Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Fourth periodic report submitted by Tajikistan under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, due in 2020 *
[Date received: 30 March 2020]
1.The present report is submitted in accordance with article 17 (1) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the guidelines on treaty-specific documents to be submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant adopted by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (E/C.12/2008/2) and includes information on the status of implementation of the Committee’s concluding observations (E/C.12/TJK/CO/2-3) for the period 2015–2020.
2.On 22 October 2015, the Government Commission on International Human Rights Obligations approved the National Plan of Action on Implementation of the Recommendations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights for the period 2015–2020. Updates on the status of implementation of the recommendations are prepared every six months and disseminated to State bodies and civil society and are also posted on the Commission’s website (www.khit.tj).
3.The information was prepared by the secretariat of the Commission on the basis of information provided by the country’s ministries and departments in cooperation with civil society institutions. The draft report was discussed during several national consultations with representatives of government bodies, the Commissioner for Human Rights, representatives of civil society and international organizations and independent experts.
II.Information on the implementation of the Convention
Domestic application of the Covenant
Paragraph 6 of the concluding observations
4.The Human Rights Education Programme for 2013–2020 provides for: systematic human rights education in the higher education system, the civil service, the law enforcement agencies, the military, police and security forces and the judiciary; the development of training methods for conducting specialized courses; the holding of advanced training courses on human rights; and the establishment of a mechanism for monitoring, analysing and evaluating human rights education.
5.The subject of human rights is included in the curricula of public administration and international relations faculties of the Institute of Public Administration (now the Academy of Public Administration). In the academic year 2018/19, the Academy offered 256 hours of undergraduate human rights education courses. When preparing retraining and advanced training courses for civil servants, the recommendations of United Nations human rights bodies are taken into account along with the second Plan of Action to Implement the Recommendations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for Tajikistan within the framework of the Istanbul Anti-Corruption Action Plan of the Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia, approved by the National Anti-Corruption Council of Tajikistan on 26 December 2012, and the National Strategy to Combat Extremism and Terrorism for the period 2016–2020, approved by Presidential Decree No. 776 of 12 November 2016. In 2019, the Civil Service Agency, in cooperation with the Academy of Public Administration, ran 46 courses, including 5 retraining courses, 39 refresher courses and 2 internship courses for civil servants throughout the country, attended by 1,780 civil servants, 429 of whom were women (in 2018, 1,791,533 of whom were women), as follows:
Advanced training course on national and international human rights standards for lawyers of the central authorities
Professional development courses on the State anti-corruption policy in Tajikistan for the staff of anti-corruption bodies
Advanced training course on implementation of international and national laws on the protection of children’s rights in Tajikistan for secretaries of the commissions on children’s rights of the local authorities of provinces, cities and districts
Paragraph 7 of the Committee’s concluding observations
6.The Judicial Reform Programme for 2015–2017 was adopted by Presidential Decree No. 976 of 3 January 2011. On 2 July 2015, the Government adopted a policy framework for free legal aid in Tajikistan in accordance with paragraph 7 of this programme. In order to put this framework into effect, a Legal Assistance Centre was set up at the Ministry of Justice pursuant to Government Order No. 704 of 28 November 2015 to pilot model offices and organize public legal offices that offer free legal assistance to vulnerable segments of the population and find an effective and low-cost model for providing such assistance.
7.To date, since 2016, 34 cities and districts of the country have been selected for the legal assistance pilot project. Two types of assistance are offered: primary and secondary legal assistance. Primary legal assistance consists of advice on legal issues, the preparation of applications, complaints and other legal documents in public legal offices, the provision of legal information to the public, including through briefings, mobile legal services that offer information on opportunities for the swift resolution of legal disputes within the framework of the law, communications to State and public institutions and the dissemination of legal information through legal assistants.
8.Between 2016 and 2020 (as of 19 February 2020), 26,771 citizens applied to State offices, where they were provided with free legal assistance.
Number of visits
Number of persons with disabilities
9.Between 2016 and 19 February 2020, State offices held 723 off-site legal information sessions attended by 17,857 people (9,836 of whom were women and 8,021 men, including 134 persons with disabilities).
10.In 2017, an institute was introduced to provide legal assistants with specialized education and training. Such assistants provide the public with legal information. Since 2017, legal assistants have reached 56,855 citizens (of whom 32,610 were women and 24,225 men, including 1,598 persons with disabilities).
11.A secondary legal assistance (representation in the criminal justice system) pilot project was launched by the institute in September 2017 and covers only criminal cases. The above-mentioned policy framework envisages extending the secondary legal assistance pilot project to civil cases as well.
12.A working group made up of representatives from government bodies and voluntary associations who reviewed the best practices of leading foreign countries drafted a bill on free legal assistance and, after coordinating with the relevant ministries and departments and obtaining the Government’s endorsement, submitted it to the parliament for consideration.
Independence of the judiciary
Paragraph 8 of the Committee’s concluding observations
13.The third phase of the Judicial Reform Programme for the period 2015–2017 was approved on 23 April 2014. The main objective of the programme is to improve the structure of the courts and intensify their efforts to uphold human and civil rights and freedoms, the interests of the State and organizations, the rule of law and justice, to monitor the timely implementation of judicial acts, to improve the quality and efficiency of judicial work and to improve the social standing of judges and court staff.
14.The Judicial Reform Programme for 2019–2021, approved by Presidential Decree No. 1242 of 19 April 2019, is a continuation of previous judicial reform programmes in Tajikistan and is aimed at improving the structure of the courts and intensifying their efforts to uphold human and civil rights and freedoms, the interests of the State and organizations, the rule of law and justice and to monitor the timely implementation of judicial acts; it seeks as well to improve the social conditions of judges and court staff and develop the legal framework in this area. The Plan of Action for this programme includes the following:
Development and adoption of a new version of the Enforcement Proceedings Act with a view to ensuring the timely enforcement of judicial acts, eliminating shortcomings and contradictions in the law, and enhancing the procedures for enforcing court orders and to resolving other issues in this area
Development and adoption of the Act on Access to Information on the Work of the Courts and development of legislation on other areas of work of the courts, electronic distribution of court cases, with the aim of providing timely information to the public about the work of the courts, building the trust of society in the judiciary and also streamlining court websites
Development and adoption of a new version of the Civil Code with a view to protecting human and civil rights and freedoms, the interests of the State and institutions, especially their property rights, bringing industry standards into line with international and other national laws and regulations and to regulating new social relations
Exploration of the issue of establishing regional courts for the purpose of upholding the principle of equal rights for all before the law and timely review of appeals against decisions of the courts in the cities and centrally administered districts by way of cassation or supervision
Development and adoption of a new version of the Housing Code with a view to ensuring citizens’ rights to housing, improving industry standards and bringing them into line with other laws and regulations and also to regulating new social relations in the housing sphere and improving the quality of enforcement of court rulings on housing disputes
15.The Constitutional Act on the Courts, as amended by Act No. 1328 of 23 July 2016, provided for the establishment of the Judicial Qualifications Board attached to the Supreme Court with a view to ensuring that the most deserving candidates were selected and nominated for judges’ posts and to strengthening guarantees of the independence of the judges. Members of the Board are elected at a conference of judges of the courts of Tajikistan, consisting of a presiding judge, deputy presiding judge and 11 other members for a judge’s term of office. The Judicial Qualification Board, on the recommendation of the Presidents of the Supreme Court and the Supreme Commercial Court and taking into account the results of the examination, issues opinions on the following: whether to recommend candidates nominated for initial appointments as judges or reject their candidacies; and whether a candidate is eligible for election or appointment to office and is to be awarded qualifications for the posts of deputy presiding judge and judges of the Supreme Court and Supreme Commercial Court, presiding judges, deputy presiding judges and judges of the Court of Kŭhistoni Badakhshon Autonomous Province, provincial courts, courts of the city of Dushanbe, garrison military courts, city and district courts, the Commercial Court of Kŭhistoni Badakhshon Autonomous Province and the commercial courts of the provinces and city of Dushanbe; the Board also certifies the qualifications of judges and considers matters involving disciplinary action against judges in Tajikistan.
16.In 2018, 14 residential apartments were allocated to the judges in Tajikistan.
17.The Supreme Court has taken the necessary steps to ensure the functioning and logistical support of the courts and provided financial resources for the construction of new administrative buildings and all necessary equipment. New court buildings are being constructed in several regions of the country, and the courtroom of the Supreme Court, administrative buildings of the courts of Sughd Province and Kŭhistoni Badakhshon Autonomous Province, city and district courts and military courts have been renovated and newly equipped. The country’s judicial authorities are provided with modern computers connected to the Internet and an online database of legislative acts. There are plans to introduce websites to the courts in remote mountainous regions.
18.The salaries of judges were increased pursuant to Presidential Decrees No. 710 of 22 June 2016 (by 15 per cent) and No. 1109 of 22 September 2018 (by 15 per cent).
National human rights institutions
Paragraph 9 of the Committee’s concluding observations
19.A working group consisting of the Commissioner for Human Rights, the Commissioner for Children’s Rights, representatives of the Executive Office of the President, and the Ministries of Justice and Foreign Affairs has been set up to ensure that the activities of the Commissioner for Human Rights are in line with the Paris Principles. This working group has studied the laws of other countries governing the activities of human rights institutions and countries that have national human rights institutions that are accredited with category A status and prepared an analytical document entitled “Proposals for amendments to the legislation of Tajikistan in accordance with the recommendations of the Subcommittee on Accreditation of national human rights institutions”.
20.The number of staff at the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights increases every year. By 2019, the number of employees increased from 17 to 25 civil servants (without taking into account 14 support staff), including 20 lawyers, 2 political scientists, 1 economist and 2 language specialists, with 1 person under 30, 14 up to 45 years of age, 6 up to 55 and 4 over 55.
21.The funding for the activities of the Office of the Commissioner increases each year.
National budget allocations
Donor funds in somoni as a % of total budget of the Commissioner
Total in somoni
From the national budget in somoni
From the local budget in somoni
1 187 541.00
1 114 159.00
337 473.00 (28%)
1 214 261.00
1 121 145.00
252 367.00 (21%)
1 336 613.00
1 250 556.00
333 547.00 (27%)
1 601 135.00
1 514 795.00
376 507.00 (24%)
1 751 953.00
1 635 325.00
386 566.00 (22%)
22.With a view to bringing national laws into line with the Paris Principles, amendments have been introduced to the national legislation, and the post of Commissioner for Children’s Rights, who acts as well as Deputy Commissioner for Human Rights, has been established.
23.In 2019, the Deputy Chief of the National Institutions, Regional Mechanisms and Civil Society Section of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Ms. Afarin Shahidzadeh, carried out a needs assessment of the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights. Opportunities for technical assistance from OHCHR were discussed as a result of the visit with a view to building the capacity of the staff at the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights of Tajikistan so that it may fulfil its mandate in accordance with international standards for national human rights institutions and to assisting Tajikistan in meeting the international obligations that it has assumed. The visit resulted in the preparation of an analysis and list of actions to be taken for the provision of technical assistance to the Commissioner’s Office.
24.With the assistance of the OHCHR office in Tajikistan, the main international standards for national human rights institutions have been translated into Tajik, including the Mérida Declaration on the Role of National Human Rights Institutions in implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Belgrade principles on the relationship between national human rights institutions and parliaments and the Paris Principles.
Paragraph 10 of the Committee’s concluding observations
25.Under the Voluntary Associations Act, more than 2,500 voluntary associations are currently operating in the country: 45 ethnic minority associations, 140 sports associations, 581 women’s associations, 59 international associations, 56 branches and representative offices of foreign organizations, 70 legal associations, 45 trade unions and 1,504 others.
26.In addition, in accordance with the Act on the Registration of Legal Entities and Individual Entrepreneurs, in 2018, 232 other forms of non-profit organizations have been registered, including 194 associations, 14 voluntary funds and 24 non-profit organizations.
27.In 2013, the Voluntary Associations Act was amended in order to carry out international obligations to combat money laundering and financing of terrorism arising from the country’s participation in organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force and OECD. Voluntary associations are required under the amended law to notify the registration authority about voluntary contributions and donations, grants and property received from foreign States and foreign organizations and to enter such information in a special humanitarian assistance register maintained by the authority.
28.On 2 January 2019, additional amendments were made to the law, whereby a voluntary association is required to post annual financial reports containing detailed information on income and expenses on its website or the website of the registration authority. The purpose of these amendments is to ensure the transparency of the financial activities of voluntary associations when it comes to raising funds from foreign sources. A reporting form has been drawn up with the participation of representatives of voluntary associations. If a voluntary association is not able to create its own website and post information on it, it can send the relevant information in writing and this information will then be placed on the official website of the registration authority.
29.The activities of the Association may be suspended or terminated in the event that it violates the provisions of the law of Tajikistan or commits acts at variance with the objectives specified in their statutes. When violations are found, a written injunction is issued to immediately remedy the violations. If the violations are not remedied within a specified period of time, the Procurator General or a subordinate or the registration authority have the right to file a claim with the court to suspend the voluntary association’s activities. The activities of voluntary associations may be terminated only on the basis of a court decision.
30.During the reporting period, 489 voluntary associations were audited (126 in 2015, 60 in 2016, 72 in 2017, 64 in 2018 and 167 in 2019). As a result of the audits, 60 organizations were dissolved by court order.
31.Some 521 voluntary organizations have ceased their activities independently because they lacked funding or projects under way were completed.
Maximum available resources
Paragraph 11 of the Committee’s concluding observations
32.The National Bank of Tajikistan is taking the necessary measures to overcome shortcomings and ensure that its activities to combat money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the spread of weapons of mass destruction meet the necessary requirements. To this end, a plan has been adopted to bridge gaps involving technical compliance and improve the effectiveness of the system of combating money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the spread of weapons of mass destruction.
33.A digital economy policy outline has been developed and approved by a Government decision of 30 December 2019, which to some extent will also help to reduce the size of the shadow economy in the country.
34.According to the report of the Statistics Agency under the Office of the President, the size of the informal economy is determined by indirect methods (statistical surveys). The results of the survey by indirect method showed that the share of the economy that was informal, taking into account the calculation of paid services provided to the public as part of gross domestic product, was 14.2 per cent, or 3.6 billion somoni in 2019, which decreased by 8.2 percentage points compared to 2008 (22.4 per cent).
Paragraph 12 of the Committee’s concluding observations
35.Tajikistan is a member of the OECD Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia and participates in the implementation of the Istanbul Anti-Corruption Action Plan. Detailed information on the anti-corruption activities of Tajikistan can be found in the report on the fourth round of the Istanbul Action Plan for 2017 and the interim report for 2018.
36.With a view to spreading the anti-corruption message, promoting greater legal literacy among the people and increasing civic involvement in efforts to root out corruption, in 2019, officials at the State Financial Audit and Anti-Corruption Agency held more than 1,075 meetings with ministries, departments, local authorities, organizations and institutions, published more than 4,680 leaflets, booklets and guidelines in the fields of education, health, road safety, architecture and construction, and State and municipal services and produced 4 public service spots regularly broadcast from local television stations.
37.During 2019, the Agency identified 1,084 administrative offences, for which the courts imposed fines amounting to 1,161,194 somoni payable to the budget.
38.In an effort to prevent and eliminate factors that contribute to corruption, 1,581 representations were made to the heads of ministries and departments, enterprises and institutions, which resulted in disciplinary action being taken against 1,457 officials and the dismissal of 249 from their posts.
39.The Agency has identified 2,154 crimes (against 1,325 persons), 644 of which are serious crimes. The State has incurred losses for these crimes amounting to 590,849,716 somoni, 122,766,470 of which has been recovered.
40.In 2017, the Agency established the Centre for Advanced Training of Staff of Anti-Corruption Bodies.
41.By order of the Procurator General, No. 5-04 of 17 January 2018, staff regulations for procuratorial bodies were adopted, which included, in addition to general rules, rules of integrity to be observed. The Procurator General’s Office, by order No. 5-20 of 19 February 2019, approved a programme to instil work discipline and professional ethics and stop corruption in the procuratorial authorities for 2019–2020 with a view to fulfilling the requirements of current anti-corruption legislation. The above-mentioned Centre conducts regular training sessions on the specific features and methods of detecting and investigating cases of corruption.
42.In 2019, the procuratorial authorities brought criminal proceedings in 788 corruption and corruption-related cases involving offences covered under the Criminal Code, including: 43 offences under article 319 (Accepting bribes); 15 under article 320 (Offering bribes); 232 under article 245 (Embezzlement or conversion); 169 under article 247 (Fraud); and 40 under articles 314 (Abuse of official position) and 316 (Improper exercise of authority). The amount of damages in the criminal cases brought by the procuratorial authorities comes to 38,733,661 somoni ($482,373 or 1,510,000 roubles), 5,041,026 somoni ($88,087 or 1,000,000 roubles) of which were recovered during the investigation.
Paragraph 13 of the Committee’s concluding observations
43.Under the Constitution, all ethnic groups and peoples living in the country have the right freely to use their mother tongue. All persons are equal before the law and the courts. The State guarantees the rights and freedoms of every person regardless of ethnicity, race, sex, language, religion, political beliefs, education or social or property status. Propaganda and agitation that incite social, racial, ethnic, religious or linguistic enmity and hatred are prohibited. The violation of citizens’ equal rights is a criminal offence under article 143 of the Criminal Code. The commission of a crime motivated by ethnic, racial, religious or regional hatred or enmity, or vengeance, is an aggravating circumstance. Thus, the country has a firm policy of non-discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, language, ethnicity and religion.
44.On 16 April 2018, an interministerial working group was established to draft a bill on protection against discrimination and to harmonize legislation on equality and the prohibition of all forms of discrimination. This working group, with the support of international organizations (OHCHR, OSCE) and broad consultations with civil society institutions, is conducting a comprehensive analysis of national legislation and examining the practice of other countries in developing policies for protection against discrimination. At the time of writing, a bill had been prepared and was being widely discussed with representatives of State bodies, civil society institutions and international organizations.
Persons with disabilities
Paragraph 14 of the Committee’s concluding observations
45.On 22 March 2018, Tajikistan signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. During the reporting period, a draft national action plan for the implementation of the Convention and preparation of the country for its ratification (road map) was developed and submitted to the Government for consideration. During this period, more than 20 laws and regulations, including the Social Protection of Persons with Disabilities Act, were analysed to ensure that they complied with standards of the Convention and national legislation is being improved on a continual basis.
46.The Government approved the National Action Plan to Prepare Tajikistan for the Ratification and Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in its decision of 27 February 2020.
Refugees and asylum seekers
Paragraph 15 of the Committee’s concluding observations
47.The interdepartmental working group has drafted a bill to amend the Code of Administrative Offences, article 499 (3) of which prohibits the use of deportation from Tajikistan as a punishment, which is currently under negotiation.
48.The Amnesty Act was adopted on 18 December 2019 in connection with the regularization of the legal status of foreign nationals and stateless persons residing illegally in Tajikistan. Efforts to implement the law are currently under way.
49.Since June 2018, a three-year project to protect children affected by migration in Southeast, South and Central Asia, with the cooperation of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and support of the European Union, has been implemented in 16 cities and regions and districts in the country. The project is being carried out by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and Terre des hommes, Chashma and Pravo i protsvetanie (Law and Well-being), in close cooperation with the State authorities, with a view to assisting children affected by migration, children without parental care or separated from their parents and children returning home from the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan in regaining their citizenship and to providing legal assistance in obtaining a birth certificate.
Equality between men and women
Paragraph 16 of the Committee’s concluding observations
50.For detailed information the efforts of Tajikistan to fulfil its commitment to ensuring equality between men and women for the period up to 2018, see the sixth periodic report on the status of implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW/C/TJK/6) and the written replies to the list of issues (CEDAW/C/TJK/Q/6/Add.1).
51.The Government Commission on International Human Rights Obligations has adopted a National Plan of Action for the Implementation of Recommendations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women for the period 2019–2022.
52.The Government is effectively implementing the State Programme for the Education, Selection and Placement of Talented Women and Girls in Leadership Positions for the period 2017–2022 (Government Decision No. 158 of 1 April 2017).
53.Between January and December 2019, imams held consultations and talks in the country’s cities and districts with a view to promoting gender equality and challenging gender stereotypes and prejudice.
54.Seminars and round tables to improve the status of women, strengthen their role in society and address the challenge of working with women and families at the local level have been organized in cities and districts in Kŭhistoni Badakhshon Autonomous Province, Sughd Province and Khatlon Province, Dushanbe and centrally administered cities and districts.
55.Competitions and training sessions have been organized for capable women and girls and the potential of the media to publish information aimed at rejecting and overcoming gender stereotypes in society. The issue of women’s active participation in public life has been covered by the television networks Tadzhikistan, Safina, Dzakhonnamo, Sinamo and Bakhoristonand radio stations, magazines and newspapers Zan va Oila, Bonuvoni khatlon, Nilufar, Jumhuriyat, Minbari khalk, Maromi poitakht, Sadoi Dushanbe and Narodnaya gazeta.
56.With a view to eliminating gender discrimination in education and employment, under the Gender Equality Programme, in 2019, there were 1,376 girls and homemakers involved in vocational training in 19 primary vocational schools in 20 non-traditional occupations (driver, tractor, painter, plumber, electrician, welder, carpenter, etc.) and 769 who completed these courses. This programme provides a scholarship equivalent to $30 for women and girls attending one- and two-year courses in non-traditional occupations. In 2019, 699 scholarships were awarded to 699 students for a total amount of $20,550.
Paragraph 17 of the Committee’s concluding observations
57.A labour force survey was conducted in July and August 2016 with the support of the World Bank as part of the grant project for the implementation of the National Strategy for the Development of Statistics for the period 2015–2018. The Statistics Agency reporting to the President regularly conducts analyses and publishes reports on the state of the labour market, food security and poverty, which are posted on the Agency’s website.
58.Among the laws and regulations that have been adopted to promote a high standard of training are Government Decision No. 428 of 2 July 2015 on the rules for the admission of students to higher vocational education institutions in accordance with the quotas set by the President of Tajikistan, Government Decision No. 508 of 1 August 2015 on regulations on presidential scholarships for students of general education, primary and secondary vocational education institutions and Government Decision No. 794 on the Programme for the Development of Career Guidance in Tajikistan for the period 2016–2020.
59.With regard to the needs of the labour market, more than 50 new fields of specialization have been added to the State code list of fields of study and specialization for vocational education in Tajikistan. The State Training and Education Quality Monitoring Centre has introduced new areas of specialization with a view to meeting the current needs of the labour market and citizens’ needs in the State institutions of basic vocational training and 16 learning standards on new areas of specialization have been developed.
60.Within the framework of the Asian Development Bank’s project to strengthen vocational education and training in Tajikistan, the methodology of the vocational education system is being improved and 17 standards of professional competence have been developed and reviewed by industry experts and form the basis for the development of curricula.
61.The Government approved the State employment promotion programmes of Tajikistan for the periods 2018–2019 and 2020–2022 in order to provide State social benefits, promote employment and ensure the stability of the domestic labour market. During their implementation, in 2019, 142,221 citizens sought assistance from the Labour and Employment Agency; of these, 106,542 were registered as jobseekers and 60,045 were officially declared unemployed. Overall, 76,374 persons found work, 6,634 of them through employment quotas, 3,981 as a result of preferential loans and 7,846 at employment fairs.
62.As of December 2018, 11,298 persons had completed vocational training courses. Between January and December 2019, 46,615 persons found work after being referred for a vacant post by the labour and employment agencies.
63.In 2019, the Agency organized a total of 752 job fairs, in which 8,823 companies and organizations participated and at which 144,209 vacancies were on offer. As a result, 10,952 persons received an employment referral, and 7,846 (71.6 per cent) of them were given positions, including 3,218 women and 3,828 young people, which is equivalent to 10.4 persons per fair. In addition, 6,549 persons received a referral for vocational training, and 1,489 persons were assigned to paid community service.
64.In 2019, the Agency and the Committee on Youth Affairs and Sport reporting to the Government held a job fair, in which more than 450 companies and organizations participated and at which 16,209 vacancies were on offer; 184 people received an employment referral, and 132 of them were given permanent positions.
65.The Agency operates a national employment vacancy database in the form of a website, www.kor.tj, so that people can find work by themselves. In 2019, with the Agency’s assistance, 3,981 persons received preferential loans amounting to 12,260,900 somoni for entrepreneurial purposes. Special attention is devoted to supporting entrepreneurship among women and young people and reviving various folk crafts. In 2019, 2,038 women and 1,413 young people received financial assistance amounting to 6,277,600 somoni and 4,328,100 somoni, respectively, and 1,272 unemployed persons received financial assistance amounting to 3,722,300 somoni for the purpose of reviving various folk crafts.
66.In 2019, 6,634 citizens in need of special social support were appointed to special posts by the local authorities, which represents a 52.4 per cent increase compared to 2018. This figure includes 228 persons with disabilities, 111 orphaned children, 684 persons discharged into the reserves of the Armed Forces of Tajikistan, 324 persons released from detention facilities or closed medical institutions, 1,464 single parents and persons raising minor children or children with disabilities, 1,340 parents of more than five children, 78 persons aged under 18 years who are supporting their families as a result of the death of parents or other circumstances, 289 persons who are more than two years away from reaching the pension age, and 2,116 persons aged under 18 years and young persons who received an employment referral from the labour and employment agencies after graduating from educational institutions.
Informal (underground) economy
Paragraph 18 of the Committee’s concluding observations
67.In order to implement the first phase of the National Development Strategy of Tajikistan for the period up to 2030, the Short-Term Development Programme of Tajikistan for the period 2016–2020 was adopted by decision of the Majlis-i Namoyandagon, the lower house of the Majlis-i Oli, No. 678 of 28 December 2016.
Paragraph 19 of the Committee’s concluding observations
68.Presidential Decrees (No. 697) of 6 June 2016 and of 14 August 2018 on measures to strengthen social welfare and to increase current base salaries for State civil servants and for employees of public sector companies and organizations, pensions and scholarships were adopted with a view to strengthening social welfare. In accordance with these decrees, the minimum wage across all socioeconomic sectors was increased by 60 per cent in 2016 and by 10–15 per cent in 2018.
69.In his 2019 address, the President of Tajikistan gave instructions to the effect that, as from 1 September 2020, allowances for persons with disabilities aged under 18 years and for groups of persons with disabilities who are unemployed or in need of care should be increased by 50 per cent, old-age, basic and occupational pensions by 15 per cent, the wages of employees of government and administrative authorities and of educational, scientific, cultural, sports, health-care, social protection and other budget-funded institutions and student and other stipends by 15 per cent and the wages of law enforcement and military personnel by 10 per cent.
Discrimination against women in employment
Paragraph 20 of the Committee’s concluding observations
70.In 2019, in implementation of Government Decision No. 645 of 2 November 2015 on the establishment and allocation of presidential grants to support and develop women’s entrepreneurship over the period 2016–2020, grants were allocated to support 80 projects by women entrepreneurs.
71.In 2019, 48,600 women and girls underwent vocational training with the assistance of the bodies of the Labour and Employment Agency. Short training courses in folk crafts have been organized at the Ministry’s initial vocational training institutions, and 9,134 persons, including 2,691 women, have completed courses in 36 different trades.
72.In accordance with article 216 (2) of the Labour Code, with a view to creating working conditions that meet the requirements of State standards on labour safety and the protection of the life, health and rights of women in labour relations, the Government adopted Decision No. 179 of 4 April 2017 on the list of industries, jobs, occupations and functions with arduous, harmful or hazardous working conditions in which it is not permitted to employ women and the maximum permissible weight of loads that women may lift or transport manually.
73.Within the framework of joint projects, eight sections of the Ministry of Labour, Migration and Employment were equipped with equipment, tools and training materials. The sections in question are the State Centre for the Advanced Training and Retraining of Employees in the Labour, Migration and Employment System and the following State educational institutions: the Engineering Pedagogical College (specialized secondary school) in Dushanbe, the Vocational School of the Dushanbe Textile Industry, the Technical and Vocational Academy in Vahdat, the Levakant Vocational Academy of the Chemical Industry in Kŭlob, the Kŭlob Vocational Academy of the Agricultural Industry, the Khujand Construction Resources Centres and the Vocational and Technical Academy of Agricultural Production in Konibodom. Moreover, there are 20 pilot teacher training programmes (in 20 areas of specialization).
Paragraph 21 of the Committee’s concluding observations
74.Pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 1084 of 14 August 2018 on measures to strengthen social welfare and to increase current base salaries for State civil servants and for employees of public sector companies and organizations, pensions and scholarships, the minimum and maximum pension amounts, the basic pension and nominal units, which are used to set pensions and benefits, have been increased, and the contributory part of contributory pensions has been indexed. As a result, in 2019, the basic pension amounted to 180 somoni (compared to 130 somoni in 2015), the average pension 308 somoni (230 somoni in 2015) and the maximum pension 850 somoni (624 somoni in 2015).
75.The law states that pregnancy and childbirth benefits are set in accordance with average monthly wages for the preceding period. Wage growth has consequently had an impact on the pregnancy benefits received. In 2019, expenditure on pregnancy and childbirth benefits amounted to 77.9 million somoni and the number of recipients exceeded 17,500; a one-time childbirth benefit was paid to 8,700 working women at a cost of 1.1 million somoni. More than 70,100 women have taken paid leave to care for a child aged under 1.5 years. In 2019, such women received benefits amounting to 8.8 million somoni.
Tajik migrant workers
Paragraph 22 of the Committee’s concluding observations
76.More detailed information on the implementation of international obligations in the area of the rights of migrant workers and members of their families for the period up to 2018 can be found in the second periodic report of Tajikistan on the implementation of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW/C/TJK/2) and the written replies to the list of issues of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW/C/TJK/Q/2/Add.1). On 17 December 2019, a national plan of action on the implementation of the recommendations of the Committee on Migrant Workers over the period 2020–2024 was adopted.
77.The State Employment Promotion Programme of Tajikistan for the period 2020–2022 has specific provisions on increasing the number of labour migrants, involving civil society and helping migrant workers to find and create conditions conducive to securing employment.
78.The central office of the Mission of the Ministry of Labour, Migration and Employment in the Russian Federation is located in Moscow. The Mission also has offices in Saint Petersburg, Khabarovsk, Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Krasnodar and Kazan. Each office operates telephone helplines. In 2019, 50,593 citizens contacted the Migration Service and its sections, 47,737 of them orally, 257 in writing and 2,599 via the telephone helplines. In addition, 36,140 persons contacted the Ministry’s Mission in the Russian Federation, 34,913 of them orally and 1,227 in writing.
79.In 2019, in order to ensure the effective use of the workforce in Tajikistan and abroad and diversify the labour migration of Tajik citizens, the Government of Tajikistan signed an agreement with the Government of Qatar on labour regulation and an agreement with the Government of the Russian Federation on the organized recruitment of Tajik citizens for temporary labour activities in the Russian Federation.
80.In 2019, with the mission’s assistance, employers recovered 20.523 million Russian roubles in unpaid wages for migrant workers, 34 court decisions against Tajik citizens were annulled, more than 12,453 Tajik citizens found permanent employment in the Russian Federation, and 304 meetings were held with migrant workers in various regions of the Russian Federation.
81.On 23–24 December 2019, in Moscow, discussions were held on a draft agreement between the Russian Federation and Tajikistan on cooperation in the area of pension provision. It is currently at the approval stage.
82.In 2019, the State advice and pre-departure training centres for migrant workers in the cities of Dushanbe, Khorugh, Khujand and Bokhtar held 810 meetings in cities, districts and local bodies known as dekhots and mahallas, which 61,967 citizens attended, distributed more than 57,990 information resources and produced five video clips, which are broadcast on television channels and social networks. The issues discussed at these meetings included the legal framework for labour migration in the Russian Federation, preventing migrant workers from becoming involved in terrorist or extremist organizations in host countries, the procedure for concluding an employment contract with an employer and the registration of migrant workers at their place of temporary residence.
83.In 2019, 4 women with disabilities and 18 women who are former migrants or from migrant worker families were awarded presidential grants.
Paragraph 23 of the Committee’s concluding observations
84.According to the Statistics Agency reporting to the President, in 2019, 163,676 new, additional or reinstated jobs were created by legal entities or private individuals: 69,997 (42.8 per cent) were permanent; 42,338 (25.8 per cent) temporary; 43,901 (26.8 per cent) seasonal; 2,204 (1.4 per cent) additional; and 5,236 (3.2 per cent) reinstated. The largest number of jobs were created in the agriculture, hunting, forestry and fisheries sector (42,010). Posts were also created in the following sectors: mining and quarrying (4,457); processing (11,769); electricity, gas and water supply (148); waste processing and recycling (437); construction (32,468); wholesale trade and retail and repair services (25,585); hotels and restaurants (2,195); transport, storage and communications (7,176); information and communications (1,110); finance and insurance (2,523); real estate, rental and commercial activities (414); professional and scientific activities (1,139); management and support activities (627); public administration, defence, security and social insurance (806); education (10,374); health care and social services (2,028); art, leisure and recreation (768); other services (17,618); and the activities of organizations and foreign missions (25). In 2019, 67,204 posts, of which 38,967 were permanent, 18,203 temporary, 10,031 seasonal and 3 supplementary, were abolished by private individuals and legal entities.
85.In 2019, 2,662 migrant workers who had returned to Tajikistan (2,569 men and 193 women) sought assistance from the labour and employment agencies. Of these, 377 found permanent work, 457 received a referral for vocational training, 138 were assigned to paid community service, 115 were awarded preferential loans and 1,673 received careers advice.
86.Currently, 1,496 persons, including 1,230 Tajik citizens (82 per cent), are employed under contract on 10 investment projects implemented with the financial support of international financial institutions.
Paragraph 24 of the Committee’s concluding observations
87.On 14 May 2019, Tajikistan ratified the Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29), of the International Labour Organization.
88.Since 2012, the Ministry of Labour, Migration and Employment has operated the Interdepartmental Coordinating Council for the Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour. Its work is covered on the websites www.mehnat.tj and www.no-childlabour.tj and in the newspaperZanyatost i migratsia. Since 2009, the State Centre for Adult Education has had a child labour monitoring unit. In the second half of 2019, the Social Partnership and Labour Protection Department attached to the Ministry studied the work carried out by the child labour monitoring committees in pilot districts of Sughd Province and the Kŭhistoni Badakhshon Autonomous Province.
89.In order to implement the plan of action of the National Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour and raise awareness among relevant bodies, with technical support from UNICEF, a compendium of laws and regulations on the elimination of the worst forms of child labour and an information resource on organizations involved in protecting children’s rights and providing services for them have been published.
90.In 2019, the State Labour, Migration and Employment Oversight Service carried out inspections of organizations and companies in the country with a view to preventing informal employment and the worst forms of child labour. The inspections revealed that 351 persons (204 men, 109 women and 38 minors) were in informal employment, and 30 employers were fined 34,650 somoni for failing to comply with the legal requirements.
Paragraph 25 of the Committee’s concluding observations
91.Detailed information on the fulfilment by Tajikistan of its obligations in the area of combating domestic violence and violence against women for the period up to 2018 is included in paragraphs 32 to 39 of the third periodic report of Tajikistan on the implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR/C/TJK/3) and paragraphs 98 to 118 of the replies to the list of issues of the Human Rights Committee (CCPR/C/TJK/Q/3/Add.1).
92.In 2018–2019, 115 crimes involving domestic violence were recorded (compared to 86 in 2018). These include 40 cases of murder (compared to 37 in 2018), 45 cases of inciting the suicide of another person (31 in 2018), 9 cases of rape (7 in 2018), 12 cases of sexual assault (6 in 2018) and 9 cases of other crimes against sexual integrity and sexual freedom (5 in 2018). In addition, 104 criminal cases were transferred to court with an indictment.
93.In 2018–2019, there were 632 recorded suicides and attempted suicides (compared to 581 in 2018), which resulted in 466 deaths (429 in 2018) and 166 injuries (152 in 2018). Of these, women accounted for 287 (compared to 264 in 2018). As a result of these incidents, 51 criminal cases were opened under article 109 (Incitement to suicide) of the Criminal Code (compared to 43 in 2018), and 39 criminal cases involving 41 persons were transferred to court with an indictment (compared to 37 cases involving 38 persons in 2018).
94.Tajikistan has 33 crisis centres and 3 shelters. In a number of cities and districts, hospital maternity wards operate counselling and medical care units for women and children who are victims of domestic violence.
95.In order to improve citizens’ legal awareness, 110 information and counselling centres have been set up under the departments and sections for women’s and family affairs attached to the executive authorities of the State in the country’s provinces, cities and districts. Lawyers and psychologists provide practical assistance at these centres.
96.In 2019, the steering committee of a new project of the United Nations Development Programme on strengthening community security and prevention of violence against women in Tajikistan held a meeting with the participation of representatives of the presidential administration, ministries and departments, civil society and development partners. In October 2019, within the framework of this project, representatives of the committee, the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights and the executive authorities of the cities of Vahdat and Kŭlob and Rŭdakí district held a training course on partnership in the eradication of violence. In conjunction with the Office of the Procurator General, training sessions were also held for staff members of procurator’s offices, ministries and departments that are directly involved in providing assistance to victims of domestic violence.
97.The Ministry of Health and Social Protection established an interdepartmental working group to review regulatory documents relating to the provision of social and medical care to victims of domestic violence. As a result, the following were adopted over the period 2017–2019:
Model regulations on the home-based social assistance departments of the local executive authorities (approved by Order of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection No. 748 of 12 September 2017), which has been piloted in seven districts since 1 January 2018 (the cities of Bokhtar, Kŭlob, Khorugh and Konibodom and the districts of M.S. Hamadoní, Rŭdakí and Qubodiyon)
Updated version of the regulations on crisis rooms for women victims of violence (at central city and district hospitals and maternity hospitals)
Model regulations on the organization and functioning of support centres for victims of domestic violence (crisis centres and shelters) and related registration forms
Instruction manual for medical and social protection workers on responding to cases of domestic violence
Quality standards for the social services provided to victims of domestic violence in Tajikistan
Training module and educational materials for trainers of medical and social workers, which were developed for trainers at the Chorbogh Centre for Training and Introduction of Innovative Social Work Technology, clinical training centres for family medicine and nursing and the Institute for the Postgraduate Training of Medical Personnel in the Area of Health Care, a State educational institution, under the Ministry of Health
Instruction manual for health workers on responding to cases of domestic violence
A template of the official duties of social workers at the social assistance centres of the local executive authorities
98.Over the period 2017–2019, 22 training sessions were held for medical and social workers. These sessions were attended by 1,865 workers (obstetrician-gynaecologists, family doctors, forensic medicine specialists and social workers).
99.In 2017, the voluntary organizations Dilafruz and Themis were contracted under the State social-sector procurement system to set up centres to provide social services to victims of domestic violence in the cities of Bokhtar, Kŭlob and Dushanbe. In 2019, services were provided to 411 victims of domestic violence.
100.In 2018, the regulations of social service departments in seven pilot districts were amended to provide for the delivery of social services aimed at preventing domestic violence. The centres now serve two main functions: they organize meetings, seminars, cultural and educational activities and family counselling for citizens, in cooperation with departments for women and families, social protection departments, health and education centres and rural communities, with a view to protecting the rights of those in difficult circumstances; and they provide social services of a domestic, legal, sociomedical, youth-focused and educational nature to victims of domestic violence and single women.
101.In the State health-care system, medical services are provided free of charge to certain groups, including victims of trafficking in persons and victims of domestic violence, pursuant to Government Decision No. 600 of 2 December 2008 on the procedure for providing medical care to Tajik citizens, as amended, and on the basis of joint order of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection and the Ministry of Finance, No. 193-47 of 28 March 2019.
Children in institutions
Paragraph 26 of the Committee’s concluding observations
102.The number of social service centres for children with disabilities, victims of domestic violence, victims of trafficking in persons and other persons in difficult circumstances that operate under the State social-sector procurement system is increasing every year. In 2019, the number of such centres increased from 7 to 41. They provided social services to ensure the social rehabilitation, physical and psychological health, intellectual development and integration into society of 3,500 children with disabilities. Three centres work to provide sociomedical care for the rehabilitation of children in the home. In 2019, 147 employees of these centres provided social services to 297 citizens in need, including 120 children with disabilities.
103.Inclusive education for children with special needs is a focus of the Social Services Development Framework. In 2019, 45 children attended the Mehron kindergartens for children with disabilities in Kŭlob, and 35 teenagers with disabilities attended the centre run by the Parents of Children with Autism Initiative (IRODA) in Dushanbe.
104.In 2019, various services were provided to 480 children at the Chorbogh National Rehabilitation Centre for Children with Disabilities in Varzob district, 63 children at the International Centre for the Rehabilitation of Children with Disabilities in Baljuvon district and 147 children at the day-care centre attached to the State Social Work and Innovation Training Complex. New home-based social assistance departments have been established, bringing the total number of such departments to 41. One of the functions of these departments is to provide social services to families in difficult circumstances. Children’s homes have been converted into mother and child support centres. These centres provide comprehensive sociomedical, socio-psychological and socio-educational services to children aged under 7 years and to parents or persons in loco parentis who are in difficult circumstances.
105.Pursuant to Order No. 509 of the Ministry of Health of 16 July 2019, round tables were held throughout the country in order to educate medical personnel, in particular personnel in maternity wards and homes, on preventing the placement of children in special institutions and raising children in the family. Over the past three years, the number of orphaned children and children without care referred to special institutions has decreased.
Right to adequate housing
Paragraph 27 of the Committee’s concluding observations
106.On 30 April 2019, the President of Tajikistan issued an order establishing a working group to draft a new version of the Housing Code.
107.In order to respect the human right to adequate housing, effective procedures have been introduced to provide legal protection against the forced eviction of homeowners.
Access to water, sanitation and electricity
Paragraph 28 of the Committee’s concluding observations
108.In accordance with Government Decision No. 795 of 30 December 2015 on the Programme for the Development of Renewable Energy Sources and the Construction of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants for the period 2016–2020, construction was begun on the Bŭstonqal’a small hydroelectric power plant, with a capacity of 74 kW, and the Sebzor small hydroelectric power plant, with a capacity of 11 MW. Technical and economic feasibility studies have been carried out for the Sorvo, Nazar Ailak, Dombrachi, Turo, Ёrmazor, Lakon, Vorukh and Khaftkul small hydroelectric power plants. Over the period 2016–2019, seven small hydroelectric power plants – Safedob (175 kW), Sorvo (30 kW), Khidzhborak (100 kW), Tajikistan (1,500 kW), Pushti Bog (180 kW), Pinyon (100 kW) and Pakhtakor (100 kW) – with a total capacity of 2,200 kW entered into operation. In 2019, two additional small hydroelectric power plants, Gukat (20 kW) and Sone (50 kW), both in remote areas of the country, became operational. In 2018, the Tajikistan small hydroelectric power plant, with a capacity of 1,500 kW, entered into operation. It supplies the Murghob district with electricity.
109.The country has a total of 284 small hydroelectric power plants with an overall capacity of 24,859.6 kW.
110.The tender process for the Rural Electrification Project, which is worth $31.7 million, has been launched. The Project involves the construction of distribution networks in 61 remote mountainous areas and 10 kV and 0.4 kV distribution lines, the installation of distribution transformers in 74 villages in the country’s districts and their connection to the Barqi Tojik centralized distribution networks.
111.In order to improve the quality and accessibility of electricity services and economic and social infrastructure and help to strengthen the capacity of local authorities and subdistricts (jamoats), a regional electricity transmission project, CASA-1000, was launched at a cost of $26 million.
112.As part of the initiatives of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Programme, the Asian Development Bank provided technical assistance in the implementation of the latest electricity supply technologies in the form of 90 kits (each kit, for one household, consists of two solar panels with a total capacity of 300 W (2 x 150 W), one refrigerator, one television set and five energy-saving lightbulbs) for residents of remote villages in Murghob district.
113.In 2019, the Dushanbe Combined Heat and Power Plant, a joint-stock company, issued 148 technical specifications, at 121.433 gigacalories per hour (Gcal/h), for the connection of new high-rise buildings to the district heating networks in Dushanbe. It was planned that, during the winter of 2019–2020, 2,180 facilities in Dushanbe would be supplied with heat from the Dushanbe Combined Heat and Power Plant and boiler houses. According to the State Energy Oversight Service, 2,213 facilities in Dushanbe were supplied with heat as at 24 January 2020, which is 33 more than the 2,180 buildings and structures of various purposes that had been planned.
Right to adequate food
Paragraph 29 of the Committee’s concluding observations
114.Food security and nutrition were included as an individual goal in the National Development Strategy for 2016–2030. The relevant chapter highlights the need to increase food production and make policy adjustments to improve food accessibility through pricing and income strategies. It also sets out wider issues in nutrition, such as maternal nutrition, infant and young child feeding, micronutrient deficiencies and sanitation and hygiene, which are important for ensuring food safety and nutrition security.
115.Measures taken in agriculture, including land reclamation, the return to agriculture of fallow land, improvements in soil quality, increased surface area for orchards and vineyards and reform of the sector, which has involved tackling the debts faced by small farms, multiplying agricultural yields and improving the food security situation in the country. In 2017, the agricultural sector, which is the key element in the agro-industrial sector, generated 22.3 per cent of GDP. In recent years, the sector has seen diversification of activities through the use of multiple cropping, competitive and high-yield export production, increased cultivation area and the establishment of orchards and vineyards.
116.Private enterprises currently produce 91 per cent of gross agricultural output. This has resulted in a more profitable and sustainable balance between cotton, other crops and livestock farming along with increased investment in the production and processing of high-value fruit and vegetable crops, which has led to a noticeable improvement in yields per hectare. Measures towards the commercialization of agriculture are being taken.
117.In 2017, the Food Safety Council established a new working group to address micronutrient deficiencies, which is chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister and is focused on amending the current law on food enrichment to produce a law on prevention of micronutrient deficiency (through approaches to food enrichment).
118.Under the policy framework on school meals in general education establishments, approved by Government Decision No. 102 of 28 February 2015 and the School Meals Sustainable Development Strategy for the period up to 2027, also approved by a government decision, national consultations have been held with representatives of the education authorities, the Parent-Teacher Association and principals of pilot schools to discuss the school menu. Training seminars were held for the cooks of the pilot schools in the Vakhsh, Dzhaloliddin Balkhi, Dŭstí and Panj districts in Khatlon Province on 6 and 7 March 2019, in Yovon District on 9 and 10 March for the cooks of the pilot schools in the Yovon and Norak districts and in Kŭlob on 12 and 13 March for the cooks of the pilot schools in Kŭlob, Farkhor, Mŭ’minobod and Vose’.
119.In 2019, a set of school meal recommendations were issued as part of the School Meals Sustainable Development Strategy for the period up to 2027.
Right to health; infant and maternal mortality
Paragraph 30 of the Committee’s concluding observations
120.According to Ministry of Health data, in 2019 the number of specialists with medical degrees was 19,085 (including 7,451 women), the number of nurses was 53,991 (45,322 women) and the number of health and social welfare administrators was 652 (220 women). In 2019, the number of managers of city, district and village health-care centres was 1,213 (431 women). Seven of the 27 managers in the Ministry of Health central administration were women.
121.In the 2019/20 academic year, the Avicenna Tajik State Medical University had 8,999 students (3,889 women), Khatlon State Medical University had 1,487 students (393 women) and the medical colleges had 49,160 students (38,182 women). By virtue of a presidential quota, 989 students (515 women) are studying in medical educational institutions.
122.In the 2019 academic year, 33 women were pursuing postgraduate studies, 44 were external students working towards a candidate of medical sciences degree, 15 were PhD students and 3 were external students working towards a doctorate in medical sciences at the Academy of Medical Sciences at Tajik State Medical University. In the academic field of health and social protection, there are 232 female candidates of medical sciences and 72 women with doctorates in medical sciences.
123.In 2019 at the public Institute of Post-Graduate Training for Health-Care Workers, 31 specialists completed an initial specialization course and 67 specialists (24 women) completed professional development training in health management.
124.The Faculty of Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine of the Institute has developed a curriculum for specialization in narcology (1,716 hours over one year), narcology for psychiatrists (936 hours over six months) and basic narcology, substitution therapy and rehabilitation (156 hours over one month). In 2019, 4 specialists completed the one-year programme and 12 completed the six-month programme.
125.Tajikistan receives international assistance for health care. For example, in order to provide timely and professional medical care to pregnant women and premature and sick babies, a perinatal centre was built in 2019 in Kŭlob, Khatlon Province, with financial support from the Government of Germany (the contribution of the Tajik Government was 6,636,480 somoni) and construction of another centre in Bokhtar, Khatlon Province, is ongoing.
126.Medical equipment and medicines have been purchased from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) for a total of 1,007,940 somoni, while repairs have been completed and essential appliances acquired for three central district hospitals in Kŭhistoni Badakhshon Autonomous Province (Shughnon, Ishkoshim and Murghob) costing 1,659,120 somoni.
127.With the support of UNICEF, equipment worth 5,181,000 somoni has been purchased for three districts of Kŭhistoni Badakhshon Autonomous Province (Murghob, Ishkoshim and Darvoz), three centrally administered districts (Rasht, Rŭdakí and Lakhsh), six districts of Sughd Province (Panjakent, Devashtich, Asht, Zafarobod, Kŭhistoni Mastchoh and Mastchoh), along with a cold chain for vaccine storage costing 7,536,000 somoni.
128.Five clinical protocols were reviewed in 2019 to improve the provision of medical care for newborns for the following: treatment of respiratory disorders; seizures in newborns; treatment of children affected by undernutrition; hypoglycaemia in newborns; and prevention and treatment of pain in children. The Pocket book of hospital care for children of the World Health Organization was reviewed.
129.World Breastfeeding Week is celebrated in the country each year from 1 to 10 August. In 2019, more than 3,600 health-care workers and over 320,000 women took part in the event.
130.In order to reduce undernutrition among children and improve child health-care services, UNICEF supported the acquisition by the paediatric departments of the central district hospitals of 4,340 packets of F-100 therapeutic food for 277,890.20 somoni, 5,521 packets of F-75 therapeutic food for 353,509.63 somoni and 8,790 packets of BP-100 food for 178,592.70 somoni.
131.To reduce child morbidity and mortality, vitamin A capsules were distributed nationally to children between 6 and 59 months of age from 1 to 10 June 2019. The first round covered 1,161,298 children (98.7 per cent of the target group). A second round, carried out from 1 to 10 December 2019, covered more than 1,137,846 children (99.7 per cent of the target group).
132.To implement the strategy for integrated management of childhood disease, training courses on work at the family and community levels were held in the Sangvor, Lakhsh and Rasht districts. The courses were attended by more than 375 parents and 41 volunteers and addressed breastfeeding, dangerous symptoms in children, child nutrition and meal preparation, acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea in children.
133.Under the strategy, medicines for children under the age of 5 were purchased for primary health-care institutions for a total of 1,011,155 somoni with support from development partners (the Government of Japan).
134.For the early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip in children, in 2019, newborn screening was carried out in two pilot maternity hospitals in Dushanbe. The screening covered 12,560 newborns; hip dysplesia was detected in 807 children and 128 were prescribed a Tübingen hip flexion splint. For the prevention of disability in children born with congenital heart defects, surgical interventions were performed on 99 children in 2019.
Prevalence of HIV/AIDS
Paragraph 31 of the Committee’s concluding observations
135.On 25 February 2017, the National Strategy for the Prevention of the HIV Epidemic in Tajikistan for 2017–2020 was approved by Government Decision No. 89.
136.Funding for HIV prevention has increased from 15,428,820 somoni in 2017 to 21,647,983 somoni in 2019 (28.7 per cent)
137.Over the period 2017–2019: (a) 320 HIV laboratories were in operation (72 in 2018–2019); (b) 42 kits for enzyme immunoassay testing were purchased (9 in 2018–2019); (c) 11 systems for polymerase chain reaction testing and 7 devices for CD4 counting were procured (7 and 1 respectively in 2018–2019); (d) HIV test coverage in the general population is increasing, from 612,123 persons tested in 2017 to 780,688 in 2018 and 1,000,303 in 2019; (e) the number of HIV prevention and control centres increased to 64 (from only 42 at the end of 2016); the number of new cases among injecting drug users decreased from 17.6 per cent in 2016 to 6.6 per cent in 2019; among sex workers, the decrease was from 5.1 per cent in 2016 to 2.9 per cent in 2019; (f) despite the growth in HIV testing, the percentage of cases detected has remained relatively low, at less than 0.20 per cent (0.20 per cent in 2017, 0.18 per cent in 2018 and 0.13 per cent in 2019); (g) follow-up of infected persons is improving and currently encompasses 7,594 persons, or 86.7 per cent of the total population living with HIV (8,756 persons); (h) treatment coverage has improved: 6,961 of the 8,756 persons living with HIV are being treated, which accounts for 79.5 per cent, compared to 64.3 per cent in 2017; (i) the positive impact of antiretroviral treatment on HIV has led to a reduction in mortality among patients with HIV to 6.3 per cent (7.6 per cent in 2017).
138.Between 2017 and 2019, by order of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, HIV counselling and diagnosis using saliva tests to detect HIV antibodies was introduced and carried out by voluntary organizations. Saliva tests for HIV were carried out on 14,236 persons in 2017, 18,091 persons in 2018 and 22,607 persons in 2019.
139.HIV prevalence among those tested was 0.20 per cent in 2016 and 2017, 0.18 in 2018 and 0.13 per cent in 2019, which indicates that the epidemiological situation for HIV is stable in Tajikistan.
140.Since 2006, free antiviral treatment has been provided to persons living with HIV in Tajikistan. Antiretrovirals are fully supplied by international organizations, primarily the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
141.On 14 May 2019, the Ministry of Health adopted guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and care of persons living with HIV for newborns, children, adolescents and adults (Decision No. 342).
142.Of the total number of HIV-positive patients, 6,961, or 79.5 per cent, are receiving antiretroviral therapy; 73 per cent of patients have an undetectable viral load following treatment, which demonstrates its effectiveness and quality. In 2019, antiretroviral therapy was prescribed to 1,720 patients, of whom 1,327 were beginning treatment for the first time (1,199 were registered in 2019 and 208 were identified in previous years) and 393 were returning to antiretroviral therapy. The rise and the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy has had a positive impact on the mortality rate of persons living with HIV, which stood at 6.3 per cent in 2019 compared to 10.9 per cent in 2017.
143.Labour migration poses a problem for HIV prevention and spread in the population of Tajikistan. In 2017, in cooperation with UNICEF, drop-in centres were established in 15 cities and districts of the country to provide legal advice and HIV prevention materials to labour migrants and the members of their families. From 2017 to 2019, 11,613 persons engaged in labour migration received counselling, 69,428 condoms and 3,967 information leaflets were distributed and 1,250 persons were referred for HIV testing. In 2018 and 2019, the Government provided two special vehicles to ensure HIV counselling and test coverage for persons living in remote regions of the country.
144.Of the total number of HIV-positive persons (11,986 persons), 1,421 (12 per cent) are labour migrants; 7,504, or 62.6 per cent, are young persons between the ages of 18 and 39. For HIV prevention among young persons, 45 mass awareness-raising actions were carried out, with participation by 18,000 persons; 2,900 persons were tested for HIV.
145.Follow-up care and treatment coverage for children living with HIV is slightly better than for adults. The Government procured tests for pregnant women for a cost of: 880,000 somoni in 2017, 1.4 million somoni in 2018 and 2.1 million somoni in 2019, which is insufficient. Each year, approximately 250,000 pregnant women are recorded in the country, of which the majority (over 98 per cent) are tested for HIV during their pregnancy. If HIV is detected in a pregnant woman, AIDS centre specialists together with doctors from women’s reproductive health clinics assist the pregnant woman to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Until 2019, the country had had 1,491 recorded cases of HIV in pregnant women, with preventive action taken in respect of 1,450 (97.2 per cent). At present, 1,259 of the pregnant women have given birth, 123 had an abortion, 7 died during pregnancy and 61 are under observation. Of all the children born (1,256), 100 died shortly after birth from various causes, 818 were found to be HIV-negative and removed from the register and 41 received a diagnosis of HIV, were registered and given antiretroviral therapy. The remaining 297 children born to HIV-positive mothers are currently under observation by specialists until they reach the age of 18 months. The percentage of vertical transmission among children born to HIV-positive mothers is 4.8 per cent (41 of 859).
146.In 2019, 759 HIV-positive children under the age of 16 were receiving monthly social benefits from the State.
147.In 2018, 67,210 somoni were allocated from the government budget for the purchase of artificial milk formula for children born to HIV-positive mothers. In 2019, the amount was 197,442 somoni. At the same time, 18 cities and districts in 2017, 17 in 2018 and 139 in 2019 did not allocate resources from their local budgets to purchase milk formula.
Trafficking of illicit substances, and drug use
Paragraph 32 of the Committee’s concluding observations
148.From 2017 to 2019, the country’s military, police and security forces seized 17,884 kg of narcotic drugs and recorded 4,035 drug trafficking-related offences, of which 2,864 involved illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances with a view to sale (Criminal Code, art. 200), 807 involved illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances (Criminal Code, art. 201), 3 involved incitement to use narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances (Criminal Code, art. 203), 63 involved the illicit cultivation of prohibited plants containing narcotic substances (Criminal Code, art. 204), 23 involved the establishment or keeping of dens for the use of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances (Criminal Code, art. 205), 68 involved the illicit trafficking in potent or toxic substances with a view to sale (Criminal Code, art. 206/206.1), 453 involved the smuggling of narcotic drugs, psychoactive substances and their precursors (Criminal Code, art. 289) and 10 involved other offences related to illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs, psychoactive substances and their precursors.
149.Over the reporting period, the Drug Control Agency recorded 1,136 administrative offences related to illicit drug trafficking and instituted administrative proceedings in respect of 1,340 persons. A total of 1,265 Agency employees took part in 238 training events.
150.Under the National Strategy to Combat Illicit Drug Trafficking for 2013–2020, an anti-drug media campaign was mounted with 2,018 announcements, including 581 in print periodicals, 534 on the radio and 903 on television, and 1,717 anti-drug meetings and discussions, 177 seminars, 154 round tables and 411 anti-drug cultural and sporting events took place. More than 1,089 news items have been published on the Agency’s website.
151.To uphold the rules on the legal distribution of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors in the country’s treatment facilities, pharmacists and manufacturing plants, 741 inspections were carried out, which resulted in the detection of seven administrative offences. During the reporting period, the Agency’s licensing commission issued 74 licences and 36 import permits for precursors.
152.The Agency has constructed and put into operation several sports centres, to promote a healthy lifestyle.
153.Over the reporting period, the recorded numbers of persons with drug dependency were: 7,313 in 2015; 7,067 in 2016; 6,974 in 2017; 6,059 in 2018; and 5,375 in 2019. In 2019, 97.9 per cent of recorded drug-dependent persons were men. The number of drug-dependent persons aged between 18 and 34 years in the country is 1,016, of whom 4,142 are aged between 35 and 59 years and 127 are aged 60 years and over.
Right to education; quality of education
Paragraphs 33 and 34 of the Committee’s concluding observations
154.Detailed information about the right to education is provided in paragraphs 320 to 343 of the combined third to fifth periodic reports on implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC/C/TJK/3-5) and paragraphs 42 to 53 of the replies to the list of issues of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC/C/TJK/Q/3-5/Add.1).
155.In 2018/19, 153,050 students (including 73,739 girls) received a certificate for completing year 9 (lower secondary), 121,928 (57,238 girls) continued their studies in year 10 and 14,585 (6,595 girls) continued their studies in foundation and intermediate vocational colleges or on short vocational courses. A national standard for general education was approved by Government Decision No. 494 of 1 August 2015, which provides a unified general education policy and establishes the requirements for the corresponding level of education. Based on the national standard, subject-specific standards, curricula and programmes have been produced and approved for the primary level and are currently being developed for the lower and upper secondary levels. The 2018/19 curriculum for general education establishments was approved by Ministry of Education and Science Board Decision 18/39 of 1 October 2018. For foundation and intermediate vocational education and short vocational courses for the period 2015–2020, 16 professional standards and 947 curricula have been developed and 134 qualification standards for intermediate vocational education have been analysed and submitted to the Ministry for approval.
156.A new version of the national standard for intermediate vocational education has been drafted and the classification of areas of specialization for intermediate vocational education has been amended. Currently, 120 titles of qualification standards for intermediate vocational education establishments have been approved by the Ministry Board.
Inclusive education for children with disabilities
Paragraph 35 of the Committee’s concluding observations
157.Following the adoption of a policy framework on inclusive education, the number of children with disabilities in general education establishments has increased to 7,338 (including 2,939 girls); 830 children (343 girls) are homeschooled or attend special residential schools and 628 children (247 girls) are enrolled in preschool establishments.
158.Using the facilities of the country’s teacher training institutes, courses of study in special education for students with intellectual disabilities, speech therapy, speech pathology and deaf education have been introduced. These courses currently have 688 students, with 59 graduating in 2019.
159.In special residential schools for children with physical disabilities, 1,642 children study and receive health care.
160.The country has 64 residential schools providing education to 8,275 children, of whom 1,642 have disabilities, 160 are orphans, 1,713 have no father, 455 have no mother, 815 are from poor families and 3,490 attend for other reasons.
161.Currently, 300 textbooks have been published for deaf students using sign language, 600 copies of Talaffuz, 600 copies of Razvitie rechi dlya glukhikh detei(Speech development for deaf children) for students in years 1 and 2 and 600 copies of Tajiklanguage textbooks forresidential schools. In 2015, the sign language textbook Znaki (Signs) for deaf children in special schools was first published with a print run of 2,000 copies, followed in 2019 by the second part of the textbook with a print run of 2,000 copies.
162.Textbooks in Braille have been published, with 45 copies for year 1 (second book), 45 copies each of Rodnoi yazik (Mother Tongue)for year 2(four books), 45 copies of Mathematics for years 1 and 2, 40 copies of the children’s book Russkaya mechta (Russian Dream)for year 2 and 45 copies each of The Buckwheat for year 2 (two books).
163.A manual has been produced on the preparation and drafting of a comprehensive programme for the integration of students with physical development disabilities in years 1 to 4 at auxiliary residential schools, along with a textbook on physical education for students with disabilities and one on planning and facilitating games for children with disabilities using practical games and exercises (in Russian).
164.Since February 2017, 38 educational events have been held as part of the European Union-supported Quality Education Support Programme, with participation by 865 specialists and experts from ministries, departments, industry and education establishments.
Linguistic rights of ethnic minorities
Paragraph 36 of the Committee’s concluding observations
165.Tajikistan has an adequate legal framework for participation by ethnic minorities in the political life of the country. National legislation guarantees that citizens have equal rights and freedoms regardless of their race, ethnicity or language as well as the right to use their native language and to a free choice of language for communication, child-rearing, education and expression.
166.The country currently has general education establishments teaching in Tajik, Russian, English, Uzbek, Turkmen and Kyrgyz. At higher education institutions, the languages of teaching are Tajik, Russian and English. Textbooks and study guides in the languages of ethnic minorities are published on a regular basis.
167.Children from the Lyuli (Roma) ethnic group speak Tajik and attend Tajik schools. There are 958 children (325 girls) currently in education.
168.As at February 2020, Tajikistan had 3,884 general education establishments, of which 3,166 taught in Tajik and 581 were mixed establishments (151 Tajik-Russian, 11 Tajik-Russian-Uzbek, 7 Tajik-Russian-English, 378 Tajik-Uzbek, 1 Tajik-Uzbek-Kyrgyz, 27 Tajik-Kyrgyz, 5 Tajik-Turkmen and 1 Tajik-English). There were 137 education establishments not using Tajik as a language of instruction (32 Russian, 1 Russian-English, 75 Uzbek, 26 Kyrgyz and 3 English).
169.At present, 93,563 students are being taught in Russian, 110,488 in Uzbek, 8,742 in Kyrgyz and 1,386 in Turkmen.
170.In 2018/19, 974 young teaching staff were assigned to education establishments not using Tajik as a language of teaching; textbooks for teaching the Tajik language were developed for years 2 to 11; 35 of 92 textbooks were translated into Russian; a list was compiled of 24 textbooks in Uzbek and their translation launched; a call for tender was issued for the publication of teaching materials in Kyrgyz.
171.Between 2016 and 2019, the following textbooks for general education establishments teaching in Uzbek were published: 15,000 copies of Alifbe for year 1, 11,000 copies of Uzkeksky yazik (Uzbek Language) for year 9, 15,000 copies of Uzbek tili(Uzbek L anguage) for year 11 and 11,000 copies of Uzbekskaya literatura (Uzbek Literature)for year 11. In 2018, the Government supported the publication of four textbook titles for primary school students in general education establishments, including Mathematics for years 1 to 4 and Ene dush for years 3 and 4, in a print run of 2,000 copies (500 copies of each).
172.There are independent artistic groups from the Uzbek, Russian, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, Korean and Azerbaijani communities throughout the country’s cities and districts, including 18 professional theatres, such as the Vladimir Mayakovsky National Russian Theatre in Dushanbe and the Alexander Pushkin Drama and Comedy Theatre in Bŭston, Sughd Province, which stage performances in Russian, and the Shukur Burkhanov National Uzbek Musical Theatre in Spitamen District, Sughd Province, which stages performances in Uzbek. The companies of the National Puppet Theatre in Dushanbe and the National Puppet Theatre in Bŭston, Sughd Province, include shows in both Tajik and Russian in their repertoires. A significant place in the repertoire of professional music groups and singers in Tajikistan is dedicated to songs and dances originating from different peoples, including the Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, Russians, Turkmens and Ukrainians.
173.Professional training in culture and the arts is offered by: (a) 11 education establishments, including 3 higher education institutions – the Mirzo Tursunzoda Tajik State Institute of Culture and the Arts, which has 2,305 students, the Tajik National Conservatory, with 386 students and the State Institute of Visual Art and Design with 1,561 students; (b) 6 colleges with 2,195 students; (c) 85 music and performing arts schools, with 14,990 students. The Ministry of Culture has an academic research institute for culture and information.
174.As at 31 December 2019, the country had 376 registered newspapers (112 public and 264 private), 245 magazines (114 public and 131 private) and 11 news agencies (1 State and 11 non-State). The numbers of newspapers published in the languages of ethnic minorities are: 27 in Russian; 6 in Uzbek; 14 in Tajik and Uzbek; 83 in Tajik and Russian; 2 in Russian and English; 26 in Tajik, Russian and English; 14 in Tajik, Russian and Uzbek; 3 in Tajik, Russian, English and Persian; and 2 in Tajik, Russian and Kyrgyz. The numbers of magazines are: 10 titles in Russian; 4 in Uzbek; 1 in Tajik and Uzbek; 49 in Tajik and Russian; 37 in Tajik, Russian and English; 14 in Tajik, Russian and Uzbek; 1 in Tajik, Russian and Arabic; and 1 in Tajik, Russian and Kyrgyz.