One-stop-service centers










Number of clients

1 474

1 488

1 866

2 537

Source: Ministry of Justice and Foreign Affairs, 2020.

Partnership with non-governmental organizations providing shelter and rehabilitation services. Procedure for accreditation (2017) for NGOs rendering services to victims

42.Within the framework of ensuring and promoting NGO participation in the implementation and intensification of the LCDV, one-stop service centers in Bayankhongor, Zavkhan aimag and Bayanzurh district of the capital operate as contracted with NGOs. A training on “Role and involvement of soum and district governors and unit leaders in combatting domestic violence” was organized nationwide and involved khoroos heads and police officers of 3,599 soums and districts.

43.For the purposes of building capacities of multidisciplinary team members, including family doctor, local police officer and school and general social worker, which are headed by soum and district governors and whose obligations are specified in Article 20 of the LCDV, “Training for National Multidisciplinary Team Trainers” was held in 2017 and 2019. National trainers provided capacity building trainings for all members of 21 aimags and 9 district teams (609 multidisciplinary team with 4,634 members in 2017 extended to 676 teams with 4,714 members in 2019).

44.Capacity building training for members of the Legal Committee on the Rights of the Child was regionally organized on 9-18 December, 2019, involving 270 members of the Committee. The training was organized according to the handbook for members of the Legal Committee on the Rights of the Child.

45.MNT 135.0 million from the UNFPA Gender-Based Violence Project to improve the training environment for domestic violence perpetrators assigned with behavior change mandatory training at the arrest/detention center of the General Executive Agency of Court Decision and MNT 50.0 million was spent from crime prevention costs in 2019 to fund manual development, publication and training costs.

H.Reply to paragraph 8 of the list of issues

Domestic violence crimes and violations

46.The number of domestic violence crime is likely to decrease (Table 8.1). Table 8.2 shows the numbers of cases that were forwarded by the police to the prosecutor’s office with a proposal to prosecute a criminal.

Table 8.1Number of domestic violence crime, 2016–2019







Total crime

27 167

32 259

36 220

35 124


Domestic violence crime

1 449

1 286

1 070



Increase, decrease/from previous year/





Number of victims

1 357

1 120




Increase, decrease/from previous year/






1 886

4 369

5 821

8 962


Increase, decrease/from previous year/

+2.3 times



Source: National Police Agency, 2020.

Table 8.2Crimes committed due to domestic violence and their resolution, 2016–2019



Prosecutor ’ s Office



Newly recorded - /Number of crimes committed due to domestic violence/ 1,286 cases cannot be resolved as domestic violence crime was criminalized under the Criminal Law /article 120.1/ on 22 December 2016.

Under the Criminal Law of /article 120.1/ 2002 - 111 casesUnder the Criminal Law of 2015 /special provision 11.7/ - 199 cases

Under the Criminal Law of /article 120.1/ 2002 - 0 caseUnder the Criminal Law of 2015 /special provision 11.7/ - out of 65 cases 59 resolved


Under the Criminal law, article 12.01, out of newly recorded 105 cases, dismissed-25, forwarded to a prosecutor with a proposal to prosecute a criminal - 75, consolidated -5Under the Criminal law, article11.7, out of 223 cases: - dismissed-81, forwarded to a prosecutor with a proposal to prosecute a criminal - 132, consolidated -10

Investigation procedure conducted:519, newly recorded 370, closed for investigation- 217, forwarded to a court - 165

Resolved – 138Examined d- 115Dismissed- 1


Under the Criminal law, article 11.7 out of newly 210 recorded cases: dismissed -34, forwarded to a prosecutor with a proposal to prosecute a criminal - 165, consolidated-11

Investigation procedure conducted: Total 519 (370 cases consolidated in the reporting period), closed for investigation - 217, forwarded to a court - 165

To be resolved – 138, examined - 115, annulled- 1


Under the Criminal law, article 11.7 out of newly 207 recorded cases: dismissed -17, forwarded to a prosecutor with a proposal to prosecute a criminal - 158, consolidated -8, ongoing procedure-24

16 cases in 2019 /loss of life due to domestic violence/ were forwarded to a court.

12 cases were resolved.

Source: Mongolia white paper crime book 2016, 2017, 2018.

47.Within the framework of the US Government Funded International Development Law Organization (IDLO) project “Strengthening the Legal Framework and Combating Domestic Violence”, “Capacity-building and Coordination Training for the Legal Sector in Combating Domestic Violence ‘‘ was held involving 980 people, including police officers, prosecutors, judges, lawyers, social workers, and members of the Branch Council that coordinate the prevention of crime from the capital and 20 aimags’.

48.“Capacity-Building and Coordination Training for the Legal Sector in Combating Domestic Violence” was held, involving 1,000 police officers, prosecutors, judges, lawyers, social workers, and members of the Branch Council that coordinate the prevention of crime people- the capital and 21 aimags. The course on Combatting Domestic Violence has been included in the compulsory curriculum of the Law Enforcement University of Mongolia as of the 2017 academic year.

I.Reply to paragraph 9 (a) and (b) of the list of issues

49.The Government’s Action Program (2016-2020) states that new programs will be introduced to prevent and combat money laundering, human trafficking, drug and cyber crime. Accordingly, the MJIA has adopted a “National Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons” approved by the Government Resolution No.148 of 2017. To ensure and intensify the implementation of the Anti-Trafficking Law and the aforementioned national program, the Sub-Council (2017) was established to coordinate and prevent trafficking in persons, provide professional guidance and oversee the implementation of the Anti-Trafficking Law (2017). A series of studies have been conducted, including the evaluation of the consequences of the implementation of the Anti-Trafficking Law, and a survey to assess the knowledge, expertise, experience and capacity on human trafficking of law enforcement and judiciary officers. Further studies include the comparative analysis of the laws and training manuals of Mongolia on the practice of a victim-centered approach to combating human trafficking and the evaluation of the capacity of staff.

50.By order of the Chief of the General Police Department, No. B/284 2017, the Department on Combatting Organized Crime was renamed as the “Department on Combatting Organized Crime and Trafficking” and a new Division on combatting trafficking was set up. With respect to the Government Resolution No. 4 of 27 July 2016 under which the Marshals (Takhar) Agency was dissolved, transferring its roles to police, a Division on protecting witnesses and victims was newly included in the organizational structure of the police under the order of the Chief of the General Police Department No. 444 of August 11, 2016. Within the frame of partnership agreement with international bodies, such as the International Organization for Migration, the Asia Foundation, and the Government of the Republic of Korea, projects and programs have initiated capacity building and qualification trainings for police and prosecutors in charge of investigation, resolution of this type of crimes and providing rehabilitation and protection services for victims, officers of border protection and immigration offices, judges, lawyers, social workers and medical practitioners.

J.Reply to paragraph 9 (c) of the list of issues.

51.UNFRIEND special event has been organized to promote appropriate use within a cyber environment, prevent children from cyber crime, including trafficking and sex trafficking. As a result of the initiative, 55 posters, 15 video ads, broadcasts and 1 song were developed and aired and distributed via 31 television stations and social media, reaching a total of 6,101,000 people.

52.As a result of such advocacy work, citizens awareness of human trafficking is increasing along with their assessment competence of whether they have been exposed to this type of crime, and the capacity has been built for government officials and service providers to detect such crimes internally or externally. With the support of international organizations, as a result of improving the victims’ services, 19 people in 2018 and 7 people in 2019 were safely returned to Mongolia.

K.Reply to paragraph 10 of the list of issues

53.Within the framework of the Asia Foundation project, funded by the U.S. government, entitled “Improving Victim-Centered Investigations and Prosecutions of Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Cases in Mongolia: capacity building”, comparative analysis was conducted for the legislation of Mongolia and training manual with respect to applying victim centered investigations and prosecutions of trafficking in persons, and a study report on staff capacity assessment has been prepared. Capacity building training themed on Victim-Centered Investigations and Prosecutions of Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Cases in Mongolia was organized.

54.Nationwide, law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judges, border protection officers, and immigration officials of capital city and 21 aimags were involved in a regional training. A total of 710 officers and about 1,900 current cadets of the Law Enforcement University were present.

55.The detection and settlement of trafficking in persons are presented in Table 8.3

Table 8.3Detection and settlement of trafficking in persons, 2017–2019



Prosecutor ’ s Office



Newly recorded: Under the Criminal Law, article113 – Out of 3 cases: dismissed-1, forwarded to a prosecutor with a proposal to prosecute a criminal - 2


Newly recorded: Under Criminal Code, article 113, out of 4 cases: forwarded to a prosecutor with a proposal to prosecute a criminal - 3, consolidated-1Under the Criminal Code, article 13.1, out of 8 cases: dismissed-5, forwarded to a prosecutor with a proposal to prosecute a criminal - 1, consolidated-1, ongoing procedure-1

Under the Criminal case, article 113 -10 casesUnder the Criminal Code (2015), article 13.1 -6 cases

Under the Criminal Code (2002), article 113, 1 case was filed and resolved. Under the Criminal Code (2015), article 13.1, 2 cases were filed and resolved.


Newly recorded: Under the Criminal Code, article 13.1, out of 10 cases: dismissed-5, forwarded to a prosecutor with a proposal to prosecute a criminal - 5

Investigation procedure -2

New case- 1

No cases received.


Newly recorded: Under the Criminal Code, article 13.1, out of 14 cases: dismissed-2, forwarded to a prosecutor with a proposal to prosecute a criminal - 2, ongoing procedure-10

Source: Mongolia white paper crime book 2016, 2017, 2018.

L.Reply to paragraph 11 of the list of issues

56.The NCGE is continuously promoting the importance of electing women at the decision-making level, as well as educating women currently working and planning to work at the decision-making level. For example, training on “Internal Democracy of the Party and the Policy Supporting Women in Politics” and capacity building trainings were held for the parliamentary representatives of women’s organizations within the parliamentary parties and women at the local decision-making level and for women leaders in women’s organizations by political parties. In an area of increasing women’s participation in decision-making level, they are encouraged to attend TV programs, co-author and broadcast with national television and journalists.

57.The Law on Elections of Mongolia, amended in 2019, stipulates that gender representation shall be not less than 20 percent of either gender. The proposal from the NCGE was to increase the female candidates’ quota to 30 per cent in the draft Election Law of the Parliament of Mongolia, submitted to the Working Group established in the Parliament and run some advocacy efforts, yet it was of no success. In this regard, the National Committee on Gender Equality in cooperation with Mongolian Women’s Association has undertaken the following activities to foster leadership for empowering women at decision-making level, in order to achieve Goal 6 of the National Program on Gender Equality:

•In the field of strengthening women’s participation, leadership and capacities at the political and decision-making levels, as well as in the development of partnership: Coordination meetings were organized jointly by parliamentary members, women’s organizations at parties, and representatives of the General Election Commission to identify barriers to increasing women’s participation in decision-making, improve the legal environment, and retain women at decision-making level. At the meeting, women’s organizations by political parties and representatives of party women’s organizations agreed to establish a Coalition, and at the policy level, encourage women to co-operate with each other and to promote women’s participation at a policy level, and to influence relevant organizations.

To raise awareness of women at the political and decision-making levels: The first conference for international women’s cooperation and co-operation, “For a Better Future,” was organized and a statement of declaration was released by the conference. The conference was attended by over 1,000 delegates from provinces, capitals, soums, districts and more than 10 foreign countries, including Russia, Sweden, China, Korea, Turkey, USA and Kazakhstan.

Within the framework of women ’ s participation at the political decision-making level: The commitments were made and signed by the Secretaries-General of the parliamentary parties to reflect activities in the party’s internal policy - making the political election system more women-friendly, and enabling candidates to compete with their knowledge, experience and skills, and to increase the number of women at the decision-making level. As a result of the NCGE cooperation with the political parties and their women’s organizations, the ruling People’s Party of Mongolia, (with 65 seats out of 76), has increased the quota of women candidates to 30%. Also, the NCGE has agreed with the Council of Public Service (CPS) to work for quotas from 15 to 40 representatives of one gender to be appointed at the decision-making level under the Gender Equality Act after the Parliamentary and local elections in 2020.

M.Reply to paragraph 12 of the list of issues

58.No progress has been made in the regard of disabled people’s right to vote and stand for election.

N.Reply to paragraph 13 of the list of issues

Education Expenditures

59.The share of the education sector in Mongolia in the state budget expenditures and the education expenditures per capita are presented in Graph 13.1. The share of education in the total national budget is 14.7 percent on average over the last nine years. Education spending remained at 16.8-16.9 percent in 2010 and 2014, but dropped down to 12.8 percent during the 2016 economic crisis.

60.At the highest GDP growth in Mongolia, (annual growth rate of 17 percent) reached in 2011, the education expenditure decreased by 3.3 percentage points, which was a serious concern and indicates the unequal distribution of economic growth in our country.

61.The current and investment expenditures in the education sector are 4.7 percent of GDP and 17.2 percent of the state budget revenue, respectively, as of 2019.

Measures taken to ensure the return of pregnant girls back to school and the reintegration of young mothers to promote education among girls

62.No official statistics are available on this issue. “The social indicator sample survey 2018” by NSO collected general data on adolescent girls’ births in 2018, but no data was gathered on whether they were pregnant at school, or dropped out or returned to school.

63.Birth rate for teenage girls is 42.6 (per 1,000 girls aged 15-19). If considered by location, the birth rate for girls aged 15-19 is 34.7 and 70.1 for urban and rural areas, respectively. The adolescent pregnancy rate in the Khangai (82.3) and East (79.9) regions were almost twice the birth rate in other regions (West 32.4, Central 46.9, Ulaanbaatar 32.4).

Disaggregated data by regions and sex at all levels of the education sector

64.The data aggregated by gender and region for pre-school, general secondary and higher education enrollment is displayed as of 2019-2020 academic year in the following table.

Table 13.1Students, by education level, sex and region, 2019–2020

Pre-school education

Secondary education

Higher education









263 333

126 946

640 449

319 912

148 446

90 574


32 254

15 665

88 046

44 192

3 488

2 439


48 790

23 938

117 306

58 941

3 005

2 229


40 534

19 715

98 222

48 915

4 391

2 555


18 830

9 259

44 136

22 068

1 165



118 135

58 031

291 516

145 223

136 397

82 380

Source: NSO,

Dropout rate of pregnant girls, their re-entry rate to school

65.No official statistics are available on this issue.

The number of girls who are absent from school due to their duties in livestock herding

66.According to data from out-of-school children, for the 2018-2019 academic year, 15,317 children aged 6-10 (boys 52.2% percent and girls 47.8% percent) who should attend grades 1-5, and 13,835 children aged 11-14 (boys 52.9 percent and girls 47.1 percent) who should attend grades 6-9 did not attend school for some reason. It is not possible to determine whether the failure to enroll in schools are due to animal husbandry because such information is not collected and processed.

O.Reply to paragraph 14 of the list of issues

Safe School model

67.Much work has been done to ensure the safety of school-aged children and to protect children from abuse at school, in dormitories and other social settings. For instance, the “Child Protection Standard School” program is being implemented in 32 schools of 21 aimags and 9 districts. Under the program 54 trainings and advocacy campaigns were organized to increase parent and child involvement, and provided information to over 7,500 parents and 29,000 children. As a result, crimes against children and crime rate in these 32 schools declined by 12.8% in the first half of 2019 compared to 2018.

68.The “Safe Living” curriculum was approved by the Order of the MECS Minister No. A/181, 2018, and has been published with a teaching manual for pre-primary and secondary education and provided to schools and kindergartens nationwide. The content of the program is designed to help children acquire appropriate age-related skills and knowledge in helping others, self-protecting, or seeking assistance from others in risky situations, such as earthquake, disaster, infectious disease and other extreme weather conditions.

69.In order to effectively implement the program, the Joint Order of the MECS and the Deputy Prime Minister of Mongolia was approved, aimed at improving the cooperation and enabling environment between the state administration and local authorities, schools, kindergartens and specialized organizations. Also, in line with the Order of the MECS No. A/10, 2019, methodological recommendations were developed and delivered for teachers to implement the curriculum “Safe Living” in secondary schools.

70.MNT 489 billion were invested in the general education sector in 2019, which is up by 131.1% than in 2017, and in 2020, for the first time in the history of general education, there are no three-shift schools. This is expected to bring a significant positive effect on students avoiding such risky situations as being late after 3-shift schooling and returning home in the dark.

71.Under the policy of providing a “School Bus” service to general secondary schools in major cities and towns in order to ensure the safety of students, who walk many kilometers/long distance between their schools and remote home, as of October 2019, 6 buses were provided for 5 schools with special education and 1 kindergarten. Now as a total, 7,209 students are served with 152 buses for 56 schools including 41 buses in 33 state-owned schools and1 kindergarten, 127 buses in 25 non-state schools. This is an increase of 11 buses compared to the same period in 2018. There are 4,377 students transported by 26 buses in 8 aimags.

72.“A procedure for increasing the participation and responsibility of parents, guardians, citizens and the community in general secondary education” is approved by Order of the Minister of MECS No. A/119, 2019. Under the procedure, all directors have been responsible for implementing a plan to increase engagement and responsibility of parents, guardians, citizens and the general public in primary school activities. In addition, the template of a Contract for Kindergarten, Secondary School – Parents and Guardians has been developed and approved by Order of the Minister of MECS No. A/508, 2019.

73.In accordance with the Order of the Minister of MECS No. A/426, “Medium Term Plan for the Improvement of the Dormitory Environment and Services” has been approved and implemented based on the results of the study of the current state of the dormitory environment and the development and protection of children in general secondary schools.

74.As per Order of the Head of Standardization and Metrology No. C/40, 2019, such standarts as “MNS6781: 2019 on general requirements for dormitory facilities and services for general secondary school students” and ‘‘MNS6799: 2019 on hygiene of kindergartens and schools for kindergarten and general secondary schools’’ were approved. By adopting these standards, students are enabled with a dorm-room environment that is healthy, comfortable, and with other opportunities for self-development and protected from domestic hazards. Additionally, they are protected against violence, external influences, and crime. According to this standard, a nursing teacher is assigned to serve children aged 6-8, and the 2019 budget allocation was made to recruit a total of 122 teachers with funding equal to MNT 824.6 mln., but in reality only 85 teachers were recruited. To ensure the standard in practice, a nationwide workshop was organized in August 2019 for instructors, primary teachers and social workers. At present, at schools where there is no parental/nursing care, the administrations of schools have been making internal arrangements to assign their teachers to care for children aged 6 to 8.

Rehabilitation and redress to victims of sexual violence in schools and school dormitories

75.Although there are legal regulations for the rehabilitation of children’s physical and mental damages and support their return to normal life, no statistical data has ever been recorded.

76.The procedure on “Preventing violence against children in school environment and dormitories of educational institutions’’ was adopted by Order of the Minister of MECS No. A/239, 2018. The regulation provides for the protection and protection of children in dormitories, and responses in the event of abuse, and the management of material and psychological effects.

Data on the number of investigations, prosecutions and penalties imposed in cases of sexual violence and abuses in educational setting

77.No official statistics are available on this issue.

Measures taken to revise national legislation and develop policies and regulations in line with the Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2016) to ensure inclusive and accessible education for women and girls with disabilities

78.Article 40 of the Law on the Protection of the Rights of Disabled Persons sets forth that the Government central body in charge of persons with disabilities shall be established to enforce nationwide the convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and related legislation, ensure synchronized functioning of sectors, ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and increase their participation. Accordingly, the General Agency for Development of Persons with Disabilities, the implementing agency of the Government was established as per the Parliament Resolution No. 56 of 2018 and the Government Resolution No. 250 of 2018 through the restructuring of the Rehabilitation, Training and Production Center and within the authority of the Minister of Labor and Social Protection.

79.The “Procedure on inclusive general education for children with disabilities” was approved by the Order of Minister of MECS No. C/292 of 2019. As part of the implementation of this regulation, the Diagnostic Assessment of the Disabled Child was conducted and methodological training on the development of the individual curriculum and program in light of child’s development have been organized, involving 80 teachers from secondary schools and 210 teachers of lifelong education. Thanks to the training efforts, the capacity has been strengthened for human resources of 60 secondary schools and 30 informal lifelong education centers in aimags and districts who deal with children with disabilities, protect their rights to education and protection and prevent from potential risk or violence.

80.The “Mongolian Braille Standard MNS 6800: 2019” was approved by the Technical Committee for Standardization of Health Care and Medical Services. The adoption of this international standard enables blind and visually impaired persons to be able to interact equally with others, to communicate with other visually impaired people via Braille, to help and support one another, serving an important tool in communication.

81.50 teachers were trained by workshop on “Methods for Ensuring the Right to Work, Learning and Protection for Children with Disabilities” while complying with the clause 3.3.1 of the plan for the implementation of the Program to promote the rights and participation of persons with disabilities. The “Enrolling Children with Autism Disorder in education” training held in December 2019 enrolled 500 people, including training managers, social workers and teachers from 6 districts of the capital, and study materials in DVD were distributed to all provinces.

Training for teachers on inclusive education and special educational needs of women and girls with disabilities

82.In the field of education, 9 new legal documents related to the disabled persons were approved in 2018. These include:

•“The normative standard of occupation for administrative management and other school personnel, except for teachers of secondary schools of state and local property” was approved by the joint order of the Minister of MECS and MLSP (No. А/024, А/11 of 23 January 2018). Clause 5 of the appendix to the Order sets forth that ““Depending on the specifics of the activity, a special secondary school may increase the number of vacancies provided for in the standard norms by up to 5, in accordance with the requirements and demands set forth in article 13.6 of the Law on Primary and Secondary Education””.

•To support proper education for children with disabilities and to provide flexible training to the specific needs and requirements of the individual child development, the “Individual Training Plan” and the curriculum methodology were approved respectively (Order of the Minister of MECS No. A/155 of 29 March 2018).

•Curriculum for children with intellectual disabilities in general education, curriculum for high school students with intellectual disabilities, curriculum for children with hearing impairments, and curriculum for children with visual impairments were renewed respectively (Order of the Minister of MECS No. А/491 of 6 August 2018).

•Curricula for special school #29 were approved for preparatory course, Mongolian language, Mathematics, Speaking Practice, Physical Objects and Rhythmic physical exercising (Order of the Minister of MECS No. A/492 of 6 August 2018).

•As part of the policy of enrolling children with disabilities in higher education, a decision was issued to ensure full access to education for persons with disabilities in higher education institutions regardless of their form of ownership, provide full assistance and support and provide referral to recruitment that enables development opportunities and designate special staff, full-time if higher education institutions with more than 300 students or part-time with less than 300 students (Order of the Minister of MECS No. A/261 of 4 May 2018).

•“Procedure for quality assessment of students and training of general education schools” was approved setting forth to assess students with disabilities with development progress. (Order of the Minister of MECS No. A/425 of 29 June 2018).

•“Safe life skills” program was approved (Order of the Minister of MECS No. 1/181 of 6 April 2018).

•“Procedure for training through the equivalent programs of primary, secondary and complete secondary education” was approved (Order of the Minister of MECS No. A/168 of 5 April 2018).

•“Code of Conduct for teachers, management and other employees in secondary schools, kindergartens, centers of lifelong and vocational education” was approved (Order of the Minister of MECS No. A/243 of 1 May 2018).

Training for teachers providing special needs education to girls and women with disability

83.In 2018, the Department for Special Needs Education was set up at MNUE and currently over 100 students are enrolled. Students take courses on “Sign Language” and “Education for children with hearing and visual impairment” and conduct teaching practice in a specialized school for four weeks. In addition, students majoring in teaching at the School of Education, School of Early Childhood Education, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, and School of Natural Sciences of the MNUE take courses on “Fundamentals of Special Needs Education” and “ Inclusive Education” as core or elective subjects. Also, “Department for Special Needs Education” piloted methodological training for mentally challenged children in the 2018-2019 academic year. Based on the feedback and needs of the special school teachers, an additional “Foundation Course for Speech Pathology” was held for 26 teachers.

84.Qualification training for medical doctors of special schools was held at “Rehabilitation Center” in Irkutsk, Chita region of Russia in 2018-2019 academic year. For qualification of a “Teacher of Special Needs Education”, 10 students were sent to Baikal State University of Irkutsk, Russia for the 2018-2019 academic year, and 8 students were sent to Moscow, St. Petersburg and Tomsk cities of Russia, in the 2019-2020 academic year for the qualification of pathologists.

85.Supported by the JICA International Organization, the “Project to Improve the Health, Education and Social Protection Services for Children with Special Needs Education” was implemented for four special and eight regular schools. Within the project framework, manuals for teachers and parents on ““Pedagogical tools for determining the level of development of children with severe disabilities”, “Methodological Support Tool for Children with Performance and Behavioral Problems – Appropriate Perception and Methods”, and video classes “Best class”, “Inclusive education” were shared via website of Institute of Teachers’ Professional Development and published and distributed to all teachers of schools, kindergartens, lifelong education centers.

86.Nationwide, in April-October 2019, 10 types of capacity building training and activities activities were organized for lifelong education teachers, principals, training managers, local government and decision makers, a total of 620 teachers and staff. The content of this course is aimed at empowering teachers and trainers to provide children with disabilities with the ability to socialize, interact with others, and provide psychological and professional support for themselves and others in case of any abuse. Qualification training on Inclusive Education was regionally held by the Lifelong Education Centers for mixed group of teachers in Uvurkhangai, Dundgovi, Tuv, Khovd, Khuvsgul, Zavkhan, Khentii and Selenge provinces in September 2019, with a total of 453 teachers. In lifelong education sector, training efforts in 2019 include online training and sessions for 2,137 teachers, 112-hours of inclusive education classes for 2,680 teachers and training on “Education of children with autism disorders” for 500 people. All training materials were delivered to lifelong education centers of all districts and aimags.

87.A nationwide research was carried out on screening for children with disabilities staying in bed and severe disabilities based on aimag and district’s Informal-Lifelong Education Centers. The study identified 3,372 children with bed-restricted and severe disabilities. The “Procedure on arranging literacy, primary and secondary education services for children with bed-restricted or severe disabilities” was drafted. In 2018-2019 academic year, out of 2,855 citizens enrolled nationwide, 588 become literate and 888 demonstrated progresses, 37.8 percent of whom are children with bed-restricted and severe disabilities. The website and equipment have been updated for the distance learning disabled children at the Life-long Education Centers and 118 video lessons have been uploaded on the website.

P.Reply to paragraph 15 of the list of issues

Legal measures taken to enforce the goal 1 of the national programme on gender equality for the period from 2017 to 2021 and on the progress and details of amendments to the labor and employment promotion laws

88.The article 6.26 of the Petty Offence law regulates provisions for the workplace to be free of any form of discrimination and for appropriate sanctions for violations as “...1). If one expresses his/her motive for engaging others in sexually explicit, verbal, physical, or other actions with the consequences of employment, position, honor, glory, wealth, or emotion, a fine of 1,000 units shall be imposed or forced training shall be assigned along with 7-30 day arrest; 2). If an employer fails to fulfill the obligation set forth in the internal labor regulations that is to prevent workplace sexual harassment and the settlement of incidents, a legal entity shall be imposed with a fine of 1,500 units.

89.In collaboration with the Trade Union, the panel session on the “State policy on enabling gender sensitive workplaces” was held by the NCGE, involving a total of 40 participants representing the Trade Union and Mongolian Employers’ Association. During the seminar “Introducing the concept of gender equality in the policies and activities of local self-government”, draft policy alternatives were presented to a total of 62 organizations including local governors and Working Groups of Citizens Representative Meetings of 21 aimags and 9 districts.

Steps taken to improve vocational capacity of women, including women with disabilities, to enter into the formal economy and to raise awareness among employers both in the public and private sectors

90.The following legislation provides for the Government of Mongolia to provide support and assistance to persons with disabilities in exercising their right to work. These include:

•According to the Labor Law, a business entity or organization with 25 or more employees shall employ a person with a disability or a dwarf in four or more percent of their positions, to reduce the working hours of employees with disabilities, to extend their vacations, to set quotas for employment of persons with disabilities in business entities, and to impose fines for non-compliance.

•According to the law of Mongolia on sending labor force abroad and receiving labor force and specialists from abroad, a new provision has been added to the basic terms of the contract with a foreign business entity or organization that employs Mongolian citizens, which includes the amount of compensation, benefits and compensation to be paid by the employer to a Mongolian citizen in case of partial or complete loss of ability to work while working abroad. This improves the social protection of Mongolian citizens working abroad and increases their access to rehabilitation services in case of disability.

•The Corporate Income Tax Law sets forth that if blind employees make up 2/3 or more of the total number of employees in a business entity with more than 25 employees, exempt the entity from an income taxation, if people who have lost more than 50 percent of their ability to work recruited, to provide tax benefits to a business entity as proportional to the number of disabled employees, donations up to MNT1 million from a business entity or individual in order to support an NGO founded by a person with a disability shall be deducted from the taxable income of the business entity in the given tax year.

•The Employment Promotion Law stipulates that an employer who provides jobs for people with disabilities shall be provided with financial assistance and incentives if they have increased the employment of people with disabilities and created jobs.

91.Within the framework of the policy goal to create opportunities for people with disabilities to participate in social life, the National Employment Council annually approves and implements the “Employment Support Program for Persons with Disabilities”. Within the framework of this program, MNT 3,647.1 million were spent in 2018, involving 5,692 people and creating 1,209 permanent and 134 temporary jobs, while in 2019, 4,876 people were covered with MNT 2,561.7 million, creating 968 jobs.

Table 15.1

Employment Promotion Program for Persons with Disabilities, by types of action, 2018–2019


People enrolled

Total funding , mln MNT






Training for employment






Financial support /to be re-paid/



2 021.6

2 043.9


Sales and workplace rental support






Entrepreneurship skills training

2 279

2 002




Employment training






Employer support



1 155.6



Job placement with support





Source: MLSP, 2020.

92.A revised draft of the Law on Promoting Employment is being developed. The purpose of the draft law is to create a legal basis for employment promotion activities and to improve its types, forms, scope, financing and relations with the employment agency system. The concept of the law was approved by a joint order of the MJHA and MLSP, and includes a special chapter on people with disabilities.

Outcome on the development of an assessment methodology on equal remuneration and how this methodology helps to reduce gender pay gap

93.The National Gender Equality Program calls on the Government of Mongolia to conduct research to ensure equal pay for equal work, reduce and eliminate wage inequalities, and effectively implement legislation to review wages in sectors where women are mostly employed.

94.In order to promote equality, the ILO’s “Gender-Neutral Job Evaluation for Equal Pay: A Step-by-Step Guide” was translated, published and distributed. The handbook states that it is part of the ILO’s efforts to eradicate discrimination and to ensure the Employment Equality Report. The handbook is intended for employers and trade unions, gender organizations and human resource managers, as well as experts on gender and equal pay. Based on the handbook, a methodology for job evaluation, occupational grouping and grading has been developed and approved by a resolution of the National Tripartite Committee on Labor and Social Consensus. In 2017-2018, public service health, pre-school, primary and secondary education institutions, and vocational education institutions were evaluated in accordance with the methodology, and job ranks were updated.

95.There is a need to revise the national wage policy in line with the Sustainable Development Concept of Mongolia 2030 approved by the Parliament of Mongolia, the revised Civil Service Law and the Labor Law, the Three Pillars Development Policy and other policy documents implemented by the Government of Mongolia and to comply with international development trends on wages. Therefore, the above issues have been reflected in the policy, and the “National Wage Policy for 2019-2024” and the action plan for its implementation have been approved and implemented by the Tripartite National Committee on Labor and Social Consensus in 2019.

Q.Reply to paragraph 16 (b) of the list of issues

96.The 5th National Occupational Safety and Health Program is being implemented in 2017-2020. By a step-by-step implementation, many issues have been resolved, improving the legal environment for labor safety and health, developing established methods of information and publicity, intensifying the activities of national and sub‑committees on labor safety and hygiene, aimag, capital city and district councils, and improving the national management system, and updating the industrial accident statistics system.

97.In the case of Mongolia, applied documents as general requirements when measuring and assessing working conditions are “The procedure for assessment of working conditions” approved by the resolution of Minister of Labor No. A/223 of 2015 and standards approved by the resolution of the National Committee on Labor Safety and Health No. 01 of 2016, including “Methodological recommendations for the assessment of working conditions in the workplace”, “Occupational safety and health, “Working conditions, their classification and factors MNS 5080: 2001”.

98.Also, the tariff scheme for workplace labor environment assessment was re‑approved by the Minister’s order No. A/74 of March 4, 2019. In addition, the Law on Occupational Safety and Health stipulates that it shall be the responsibility of an employer to conduct assessment of working conditions at least once a year if new jobs are created, if the direction and conditions of the workplace change, and if raw materials containing toxic and hazardous chemicals are used.

99.The “Open pit safety rules” approved by the joint orders of the Minister of Mining and Heavy Industry and the Minister of Labor and Social Protection No. A/231 and A/368 of December 11, 2019, have been registered and enforced by administrative norms.

R.Reply to paragraph 16 (c) of the list of issues

100.In social insurance, if the insured has paid pension insurance premiums for at least 20 years, he/she shall be entitled to an old-age pension at the age of 65. However, men who have paid insurance premiums for at least 20 years and aged 60, and women who have reached the age of 55 can receive an old-age pension if she wishes. The retirement age will be increased by 3 months every year from 2018, depending on the year of birth of the insured. In the future, the retirement age will be raised to 65 for both men and women by increasing it by 3 years.

Data on foreign and women migrant workers, disaggregated by sex, age and country of origin, and the measures taken to ensure equal application of labor laws to migrant women and the general population

101.The actual statistics of Mongolians living and working abroad vary widely. According to the MFA, in 2010 more than 134,000 Mongolians lived and worked abroad, while according to the 2010 NSO Population and Housing Census, there were about 107,000. According to the 2015 Interim Population and Housing Census, 87.4 thousand people live and work abroad.

102.According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, the vast majority of Mongolians living abroad are between the working ages of 20 and 49. The results of two surveys of Mongolians living and working abroad also show age group trends. For example, a 2005 survey found that the majority of Mongolians working abroad were young people aged 20-34 whereas according to the “Quantitative and Qualitative External Migration Survey 2016”, the majority of people were still aged 20-34.

103.The sex ratio of people living abroad is 87.4 men per 100 women. However, by destination, the majority of Mongolians in South Korea and Russia are men, while the majority of Mongolians in the United States, China, the Czech Republic, and Japan are women.

104.The Republic of Korea has the largest number of expatriates. 27.6 percent of Mongolians living and working abroad live and work in the Republic of Korea, 15.9 percent in the United States, 6.8 percent in the Czech Republic, 6.8 percent in China, 5.0 percent in Japan, and 4.7 percent in Russia.

S.Reply to paragraph 17 of the list of issues

Measures taken to revise the Criminal Code to include sexual harassment as a crime and to raise awareness for employers and employees on sexual harassment and relevant provisions of the Law on the Promotion of Gender Equality (2011)

105.Based on surveys conducted by governmental and non-governmental organizations on “Sexual harassment in the workplace”, amendments to relevant laws are being made in stages. The Sub-Committee on Human Rights of the Parliament is organizing an open discussion on “Jobs-Pressure-Free Environment” in 2019 in cooperation with relevant organizations, and is working to incorporate the proposals submitted by the parties into the Labor Law. The Petty Offence Law was also amended to provide for provisions on sexual harassment in the workplace.

106.Relevant training and information on the definition of sexual harassment in the workplace, the principles of ensuring gender equality, and the detailed regulation of grievance redressal systems in the organization’s internal labor regulations are regularly held. For example, the Minister of Defense’s Order No. A/35 of 2014 mandated that “provisions on ensuring gender equality be incorporated into the organization’s internal labor regulations.” In addition, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in accordance with its Internal Labor Regulations, provides for the employment of spouses of employees of diplomatic missions on a contract basis for services and technical jobs, to maintain family relations and gender equality.

Steps taken to extend fully paid maternity leave to 120 days in the private sector to harmonize it with the public sector

107.Mongolia, like most other countries, provides special benefits for new mothers and expectant mothers. The law provides for maternity leave and childcare leave. Maternity leave is legally 120 days and lasts for 60 days before birth and 60 days after birth. The state pays social insurance during maternity leave. Parental leave is available to all mothers (single fathers) with children under age of 3 and may vary depending on the employer. Social security contributions for the period of leave are paid by the employer to the social insurance fund on behalf of the employee. At the end of the leave, the employer is required by law to accept the employee for his or her previous job or offer him or her a new job. Fathers with children under the age of 3 can also take parental leave if they wish.

Availability and affordability of childcare facilities to allow women to balance work and family life

108.The NCGE submitted a proposal to include the concept of work-life balance in the revised draft of the Labor Law.

109.In 2017, the Parliament approved the Law on Allowances for Single Mothers and Fathers with Many Children, as effective from January 1, 2018. In order to implement this law, the Government Resolution No. 340 of 2017 approved the “Procedure for providing benefits to single mothers and fathers with many children”. Accordingly, the benefits range as MNT40.0 thousand per month for pregnant mothers from 5 months of pregnancy to childbirth, MNT50.0 thousand per month for mothers caring for children under 0-3 years of age, MNT1.0 million per month for mothers with twins per child. If you have more than 3 or more twins, you will receive a one-time allowance of MNT3.0 million per child, and a single mother and father with three or more children aged 0-18 will receive a quarterly allowance of MNT 320.0 thousand, or the minimum wage equivalent. Expenditures on these measures amounted to MNT 96.8 billion in 2018 and 2019, and MNT 109.7 billion in 2020, respectively in the annual state budget.

110.The “Paid Mother” program has been implemented since 2018. 78.4 thousand mothers gave birth in Mongolia in 2019, which is up by 3,928 (5.3%) from previous year. On one hand, this is a result of these policies to encourage population growth and support fertility. On the other hand, it has been a big support to improve the health of mothers and infants and to improve the livelihoods of families with young children and single parents with many children.

T.Reply to paragraph 18 of the list of issues

Measures taken to promote age-appropriate education on sexual and reproductive health and rights

111.The “Health” curriculum has been developed, approved by the Order No. A/467 of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science in 2018, and started to be implemented in all secondary schools. In line with the Order No. A/62 of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science in 2019, “Health” textbooks are being evaluated for compliance with the curriculum, and “Health” textbooks for grades 4-12 are being updated and used in secondary schools. In addition, training for teachers implementing health education programs was organized in 2019, and 18,000 training programs and recommendations were published and distributed. Reproductive and family education is provided to students in health, biology, social sciences, and civic education curricula in all secondary and high schools.

112.In line with the Order No. A/390 of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science in 2019, the “Civic Ethics Education” curriculum was approved for elementary, middle and high school students. “Civic Ethics Education” curriculum for middle and high school students newly includes “Family Relations”, “Ancestral background of Mongolians”, “The Importance of Recognizing Family Descendants”, “Responsibilities of Future Parents to the Family”, “Caring for Family Members”, “Compassion”, “The Importance of Helping, Respecting and Responding to Family Members”, and “Family Planning”. In addition, the school and teachers have created procedures of organizing trainings, counseling and sharing practices for parents and guardians in accordance with the “Education on Civic Ethics” training program.

Measures taken to ensure that contraceptive methods are affordable, available and accessible and to provide adequate family planning services to prevent early pregnancies

113.In 2016, the Ministry of Health, with the support of UNFPA, conducted a survey on the availability of modern contraceptives, maternal/reproductive life-saving drugs, family planning situation analysis, and quality planning for each home. It demonstrated the comprehensive knowledge of family planning providers, consumers, health care systems, and decision makers. It also provides information for newly appointed reproductive health and family planning professionals.

114.Guidelines for youth-friendly services were issued and approved in 2017 by order of the Minister of Health. These documents provide a sustainable approach to youth-friendly services, and have been renamed from “Adolescent-Friendly Health Care” to “Youth Cabinet.” These cabinets provide STI diagnosis and treatment to adolescents and young people, provide counseling, and manage health problems in 11 target aimags and 4 districts of Ulaanbaatar. In 2017, a total of 33,112 young people were served by these centers.

115.A community health center has been established at the National Center for Maternal and Child Health. A handbook on first aid for children was published and translated into Mongolian. With the support of the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, 85 percent of health workers in some selected regions were trained. In addition to conducting assessments of children’s primary care needs, the University also provided immunization services to health workers and managers for curriculum reform.

116.The MECS, in collaboration with UNDP, has updated curricula on mental health, sexual and reproductive health, prevention of gender-based violence, and nutrition. These were important advocates for the reintroduction of independent health education subjects into the secondary school curriculum. They also provided the basis for the development of guidelines for teachers and the elaboration of new curricula.

Progress made to implement the National Maternal, Child and Reproductive Health Program 2017-2021 and information on results of its monitoring

117.In 2017, the Government of Mongolia approved the National Program “Maternal, Child and Reproductive Health”. In order to implement the national program, an action plan with 5 objectives and 102 measures is being developed and implemented.

118.Since the implementation of the program, in 2018, the maternal mortality rate per 100,000 live births has decreased from 54.3 to 27.1 compared to 2009, but is still higher than the National Program’s 2020 target. In the same year, 78,199 pregnant women were newly monitored, of which 88.1 percent were monitored in early pregnancy or the first 3 months, 10.8 percent in 4-6 months, and 1.1 percent in late or more than 7 months. In urban and rural areas, 88.5 percent and 87.7 percent of pregnant women respectively received antenatal care, an increase of 1.5 percent in urban areas and 1.2 percent in rural areas compared to the previous year. Of the total number of newly monitored pregnant women, 97.8 percent had a general blood test, of which 3.4 percent had anemia, a decrease of 0.1 percent compared to the previous year. In addition, 87.5 percent of controlled births were actively monitored at 42 days postpartum, a decrease of 3.6 percent from the previous year. This is important to reduce postpartum complications and maternal mortality. There were 65,064 cases of complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period, or 844 per 1,000 live births.

119.Maternal mortality in Mongolia has dropped by almost 4.6 times since 1990, from a high maternal mortality rate to a moderate maternal mortality rate. 21 cases of maternal mortality were registered in 2018, which is 27.1 per 100,000 live births. Compared to 2017, maternal mortality has increased by 1 case or 4.7 percent, and by 0.2 deaths per 100,000 live births.

120.52.3 percent of mothers died due to complications of pregnancy, 4.7 percent due to complications during childbirth, 38.0 percent due to complications after childbirth, and 5.0 percent due to pregnancy and non-birth diseases. According to this indicator, complications of pregnancy and non-birth diseases decreased by 10.0 percent, complications of childbirth decreased by 0.3 percent, complications of pregnancy increased by 7.3 percent and postpartum complications increased by 3.0 percent compared to previous year.

121.Respiratory diseases of newborns and children under five are the leading causes of child illness in urban and rural areas. From among the respiratory diseases among infants and children under five, pneumonia accounted for 27.7 percent , acute respiratory infections for 19.6 percent, and other acute upper respiratory infections for 10.5 percent. Non-communicable diarrhea accounts for the majority or 46.9 percent of gastrointestinal diseases. As of 2018, the incidence of diseases in children and adolescents is expected to increase from previous years. For example, gastrointestinal diseases, injuries, poisoning and external disorders, skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases increased in each of the age groups up to 5, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-19 years. Non-communicable diarrhea accounted for 422.7, carries for 305.0, and dental and extra uterine diseases for 171.6 per 10,000 children under five. The leading cause of morbidity in children aged 5-9 years is dental caries which are 625.1 per 10,000 children of that age group and 622.4 dental and other side diseases..

122.Nationwide, infant mortality is declining. In 2018, 1,037 cases were registered, or 13.4 per 1,000 live births, a decrease of 0.2 from previous year. Infant mortality accounts for 64.8 percent of total child deaths, and the infant mortality rate is 8.7 per 1,000 live births.

123.A total of 672 cases of neonatal mortality were registered, of which 486 or 72.3 percent were in early infancy (first 0-6 days of life) and 186 or 27.7 percent were in late infancy (first 7-28 days of life). 58.0 percent of infant deaths were boys and 42.0 percent were girls. 1,310 children under the age of five died, or 16.9 per 1,000 live births. Compared to the previous year, there was an increase of 66 cases or 0.2 per 1,000 live births. The mortality rate was 19.0 per 1,000 live births and 14.6 per 1,000 live births.

124.The abortion rate is declining. In 2018, 15,822 cases were registered, with 204.0 abortions per 1,000 live births and 18.8 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Abortions decreased by 1,708 cases or 10.7 percent from the year over, and by 31.8 cases per 1,000 live births. In terms of age, 5.5 percent of women undergoing abortion were under the age of 20, 68.3 percent were between the ages of 20 and 34, and 26.2 percent were women over the age of 35. Compared to the previous year, the abortion rate under the age of 20 increased by 0.3 percent. 11.9 percent of aborted women did not give birth and the number of first-time abortions increased by 141 cases or 9.3 percent compared to the previous year. Complications of abortion were reported in 14 cases, of which 35.7 percent were due to weakened uterine contractions and hemorrhage, 50.0 percent to peritonitis, and 14.3 percent to uterine rupture.

Progress made to implement National Communicable Diseases Program 2017‑2021, and information on results of its monitoring

125.Infectious diseases are on a constant decline, but remain a problem. In 2018, 42,074 cases of 27 types of infectious diseases were registered nationwide, which is a decrease by 2,226 cases compared to the year over or 132.4 per 10,000 population, which is a decrease of 12.5 compared to the same period of the previous year. Compared to the year over, the number of infectious diseases registered in the country increased by 0.1-6.5 per 10,000 population, including dysentery, gonococcal infections, other bacterial infections, fungal infections, trichomoniasis, infectious gastroenteritis and diarrhea, neonatal bacterial pneumonia, and dengue fever.

126.In the same year, 31.2 percent of all infectious diseases registered in the country were respiratory infections, 38.3 percent were sexually transmitted infections, 24.3 percent were intestinal infections, 0.9 percent were blood infections, 0.9 percent were zoonotic infections and 4.4 percent were other infections. At the national level, polio has been completely eradicated, tetanus has not been reported in the last decade, and the WHO Regional Hepatitis B Program target has been met. As of 2017, 117 people died of infectious diseases, of which 80 were caused by tuberculosis, 13 by congenital syphilis and 6 by viral hepatitis.

127.Regular training of physicians on HIV/AIDS care and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV has strengthened their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and diagnostic and treatment capabilities. The establishment of voluntary HIV testing and counseling centers nationwide and the provision of services in accordance with standard operating guidelines have increased HIV/AIDS prevention and early detection. In addition, the inclusion of each detected case in the necessary care has played an important role in controlling the spread of infection. The involvement of other sectors in HIV/AIDS prevention activities has increased and the capacity of non-governmental organizations has been strengthened.

Steps taken to ensure access to sexual and reproductive health services and information for disadvantaged groups of women and girls

128.According to the Law on Health, FGPs, soum and village health centers, palliative care centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, public health centers, general hospitals, sanatoriums, ambulances and rehabilitation centers, specialized centers, specialized hospitals and nursing centers provide health care to people with disabilities.

129.The 18th report of the NHRCM on the situation of human rights and freedoms in Mongolia in 2019 includes the results of a study to assess the state of reproductive health and the implementation of the rights of women with disabilities. According to the survey results, Mongolia has a legal environment for equal access to social and health care services that meet the specific needs of persons with disabilities in accordance with international agreements, Mongolian laws and policy documents. Yet, the implementation mechanism is not fully operational, the functions of public administration and executive bodies are general, in some cases unclear, and the quality of life of people with disabilities is not significantly affected due to the insufficient attitudes and knowledge of law enforcement officials. Furthermore, the implementation of these laws does not take into account the different needs and ages of men and women, and the issue of women with disabilities is often overlooked.

130.The government’s population development policy sets the goal of “ensuring sustainable population growth, creating a favorable environment for people to live long, healthy and productive lives, and improving the quality of life of individuals and families” in line with Mongolia’s sustainable development concept. Lack of social, economic and development services that meet the specific needs of women with disabilities leads to violations of the sexual and reproductive rights of women with disabilities. For example, aimag and district general hospitals do not have accessible examination beds for women with spinal disabilities, reception services for women with visual and hearing impairments, sign language interpreters and translators. Additionally, the records of all levels of health care providers do not include questions about women with disabilities, so there is no national data on what types of services these women receive and how many women receive them each year. Due to the lack of this type of research and data, there is no policy or planning on the issue, and the services are not tailored to their specific needs.

131.People with disabilities want to live independently and participate in society, but they have limited opportunities to study, work, participate in social activities, get married, receive services from hospitals, schools and community organizations, travel by car, and have access to useful information. For example, in Mongolia, family members interfere with the rights of persons with disabilities to marry, have sexual partners, have children, and be parents. As the state has a responsibility to ensure the reproductive rights of women with disabilities, it is important to document the issues on the basis of data and research and bring them to the attention of policy makers, decision makers and the public.

Training for medical personnel to respond to their specific needs

132.There is a need to intensify training for health workers on the specifics of disability and how to serve them, but no significant action has been taken.

133.The NHRC of Mongolia has submitted a proposal to the Parliament of Mongolia for a decision the action on which is being studied. The proposal addresses the following issues related to the sexual and reproductive health of women with disabilities:

•Creation of information pool on health aid and service for women with disability at the central administrative body in charge of health, strengthening the information collection system and application of research and information in decision-making.

•The training package for health and social workers should include modules on rights and social life models for the disabled and should be organized at stages.

•Creation of environment for universal access to consultations and information on reproductive life and equipment of reproductive cabinets and birth chambers with necessities for the disabled people, at aimag and capital city health institutions.

•Assessment and monitoring of rules and regulations applied in the health sector in order to make them compliant with the reproductive rights of the disabled people as provided for in the Convention and the Law on the Rights of the Disabled

U.Reply to paragraph 19 of the list of issues

Measures to ensure access to health services, including newly established adolescent and youth friendly clinics, to all children, including girls, in particular those living in rural areas and from low-income families

134.With the UNFPA support, 21 Youth Development Centers, 21 Adolescent and Youth Friendly Clinics, 6 One-Stop Shops, and a telemedicine network to support maternal and neonatal health were established nationwide. These clinics provide STI services and counseling to adolescents and young people, address health issues, refer patients to specialized hospitals, and provide peer training. For example, the Adolescent Clinic at the NHRCM provides health care services; health advice and information; psychological care; social worker care; provides public health services.

135.Training on the use of CHANNEL software for monitoring the general physical development of adolescent girls and boys, the ability to diagnose, treat and counsel on diseases, the implementation of guidelines for the provision of health care for adolescents and young people, job descriptions, support and management skills, and the supply of RH drugs was organized by the National Center for Health Promotion and the Ministry of Health. The training was attended by a total of 150 service providers, including doctors and counselors from adolescent-friendly clinics and reproductive health coordinators, and supply managers from aimag and district hospitals.

136.In February 2017, with the support of the Ministry of Health and UNFPA, four meetings, discussions and seminars on “Adolescent Reproductive and Mental Health Challenges” were held as part of the “Innovative and Creative Addressing of Adolescent Health Challenges”. In November 2017, “Tobacco is not your choice” an advocacy meeting was held with more than 20 journalists on the issue of tobacco, a secondary cause of non-communicable diseases.

137.In collaboration with the MECS, more than 80 secondary school administrators, teachers, social workers and doctors provided participants with two types of manuals, one poster and a video on “Menstrual Hygiene in Adolescent Girls”. The package was introduced and two types of printed manuals were distributed.

Efforts made to prevent suicide among adolescent, particularly girls, and provide them with mental health service

138.According to the Health Development Center statistics, in 2018, one in five people aged 20-29, one in four people aged 15-24, and one in seven people aged 10-14 and 30-34 committed suicide. The highest proportion of suicides among the male population is between the ages of 20 and 24, and the highest among women is between the ages of 15 and 19. In addition, in terms of age group and cause of death, suicide is predominant, especially among adolescents and young people, and the majority of them are men. For example, 66.7 percent of 10-14 year olds, 72.1 percent of 15-19 year olds, 81.8 percent of 20-24 year olds, 91.2 percent of 25-29 year olds and 86.8 percent of 30-34 year olds who committed suicide are men.

139.The Ministry of Health and the MECS issued a joint order in December 2018 to employ psychologists in schools, but due to budget and financial issues, there is a limited number of schools that employ psychologists.

140.Adolescent Clinics and Youth Development Centers provide information on mental health issues (stress, depression), psychological care or assessment of the psychological state of adolescents, diagnosis, psychological counseling, treatment for adolescents, their families and caregivers and organizes counseling, psychological education, healthy behavior guidance, support group activities, and training.

141.Under the National Program for the Development and Protection of Children from Noncommunicable Diseases, a national action plan to promote the mental health of adolescents was developed with the technical assistance of UNFPA and with the participation of a multilateral working group. For the first time, guidelines for adolescent mental health professionals have been developed.

142.UNICEF Mongolia has developed and introduced gender-sensitive mental health tools and methodologies to prevent sexually transmitted infections. The organization conducted a health assessment of gender-sensitive adolescents. This provided an opportunity to map regional health issues among adolescents.

Progress made to implement the National Action Plan 2018-2021 on cervical cancer

143.According to the Health Development Center statistics, in 2018, a total of 85,278 women of the target age were screened for cervical cancer, which is 37.4 percent of the eligible women. Of these clients, 5.0 percent had pap-positive or cervical cell changes.

Measures taken to address air pollution with regard to women’s health

144.The Government Action Plan for 2016-2020 sets the goal of “reducing air, water and soil pollution in urban areas and implementing effective waste management” and is taking effective measures to reduce air pollution. For example, “ the National Program for Air and Environmental Pollution Reduction, 2017-2025” has been approved and is being implemented in order to reduce air and environmental pollution and create a healthy and safe environment by planning cities and settlements that provide healthy and safe living conditions for citizens, increasing the quality and accessibility of infrastructure facilities, reducing sources of pollution, and developing good living practices for the population.

145.The overpopulation of the capital city of Ulaanbaatar in recent years has negatively affected urban development, planning, environment and ecological security, leading to unplanned settlements, crime, increasing traffic congestion, overburdened public health and social welfare services. The failure of the sector has hampered all aspects of economic and social relations. This situation seriously violates the right of Ulaanbaatar residents to live in a healthy and safe environment, and to protect them from environmental pollution and environmental imbalances, as stated in Article 16.2 of the Constitution of Mongolia. Order of the Governor of the Capital City and Mayor of Ulaanbaatar No.A/17 of January 9, 2018 temporarily suspended the movement of people from rural areas to Ulaanbaatar for permanent residence until January 1, 2018. The ban was re-issued in December 2017 and extended until January 1, 2020.

146.There is a National Committee assigned to reduce environmental pollution. In addition, on May 15, 2019, the Government’s decision not to allow raw coal, which is a major factor in air pollution, into the capital city for household purposes, and not to use raw coal in ger districts came into force. Improved fuels are being used instead of raw coal, and many activities are being carried out to provide improved fuel to ger area households, replace historical coal-fired boilers with gas and water heating boilers, monitor air pollution in ger areas, and conduct habitat surveys.

147.The Government of Mongolia, in cooperation with international and donor organizations, is undertaking a number of countermeasures to reduce air pollution and reduce the negative health effects of air pollution. For example, UNFPA, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and the MLSP conducted a study entitled “Mongolia’s Air Pollution Crisis: Let’s Take Action to Protect Children’s Health.” UNFPA, in collaboration with the Institute of Public Health, conducted an emergency air quality assessment of school and kindergarten buildings. UNFPA, in collaboration with the Ulaanbaatar City Health Department, has developed an urgent assessment of how the health sector is coping with the impact of air pollution on children’s health in the cold season of 2017-2018. UNFPA, in collaboration with the National Center for Mother and Child Health of Mongolia, implemented a pilot project to improve health services in FGPs for the treatment of children’s diseases caused by air pollution. UNFPA has partnered with the Mongolian Scout Association to develop handouts on air pollution and children’s health, including youth participation.

148.Air pollution is associated with two of the five most common diseases in Mongolia, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and is the leading cause of death. Air pollution affects the health of infants, young children, and pregnant women in particular, and can lead to respiratory diseases, impaired lung function, premature births, brain disorders, and developmental delays. According to the NSO’s 2019 Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Survey in Ulaanbaatar, the number of premature births per 1,000 live births, a disease related to air pollution, has been on the rise for the past five years, increased from 2016 to 81 in 2018, an increase by 30 since 2014. The number of children with congenital malformations per 1,000 live births has been declining since 2014, reaching 6 in 2018, down by 2 from 2014. The stillbirth rate increased from 6 to 8 in 2014-2015 and decreased from 2016. The rate of congenital malformations and stillbirths per 1,000 live births has increased over the past five years, month by month, compared to air pollution, and the number of birth defects and stillbirths has increased in the following months.

149.The stillbirth rate was highest in September-November 2015 at 10-12. The stillbirth rate was 6 in December 2018, down 4 from the previous month. Air pollution in Ulaanbaatar is highest in December and January, while births per 1,000 live births are highest in October and June 2014, compared to 12-13 in October 2014 and 2015, respectively. However, the number of congenital anomalies per 1,000 live births was the highest in December 2018 at 14, doubling from the previous month.

150.Another indicator of the reproductive system is premature births per 1,000 live births (22 to 36 weeks), which increase during the months of high air pollution. Premature births per 1,000 live births in Ulaanbaatar increased from 52 in January 2014 to 83-98 in January-March 2015, an increase from December. The average for January-May 2018 was the highest at 87, an increase of 8 from the previous year’s average and 14 from the 2016 average.

151.A stillbirth is when the fetus dies for some reason and the fetus stops developing. The main causes of stillbirths are the mother’s health, as well as the environment in which she lives, the air she breathes, and the food she consumes. Nationwide, the number of non-developing pregnancies per 1,000 live births has increased steadily in 2014-2017 and decreased in 2018 from the previous year. The trend is similar in Ulaanbaatar, but above the national average. For example, in 2018, the number of stillbirths per 1,000 live births was 69, 15 times higher than the national average and 3.3 times higher than the 2014 city level.

152.Correlated to the average monthly air pollution rate for the last 5 years, the number of stillbirth per 1,000 live births in Ulaanbaatar also increased in the following months of the month with the highest air pollution.

153.The cost of air pollution is very high. In direct relation to air pollution in Ulaanbaatar, public health expenditures in 2017-2025 are estimated at MNT 24.5 billion, and some indirect expenditures (such as declining income due to patient care) are estimated at MNT 46.6 billion.

154.Air quality needs to be improved to acceptable levels. However, it will take some time to resolve this issue. This is because investments for long-term returns are needed now, but this is not feasible at a time when the current government’s financial resources are limited. Therefore, within the framework of medium-term solutions, it is urgent to take measures to target children and pregnant women who are most affected by air pollution. These include the vaccination against pneumonia; to provide free of charge high-quality medicines for outpatient treatment of children suffering from air pollution-related diseases in the districts with the highest air pollution; provide accurate and factual information to antenatal and neonatal mothers through training for health workers; to improve indoor air quality in schools, kindergartens and hospitals where children spend a lot of time; to make recommendations on the use of high quality smoke masks; and conducting advocacy campaigns to change behavior. . These measures are short-term solutions to protect the health of children who are most vulnerable and susceptible to air pollution.

V.Reply to paragraph 20 of the list of issues

155.Although economic growth is on the rise, inequality among various social groups is having a negative impact on Mongolia’s development. It hinders human and economic development and poses a significant risk to the guarantee of individual freedom, health and life. Inequality in participation, representation and decision-making in economic and political processes persists. Statistics and research show that people in aimag and soum centers are more vulnerable to income poverty, while rural people are more vulnerable to poverty due to poor infrastructure, poor access to markets, inefficient traditional livestock breeding, and small numbers of livestock. Rural herders are highly impoverished, with few livestock, limited sources of income, and lack of access to social insurance. Rural people have limited access to paid employment due to their dependence on livestock. Therefore, it is more dependent and vulnerable to natural disasters such as drought and dzud.

156.Poverty and poor health remain in rural areas due to limited access to health care. Access to public services is still limited, with women and children suffering the most.

157.According to the joint estimates by the NSO and the World Bank, the poverty rate in Mongolia decreased by 1.2 percentage points from 29.6 percent in 2016 to 28.4 percent in 2018. The concentration of the poor in urban areas is increasing. Between 2016 and 2018, poverty in rural areas decreased by 4.1 percentage points, while in urban areas it increased by 0.1 percentage points. Poverty remains high in rural areas, but is growing in urban areas, where two-thirds of Mongolia’s population lives in urban areas. The share of the poor living in urban areas increased from 62.1 in 2016 to 63.5 in 2018, and in 2018, 41.8 percent of the total poor lived in Ulaanbaatar.

W.Reply to paragraph 21 of the list of issues

158.The Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry organized the translation and dissemination of the Resolution on “Improving the situation of rural women” adopted by the 72nd session of the UN General Assembly.

159.265 trainings were organized and a number of methodological recommendations and support actions were taken aimed at organizing and empowering herders in the soums involved in the Green Gold Animal Health Project, concluding pasture use plans and contracts, and improving knowledge and information on rational use, protection and monitoring of pastures based on ecological capacity. A total of 27,862 stakeholders participated in the training, of which 21,344 or 77 percent were herders. Women accounted for 8,630 or 40 percent of the trained herders.

160.The Government of Mongolia is implementing a special program to create jobs for people with and without livestock by supporting herder employment.

161.For example, as of December 2019, 6,086 herder citizens from 4,253 rural households were involved in the herder employment support program which spent MNT5,600.7 million. The program contributes to the reduction of poverty in rural households by implementing a number of measures, including restocking, entrepreneurship, herding training, exchange of experience, and employment of contracted herder households. It is not possible to disaggregate the data on program participants by gender.

162.Although the Constitution of Mongolia, the Civil Code, and the Law on Allocation of Land to Citizens of Mongolia provide equal access to land and property rights, women’s right to own property is still limited by certain factors. According to the NSO’s 2018 survey, men own almost two times as many dwellings (homes) as women, 3-6 times more of agricultural lands, and 1.5 times as much for other real estates. Traditional attitudes towards gender and women’s lack of awareness of property rights are major barriers to gender equality.

163.In order to support herder women in pasture management, production of handicrafts, and increase of household income, a small project competition was launched to increase household income by producing handicrafts and selling them on the market, which helped connect woman entrepreneurs with the market. In 2018, MNT41 million in interest-free investment loans were provided to 13 projects in the leather, wool and textile industries.

164.The project provides support to improve pasture management, make pasture use accountable, enforce pasture use agreements, adjust the number of livestock to pasture carrying capacity, develop and implement herd rotation schemes, keep livestock healthy, increase fodder supply during winter and spring, and support female herders.

Rural development strategies

165.Based on the Concept of Sustainable Development of Mongolia 2030, National Program on Gender Equality /2017-2021/, State Policy on Food and Agriculture /2014-2025/, State Policy on Herders /2009-2020/, State Program on Industry / 2015-2030 /, the unified gender policy of the food, agriculture and light industry sector has been approved and implemented by the order No. A /77 of the MFALI in 2018. The policy identifies different gender needs and challenges of public and private sector employees, herders, farmers, producers, households, groups and communities, integrates them into sector policy planning, and contributes to improving their working conditions and quality of life, products and services. In January 2020, the “Mongolian Herder” national program was approved.

Climate change, disaster response and risk reduction policies and action plans

166.The Government of Mongolia is fully aware of the causes and effects of climate change and is fulfilling its obligations under international treaties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and taking a number of measures at the national level as well.

167.The NCGE is implementing a project with the ADB on “Strengthening Women’s Capacity to Cope with Climate Change and Disaster Risk in Asia and the Pacific.” The project is conducting an analysis of the policy and legal environment related to disaster risk management, including risk reduction, preparedness, response and rehabilitation. In order to increase the effectiveness of the project and ensure the cross-sectoral coherence, a Project Steering Committee has been established with representatives of line ministries and professional organizations.

Industrial operations, particularly in the mining sector

168.By order of the State Secretary of the Ministry of Mining and Heavy Industry, a gender impact assessment of the sector was conducted and a gender policy for the mineral resources sector was developed and approved. A conference for women geologists, a workshop on international experience in gender equality in the mining sector, and a workshop on improving the management of the mineral sector were organized in collaboration with the SESMIM and MERIT projects and involved about 300 industry workers.

Steps taken to enhance the participation of rural women in decision-making, including through the use of temporary special measures to increase female representatives in local councils

169.The NCGE provided technical and methodological support for the development and approval of gender policy documents in the health, education, and agricultural sectors based on participatory gender assessments. These sector policy documents address issues such as addressing the gender specific needs of women in the sector, ensuring gender balance in the sector, and promoting gender-sensitive access to sector products and services to beneficiaries.

170.Within the framework of introducing the concept of gender equality in local development policy, 18 aimags have gender sub-programs which help introduce gender concepts to local issues.

171.From 2018, the National Committee on Gender Equality aims to establish a good experience in the field of gender equality at the local level and disseminate it at the national level. In this context, activities on building gender-sensitive organizational culture for work-life balance have been implemented at the Police Department and Emergency Management Agency of Arkhangai aimag.

172.A national workshop was organized to increase the participation of rural women in decision-making. A total of 124 local representatives and heads of secretariats from 21 aimags, and 9 districts of the Capital city participated in the national workshop and reached a consensus on “Introducing the concept of gender equality in local self-government policies and activities”. Delegates agreed to exercise their mandate under the Law of Mongolia on Promotion of Gender Equality and contribute to gender-sensitive local development policy and planning.

173.The share of women in pasture management systems is increasing. The Mongolian Association of Women Leaders is working with the Mongolian Federation of Pasture users to ensure that women are appointed to leadership positions in the associations of Pasture users, the Aimag pasture users’ associations, and the Soum pasture users’ associations to improve their leadership skills, and to help women members learn new skills. As a result, the number of women in management positions in the Association of Pasture users, the Aimag pasture users’ associations, and the Soum pasture users’ associations,, and cooperatives increased by 61 from 376 in 2018 to 437 in 2019. A total of 214 women are the leaders of the pasture users’ associations, of which 44 are at the level of soums and 7 are the executive directors of the aimag associations.

174.In 2019, there are 1,768 (18 Aimag pasture users’ associations, 157 Soum pasture users’ associations, 1,488 local pasture users’ associations and 105 cooperatives) herder organizations, where 437 women (at 25 percent of the total entities) work in senior management positions, which is an increase of 2.5 percent compared to 2018.

X.Reply to paragraph 22 of the list of issues

175.The largest ethnic minorities in Mongolia are Kazakhs (Khasag), Tsaatan (Dukha), and Tuvans. 84.5 percent of Mongolia’s population is Khalkh, 3.9 percent is Kazakh, 2.4 percent is Durvud, 1.7 percent is Bayad, and 1.3 percent is Buryat, which is about 94 percent of the country’s population. In terms of location, Khalkhs live in all aimags and the capital city, with Khovd at 28.4 percent, Uvs at 13.8 percent, and Bayan-Ulgii at 1.2 percent. More than 99 percent of population in Bayankhongor, Gobi-Altai, Dundgobi, Zavkhan and Umnugobi aimags are Khalkhs. According to the 2010 census, most of the Tsaatan, Tuva, Kazakh, and Darkhad population lived in rural areas, while according to the 2015 census, many of them moved to urban areas.

176.89.8 percent of the population of Bayan-Ulgii aimag are Kazakhs, 5.7 percent are Uriankhais, and the rest are Tuvans, Khalkhs, Durvuds, Buryats, Bayads, Uulds, Zakhchins and other ethnic groups. People with disabilities make up 2.9 percent of all Kazakhs. If we look at the level of education of Kazakhs aged 6 and over, 77.4 percent are educated and 22.6 percent are uneducated.

177.Educated women in Bayan-Ulgii, especially those with a bachelor’s or master’s degree or higher, have seen a steady increase over the past 15 years, 2.0 percentage points higher than men. Of the 43 general education schools in the aimag, 2 are Mongolian, 1 is Mongolian-English-Turkish, 6 are Mongolian and Kazakh, 1 is Tuvan and Mongolian, and 33 are Kazakh.

178.As for the Tuva ethnic group, most of them live in Khuvsgul aimag, as well as in Bayan-Ulgii, Selenge, Khovd, Darkhan-Uul and Tuv aimags. People with disabilities make up 3.1 percent of Tuvans’ population.

179.The Government of Mongolia is constantly pursuing a policy of reform to meet the specific educational needs of the Kazakh and Tuvan ethnic minorities and to improve access to and quality of education. Article 5.1.4 of the Law on Education of Mongolia states that “Ethnicity, language, race, age, sex, developmental characteristics, health, social origin, status, wealth, occupation, position, religion and ideology shall not become the basis for discrimination in providing educational and learning opportunities for citizens who should be given equal access to and conditions for learning in their mother tongues”. Its Article 30.1.12 authorizes the aimag and capital city governors to “organize the creation of conditions for the ethnic minorities to become educated, to inherit their culture and traditions and to communicate with each other in their mother tongues at schools”.

180.Although the right of Mongolian minorities to be educated in their mother tongue and to inherit their culture is enshrined in the Constitution and is generally addressed within the framework of some relevant laws, programs and plans, the curriculum and national characteristics of ethnic minority schools, there is still a lack of detailed regulations on programs, standards, curricula, or textbooks for specialized subjects of ethnical nature at schools with teaching in minority languages.

181.The Tuvan (Dukha) people of the Uighur ethnic group living in the reindeer herding taiga, which make up the second bagh of Tsagaannuur soum, Khuvsgul aimag, are the smallest ethnic group in Mongolia. The Tsaatan people live in high mountains, more than 1,000 km remotely from Ulaanbaatar, more than 300 km from Khuvsgul aimag center, and 50-70 km from Tsagaannuur soum center. According to the 2010 population and housing census, there are 664 people from 138 Tsaatan households in Tsagaannuur soum, of which 436 are pure reindeers and 228 are with a mixed living. Most reindeer herders sew, sell, carve wood, fish, collect and sell natural gifts, hunt, sell reindeer, and earn money by guiding tourists in the summer. Tsaatan children do not have access to pre-school education and live in a mixed Tuvan and Mongolian language environment until enrolling in school. During the winter, spring, and fall seasons, when illness increases due to the cold, it is often difficult to get medical care. Because the road is covered with 40-60 cm of snow, it is often closed in winter.

182.In accordance with Government Resolution No. 168 of 2013, 368 people from 95 households (155 children, 213 adults) in 2016, 382 people in 2017 and 369 people in 2018 were covered by the monthly family allowance to improve the living conditions of Tsaatan people. In 2016 and 2017, a total of 164 people were covered by the state’s social insurance premiums for reindeer herders. The number of people receiving pensions from the social insurance fund is 36. All Tsaatan children are entitled to child benefits.

183.Order A/198 of the Minister of Labor and Social Welfare dated July 10, 2018 approved the cash benefits to be provided to reindeer herders living in the taiga. According to the decision, the cash allowance equals to 50 percent for children and 100 percent for adults that of the minimum living standard’s rate in the Khangai region. The following people are eligible for benefits. These include, A) reindeer herders living in the taiga for the last 12 months or more; b) citizens of other ethnic groups who are married to reindeer herders and herd reindeer in the taiga; c) a child attending school in a reindeer herder’s nearest settlement and a family member caring for the child; d) an elderly retired person, a person with a disability, a person in need of medical treatment, a person in need of permanent care and a family member caring for a reindeer herder living in the center of Tsagaan Nuur soum. The provision of social protection services for the people living in the taiga has improved the social security of the reindeer herders.

184.In order to enroll Tsaatan people in universities, a special quota for Tsaatan people has been established in Khuvsgul aimag, and 5 children are enrolled in universities in 2017. Their tuition is a grant by the state treasury.

185.Although all Tsaatan people participate in elections, their knowledge and understanding of who they are voting for and why they are voting is extremely poor. The lack of information tends to force them to follow gossips and examples of friends and parents in voting. There are 6 representatives of Tsaatan people in the local Hural and administrative organizations.

Measures taken to implement and monitor the National Program on Promoting Human Rights, Participation and Development of Persons with Disabilities (2017) as well as the Law on the Rights of Person with Disabilities (2016)

186.The National Program for Promotion of the Rights, Participation and Development of Persons with Disabilities includes 7 outcome indicators and 116 performance indicators, and its implementation is monitored by these indicators.

187.The General Agency for Development of Persons with Disabilities, an implementing agency of the Government responsible for providing professional and methodological guidance for the implementation of laws and national programs, was established in 2018. The agency employs 35 people and is actively involved in the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and related laws and regulations, intersectoral coordination, development of PWDs, promotion of their participation in societal life and access to public services.

188.Measures are taken to appropriate the source of funds required for the implementation of the program in the annual state budget, and MNT 170 mln was allocated in 2018 and MNT 500.0 mln. in 2019 for financing respective actions.

189.Sub-councils and branch councils for the protection of the rights of persons with disabilities are accustomed to approving annual work plans and budgets for the implementation of activities related to the activities of the sector included in the National Program for the Promotion of the Rights, Participation and Development of Persons with Disabilities. In 2019, ministries such as the MLSP, the MH, the MECS, and the MFALI earmarked a certain amount of funds for their sub-council plans and budgets. In addition, aimag and capital city sub-councils are working to resolve capital issues by allocating a certain amount of funds to local budgets or financing certain measures for people with disabilities from local budgets. However, due to the country’s economic situation, it is still difficult for the state and local budgets to allocate sufficient funds for the implementation of the Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the National Program for the Rights, Participation and Development of Persons with Disabilities.

190.With the support of international organizations, measures are being taken to implement projects and programs and increase funding sources as needed. For example, ADB’s soft loan and a $ 27 million grant from the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction, the Disability Participation and Services Improvement Project, and the Japan International Cooperation Agency’s Disability Improvement Project in Ulaanbaatar are being implemented.

Y.Reply to paragraph 23 of the list of issues

191.Paragraph 37 and Paragraph 38 of the Concluding Observations (CEDAW/C/MNG/8-9) do not touch upon the issues in this regard.

192.The issues of the joint property of family members in a divorce process are regulated by Articles 84, 126, 129, 130 of the Civil Code of 2002 and Article 3.1.4 of the 1999 Family Law. In addition, an opinion by the Chamber for Civil Cases of the Supreme Court on “Some issues to be considered in resolving family disputes /Review/”, its Resolution No.46 of 2008 “On interpretation of some provisions of the Laws on Family and Civil Registration”, and 2007 Recommendations on “Court Resolution of Family Disputes” are also applied.

193.Divorced women often take care of their children, while divorced husbands often refuse to pay child support/allowance. According to women’s rights activists, family property and businesses are often registered in the name of the head of the household, leaving the husband with direct ownership of the property in the event of a divorce. See Section 17 for information on support for single mothers and single mother families, such as childcare allowances and measures taken to increase these and other benefits.

Z.Reply to paragraph 24 of the list of issues

194.The charter of the National Committee on Gender, approved by Government Resolution No.323, stipulates that the branch council of the Committee at each ministry shall be chaired by the State Secretary of the Ministry and the sub-committee of the Committee at each aimag and soum shall be chaired by the respective level Governor. Within this framework, a Gender Branch Council /13/ has been established at each State Central Administrative Body, and a Gender Sub-Committee /31/ - in aimags, the capital city and districts of the capital city. In addition, gender sub‑councils have been established in some organizations, including the Ministry of Finance to support the process of ensuring gender equality at the sectoral level.

195.Sixty percent of the government sectors, or eight sectors, have adopted gender policies and one sector has adopted and implemented gender equality action plans. These include Gender strategy documents adopted by 9 ministries.

196.In the framework of developing a unified gender policy, a participatory gender assessment in Mongolian diplomatic organizations, and a gender assessment in the health sector have been carried out respectively in 2019, and follow up gender policy discussions are underway. In addition, development of a unified gender policy for the defence sector is in process.

197.As a result of the providing of guidances for cooperation with soums, bags and khoroos on gender equality, 90 percent of aimags, or 18 aimags, and 2 districts of the Capital city, have adopted and implemented gender sub-programs.

198.The Guidances for the Development and Implementation of Gender Equality Plans for Business Organizations were issued, and based on them, the “Policy on Gender Sensitive Development of Workplaces” was approved by the 2019-2020 Tripartite National Agreement on Labor and Social Consensus.