* Adopted by the Committee at its eighty-second session ( 13 June– 1 July 2022 ).
Concluding observations on the tenth periodic report of Mongolia *
1.The Committee considered the tenth periodic report of Mongolia (CEDAW/C/MNG/10), submitted under the simplified reporting procedure, at its 1895th and 1897th meetings (CEDAW/C/SR.1895 and CEDAW/C/SR.1897), held on 23 and 24 June 2022.
2.The Committee appreciates the submission by the State party of its tenth periodic report, which was prepared in response to the list of issues prior to reporting (CEDAW/C/MNG/QPR/10). It also appreciates the State party’s follow-up report to the previous concluding observations of the Committee (CEDAW/C/MNG/CO/8-9/ Add.1). It welcomes the oral presentation by the delegation and the further clarifications provided in writing in response to the questions posed orally by the Committee during the dialogue.
3.The Committee commends the State party on its multisectoral delegation, which was headed by the Deputy Minister for Labour and Social Protection, Sarkhad Zulpkhar, and included representatives of the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, the Ministry of Economy and Development, the Ministry of Construction and Urban Development, the Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Digital Development, the Ministry of Energy, the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry, the Ministry of Mining and Heavy Industry, the Ministry of Road and Transport Development, the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs, and the National Committee on Gender Equality, and the Permanent Representative of Mongolia to the United Nations and other international organizations in Geneva.
4.The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2016 of the State party’s combined eighth and ninth periodic reports (CEDAW/C/MNG/8-9) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of the following:
(a)Revised Law on the National Human Rights Commission of Mongolia, which provides for a budget for the implementation of its activities, in January 2020;
(b)Revised Law on Combating Domestic Violence, which criminalizes domestic violence, in 2016.
5.The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the adoption of the following:
(a)National Wage Policy for 2019–2024 and the related action plan, which are aimed at promoting equal pay for work of equal value, in 2019;
(b)National Programme on Gender Equality (2017–2021), in 2017;
(c)Resolutions Nos. 111 and 285, which established the Secretariat of the National Committee on Gender Equality as an independent unit under the Prime Minister, in 2018.
C.Sustainable Development Goals
6. The Committee welcomes the international support for the Sustainable Development Goals and calls for the realization of de jure (legal) and de facto (substantive) gender equality, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, throughout the process of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Committee recalls the importance of Goal 5 and of the mainstreaming of the principles of equality and non-discrimination throughout all 17 Goals. It urges the State party to recognize women as the driving force of its sustainable development and to adopt relevant policies and strategies to that effect.
7. The Committee stresses the crucial role of the legislative power in ensuring the full implementation of the Convention (see A/65/38 , part two, annex VI). It invites the State Great Hural (parliament) of Mongolia, in line with its mandate, to take the necessary steps regarding the implementation of the present concluding observations between now and the submission of the next periodic report under the Convention.
E.Principal areas of concern and recommendations
Women’s rights and gender equality in relation to the pandemic and recovery efforts
8.The Committee welcomes the adoption of the resolution on “The second package of measures to recover economy and improve social protection of vulnerable groups of society,” which led to an increase in child cash benefits, as well as cash benefit allocations to citizens as financial support, allocations for vaccination, monthly allocations to caregivers of older persons and persons with disabilities, and allocations to caregivers of children with disabilities. However, the Committee notes that no specific measures have been adopted to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on the enjoyment by women of their rights.
9. The Committee, in line with its guidance note on the obligations of States parties to the Convention in the context of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, issued on 22 April 2020, recommends that the State party:
(a) Implement institutional, legislative and policy measures to redress long-standing inequalities between women and men and to give renewed impetus to the achievement of gender equality by placing women at the centre of COVID-19 recovery strategies as a strategic priority for sustainable change, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals;
(b) Ensure that, in the context of post-crisis recovery plans, women and girls are not relegated to stereotypical gender roles;
(c) Ensure the equal participation of women and girls, including disadvantaged and marginalized groups of women, in the design and implementation of COVID-19 recovery programmes;
(d) Ensure that women and girls benefit equally from stimulus packages, including financial support for unpaid care work, aimed at mitigating the socioeconomic impact of the pandemic.
Implementation and visibility of the Convention
10.The Committee notes that the Constitution of the State party provides that international treaties and conventions should be enforced in the same manner as national legislation once a treaty has been ratified. However, it notes the absence of registered court cases making reference to the provisions of the Convention. It also notes with concern that women, in particular rural women and women herders, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women and women with disabilities, are often not aware of their rights under the Convention and the remedies available to them.
11. Recalling its previous recommendation ( CEDAW/C/MNG/CO/8-9 , para. 9), the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Provide systematic capacity-building and training for government officials, judges, prosecutors, police officers and other law enforcement officials, as well as lawyers, on the Convention;
(b) Enhance awareness among women of their rights under the Convention and the legal remedies available to them to claim violations of such rights and ensure that information on the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendations is accessible to all women, including women belonging to disadvantaged and marginalized groups such as rural women and women herders, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women and women with disabilities.
Legal framework for prohibition of discrimination against women
12.The Committee notes that articles 14 and 16 of the Constitution of the State party prohibit discrimination against women, and that chapter 14 of the Criminal Code (2015, revised), which deals with crimes against personal and political rights and freedoms, qualifies “discrimination” as a crime (article 14.1). However, it notes the absence of any court cases of discrimination against women and girls tried under the Criminal Code in the past five years, which may indicate too narrow a definition of discrimination against women and an excessive burden of proof on women.
13. Recalling the links between articles 1 and 2 of the Convention and target 5.1 of the Sustainable Development Goals, to end all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere, the Committee calls upon the State party to:
(a) Adopt, without delay, comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation that prohibits discrimination against women, including direct and indirect discrimination in the public and private spheres, as well as intersecting forms of discrimination, including on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity;
(b) Ensure sufficient budgetary allocations for the implementation, regular monitoring and impact assessment of such anti-discrimination legislation;
(c) Build the capacity of judges, prosecutors, lawyers and police officers on women’s rights and gender equality, including the definition and criminalization of discrimination against women;
(d) Support a comprehensive educational and awareness-raising campaign with the participation of civil society organizations, on women’s rights and gender equality, the definition and criminalization of discrimination against women.
National machinery for the advancement of women
14.The Committee welcomes the activities undertaken to implement the National Programme on Gender Equality (2017–2021), as well as: the repositioning of the Secretariat of the National Committee on Gender Equality as an independent unit under the Prime Minister in January 2019, and the inclusion of its operating and salary costs in the State budget. It further notes the funding allocated from the State budget to implement the National Programme on Gender Equality (2017–2021). It is concerned, however, that the allocation of 1 billion Mongolian tugriks over five years for the implementation of the National Programme on Gender Equality remains inadequate.
15. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Mobilize funds and ensure that necessary financial resources are allocated for the implementation of the Law on Promotion of Gender Equality and the National Programme on Gender Equality and related action plan, at all levels;
(b) Adopt, without delay, a new national strategy on gender equality and women’s empowerment, incorporate a results-oriented approach, including specific indicators and targets, and introduce a monitoring mechanism and regular impact assessments of the strategy to evaluate its effectiveness, with the effective participation of civil society organizations, and allocate adequate human, technical and financial resources for its implementation.
National human rights institution
16.The Committee welcomes the adoption of the revised Law on the National Human Rights Commission of Mongolia in January 2020, which stipulates that it will be funded from the State budget to ensure its independence (articles 6.1 and 6.2). It is notes with concern, however, that the Commission received very few complaints from women claiming violations of their rights during the reporting period.
17. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Strengthen the visibility of the National Human Rights Commission outside the capital, specifically in rural areas;
(b) Step up efforts to increase awareness among women of the mandate of the National Human Rights Commission in favour of gender equality to increase awareness of complaint mechanisms, and to encourage women who are victims of human rights violations to file complaints;
(c) Ensure that the Commission receives adequate human, technical and financial resources to ensure its independence.
Temporary special measures
18.The Committee notes that the National Committee on Gender Equality has proposed to increase the quota of female candidates to 30 per cent in the draft Election Law of the Parliament but that the law was amended without incorporating the quota proposal. The Committee also notes with concern that the State party has not adopted any temporary special measures to achieve substantive equality of women and men in areas where women are underrepresented, such as political participation and employment, in particular in decision-making and leadership positions.
19. In line with article 4 (1) of the Convention and its general recommendation No. 25 (2004) on temporary special measures, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Urgently introduce a 30 per cent minimum quota for women candidates on the electoral lists of political parties for parliamentary and municipal elections, as well as sanctions for non-compliance;
(b) Adopt temporary special measures to promote the participation of women in all areas under the Convention where they are underrepresented or disadvantaged, such as in political life and employment, in particular at the decision-making level, with time-bound targets and benchmarks, accompanied by sanctions for non-compliance, to accelerate the achievement of substantive equality of women and men.
20.The Committee notes the activities that have taken place to eliminate discriminatory stereotypes, including gender equality education, training and public promotion and advocacy aimed at eliminating stereotypes concerning the roles of women and men in the family and in society. The Committee is concerned, however, that the State party has not yet adopted a comprehensive strategy aimed at eliminating discriminatory stereotypes against women.
21. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Expedite the adoption of a comprehensive strategy, with a dedicated budget and results-based objectives, aimed at eliminating discriminatory stereotypes on the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society;
(b) Identify and formalize the government agency responsible for the implementation and monitoring of the strategy, and ensure cross-sectoral coordination;
(c) Continue raising awareness about women’s rights and gender equality among journalists and media workers, and integrate education on women’s rights in professional training for media workers, with a view to dismantling discriminatory gender stereotypes.
Gender-based violence against women
22.The Committee welcomes the adoption, on 22 December 2016, of the revised Law on Combating Domestic Violence, which criminalizes domestic violence and provides for measures to protect survivors and witnesses, defines intersectoral roles, and accredits non-governmental organizations as service providers for capacity-building and operating shelters. It notes the establishment of the unit to combat domestic violence within the General Police Department, and the appointment of a domestic violence prevention and child crime prevention officer in each police station. It further notes the measures taken to prevent gender-based violence against women and girls, including the National Conference on Multilateral Cooperation in Combating Domestic Violence, held annually since 2017; the organization of national-scale campaigns on the occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, every year on 25 November; and the opening of 14 new temporary shelters and 15 one-stop centres for victims of domestic violence across the State party. However, the Committee notes with concern:
(a)The low number of cases prosecuted under the revised Law on Combating Domestic Violence;
(b)That judges, prosecutors, police, social workers, psychologists, health-care workers and governors have only limited understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence and of their responsibility to address it;
(c)That the provision of multidisciplinary services under the Law on Combating Domestic Violence remains inconsistent and limited owing to a lack of funding, resulting in the inadequate prevention of and response to domestic violence;
(d)The lack of specialized courts dealing with cases of gender-based violence.
23. Recalling its general recommendation No. 35 (2017) on gender-based violence against women, updating general recommendation No. 19, and in line with target 5.2 of the Sustainable Developments Goals, to eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls in the public and private spheres, the Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Ensure that perpetrators of domestic violence are prosecuted and adequately punished and that sanctions provided for in the Law on Combating Domestic Violence are strictly enforced;
(b) Strengthen mandatory capacity-building programmes for judges, prosecutors, police, social workers, psychologists, health-care workers and governors on gender-sensitive investigation and interrogation procedures in cases of gender-based violence against women, in particular lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women and women with disabilities, and on the strict application of legislation criminalizing such violence;
(c) Strengthen support services for women who are survivors of gender-based violence to match demand, in particular psychological counselling and long-term rehabilitation programmes, and to allocate sufficient funding to ensure their sustainability;
(d) Establish specialized courts to hear cases of gender-based violence against women.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
24.The Committee takes note of the adoption of the national plan to combat trafficking in persons in 2017 and the establishment of the sub-council to coordinate and prevent trafficking in persons and oversee the implementation of the Anti‑Trafficking Law. The Committee is concerned, however, about:
(a)The limited financial resources allocated to the implementation of the Anti-Trafficking Law, in particular preventive programmes to address the root causes of trafficking in girls from families living in poverty, and the insufficient protection and rehabilitation programmes for women and girls who are victims of trafficking;
(b)The low number of complaints, investigations, prosecutions and convictions in cases of trafficking in women and girls;
(c)The limited capacity-building for the judiciary and law enforcement officers on gender-sensitive investigations and interrogations in cases of trafficking in women and girls;
(d)The lack of information on victim support and rehabilitation programmes.
25. In line with its general recommendation No. 38 (2020) on trafficking in women and girls in the context of global migration, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Fully implement the national plan to combat trafficking in persons and the Anti-Trafficking Law and increase the financial resources allocated to programmes to combat trafficking;
(b) Address the root causes of trafficking by expanding educational and economic opportunities for women and girls and their families, thereby reducing their vulnerability to exploitation by traffickers;
(c) Ensure the investigation of all cases of trafficking, as well as the prosecution and punishment of those responsible, including public officials involved in such acts;
(d) Build the capacity of the judiciary, law enforcement officers, border control officials, social workers and health workers to identify, protect and refer women and girls who are victims of trafficking to appropriate services;
(e) Ensure that victims of trafficking have adequate access to medical treatment, psychosocial counselling and legal assistance;
(f) Collect disaggregated data on the extent of trafficking in women and girls in the State party and strengthen cooperation with other countries in the region to facilitate information exchange and the prosecution of traffickers.
Equal participation in political and public life
26.The Committee notes with concern that,in the Global Gender Gap Report 2021, published by the World Economic Forum, the State party was ranked 116th of 156 countries in terms of political empowerment, that women represent only 17.3 per cent of parliamentarians and 18.8 per cent of Ministers, and that they are still underrepresented in municipal councils, in leadership positions within political parties, and at the decision-making level in the civil service. It also notes with concern that the amendment to the Law on Elections decreased the minimum quota for candidates in parliamentary elections to 20 per cent for both sexes, that no women have been appointed as governors of provinces or mayors; and that the Law on Elections still restricts the right of persons with disabilities, including women, to vote and to stand for election.
27. In line with its general recommendation No. 23 (1997) on women in political and public life and target 5.5 of the Sustainable Development Goals, to ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life, the Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Conduct awareness-raising campaigns aimed at politicians, members of the Central Electoral Board, judges, members of the media and the general public to enhance the understanding that the full, equal, free and democratic participation of women on an equal basis with men in political and public life is a requirement for the full implementation of the Convention and for achieving sustainable development in the State party;
(b) Amend the Law on Elections to establish a minimum 30 per cent quota for women candidates on electoral lists of political parties, provide financial incentives to political parties that provide campaign funding and training to women candidates, and remove the so-called “candidate tax”, which poses a significant obstacle to women candidates;
(c) Adopt effective mechanisms to monitor compliance with electoral quotas, including sanctions for non-compliance by political parties;
(d) Ensure parity in appointed public positions, including positions in the government, at the level of governors and on the higher courts, and provide for preferential recruitment of women to the public service;
(e) Repeal, without delay, the provisions of the Law on Elections that restrict the right to vote of persons with disabilities, including women with disabilities, and ensure that disability is a prohibited ground of discrimination under the Law and make reasonable accommodations to ensure equal accessibility.
28.The Committee notes with appreciation the high literacy rate and high enrolment rates of girls and women in primary, secondary and higher education. Nevertheless, the Committee notes with concern:
(a)The lack of data on the dropout rates among girls at the primary and secondary levels of education, in particular due to early pregnancy or sexual harassment in schools, and the lack of re-entry policies enabling pregnant women and girls, as well as young mothers, to return to school;
(b)The lack of information on the prevalence of sexual harassment and abuse of women and girls in educational institutions;
(c)The underrepresentation of women and girls in non-traditional fields of study and career paths, such as science, technology, engineering and mathematics.
29. In line with its general recommendation No. 36 (2017) on the right of girls and women to education, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Collect sex-disaggregated data on school dropout rates, take measures to retain girls in school and adopt re-entry policies for girls who have dropped out of school, in particular pregnant women and girls and young mothers following childbirth, as well as victims of sexual harassment;
(b) Investigate and prosecute cases of sexual harassment and violence in schools and school dormitories, ensure that perpetrators are adequately punished and victims are provided with rehabilitation and redress, and collect disaggregated data on the number girls who have been victims of gender-based violence, including sexual violence, and information on prosecution and conviction rates;
(c) Ensure equal access for women and girls to education in non ‑ traditional fields of study, by recruiting women teachers, providing scholarships and career counselling, introducing incentives and schemes to attract and retain women and girls, raising awareness among parents, teaching personnel and girls and women on the importance of girls choosing non-traditional fields of study and career paths, such as science, technology, engineering and mathematic.
30.The Committee welcomes the adoption in 2019 of the National Wage Policy for 2019–2024 and the related action plan, which are aimed at promoting equal pay for work of equal value. It remains concerned, however, at:
(a)The persistent gender pay gap in all sectors, vertical and horizontal segregation in the labour market, the concentration of women in low-paid jobs in the formal and informal sectors, and the lack of affordable childcare facilities in the State party;
(b)The list of occupations that are prohibited for women, which appears to be overly protective by covering a range of occupations and branches where there is no objective justification for the prohibition, thereby limiting the economic opportunities available to women in a number of areas, in particular in the mining industry;
(c)The early retirement age for women, limiting their employment opportunities and reducing their pension benefits;
(d)The classification of sexual harassment as a minor offence, and the related minimum penalties, and lack of information on the number of prosecutions, convictions and sentences imposed on perpetrators;
(e)The lack of information on the national labour inspection system and its reportedly limited mandate, capacity and effectiveness.
31. The Committee draws attention to its general recommendation No. 13 (1989) on equal remuneration for work of equal value and to target 8.5 of the Sustainable Development Goals, to achieve by 2030 full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value, and recommends that the State party:
(a) Review wages in all sectors, applying gender-sensitive analytical job classification and evaluation methods, conducting regular pay surveys, and encouraging employers to publish a narrative with their gender pay gap data, with a view to better understanding the reasons behind the gender wage gap, and enforce the principle of equal pay for work of equal value in order to narrow and ultimately close the gender pay gap;
(b) Eliminate occupational segregation, both horizontal and vertical, including by introducing flexible working arrangements and increasing the number of affordable childcare services, and consider ratifying the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981 (No. 156), of the International Labour Organization;
(c) Abolish the list of prohibited occupations and sectors and promote and facilitate women’s access to previously prohibited occupations by improving working conditions and occupational health and safety;
(d) Progressively raise the retirement age for women to harmonize it with that for men, ensuring adequate awareness among women of that raise ;
(e) Amend the Criminal Code to specifically criminalize sexual harassment in the workplace, raise awareness among employers and employees of sexual harassment and the relevant provisions of the Law on the Promotion of Gender Equality, ensure that all reports of sexual harassment are effectively investigated and that perpetrators are adequately punished, and consider ratifying the Violence and Harassment Convention, 2019 (No. 190), of the International Labour Organization;
(f) Strengthen the quality and capacity of the national labour inspection system so that the working conditions of women are effectively monitored, adequately punish employers engaging in discriminatory practices against women and enhance access to justice for women workers.
32.The Committee notes with concern:
(a)The high maternal and neonatal mortality rates of 27.1 deaths per 100,000 live births and 8.7 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively, in 2018, despite a slight decrease;
(b)Women’s and girls’ limited access to affordable modern contraceptives, in particular in rural areas;
(c)That adolescent girls face barriers in accessing sexual and reproductive health services and information;
(d)The high suicide rates among adolescents, including girls, despite their recent reduction;
(e)The low percentage of women screened for cervical cancer and the lack of information on the prevalence of breast cancer in the State party, as well as on treatment available to women and girls;
(f)That air pollution is the leading cause of death associated with two of the five most common diseases, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and appears to induce stillbirth and premature births;
(g)The lack of awareness-raising among medical personnel on discrimination against lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women in the health system.
33. The Committee recalls its general recommendation No. 24 (1999) on women and health and recommends that the State party:
(a) Continue its efforts to address the causes of maternal and infant mortality by ensuring access to obstetric care, and increasing the number of skilled birth attendants, in particular in rural and remote areas;
(b) Strengthen access to adequate and affordable health care for women and girls by ensuring a sufficient number of health-care facilities with adequately trained staff, in particular in rural and remote areas, and ensure affordable access to modern contraceptives for all women and girls, including rural women and girls;
(c) Conduct studies to establish the root causes of suicide, reinforce measures addressing the mental health situation of young women and girls, and allocate adequate resources to provide appropriate support to them;
(d) Adopt a national action plan to combat cervical cancer to cover all eligible women, collect disaggregated data on the prevalence of breast cancer and provide training to medical and health professionals on early detection of those diseases, including in rural areas;
(e) Ensure implementation of its National Programme for Air and Environmental Pollution Reduction 2017–2025, to reduce environmental pollution, and intensify efforts to maintain a good state of the environment that is compatible with the full enjoyment by women and girls of their right to health;
(f) Sensitize health-care providers to the physical and psychological health issues that lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women experience, the discrimination and stigmatization that they face, and the need for equality and non-discrimination in the provision of health care.
34.The Committee notes the general decrease in the poverty rate in the State party by 1.2 percentage points, from 29.6 per cent in 2016 to 28.4 per cent in 2018, as well as the programmes in place to provide payments to mothers not covered by the social insurance system, promote employment among women, and enhance social protection and building the resilience capacity of herders. It is concerned, however, at the persistent poverty among women and the lack of targeted measures to promote their economic empowerment.
35. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt targeted measures for the economic empowerment of women and:
(a) Adopt a national plan for the economic empowerment of women, ensuring that women and their organizations and networks are involved at every stage of its adoption and implementation;
(b) Provide adequate support for the entrepreneurship of women by facilitating their access to income-generating opportunities and financial credit, including low-interest loans without collateral;
(c) Ensure that unpaid work of women is recognized, reduced and redistributed, including through investment in infrastructure and social services, such as childcare facilities;
(d) Extend the coverage of labour legislation and social protection, such as minimum wages, paid leave and maternity leave, to women in the informal economy and self-employed women.
36.The Committee notes training aimed at empowering herders involved in the Green Gold Animal Health Project where women accounted for 40 per cent of trained herders, as well as the gender policy of the food, agriculture and light industry sector implemented by order No. A /77 of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry in 2018, which identifies women’s needs and challenges and integrates them into sector policy planning. It notes with concern, however:
(a)Rural women’s limited access to land ownership and use, and property rights, as well as to justice, education, health care, housing, safe drinking water, sanitation, formal employment, skills development and training opportunities, income-generating opportunities and microcredit;
(b)The low participation of rural women in decision-making processes at the community level;
(c)The lack of gender analysis of the consequences of the use of water from rivers and wells contaminated by the mining industry, in order to identify its impact on women, men, girls and boys.
37. In line with its general recommendation No. 34 (2016) on the rights of rural women and target 5.a of the Sustainable Development Goals, to undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Increase awareness among rural women of the importance of land ownership and property rights and challenge traditional attitudes related to gender and property;
(b) Facilitate access by rural women to technical support and training to improve pasture management, pastoral assets, such as equipment, animal feed, energy, markets and marketing services, in addition to technologies and appropriate extension services;
(c) Expand access by rural women to low-interest loans and other form of financial credit;
(d) Ensure the effective participation of rural women in planning and decision-making on natural resources management;
(e) Ensure the completion of social and health impact assessments of activities of the mining industry, with gender-disaggregated data, carried out by independent entities, and the publication of the results;
(f) Develop and implement compensation standards for damage caused by mining and affiliated companies to the health and livelihoods of local community members, including rural women;
(g) Establish a public health warning and information service on the toxicity and potential impact of chemicals and other hazardous materials on human and animal health, and make it known to rural women and women herders.
Climate change and disaster risk reduction
38.The Committee welcomes the project undertaken with the Asian Development Bank on strengthening women’s capacity to cope with climate change and disaster risk, which analyses the policy and legal environment related to disaster risk management, including risk reduction, preparedness, response and rehabilitation. However, it notes with concern the absence of a gender-responsive national strategy to address environmental risks and challenges, climate change and disaster risk reduction.
39. In line with its general recommendation No. 37 (2018) on the gender-related dimensions of disaster risk reduction in the context of climate change, the Committee recommends that the State party ensure that women are represented and participate in the development of legislation, policies and programmes on climate change, disaster response and disaster risk reduction. It also recommends that the State party integrate a gender perspective into such plans and policies and ensure that women, in particular rural women, are consulted in their development. It further recommends that the State party take measures to address the impact of climate change specifically on women’s access to resources and livelihoods, in order to ensure that women are not disproportionately affected.
Disadvantaged and marginalized groups of women
40.The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2016), the national programme on the promotion of human rights and the participation and development of persons with disabilities (2017), and the establishment of the General Agency for Development of Persons with Disabilities. However, it is concerned about the lack of information on the situation of women and girls with disabilities, including their access to inclusive education, health care, employment and participation in political and public life, as well as about intersecting forms of discrimination and gender-based violence faced by them. The Committee also regrets the lack of information on the situation of other disadvantaged groups of women in the State party, including lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women, women living in poverty, single mothers and older women.
41. The Committee recommends that the State party collect information on the situation of disadvantaged groups of women in the State party, including women and girls with disabilities, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women, women living in poverty, single mothers and older women, particularly on their access to political and public life, education, employment health care, including sexual and reproductive health services, as well as about intersecting forms of discrimination and gender-based violence faced by them.
Marriage and family relations
42.The Committee notes with concern that family property and businesses are often registered in the name of the head of the household, usually the husband, leaving him direct ownership of the property in the event of a divorce, and that divorced husbands often refuse to pay child support. It is further concerned at the lack of information as to whether the State party ensures the equal division of property upon dissolution of marriage.
43. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Ensure that women and men have equal rights in divorce, including equal distribution of marital property upon divorce, in line with the Committee’s general recommendation No. 29 (2013) on the economic consequences of marriage, family relations and their dissolution;
(b) Collect information on legislation and case law relating to the division of family property and businesses between spouses in the event of dissolution of marriage, as well as the enforcement of alimony and child support following divorce.
44.The Committee is concerned at the general lack of updated statistical data, disaggregated by sex, age, ethnicity, disability, geographical location and socioeconomic background, which are necessary for an accurate assessment of the situation of women, to determine whether they suffer from discrimination, for informed and targeted policymaking and for the systematic monitoring and evaluation of progress achieved towards the realization of women’s substantive equality in all areas covered by the Convention.
45. The Committee calls upon the State party to develop a gender indicator system to improve the collection of data, disaggregated by sex and other relevant factors, necessary to assess the impact and effectiveness of policies and programmes aimed at mainstreaming gender equality and enhancing the enjoyment by women of their human rights. In this regard, the Committee draws the State party’s attention to its general recommendation No. 9 (1989) on statistical data concerning the situation of women and encourages the State party to seek technical assistance from relevant United Nations agencies and to enhance its collaboration with women’s associations that could assist in the collection of accurate data.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
46. The Committee calls upon the State party to use the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and to further evaluate the realization of the rights enshrined in the Convention in the context of the 25-year review of the implementation of the Declaration and Platform in order to achieve substantive equality between women and men.
47. The Committee requests the State party to ensure the timely dissemination of the present concluding observations, in the de facto official languages of the State party, to the relevant State institutions at all levels (national, regional and local), in particular to the Government, the ministries, the parliament and the judiciary, to enable their full implementation.
48. The Committee recommends that the State party link the implementation of the Convention to its development efforts and that it avail itself of regional or international technical assistance in this respect.
Ratification of other treaties
49. The Committee notes that the adherence of the State party to the nine major international human rights instruments would enhance the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee therefore encourages the State party to ratify the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, to which it is not yet a party.
Follow-up to the concluding observations
50. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps taken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 23 (a) and (d), 27 (a) and 29 (c).
Preparation of the next report
51. The Committee invites the State party to submit its eleventh periodic report, which is due in July 2026. The report should be submitted on time and cover the entire period up to the time of its submission.
52. The Committee requests the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents ( HRI/GEN/2/Rev.6 , chap. I).