to leave the sex trade; and
(g)Adopt all measures to implement the national plan to combat HIV/AIDS, and update the Committee in its next periodic report on all measures adopted, and their impact on achieving the stated aims.
Disadvantaged groups of women
34.While noting that labour laws apply to both local and migrant workers in the country, the Committee is concerned that in practice terms of employment for women migrant workers are discriminatory. The Committee expresses its concern in particular about the poor working conditions, insufficient wages and restriction of movement of migrant workers due to withholding of passports. The Committee is further alarmed that women migrant workers are induced into forced prostitution by their employers. The Committee notes with concern the lack of data and information on women migrant workers in the State party periodic report.
35.The State party is urged to ensure the equal application of labour laws to migrant and local workers so as to prevent incidents of work exploitation by local employers. In that respect the State party is invited to sustain and step up the regular visits run under the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Health to migrant workers’ places of work and dormitories to ensure that their rights are protected, and to adopt all other necessary measures, including by scrutinizing all employments’ contracts so as to assess their legality under State party labour laws. The Committee recommends that the State party provide sex-disaggregated data on numbers of migrant workers, fields of occupation, complaints against respective employers and results of investigations.
36.The Committee notes that the State party’s report lacked information and statistics about disadvantaged groups of women, including rural women, elderly women and women with disabilities, who often suffer from multiple forms of discrimination.
37.The Committee invites the State party to provide, in its next report, a comprehensive picture of the de facto situation of disadvantaged groups of women, including rural women, older women and women with disabilities, in all areas covered by the Convention.
38. The Committee requests the wide dissemination in Mauritius of the present concludingobservations in order to make the people, Government officials, politicians, parliamentarians and women’s and human rights organizations, aware of the steps that have been taken to ensure de jure and de facto equality of women and the further steps that are required in that regard. The Committee recommends that dissemination should include dissemination at the local community level. The State party is encouraged to organize a series of meetings to discuss the progress achieved in the implementation of the present concluding observations. The Committee requests the State party to continue to disseminate widely, in particular to women’s and human rights organizations, the Committee’sgeneral recommendations, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly on the theme “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”.
Ratification of other treaties
39.The State party notes that adherence of the State party to the nine major international human rights treaties would enhance the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee therefore encourages the State party to consider ratifying the treaty to which it is not yet a party, i.e., the International Convention on the Protection of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.
Follow-up to concluding observations
40.The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps undertaken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs15 and 23 above.
Preparation of the next report
41.The Committee recommends that the State party ensure the participation of all ministries and public bodies in the preparation of its next report and consult a variety of women’s and human rights organizations during that phase.
42.The Committee requests the State party to respond to the concerns expressed in the present concluding observations in its next periodic report under article 18 of the Convention. The Committee invites the State party to submit its next periodic report in October 2015.
43.The Committee invites the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents, approved by the fifth inter-committee meeting of the human rights treaty bodies in June 2006 (HRI/MC/2006/3 and Corr.1). The treaty-specific reporting guidelines, adopted by the Committee at its fortieth session, in January 2008 (A/63/38, Part one, annex I), must be applied in conjunction with the harmonized reporting guidelines on a common core document. Together, they constitute the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The treaty-specific document should be limited to 40 pages, while the updated common core document should not exceed 80 pages.