United Nations


Economic and Social Council

Distr.: General

26 February 2019

Original: English and French

English and French only

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Sixty - f ifth session

18 February–8 March 2019

Item 7 (a)of the provisional agenda

Consideration of reports: reports submitted by States parties in accordance with articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant

List of issues in relation to the fourth periodic report of Cameroon


Replies of Cameroon to the list of issues *

[Date received: 15 February 2019]

I.General Information

Reply to paragraph 1 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

1.Apart from the continuous trainings mentioned in the Report, personnel from different corps of justice in Cameroon (justice auditors from ENAM and trainee lawyers/pupil barristers) follow up teachings on Human Rights and Public Liberty, International Humanitarian Law and Disputes on Human Rights. Cameroon’s Bar Association has a Human Rights Commission whose principal objective is to foster the promotion and protection of human rights.

2.The justifiability of economic, social and cultural rights is consecrated not only in the direct application of the dispositions of international conventions, but also in the dispositions of National law which consecrate these laws.

3.In the case of MASSANGO EPIE against Herarkles Farms, relative to erroneous dismissal, the Judge invoked the PIDESC, Convention No. 111 of the ITU on Discrimination (Employment and Profession) as well as the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination.

4.Concerning the right to health, the Supreme Court, in Decree No. 192/c of 25 September 2008, considered the unavailability of a curative treatment against HIV and AIDS to develop a right to compensation for a victim of the voluntary transmission of this disease.

5.With the indictment of obstacles to schooling in the Penal Code of 12 July 2016, violations of the right to education will be evaluated by penal jurisdictions.

Reply to paragraph 2 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

6.Although there is no legal instrument in Cameroon that defines Human Rights defenders, when activists are tried, they benefit from the right to a fair trial and are guaranteed and enjoy the right to freedom of association and expression. They are punished accordingly, not because of their status but simply because they failed to respect the laws in place regarding public manifestations.

7.This was the Case of Mr. Nasako Besingi, the Director of the NGO called ‘Struggle to Economize Future Environment’ against an American Agro-industrial Plantation Company, during his trials on 31 July 2012, on 25 August 2015, and on 25 September 2017 in the Mundemba Court of First Instance and in the Military Tribunal.

II.Points related to the general dispositions of the Pact (art. 1 to 5)

The right to freely own natural resources (art. 1, para. 2)

Reply to paragraph 3 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

8.Impact of measures on:

(a)Right to Adequate Nutrition: With the financing of income generating activities and awareness raising to Baka Pygmies no longer depend much on forest products but also on cultivated products. In 2017, some 200 Baka Pygmies were assisted in the development of farmland in the localities of Lokoundje, Oveng and Bengbis in the South Region and Dimako, Messamena and Atok in the East Region;

(b)Right to Education: With the creation of schools and awareness raising in areas inhabited by the Bakas, more children are enrolled into schools. For instance, the number of Baka pygmy children in schools continued to increase in the East Region. In 2017, 183 (112 boys and 71 girls) candidates wrote the First School Living Certificate;

(c)Right to work: 17 indigenous children (Baka) wrote and passed the competitive exams into the Police Force in 2017;

(d)Right to Decent life: Government and partners trained indigenous peoples in Adamawa North and West Regions in livestock breeding, poultry farming, and artisanal production amongst others.

9.Right to Social Security: Indigenous peoples are also benefiting with ongoing reforms in the social security system extended to the informal sector with voluntary insurance.

10.Right to Health: Government carried vaccination campaigns on Pygmies’children and women and 101 health centres regularly attended by the pygmies were stocked with essential drugs:

•198 traditional birth attendants were either trained or attended refresher courses on hygiene;

•More than 391 traditional midwives were trained in 2014 under the PDPP conducted by UNDP.

11.On the policy of biodiversity conservation and the obligation to respect the rights of indigenous peoples, including the right to free, prior and informed consent to projects affecting them, Government before carrying any major project conduct social and environmental impact study. The concerns of the indigenous people are collected first during public consultations and reported in the Social and Environmental Management Plan submitted to an Interministerial Committee for the issuance of an environmental compliance certificate.

12.In 2014, a handbook on National Guidelines to obtain a Free, Informed and Prior Consent was validated for the execution of projects.

13.The Law No. 2016/17 of 14 December 2016 on the Mining Code that repeals all provisions of Law No. 2001 of 16 April 2001 on the Mining Code and its subsequent amendment No. 2010/11 of 29 July 2010, captures the concerns of Indigenous People.

14.The Government set up a Three-year Action Plan 2017–2019 for the Protection of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples within the framework of biodiversity conservation. The main objectives of the Plan are to maintain a social watch on the protection of the rights of indigenous peoples in the development, implementation and monitoring of biodiversity conservation programmes and projects; obtain their free, prior and informed consent; and put in place specific and culturally adapted mechanisms for the participation of indigenous populations in biodiversity protection activities.

15.Concerning prior consultation procedures carried out in the past five years, some among others include: the implementation of the 3rd phase of PNDP allows 6 additional councils bringing the total number of councils benefiting from the programme to 37. A consultation workshop was held in March 2017 with the beneficiary councils in the Centre, East and South Regions; a Reflection Workshop on the Participation of Indigenous Peoples on Land Governance was organized by RACOPY on 8 August 2018; compensation was paid to the resident population including Pygmies in the Projects of Lom Pangar Hydroelectric Dam and of the Industrial Port Complex of Kribi.

Obligation to operate in consideration of the available resources (art. 2, para. 1)

Reply to paragraph 4 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

16.Since 2010, the percentage of public income withdrawn from the VAT represents 10% of State revenue. Concerning the evolution of the principal components of imports and taxes over the period January-September 2017 and January-September 2018, income from import and taxes moved from 1,208 billion FCFA to 1,276 billion FCFA, representing an absolute variation of 68 billion FCFA and a relative variation of 5.6%.

17.During this period, Personal Income Tax (PIT) reduced from 197.7 billion FCFA to 187.5 billion FCFA respectively. Representing an absolute variation of -10.2 billion FCFA and a relative variation of -5.2%. However, within the same period, VAT increased from 391.4 billion FCFA to 480.3 billion FCFA respectively, representing an absolute variation of 88.9 billion FCFA and a relative variation of 22.7%.

Table 1Evolution of the percentage of public income withdrawn from VAT and PIT between 2012 and 2016







VAT in %






PIT in %






18.On 31st August 2017, the level public expenditure, as a percentage of GDP was estimated at 5,082.5 billion FCFA and represented 28.3% of GDP. Regarding the ordered total expenditure, they moved from 755.1 billion FCFA during the first trimester of 2017 to 871.9 billion FCFA during the 1st trimester of 2018, being a 116.8 billion FCFA increase, which represents a variation rate of 15.5%.

19.Concerning the part of total public expenditure that was meant for social services, the budgetary envelope allocated to social services has increased annually. In 2014, the sum of 680.2 billion FCFA was allocated to the social sector, being 20.5% of the State budget. in 2015, the social sector benefited from an endowment of 763.1 billion FCFA representing 20.4% of the State Budget. In 2016, this amount was 954.5 billion FCFA and represented 22.5% of the State Budget. In 2017 the amount was raised to 1,014.2 billion FCFA being 59.7 billion FCFA increase and representing 23.2% of the state budget.

20.Concerning resources made available by debts cancellation, payments in respect to debt servicing have surged to 263.1 billion FCFA, representing an execution rate of 36.2% with regards to the 2018 Finance Law. From this amount, 88.9 billion FCFA was meant for the payment of external debt and 174.2 billion FCFA was meant for internal debt. Concerning the external debt service, there was no accumulation of arrears.

21.In relation to the regional repartition of public expenditure, Finance Law rests on the financing of projects by sector or activity programme. Efforts will be made to ameliorate data collection in Regions, in order to restitute the actions undertaken by the State to satisfy the general interest.

Reply to paragraph 5 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

22.The idea of the enforcement of Law No. 003/2006 of 25 April 2006 on the declaration of goods and assets is being put in place. Several institutions have been created to fight against corruption. Notably CONAC, CONSUPE (Supreme State Audit), SCC (Special Criminal Courts), the National Agency for Financial Investigation and Ministerial Units aimed at fighting corruption.

Table 2Comparative statement of sanctions pronounced against managers and public agents from 2013 to 2017






Balance Statement

38 398 636 508 FCFA

3 203 819 395 FCFA

662 352 520 FCFA

11 926 062 448 FCFA

7 479 034 032 FCFA

Special Claims

32 100 000 FCFA

9 400 000 FCFA

27 100 000 FCFA

7 900 000 FCFA

Source : Consupe .

Tab le 3Comparative Statement of ordinances rendered by presiding judges/magistrates of Special Criminal Courts from 2013 and 2017


N ⸰ of cases for judicia l information

N ⸰ of closed cases

N ⸰ of people sent before special criminal Courts

N ⸰ of beneficiaries of nonsuit


























Source : TCS .

Table 4Comparative Statement of decisions made by TCS from 2013 to 2017


Number of cases enroled

N umber of judgement s

N umber condemned

N umber of acquittals and stopped cases















31 acquittals  ; 25 lawsuits stopped





13 acquittals  ; 32 lawsuits stopped





02 acquittals ; 04 lawsuits stopped

Source : TCS .

23.From 2015 to 2017, the amounts reclaimed summed up to 10 311 011 338.36 FCFA for expenses and 116 295 112 398.3 FCFA of damages. The sum of 2 053 955 853 FCFA was restituted.

Table 5Comparative Statement of the number and profile of persons prosecuted, amounts reclaimed, restituted or recovered from 2015 to 2017


Numbre of persons prosecuted



Amounts reclaimed

Amounts restituted

Amounts recovered

Came - roonian Nationality

Other nationalities









2 146 631 629 FCFA

28 441 125 029


552 588 642 FCFA









3 974 300 904,46 FCFA

79 127 883 862,3 FCFA

493 365 933 FCFA








200 000 FCFA

4  190 978 805 FCFA

8 726 103 507 FCFA

1 008 001 278 FCFA




Source : TCS .

Non-discrimination (art. 2, para. 2)

Reply to paragraph 6 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

24.Even though the Constitution of Cameroon does not recognize linguistic minorities, protects and promotes national languages.

25.The government has undertaken actions that favor of bilingualism as well as the participation of the populations of the North West and South West Regions in the management of public affairs.

Measures taken to enhance employment

26.Notices for competitive exams so as to have access/ be enrolled in training schools and exam papers are both published in the two official languages, French and English.

27.For direct competitive exams which were organized in 2016, so as to give access to public service for 1 320 seats regardless of speciality, it was sorted out that out of 1 165 registered candidates, 927 wrote in French and 238 in English. The results revealed that all the regions of the country were represented, been 46 candidates for the Adamawa region, 182 for the Centre region, 107 for the Far North region, 95 for the East, 93 for Littoral, 53 for North, 156 for the North-West, 262 for the West, 96 for the South and 71 for the South-West.

Measures taken to enhance education

28.The Cameroonian education system is composed of two sub-systems which are the Anglophone sub-system and the francophone sub-system according to Law No. 98/004 of 14th April 1998 on the re-orientation of the education system in Cameroon. Each Cameroonian regardless of his region is free to choose any sub-system of education in which he can register his children, despite their level of education, preschool, primary, secondary and higher education. The efforts made by the State in order to guarantee the right to education for all are been spread out indistinctly.

29.At the level of basic education, the State has set out important means been freebies at this level of education so as to guarantee access. This has enabled the increase of indicators.

30.The number of primary schools in 2013-2014 was 8 267, representing 3 088 for the Anglophone sub-system, from 2014-2015, and went from 9 175 to 3 405 for the Anglophone sub-system and from 9 660 in 2015-2016, and 3 660 for the Anglophone system. These efforts for the densification of infrastructures were equally followed with the increase of human ressources.

31.The number of preschool teachers increased from 7 369 in 2014/2015, to 7 780 in 2015/2016 for the francophone sub-system. As concerning the Anglophone system, they went from 2 841 in 2014/2015 to 2 906 in 2015/2016. In total, the teachers personnel in charge of 555 810 registered pupils in the preschool moved from 10 210 teachers in 2014/2015 to 10 686 in 2015/2016.

32.Concerning primary education, the number of primary schools progressively increased during the last three academic years. From 18 135 schools in 2013 -2014, been 5 071 for the Anglophone sub-system, the number of schools moved to 19 136 in 2014-2015, been 5 430 for the anglophone sub-system and to 19 711 schools during the 2015-2016 academic year, with a number of 5 693 for the Anglophone sub-system.

33.The number of pupils in the primary cycle equally made an increase:

•Year 2013/2014: 4 136 912 pupils representing 904 364 for the Anglophone sub-system;

•Year 2015/2016: 4 481 235 pupils, been 987 129 for the same sub-system.

34.This led to an increase of 344 323 pupils in an absolute value and 7,68% in a relative value.

35.Concerning the number of teachers in public primary schools, it went from 60 357 during the 2013/2014 academic year, been 12 609 for the Anglophone sub-system, to 66 264 in 2015/2016, for the estimated number of Anglophone teachers to 13 602, which represents an increase in number of 5 907 in the order of teachers in an absolute value and 8,9% in the relative value.

36.The anglophone secondary education is present in the whole national territory through numerous public, private and denominational institutions. With an instance, the GCE Board is in charge of organizing exams in the Anglophone sub-system. The results obtained in different exams of this instance, in 2014 enabled to discover that a number of 164 712 were registered and 67 058 were admitted with a successful rate of 44%. In comparison, this census presents 334 959 registered for 130 187 admitted to the Office du Baccalauréat du Cameroun (OBC), a similar organ in charge of organizing exams in the francophone sub-system, with a successful rate of 42%.

37.In 2015, the GCE Board registered 180 231 candidates having 81 830 admitted with a successful rate of 49,78% meanwhile OBC registered 348 771 candidates having 146 314 admitted, with a successful rate rising to 43,19%.

38.Finally, in 2016, a total number of 170 132 registered candidates were recorded by the GCE Board, with 105 392 admitted, having a successful rate rising to 61,94%. At OBC, for the same year, 360 666 candidates were registered with 144 603 admitted and a successful rate of 40,99%.

39.At the level of Higher education and upon 8 public universities owned by Cameroon, 02 of them are Anglo-Saxons which are the Universities of Bamenda and Buea respectively with Faculties and Higher Schools.

40.Following the Anglophone teachers Union complaints in the North-West and South-West regions of November 2016, an interministerial ad hoc Committee was created by the Prime Minister, Head of Government, to examine and propose solutions with regards to the concerns raided. The following measures were taken consecutively:

•A recruitment of 1 000 bilingual teachers with a subvention of 2 000 000 000 FCFA for private teaching;

•Immediate posting of 131 professors amongst which 106 were English speaking from both regions concerned;

•The creation of a Polytechnic for Anglophone students, Common Law Departments in the Uiniversities of Douala, Maroua, Ngaoundéré and of Dschang and Public Law Departments in the Universities of Bamenda and Buea; and the Departments of French Private Law in the Bamenda and Buea Universities.

41.In the same vein, and with the view of promoting the concept of living together with the crisis in the North-West and South-West regions, other relevant measures were taken:

•The creation of the National commission for the Promotion of Bilingualism and Multiculturalism;

•The stop of prosecution against Anglophone leaders and other persons who were called upon and suspected to be part of this crisis;

•The creation of a Ministry dedicated to decentralization in order to accelerate the process;

•The implementation of an emergency humanitarian plan in the North-West and South-West Regions;

•The creation of a committee in charge of disarmament and the reintegration of ex-combatants.

Reply to paragraph 7 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

42.The impact of measures taken by the Government indicates that, about 7% of persons with disabilities, 1 000 teachers (primary, secondary and higher education) were employed. Many had access to vocational training centres.

43.Cameroon continued to implement its strategic and operational integration policy of persons with disabilities. The National Policy Paper for the Protection and Promotion of Persons with Disabilities in Cameroon and the Plan of Action (2017-2021) was updated.

44.Furthermore, Decree No. 2018/6233/PM of 26 July 2018 fixing the modalities applicable to Law No. 2010/2 of 13 April 2010 on the Protection and Promotion of Persons with Disabilities gave preferential treatment for employment of persons with disabilities.

45.With regards to participation in public life of persons with disabilities, 6 of them were elected as municipal councillors during the dual legislative and municipal elections of 30 September 2013. Mr. OYONO Robert, a person living with disability has been appointed as an alternate senator. Also, Mr. TEZANOU Paul, a visually impaired, representing NGOs of Human Rights was appointed pursuant to Decree No. 2014/399/ of 8 October 2014 to renew the mandate of some members of the National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms.

46.Moreover, personsliving with disabilities voted during the presidential election of 7 October 2018 and they sent observers on the field through their Association, Inclusive Society for Persons with Disabilities.

47.Concerning discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, including by decriminalizing homosexuality, the constitution of Cameroon protects every citizen against whatever form of discrimination. However, Cameroon rejected the recommendation on the decriminalization of homosexuality during the 3rd Cycle of the UPR. The position remains unchanged.

Reply to paragraph 8 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

48.For access to education, to job opportunities and to health services, the Government and its partners took measures both for asylum seekers, refugees, as for Internally Displaced Persons (IDP).

The enhancement of educational offer

49.The actions undertook were meant for the increase of academic infrastructures, as well as the availability and revaluation of the personnel teaching in the regions welcoming refugees. Accordingly, schools were built and rehabilitated. The Head of State implemented in 2015, an academic emergency plan for the education of displaced children of the Far-North Region.

50.The Tourou High school and the Goudjim-Délé and Bodo secondary schools closed for 02 years due to insecurity reasons, were reopened in September 2018. In the Minawao site, 03 primary schools, 03 nursery schools, and 02 preschool centres were built.

51.It was noted that during the 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 academic years, teachers’ recruitment by the State with the support of its partners (UNICEF and UNHCR) concerning the Temporary Space for Learning and Child Protection was put in place in order to upgrade refugee children.

Supporting demand for education

52.Various aids and supports from the Government and partners were granted to IDP children, asylum seekers and refugees so as to encourage them to go to school. These supports were either materially(school kits, school uniforms, table-benches, latrines, water boll holes, luges, swings, ball games and jump ropes…) either financially ( payment of tuition fees, exams and competitive exams, scholarships…). Teachers on their side received special primes.

Employment opportunities for Internal Displaced Persons (IDP), asylum seekers and refugees

53.In order to improve their resilience, the Government focused its action on their autonomy through activities such as capacity building, material inputs and/or financial inputs for income generating activities and facilitation of their socio professional integration. Agricultural seeds and tools, financial and material support, scholarships, professional and literacy training programs, as well as pieces of land to carry out cultivation or livestock were offered.

Access to health services for asylum seekers, refugees and IDPs

54.The State with the support of development partners offered facilities for access to sanitary services and care provisions. It rehabilitated or constructed sanitary structures in the East regions, Far-North, North and Adamawa region.

On measures meant to promote economic, social and cultural rights for asylum seekers, refugees and IDP

55.In order to face the massive influx of refugees on Cameroonian land caused in 2014 by the socio-political crisis in Central African Republic and the acts of the terrorist group Boko Haram against the North-East population of Nigeria and conflicts between breeders and farmers in the Benue and Cross-Rivers state in Nigeria, the Head of State signed on the 13th March, 2014, the Decree No. 269 on the creation of an interministerial ad hoc Committee with a plan of action. The said committee works together with UNHCR so as to harmonize the different response or solutions given by humanitarian actors on the field and at the same time, is in charge of examining humanitarian, socio-economic, sanitarian, and security challenges, as well the legal concerns for hosts communities in order to propose appropriate and concrete measures to the Government.

56.Concerning actions meant to preserve housing rights, education, health ,adequate food and job opportunities were brought in developed sites or in communities and urban zones, namely in Yaoundé and Douala.

57.In addition, in 2016 the National Programme for Participative Development (PNDP), with the support of UNHCR and at the urging of the German cooperation agency, set up a number of refugee empowerment programmes. Also in 2016, UNHCR and the Ministry of the Economy, Planning and Land-Use Management reached an agreement on the development of the municipalities sheltering Central African refugees in the Adamawa, East and North regions.

Equal rights between Men and Women (art. 3)

Reply to paragraph 9 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

58.Article 1 paragraph 2 of the Cameroonian constitution acknowledged and protected traditional values in conformity to democratic principles, Human rights and to law. Before the courts of traditional law, the statutory rule is the substitution to the written modern law to customary law when its dispositions are contrary to public order and morality.

59.Therefore, in judgements No. 78/TPD of 16th November 2015 and No. 59/TPD of 17th August 2015 given by the court of first degree of Guider, the judge declared the toupouri custom to be partly contrary to public order and morality, and to the dispositions of Article 745 of the civil code, in such a way that it “ recognises that only men are entitled to inheritance, and women being considered as well estates; and when a person dies abintestat, leaving women and children, his estates are instead ,handed over to his brothers, precisely the eldest, who can take care of the widows”.

60.Regarding legislative amendments concerning women, the State of Cameroon adopted in 2016 the Law No. 2016/007 of 12th July 2016 on the penal code, which abrogated discriminatory dispositions against women, as per mentioned in paragraphs 44 to 46 of the national report. While waiting for the outcome of other reforms, the jurisprudence works henceforth, through the application of international conventions which acknowledges to the married women, the equal ability to that of her husband as well as the management of common property is concerned. This is the case with judgement No. 31/COM/TGI of 16th Novemeber 2017 given by the Bamboutos High court on which the judge insisted on the dispositions of articles 15 and 16 of CEDF so as to cancel mortgaged convention made by the husband on common property without the wife’s consent.

III.Points related to specific dispositions of the Pact (art. 6 to 15)

Right to work (art. 6)

Reply to paragraph 10 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

61.The promoting decent work country program (PDWCP) was adopted from 2014 to 2017. It was articulated around four prioritised axes which are the increase of decent job opportunities, and the promotion of income generating activities, mainly for women, youths and vulnerable groups; amelioration of the legal framework and working conditions for all ; capacity building of tripartite to social dialogue and social protection.

62.During the year 2017, an evaluation for the implementation of the PDWCP was done, in order to measure the fulfilled progress done during this cycle. This evaluation released the rate of realisation of the PDWCP at the end of the cycle to 65% according to priorities.

63.The PDWCP was prorogated for the 2018-2019 period. It will suffer a trimming of activities.

64.The increase of decent job opportunities was seen by the development of programs and projects dedicated to youth and women employment, been 35 programs of which 17 were meant for youths. An example is that of the National Plan for Youth Employment (NPYE 2016-2020), Young Special Three-Year Plan (PTS-Jeunes), ASCNPD, of CNEPCI, of the Multifunctional Centre for the Promotion of Youths (CMPJ).

65.With regards to women, we can point out the implementation of the national gender policy and the adoption of the National Action Plan for Development and female entrepreneurship (PANDEF 2017-2020) aimed at reinforcing female entrepreneurs managerial capacities. The Support Program for Women Entrepreneurship(PAPEF) is aimed at women access to low cost financial services, with low financial income services has entered its finalisation phase in 2017 with the signing of a loan agreement of CFCA7 000 000 000 CFA between the Government and the Central African States Bank. The Gender and Women’s Economic Empowerment Project in the Transport sector is being implemented since 2014.

66.In addtion, in order to ensure women access to income generating activities , Law No. 2013/004 of 18 April 2013 on the the setting of incentives for private investments in Cameroon enabled the creation of 4610 jobs in 2014 and 19 594 jobs in 2015.

67.The creation of cooperatives has favoured the increased migration of women from the informal trade sector to the formal economic sector.

68.All these initiatives have generated enterpreneurship, employment, and the professional insertion of women, youths, persons living with disabilities and indigenous people.

69.As concerns the enhancement of working conditions for all, progress so far recorded focus mainly on the drafting of policy documents such as the National Social Security Policy, the Framework document for the fight against HIV/Aids at work, and the National Plan of Action for the elimination of child labour in Cameroon.

Right to favorable and equitable working conditions (art. 7)

Reply to paragraph 11 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

70.The agricultural sector is the largest employer after the public service. Inspection visits were multiplied and framed resolutely, even in the enterprises that make up the agricultural sector.

71.For example, 2,074 visits to follow-up the activities of enterprises were effectuated in different regions of the country during the 2nd semester of 2018. These visits permitted the discovery of 1,908 individual disputes and 228 collective disputes.

72.In this context, 28 cases of accidents at work, with 2 accidents (1 in the Centre Region and 1 in the West Region) and 26 non mortal accidents (13 in the Centre Region and 13 in the West Region), and 26 cases of professional illness (13 in the Centre Region and 13 in the West) were indicated.

73.Concerning the social sector in the 2nd Semester, it remained relatively calm and serene in the Regions that were taken into consideration. Also, the counselling and reconciliation which was effectuated permitted the prevention of strikes during the year 2018.

74.The government also put in place tripartite concertation frameworks at the levels of Regions, Divisions and Sub Divisions. These frameworks result from the National Committee for Concertation and for the Follow Up of Social Dialogue headed by the Prime Minister, Head of Government. Enterprises were also encouraged to create their own concertation committees.

Syndical Rights (art. 8)

Reply to paragraph 12 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

75.In view of Cameroon’s ratification of Convention No. 87 on freedom of association, the Government has drawn up a comprehensive file in 2017. Two draft laws drawn up with the active participation of trade unions, including one the exercise of strike rights and the other on trade union activity, were validated by the Ministry of Labour and Social Security (MINTSS) in June 2018, then forwarded for due diligence uses. In addition, it should be noted that trade union’s approval are issued at the request of their promoters.

76.The number of Staff Delegates’ dismissals has decreased from 80 in 2016 to 50 in 2018. MINTSS often organises meetings that contribute to the promotion of a company’s advice, monitoring and reconciliation of interest. In 2018, the National Labour Observatory launched a project to draw up a draft standard survey report on dismissal for the use of inspectors, with a view of limiting labour disputes.

77.As of 21st January 2019, there have been no recorded cases of allegations of interference by the authorities in the trade unions’ internal affairs. Difficulties encountered include conflicts of interest among the members of the same trade union, characterised in particular by the duplication of the Executive Offices, in violation of the 1992 Labour Code.

Reply to paragraph 13 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

78.The right to strike is recognised and framed by the State of Cameroon, as it is the case elsewhere. Concerning Article 255 in particular, which deals with obstacles to freedom of work, it does not proscribe the right to strike, but prohibits the use of certain means such as violence, threats or fraudulent actions leading to an agreed cessation of work.

Right to social security (art. 9)

Reply to paragraph 14 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

79.With a view to extending social security coverage, the voluntary insurance system was put in place by Decree No. 2014/2377/PM of 13 August 2014, laying down the terms and conditions of insured persons cares regarding old age, invalidity and death insurance scheme.

80.In 2015, 6 207 employees were registered compared to 5 872 in 2014. A total of 69 985 registered employees in 2015. The young workers, under 35 years, have been once again the most registered with a proportion of 63.8%.

81.In 2017, 5267 new employees have been registered. The number of active employees was 38 722. In addition, 60 196 new social insured persons were registered.

82.The slow increase observed since 2015 is the consequence of the systematic files updating.

83.The amount of family allowances has been increased from FCFA 1 800 to 2 800 by Decree No. 2016/034 of 21 January 2016. Decree No. 2019/072 of 15 February 2016 and its appendix laying down the social security rates and the highest remuneration amount, for family allowances and old age, invalidity, death, work accident and occupational disease insurance scheme, has been increased from 300,000 to 750,000 FCFA managed by the National Social Welfare Fund.

84.All these efforts by the Government aim to provide workers, who are not covered by the traditional schemes, including those in the informal sector, with access to social security coverage.

Reply to paragraph 15 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

85.After the pilot phase of the Cameroon Social Security project called “filet sociaux” (social net), aimed at fighting against social exclusion through direct cash transfers to the poorest populations of the beneficiary regions, the first cycle of the said project was successfully conducted between 2015 and 2017. This project, launched in November 2013 in some municipalities such as the Souledé-Roua city council in the far North which was presented as the poorest in the country, has enabled to reach 2 000 households. Since then, the project has expanded to other parts of the country. In December 2017, an envelope of over FCFA 30,000,000,000 was awarded. This project will continue until 2023.

Protecting the family and the child (art. 10)

Reply to paragraph 16 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

86.The mapping referred to in paragraph 73 of the fourth report is under preparation. However, child protection is one of the fundamental consideration for the State. To this end, a National Child Protection Platform, including the one in emergencies, has been set up in Cameroon with the main objective of coordinating prevention, response and advocacy actions for the child. The National Child Protection Policy Document was set up in January 2019.

Strategies to fight against child labour focus on prevention and protection

87.As far as preventive actions are concerned, they consist in raising awareness about responsible parenthood, working for the capacity building of the poorest families, promoting education, monitoring child travelling and integrating young people. Regarding protection, it aims at punishing the authors of child exploitation, taking care of victims and promoting the socio professional integration of youths. Thus, article 350 of the penal code aggravate the sentences in case of violence against children. Similarly, trafficking has been included in the Code. Multiplying capacity building actions for the actors of the repressive chains made it possible to register cases of prosecution against the authors of trafficking.

Reply to paragraph 17 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

88.The incriminations in the Penal Code are the basis for prosecuting numerous forms of violences against women. This is the case with domestic violence and marital rape which may be punishable under the provisions of the articles incriminating violations of individual’s physical integrity (murder, serious injury, death) and rape. As such, Mr. MEKO’O Emmanuel was prosecuted before the High Court of Ebolowa after the death of Lady EDIMA ALO’O Laeticia, his companion, to whom he inflicted blows in reaction to the persistent demand for ration.

89.Concerning rape, the neutrality of the incrimination as far as the author or the victim is concerned in article 296 of the Penal Code makes it possible to prosecute any person, including spouses, under this qualification.

90.With regard to the National Strategy for Fighting against Gender-based Violences, adjustments have been made in the Regions of the country under crisis in order to strengthen its implementation during the reporting period. Thus, a central sub-group against GBV was set up in 2017 in Yaounde with local relays in the Far North Region to take care of victims of violence in the fight against the terrorist group Boko Haram.

91.In the North-West and South-West Regions, victim referral systems have been set up and SOPs adopted to deal with victims.

Reply to paragraph 18 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

92.The percentage of children below five years whose birth was registered was 66,1 % in 2014. The lowest rate of registration was found in the Far North (42 %) and East Regions (58 %). Birth registration in rural areas was 48 % against 81 % in urban areas. These low registration rates explain why Cameroon has embarked on civil status reforms.

Table 6Statistics on Birth Registration Rates in 2014

R egion

P er centage



Centre (excluding Yaoundé city)






Far North




Littoral (excluding the city of Douala)








South- Ouest




Source : MICS 2014.

93.Concerning legislative measures taken to address the issue of non-registration of births, Government extended the time limit for declaration of births from 30 to 90 days as per section 31 of Law No. 2011/11 of 6 May 2011 amending and supplementing Ordinance No. 81-02 of 29 June 1981 to organise civil status registration and various provisions relating to the status of natural persons.

94.At the institutional level, the National Civil Status Office (BUNEC) was set up by Decree No. 2013/31 of 13 February 2013. Its functions as per S.4 (1) include training civil status stakeholders, raising awareness of the population on the importance of civil status certificates and controlling civil status registries.

95.The Steering Committee of the Civil Status Rehabilitation Programme of Cameroon was created in June 2017 to set up a strategic plan for the rehabilitation of civil status records. The Programme runs from 2018 to 2022 with a Budgetary Allocation of FCFA69,000,000,000. Seven (07) points were retained by the committee namely:

•Consultation of the legal framework for registering vital events and statistics products;

•Strengthening the organization and functioning of civil registration;

•Strengthening Institutional Coordination and the Role of the BUNEC;

•Improving the CRVS (civil registration and vital statistics) service request;

•Global information and control of civil status;

•Production and dissemination and use of vital statistics;

•Global information and control of civil status.

96.Special meetings were organised by the Ministry of Justice during which court judgments were delivered in favour of children whose births were not registered during the statutory time provided. The court judgments enable them obtain birth certificates.

97.Furthermore in the context of Government’s cooperation with International partners like UNICEF, UNHCR, UNDP and Plan International Cameroon, awareness campaigns on birth registration were organised.

98.The Government of Cameroon, with the support of technical and financial partners, especially the European Union and UNICEF, has initiated the universal birth registration project, which goal is to increase the birth registration rate, particularly for newborns, in two pilot areas in the Far North and East Regions.

Right to an adequate standard of living (art. 11)

Reply to paragraph 19 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

99.The incidence of poverty was 37.5% in 2014 compared to 39.9% in 2007. As a reminder, this rate was 40.2% in 2001 and 53% in 1996. This moderate decrease of 20.4 points in percentage falls below the pace advocated in the GESP and failed to achieve the interim Target of 35% in 2015 following the MDG agenda. The regions of the Far North, North, North West and Adamawa are the most affected by proverty in 2007 and 2014.

100.The increase of the poverty line of 15.9% between 2001 and 2007, and 26.1% between 2007 and 2014 is mainly dependent on the inflation recorded during these respective period, changes in consumption habits and demographic pressure.

101.It should be noted that labour market developments are compatible with economic performance. In fact, between 2007-2014, the economy generated several thousand jobs, mainly in the tertiary sector where public administrations and public companies distinguish themselves by their dynamism, while the private sector hesitates.

Reply to paragraph 20 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

102.The implementation of the Habitat Development Program and the Experimental Housing Production Program for low-income households has contributed to increasing the supply.

103.As part of the Habitat Development Program, we can point out:

•The pilot phase of the Governmental Program to build 10,000 social housing units (75% owned by national SMEs in Olembé/Yaoundé and Mbanga-Bakoko/Douala), has about 700 housing units in the process of completion);

•The Chinese Program fot the construction of 1,520 social housing units by the National Society of China for International Economic and Technical Cooperation SHENYANG, is fully completed in the cities of Yaoundé (660 homes), Douala (660 homes), Limbé, Bafoussam, Bamenda and Sangmelima (50 housing units per locality), the PLANUT for the construction of 800 social housing, representing 100 housing units in each of the eight (08) regional headquarters other than Yaounde and Douala;

•The “Cités des Cinquantenaires” project, which has already completed 530 out of 1 050 housing units in Douala, 500 out of 900 housing units in Yaoundé.

104.In order to speed up the program mentioned above, the following measures are put in place:

•Supporting Cameroon Property Credit is envisaged to increase the funding envelope allocated to construction programs;

•The creation of a National Housing Fund, a Social Housing Office, a Building Material Exchange, a Social Housing Promoting Fund and a Land Reserve Constitution Fund.

105.Concerning PPAB, the implementation of phase 3 pilot project launched in August 2015 in the Nkolbikok area has been completed. The six selected projects focus on the sanitation sector, access to water, job creation and health. They have improved the living conditions of the inhabitants of this locality. The coming generalisation of the PPAB in Cameroon is planned in the cities of Douala, Yaoundé, Bafoussam and Garoua.

Reply to paragraph 21 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

106.There is no contradiction between the right to decent housing and forced evictions regarding article 322-1 of the Penal Code. This article incriminates not the non payment of rent, but punishes the duly registered tenant of a building, owing a two month rent and who has neither paid the said rent, nor quit the building one month after the summons to pay or to leave, because the accommodation is not free of charge. As such, it is staying unduly in the rented building which is punishable.

107.Thus, some guarantees were provides for: The requirement of the registration of the contract, the actual temporal condition related to the fault of the tenant (02 months) the requirement of a summons to leave (01 month) as well as the the court decision to expel the occupier (art. 322-1).

Reply to paragraph 22 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

108.Although the land title is the official certification of the property, compensation for a victim who does not have it is sometimes considered when he/she valued the places to be evicted, including with commercial activities.

109.Decree No. 87/1872 of December 1987 implementing the law No. 85/9 of 4 July 1985 on expropriation for public purposes and terms of compensation also provides for a compensation when direct registrations have already been initiated and the opinion of the advisory commission issued before the notification of public use to the parties.

110.Thus, the customary land under direct registration may be eligible for compensation under the same conditions as any other land resulting from a direct registration. In these cases, the compensation due for expropriation will be calculated in accordance with the provisions of Decree No. 2014/3211/PM of 29 September 2014 fixing the minimum price applicable to transactions on land in the private domain of the State.

111.With regard to appeals and claims during an expropriation for reasons of public utility, they may be classified into five categories, namely:

The requests in contestation of the allowances granted by decree

112.These are requests by which people affected by some projects denounce the amounts allocated to them by the decrees of compensation. Most often, the reason is the fact that the amount fixed does not correspond to the actual value of the assets identified and appraised. For example, we can mention the request for the revision of the indemnity provided for by Decree No. 2018/0004/PM of 10 January 2018, by Sir BIDJOGO Théodore.

Requests in omission

113.The volume of litigation related to omissions are very important, given the ever increasing number of applications relating to omissions. We cite as example the prior graceful recourse relating to the payment of compensation owed to the beneficiaries of late ASAM BANGA concerning the project for the development of the access road to the Memve’ele hydroelectric dam site (2016).

Petitions for recognising the lapse of the Decree on declaration of Public utility

114.The latter are very few and have not been registered in the last 7 years.

Requests for the withdrawal of the Decree on the declaration of Public utility, or the Decree on expropriation and/or compensation

115.Very few in the beginning, queries continue to grow in number. For example, the recourse of the Mba’nsan and Ebolmedjom populations for the location of the Yaoundé Dry Port project in uninhabited areas and for the cancellation of Order No. 001513 of 22 December 2017.

Requests for retrocession

116.The request for retrocession of a piece of land on favour of SCI “LA VILLA” following an expropriation for public utility by Decree No. 73-635 of 11 October 1973, for the purpose of carrying out the construction work of a second 90 KV transmission line between Edéa and Douala II (2015).

117.It should be noted that the applications are examined in accordance with the mechanisms provided for by the provisions of article 12 (1) and (2) of Law No. 85/09 of 4 July 1985 on expropriation for public utility and compensation, in the event of contesting the allowances allocated by Decree; and of article 19 of Decree No. 87/1872 of 16 December implementing this law in case of omission.

118.These claims are usually examined by the competent assessment and evaluation commission, and only those found to be justified are eligible for the preparation of draft add-on orders.

Reply to paragraph 23 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

119.Since 2016, Cameroon has experienced socio-political unrest in its North-West and South-West Regions stemming from corporatist demands to which the Government, through dialogue with the trade union organizations concerned, has provided appropriate responses, sometimes even exceeding the expectations of social partners.

120.KEMBONG locality, in EYUMODJOCK district, MANYU - Southwest Region, has witnessed a succession of violent attacks. Activists successively attacked students who were going to school on 21st September 2017, killed, four gendarmes on 17th December 2017. Later, on 21st November 2018, they murdered the Reverend Father Cosma Ontare Omboto, Priest, of Kenyan origin. On 30th December, 2018 in the same locality, they murdered Gendarme Nzefack Likefack Duviol and Corporal Dili Serges. The perpetrators of these acts are still actively sought by FMOs and police investigations continue.

121.The displacements of the populations mentioned above are rather the consequence of the attacks of the armed groups. So far, the actions of the Defense and Security Forces have freed the villages which were taken hostage.This has led to the gradual return of the populations in their villages.

122.It is worth mentioning that the Emergency Humanitarian Assistance Plan for the North-West and South-West Regions over the period 2018-2019 is estimated at the sum of CFA 12.7 billion.This amount makes it possible for the Government to intervene in the fields of access to housing, provision of foodstuffs and basic necessities, education, protection and reconstitution of individual documents.

Reply to paragraph 24 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

123.To render potable water accessible and affordable, the Government has ensured a queen follow-up of major water project.

124.In urban areas, we could cite among other projects, we can note the Transitional Emergency Measures Project in Douala and Yaoundé, financed entirely from CAMWATER’s own funds up and completed at 100%; the Akomnyada Drinking Water Station Extension Project continues with the construction of a 55,000m3/day compact plant (PEA-55000) and completed at 98%; the Potable Water Supply Project in the city of Yaoundé and its surroundings from the Sanaga River (PAEPYS Project) and is at 30% of its completion. These projects have remarkably enhanced water production capacity from 380,000m3/day in 2016 to 545,350m3/day in 2017-thus an increase of 165,350m3/day.

125.In rural areas, it should be noted that within the framework of the Public Investment Budget, 193 drinking water supply projects (AEP) were carried out as well as Drillings with Human Powered Pump (HPP) built in 2017.

126.Finally, as of 1st February 2019, customers who consumed between 0 and 20 m3 of water during the month will be exempt from VAT (Value-added Tax) while so far, only consumers from 0 to 10 m3 benefited. This is one of the tax innovations contained in the 2019 Finance Act, which also extends to the consumption of electricity.

Right to physical and mental health (art. 12)

Reply to paragraph 25 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

127.The State has taken measures to improve on the availability and accessibility to health services for people of all social strata and geographical location. This is done through the elaboration of a strategic framework, the enhancement of care facilities and access initiatives that have had an impact on low income families, vulnerable groups and persons living in rural areas.

Strategic Framework

128.In 2017, the Health Sector Strategy (2016-2027) was adopted to ensure universal access to quality health services for all social groups. The implementing instrument of the first phase of the Strategy is the National Health Development Plan (2016-2020).

129.In this regards, a Universal healthcare system is being set up and is in line with the objective of the National Health Development Plan, as concerns the strengthening of the health system. This measure targets a reduction by at least 10% of direct payments by households notably through an equitable and sustainable financing policy. However one of the challenges so far identified is the efficient access and coverage of vulnerable populations.

Healthcare availability

130.The health map of Cameroon was expanded as of August 2018 to reach 201 Health Districts including 7 General Hospitals, 8 Central Hospitals, 14 Regional Hospitals, 189 District Hospitals, 234 Sub-divisional Hospitals and 1981 Integrated Health Centers. Some major health infrastructure that went operational include the Douala Gynaeco-Obstetrics and Pediatric Hospital, Hospital Center for Endoscopic Surgery and Human Reproduction, (CHRACERH), Yaounde Emergency Centre (CURY), Sangmelima Reference Hospital, Reference Hospital Magrabi-ICO Cameroon Eye Institute at Oback, National Reference Laboratory for Malaria Research and the National Public Health Laboratory.

Accessiblity to Healthcare

131.In order to improve on accessibility to healthcare services, the Minister of Public Health on 22 April 2016 issued Directives on consultation procedures of patients in Public Health facilities. This includes the existence of a functional reception and orientation desks for patients and users, a visible orientation plan of services and signposts to guide patients and users. Also in the event of an emergency case the administration of treatment should be immediate and without any prior condition of payment.

132.The drug policy was centred on providing the population with quality drugs at affordable cost. During the reporting period and beyond, some drugs were subsidizedand some others were distributed free of charge. In this connection, Anti-retrovirals drugs and tuberculosis medicines continued to be distributed free of charge in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment centres.

133.As regards access to healthcare for children, the Expanded Programme on Immunization offered vaccination free of charge to children against various diseases. In 2017, Immunization coverage for the Penta 3 vaccine was 85% while that for the BCG vaccine was 90.9%. Treatment of malaria for children below 5 years continues to be free. Since 2016, Diabetic children up to the age of 21 have continued to be treated free of charge within the framework of the programme “Changing diabetes in children”.Also, the percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women who received Anti-retrovirals drugs to prevent the transmission of HIV to their children was 84% and 85.8% in 2017.

134.Meanwhile, measures were taken to carter for older persons. In this line, the Ministry of Social Affairs published in 2014 a Guide on older persons which provides counseling on aging and particularly how to deal with old age illnesses.

135.For persons living with disabilities, proof of disability through a disability card entitles them to subsidized health services.

136.As concerns access to healthcare for low income families, apart from progressin the putting in place of a universal health coverage system that should reduce their health expenditure, other initiatives were taken including the acceptance of the Mercy Ships Hospital mission in Cameroon between August 2017 and June 2018. This was an opportunity for low income families to receive care free of charge. As a result of this action, a total of 2,746 surgeries were carried out and some 9,220 patients underwent a total of 22,197 dental procedures on board the ship.

137.As concerns Health districts, they are found both in rural and urban areas. In the case of rural areas particularly, in order to improve on access to healthcare, a Project to maintain health specialists in the most staff-deficient health facilities was initiated to ensure that these staff are evenly distributed across the country. In 2016, 318 health staff working in remote and enclaved areas in South West Region and the northern regions of the country was offered financial incentives.

Reply to paragraph 26 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

138.Awareness raising campaigns for the public are carried out on mental health in collaboration with partners of the Government. As part of these activities, to mark World Mental Health Day on 10 October 2017 celebrated under the theme “Depression: Let’s Talk”, the State in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) organized an event to which State Officials, diplomats, health professionals and media practitioners attended. The goal was to educate the public about depression including its prevention, causes, possible consequences, and the availability of treatment.

139.Also, a training seminar in neurology held from 26 to 29 October 2017, was organised at the Centre de Santé mentale Benoît Menni de Yaoundé with Participants coming from 17 health facilities.

140.Meanwhile, as part of the measures that are been taken to strengthen the capacity of health professionals on the management of mental health, the Ministry of Public Health in collaboration with the Mercy Ships, organized in 2016 respectively in Douala and Yaounde, a number of trainings aimed at improving access to mental health services, increasing the skills of informal service providers, and identifying local resources for appropriate guidance.

141.Moreover, treatment for mental health disorders was provided through psychiatrists in various health facilities in the country including the Jamot Hospital in Yaounde which is specialized in this domain.

Right to education (art. 13 and 14)

Reply to paragraph 27 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

142.To fight against the closing of schools and the reduction of school attendance due to the deterioration of schools, the authorities have been working in recent years, to build new schools and classrooms, then to rehabilitate and equip those already existing.

143.Also, the budget allocated to the construction, rehabilitation and equipment of schools and classrooms increased from FCFA 8 265 341 000 in 2013 to FCFA 11 842 150 000 in 2018. It should be noted that, alongside public authorities (State and decentralized territorial collectivities), NGOs also work to enhance school infrastructures and equip schools.

144.In order to fight against the desertion of posts by teachers, MINEDUB has opted to make use of regulatory sanctions as provided in the Code of Discipline and Ethics of the Public Service against the undisciplined. Incentives measures such as special bonuses for teachers posted in border areas to encourage them to stay in their duty posts have also been adopted.

145.In addition, in order to reduce the burden on the PTAs sustainment responsibilities of its locally recruited teachers, the Government launched a recruitment process for 3,060 teachers in 2015 as part of the conversion of 9,000 PTA teachers into government teachers. It equally instructed the integration of Contract Teachers (CI) with at least 10 years of service in the administration.

146.The next step will be the integration of about 18,300 Contract Teachers of the 2007 wave. The operation, which began in January 2018, is currently being completed.

147.For the year 2019, an integration of 5 500 Contractual Teachers of the 2008 wave is planned, and this operation shall continue till the total integration of all Contractual Teachers into the Public Service.

Reply to paragraph 28 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

148.In addition to the developments made to this concern by the answer to point 30, it can be added that the Government of Cameroon is fully committed to the development and promotion of multilingualism and learning of national languages. Both of these factors guarantee an adequate cultural education.

Reply to paragraph 29 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

149.In a bid to fight against the unemployment of the young graduates of the higher education, the Government has resorted to the setting up of specialized courses for the bachelor and master degrees to better fit the employment market requirements. To achieve this objective, a National Steering Committee and follow-up of the operationalization of the system License, Master, PhD was created at MINESUP. In addition, the Habilitation to provide Professional and Technological Teachings (HDEPT) is being implemented.

150.Meanwhile, the Observatory of the Trades of Graduates of Higher Education created in 2014 aims to provide the national economy with human resources that are quantitatively and qualitatively able to support the economic development of our country.

151.To foster youth entrepreneurship, the Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises, Social Economy and Handicrafts (MINPMEESA) has launched a National Incubation Program which aims to structure and provide technical and financial support to incubation centers housed in public and private university institutions.

152.During the year 2017, the incubators financing mechanism made it possible to make available to 05 incubators, the amount of 750,000,000 FCFA at the rate of 150,000,000 FCFA for each of the establishments. In addition to these university-level measures, there is the Graduate Employment Program (GEP) for young graduates with no experience who offers pre-employment internships for young people. The Integrated Program of Support to Actors in the Informal Sector (PIAASI) provides funding for micro-projects for young graduates or not.

Cultural Rights (art. 15)

Reply to paragraph 30 of the list of issues E/C.12/CMR/Q/4

153.The Constitution of Cameroon, although not recognizing linguistic minorities, protects and promotes national languages. Article 11 (1) of the Education Orientation Law of Cameroon of 4 April 1998 specifies that: “The State shall ensure the promotion of bilingualism and the teaching of national languages”.

154.Cameroon has more than 200 mother tongues and two official languages, with French and English being the main languages, used for public administration, education and communication. We are at the stage of actively promoting mother tongues in Cameroon.

155.Circular No. 001/CAB/PM of 16 August 1991 on the practice of bilingualism in the public administration indicates that services offered and official documents published by the public or parapublic services and intended for the public (speeches, notices, acts regulations, advertising inserts, press releases, circular examinations and forms) must be available in both official languages. It is the responsibility of the public official dealing directly with the public to make him/herself clearly understood by his/her interlocutor. The evaluation of the implementation of these prescriptions is justified with the creation of the National Commission for Bilingualism and Multiculturalism aimed at strengthening the implementation of Cameroon’s official bilingualism policy.

156.As far as mother tongues are concerned, MINAC provides the institutional lead in the inventory, promotion and conservation of national languages and disposes of substantial funding for the development of a national languages registry, support for cultural policy, artistic and cultural production.

157.Moreover, the Ministry of Basic Education has integrated in Cameroon’s education system, the promotion of national languages. Alongside, NGOs and Cultural Associations actively contribute to the learning of these national languages.