Discrimination against Women
* Adopted by the Committee at its fifty-eighth session (30 June-18 July 2014).
Concluding observations on the combined seventh and eighth periodic reports of Peru *
1.The Committee considered the combined seventh and eighth periodic reports of Peru (CEDAW/C/PER/7-8) at its 1217th and 1218th meetings, on 1 July 2014 (see CEDAW/C/SR.1217 and 1218). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/PER/Q/7-8 and the responses of Peru are contained in CEDAW/C/PER/Q/7-8/Add.1.
2.The Committee appreciates that the State party submitted its combined seventh and eighth periodic reports. It also appreciates the State party’s written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by the pre-sessional working group and welcomes the oral presentation by the delegation and the further clarifications provided in response to the questions posed orally by the Committee during the dialogue.
3.The Committee commends the State party for its delegation, which was headed by the Vice-Minister of Human Rights and Access to Justice, José Avila Herrera, and included representatives of the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights and the Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. The Committee appreciates the constructive dialogue that took place between the delegation and the Committee.
4.The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2007 of the State party’s sixth periodic report (CEDAW/C/PER/6) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of the following:
(a)Act No. 30068 (2013), amending the Criminal Code and the Penal Enforcement Code with a view to preventing, punishing and eradicating femicide;
(b)Act No. 29600 (2010), on school reintegration of pupils who are pregnant and/or young mothers;
(c)Act No. 29430 (2009), amending Act No. 27942 on the prevention and punishment of sexual harassment;
(d)Act No. 28983 (2007) on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men;
(e)Act No. 28950 (2007) to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants.
5.The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the adoption of the following:
(a)Technical guidelines on therapeutic abortion, in 2014;
(b)Second National Plan on Forced Labour, in 2013;
(c)Multisectoral plan for the prevention of teenage pregnancy 2013-2021, in 2013;
(d)National Plan for Gender Equality 2012-2017, in 2012;
(e)National Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons 2011-2016, in 2011;
(f)National Plan to Combat Violence against Women 2009-2015, in 2009;
(g)Supreme Decree No. 027-2007-PCM, establishing equality between men and women as the mandatory national policy that includes the elimination of domestic and sexual violence, in 2007.
6.The Committee welcomes the fact that, in the period since the consideration of the previous report, the State party has ratified or acceded to the following international instruments:
(a)Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Optional Protocol thereto, in 2008;
(b)International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, in 2012;
(c)1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, in 2014.
C.Factors and difficulties preventing the effective implementation of the Convention
7.The Committee takes note that discrimination against women and gender stereotypes in the State party are deeply entrenched in traditional attitudes, institutional practices and society as a whole, depriving women of the equal enjoyment of their rights and contributing to high levels of violence against women.
D.Principal areas of concern and recommendations
8. The Committee stresses the crucial role of the legislative power in ensuring the full implementation of the Convention (see the statement by the Committee on its relationship with parliamentarians, adopted at the forty-fifth session, in 2010). It invites Congress, in line with its mandate, to take the necessary steps regarding the implementation of the present concluding observations between now and the next reporting period under the Convention.
9.The Committee notes the efforts by the State party to modify discriminatory laws and, in particular, the establishment of a national commission against discrimination to review national legislation. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned about provisions in the labour, civil and penal codes that directly discriminate against women, in addition to the gender-neutral provisions that sometimes indirectly discriminate against women.
10. The Committee urges the State party to review all national legislation to ensure compliance with the Convention and repeal all legislation that directly or indirectly discriminates against women, including the discriminatory provisions in the labour, civil and penal codes.
Access to justice
11.The Committee notes with appreciation the initiatives by the State party to guarantee equal access to justice for women and men, as foreseen in the Act on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men. The Committee remains concerned, however, about the barriers that limit women’s access to justice and, in particular, the difficulties, including linguistic and economic barriers, faced mainly by women living in poverty, rural and marginal peri-urban women and women belonging to indigenous, Amazon or Afro-Peruvian communities. It expresses its concern at the delays with which rulings of international and regional court and views of the treaty bodies on individual communications are implemented and, in particular, at the fact that the State party has failed to provide comprehensive reparations and individual compensation as recommended by the Committee in L.C. v. Peru (CEDAW/C/50/D/22/2009) and by the Human Rights Committee in K.L. v. Peru (CCPR/C/85/D/1153/2003). The Committee is also concerned about the insufficient understanding of the Convention among law enforcement personnel.
12. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendations ( CEDAW/C/PER/CO/6 , para. 23) and encourages the State party:
(a) To enhance women ’ s awareness of their rights and legal literacy in all areas of the law, including civil and labour law disputes, in particular targeting the groups of women highlighted above, with a view to empowering women to avail themselves of procedures and remedies for violations of their rights under the Convention;
(b) To strengthen its judicial system, including its structure, to cover all remote and isolated areas, eliminate the impediments that women may face in gaining access to justice and facilitate women ’ s access to legal aid;
(c) To continue capacity-building programmes for lawyers, judges, prosecutors and police officers on the rights of women and gender equality and on all relevant aspects of the Convention and the Optional Protocol thereto;
(d) To ensure that effective remedies are in place to respond to complaints by women about sex- and gender-based discrimination;
(e)To expedite and monitor the implementation of rulings of international and regional courts and the views of the treaty bodies in L.C. v. Peru and K.L. v. Peru.
National machinery for the advancement of women
13.The Committee is concerned at the extremely low budget allocated to the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Groups to promote gender equality in the State party and to collaborate effectively across all branches and levels of government. The Committee is particularly concerned at the lack of coordination between the Ministry of Finance and other line ministries for the implementation of an effective gender budgeting model. The Committee notes the challenges identified in the State party’s own evaluation, namely in targeting the advancement of particular groups of women and collaborating with women’s organizations in implementing comprehensive policies, and expresses its concern about the unavailability of information in this regard.
14. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendations (ibid., para. 15) and urges the State party to strengthen the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Groups as the lead mechanism for the implementation of the Convention by substantially increasing the human and financial resources dedicated to carrying out its mandate in the implementation of policies and laws relating to gender equality, to support the decentralization of public policies for the advancement of women and to improve coordination across all branches and levels of government through the effective implementation of gender budgeting. It also recommends that the State party:
(a) Design and implement public policies and programmes that fully take into account the specific needs of particular groups of women throughout the State party;
(b) Take measures to promote cooperation between public authorities and women ’ s organizations in implementing public policies for the advancement of women and in monitoring their impact.
Temporary special measures
15.The Committee notes initiatives to address the low participation of women in public life, including the three bills on gender equality presented to Congress: No. 3670 (proposing a minimum of three of each gender for the seven members of the Constitutional Court), No. 3682 (implementing gender quotas in appointing judges and magistrates) and No. 4708 (together with No. 268-2011-JNE, regulating electoral gender quotas and mandating the alternate system within candidate lists). The Committee is concerned, however, that the parliamentary representation of women has in fact decreased and that existing electoral gender quotas in regional and municipal elections are often not met. It is also concerned that women candidates are often placed at the bottom of party lists and that a resolution of non‑registration is adopted on an ad hoc basis by the National Elections Board for each election.
16. The Committee recommends that the State party use quotas and other temporary special measures, with targets and time frames, aimed at accelerating equality of women and men within a larger strategy to achieve women ’ s substantive equality in all areas in which women are underrepresented or disadvantaged. The Committee calls upon the State party to expedite the adoption of the three bills on gender equality and to ensure that party lists that do not comply with the gender quota requirement are adequately sanctioned with non-registration of their political parties.
Stereotypes, discriminatory practices and violence against women
17.The Committee notes initiatives by the State party to combat gender stereotypes and violence against women, but remains concerned about the:
(a)Persistence of sociocultural patterns and attitudes used to justify violence against women, in addition to the high prevalence of violence against women, including domestic and sexual violence, incest and psychological violence;
(b)Lack of a comprehensive law on violence against women to prevent violence, protect victims and prosecute perpetrators of such violence, the insufficient coordination and monitoring of the National Plan to Combat Violence against Women 2009-2015 and the insufficient harmonization of the multiple guides and protocols on violence against women;
(c)Fact, as identified by the State party in its report and during the dialogue, that some groups of women, such as women living in poverty, women belonging to indigenous or Afro-Peruvian communities and women with disabilities, in addition to being affected by gender stereotypes, face multiple forms of discrimination and violence, including on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity;
(d)Lack of implementation of the Strategic Programme to Combat Domestic and Sexual Violence (Act No. 29465), in particular given the rates of sexual violence, sexual harassment and femicide.
18. The Committee urges the State party to adopt, as a matter of urgency, a comprehensive law to combat violence against women that prevents violence, protects victims, prosecutes and punishes perpetrators and includes reparations, sanctions and access to effective justice and to increase available mechanisms of protection and service provision to victims, taking an intercultural approach. It reiterates its recommendation (ibid., para. 19) that the State party should design and implement a comprehensive strategy to combat discriminatory gender-based stereotypes, with a view to combating violence against women. It also recommends that the State party:
(a) Intensify awareness-raising programmes and education campaigns to support equality of women and men at all levels of society, modify stereotypical attitudes, eliminate discrimination against women on such grounds as poverty, indigenous origin or ethnicity, disability or sexual orientation or gender identity, thereby removing obstacles to the full exercise of the right to equality in accordance with the National Plan for Gender Equality, and adopt a policy of zero tolerance towards all forms of violence against women;
(b) Allocate sufficient financial resources for the implementation of the National Plan to Combat Violence against Women 2009-2015 and expedite the implementation of the Strategic Programme to Combat Domestic and Sexual Violence (Act No. 29465);
(c) Adopt specific protocols to unify procedures for reporting cases of violence against women and centralize existing data collection systems to compile, disaggregate and periodically update data on such violence with a view to understanding the incidence and nature of the various forms of violence and to facilitate the measuring of progress;
(d) Punish acts of sexual harassment.
Access to justice
19.The Committee is concerned that, when seeking redress in cases of violence, women face difficulties, including discrimination, prejudice and gender insensitivity on the part of judicial authorities, prosecutors and police officers, which have the effect of discouraging them from gaining access to justice. It notes with particular concern the high level of impunity for perpetrators of violence against women and the failure of the State party to comply with its obligations under article 2 of the Convention to prevent, investigate, prosecute and punish acts of violence.
20. The Committee urges the State party to strengthen its efforts, in a more articulated manner, to modify entrenched gender stereotypes and to comply with article 2 of the Convention and:
(a) To strengthen the capacity of judges, prosecutors, law enforcement personnel and health professionals, especially forensic doctors, to deal with women who are victims of violence seeking access to justice in a gender-sensitive manner;
(b) To encourage women to report all incidents of violence, including sexual violence, both inside and outside the family sphere;
(c) To increase the availability of protective measures for women who are victims of violence;
(d) To carry out research on the impact of discriminatory and stereotypical judicial reasoning and practices on women ’ s access to justice.
Violence against women in conflict situations
21.The Committee reiterates its concern that, to date, many acts of violence inflicted against women during the period of internal armed conflict have not been investigated and prosecuted and that remedies are often not readily available to victims. It also notes that the cases of some victims of the forced sterilizations undertaken in the context of the National Programme on Reproductive Health and Family Planning 1996-2000 have not been effectively investigated and the victims have received no compensation.
22. The Committee reiterates its recommendation (ibid., para. 21) that the State party should identify all women who were victims of violence during the internal armed conflict, investigate, prosecute and punish perpetrators and provide individual reparations to those women who experienced any form of violence.
Trafficking in women and exploitation of prostitution
23.The Committee notes the initiatives by the State party to combat trafficking in and sexual exploitation of women and girls. It is concerned, however, at the scant budgetary resources allocated to the implementation of existing programmes, the lack of preventive programmes to address the root causes of trafficking, in particular among girls and their families living in poverty, and the insufficient protection and rehabilitation measures for women and girls who are victims of trafficking. It is also concerned at the lack of information on prosecution of trafficking cases and of their monitoring and follow-up. The Committee is particularly concerned about trafficking in adolescent girls for sexual or labour exploitation, in particular in the mining and logging industries. The Committee regrets the insufficient information on the extent of internal trafficking and on exploitation of prostitution in the State party.
24. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation (ibid., para. 31) and calls upon the State party:
(a) To fully enforce its legislation on trafficking and to increase the amount of resources allocated to the implementation of the national action plan and other measures to combat trafficking;
(b) To build the capacity of the judiciary, law enforcement and border officials and social workers on gender-sensitive ways to deal with victims of trafficking;
(c) To address the root causes of trafficking by stepping up efforts to improve educational and economic opportunities for girls, women and their families, thereby reducing their vulnerability to exploitation by traffickers;
(d) To take measures for the rehabilitation and social integration of women and girls who are victims of trafficking and to ensure that their protection includes the establishment of special shelters for victims;
(e) To provide in its next periodic report comprehensive information and data on trafficking in girls and women and on prosecutions and convictions of traffickers.
Participation in political and public life
25.The Committee notes the initiatives to increase the participation of women in political and public life. Nevertheless, it is concerned about persisting stereotypes about the gender roles of women and men that limit the participation of women in political and public life. It also notes with concern that women politicians experience harassment by peers or the authorities and notes the existence of a bill to prevent, punish and eradicate such harassment.
26. The Committee recommends that the State party continue its efforts to empower women in all areas and to combat traditional gender roles of women and men. It calls upon the State party to consider the adoption of legislative measures to combat political harassment, including through a specific law on the subject.
27.The Committee notes the efforts by the State party to issue identity documents, in particular to rural and indigenous women and children, with a view to enabling them to claim nationality, citizenship and social benefits. The Committee is concerned, however, about the:
(a)Difficulties in registering women who have never possessed identity documents;
(b)Lack of birth registration and access to documentation of children in indigenous communities, especially in isolated communities in the Amazonian region;
(c)Fact that, the jus soli principle in national legislation notwithstanding, children born to foreign parents in the territory of the State party lack access to birth registration or to personal documentation.
28. The Committee encourages the State party to continue facilitating access to personal identity documents for undocumented women and girls, including those living in extreme poverty and/or in remote and isolated communities. The Committee also urges the State party to ensure universal birth registration and access to personal documentation for all children born in the State party.
29.The Committee welcomes the equal access of women and men to regular education. It is concerned, however, about the disparities in access to high-quality education among rural girls, in particular those whose mother tongue is not Spanish, and the fact that illiteracy rates among rural and indigenous women and girls and girls with disabilities continue to be high owing to their lack of educational opportunities. The Committee is also concerned that girls are often victims of abuse on the way to or in school and about the high number of teenage pregnancies. It regrets the absence of information on the implementation of initiatives to stop girls from dropping out of school as a result of such pregnancies. The Committee notes the new curricular framework launched by the Ministry of Education, which includes comprehensive sex education. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned that the framework has not been implemented and that adolescents have limited access to age-appropriate information and intercultural perspectives on sexual and reproductive health and rights, including on responsible sexual behaviour, prevention of early pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and measures to provide protection from sexual abuse.
30. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Allocate sufficient human and financial resources for the implementation and monitoring of laws and public policies designed to combat discrimination in access to education and to include the use of temporary special measures in promoting the education of girls and women, in particular in rural areas and indigenous communities and among girls with disabilities;
(b) Disseminate information among girls and women of their rights under existing legislation, in particular the right to remain in and be reintegrated into school when pregnant or after having given birth, and provide information in the next periodic report on the number of adolescent girls who were reintegrated into the school system after pregnancy;
(c) Develop the necessary educational infrastructure, in particular in rural areas, and build the capacity of teachers and personnel at all levels of the education system on gender equality and the rights of girls and women and provide them with the appropriate tools to support their role in combating discrimination against women;
(d) Implement comprehensive programmes on sexual and reproductive health and rights in school curricula, providing age-appropriate information on responsible sexual choices, including the right of women to make their own choices with regard to reproductive and sexual health, in addition to information on how to prevent teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, and adequately train teachers to handle such issues with se nsitivity and professionalism.
31.The Committee is concerned that inequalities persist in the labour market. It notes in particular the significant gender wage gap and the poor working conditions and lack of social protection and benefits for women employed in the informal sector, mainly in domestic work, especially outside Lima, and in the farming and agricultural export sector in rural areas. The Committee remains concerned about the persistence of forced and child labour of girls, especially in the mining sector.
32. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Establish effective mechanisms to monitor compliance with existing legislation and relevant conventions of the International Labour Organization ratified by the State party, including the Forc ed Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29), the Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100), the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111), and the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981 (No. 156);
(b) Ensure non-discrimination in employment and equal pay for work of equal value and that pregnancy is not a ground for dismissal;
(c) Strengthen initiatives to improve women ’ s access to a wider range of jobs, including managerial or decision-making positions;
(d) Intensify measures to increase the protection of the human rights of women working in the informal sector, ratify the Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189), of the International Labour Organization without delay and establish equality of social protection and benefits for women in the domestic sector;
(e) Improve mechanisms for providing legal assistance and support to victims of forced labour;
(f) Widely disseminate information on existing mechanisms for reporting cases of sexual harassment in the workplace.
33.The Committee notes initiatives by the State party to include an intercultural perspective in access to sexual and reproductive health. It is concerned, however, about the linguistic, cultural and economic barriers faced by indigenous women and women living in poverty in gaining access to health services and coverage by the universal health system, in addition to the discrimination against and degrading treatment of such women by medical personnel.
34. The Committee recommends that the State party step up its efforts to ensure that indigenous women and women living in poverty have access to public health schemes. It also recommends that the State party allocate sufficient human and financial resources to ensure that basic health services are provided throughout its territory, in particular in isolated indigenous communities. The Committee encourages the State party to strengthen its gender-sensitive and intercultural approach to the provision of health services, including by adequately developing the capacity of health personnel.
35.The Committee welcomes the adoption of technical guidelines for therapeutic abortion and the approval of a plan to prevent early pregnancy. It is concerned, however, that the two conditions required for therapeutic abortion (presence and signature of a witness and approval of a board) may constitute barriers to access to safe abortion. The Committee reiterates its concern:
(a)That the recognition and protection of the reproductive health rights of women in the State party are inadequate;
(b)That abortion in cases of pregnancy resulting from rape or incest is criminalized and that the restrictive interpretation of therapeutic abortion may lead women to seek unsafe and illegal abortions;
(c)That article 30 of the General Health Act and section 326 of the Code of Criminal Procedure violate the privacy and reproductive health rights of women and result in the prosecution of women for accessing emergency obstetric care;
(d)That the free distribution of emergency contraceptives has been banned, including in cases of sexual abuse.
36. Taking into account its statement on sexual and reproductive health and rights, adopted at its fifty-seventh session, in February 2014, the Committee notes that unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As such, the Committee re commends that the State party:
(a) Extend the grounds for legalization of abortion to cases of rape, incest and severe foetal impairment;
(b) Ensure the availability of abortion services and provide women with access to high-quality post-abortion care, especially in cases of complications resulting from unsafe abortions;
(c) Remove punitive measures for women who undergo abortion, including by taking the measures necessary to harmonize the General Health Act and the Code of Criminal Procedure with the constitutional right to privacy;
(d) Ensure that the exercise of conscientious objection by health professionals does not impede effective access by women to reproductive health-care services, including abortion and post-abortion care;
(e) Ensure access to family planning services, in particular in rural areas, and adopt all measures necessary to carry out the free distribution of emergency contraceptives within the public health system, in particular to women and girls who are victims of sexual abuse;
(f) Develop the capacity of medical staff on the right to health, including sexual and reproductive health, with a view to ensuring that health services are adequately provided to women and girls;
(g) Disseminate information on the technical guidelines on therapeutic abortion among all health staff and ensure a broad interpretation of the right to physical, mental and social health in their implementation.
37.The Committee is concerned that rural women and women in the Andean highlands and the Amazon face particular challenges in exercising their rights. It notes with concern major constraints faced by those women, including the absence of a gender-sensitive rural development policy, which has the effect of leaving women unable to participate fully in and equally benefit from rural and agricultural policies. The Committee is also concerned about the lack of a gender dimension in land ownership and tenure and the fact that women are affected by land and resource acquisition by multinational corporations but often receive no compensation and are not consulted regarding alternative livelihoods. The Committee also notes with concern the differentiated gender impact of climate change and recurring natural disasters, including severe drought, landslides and earthquakes, on women.
38. The Committee recommends that the State party guarantee the equal participation of women in rural and agricultural policies. It also recommends that the State party integrate a gender dimension into land acquisition and changes in land use and ensure that adequate compensation is provided to women for large-scale land and other resource acquisitions. The Committee also encourages the State party to step up its efforts to empower rural women and women living in remote areas to cope with and adapt to climate change.
Disadvantaged groups of women
39.The Committee regrets the lack of specific information on the measures to address the discrimination and violence faced by disadvantaged groups of women, such as women living in economic duress, indigenous and Afro-Peruvian women, migrant women, older women, women with disabilities, women detainees, lesbian, bisexual and transgender women and other women facing multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination. The Committee reiterates its concern that rural and indigenous women in particular continue to face barriers in the exercise of their rights and in access to basic services, land tenure and credit facilities.
40. The Committee recommends that the State party provide comprehensive information and statistical data in its next periodic report on the situation of disadvantaged groups of women and the implementation of the existing policy instruments to address their specificities. It urges the State party to pay special attention to the needs of rural, indigenous and minority women and to ensure that they participate in decision-making processes and have full access to justice, basic services, land tenure and credit facilities.
Marriage and family relations
41.The Committee notes that equality in law exists in the Constitution and nearly almost all national legislation. The Committee is concerned, however, that de facto equality remains a problem in marriage and family relations. The Committee notes that the existing marital property regime in the State party is one of deferred community property that also takes into account women’s non-monetary contribution and includes intangible assets, such as pension rights, as part of the property to be equally divided between the spouses. However, noting the alarmingly low level of property ownership by women, especially ownership of land in rural areas, the Committee is concerned that women may not be sufficiently aware of their economic and property rights and that the existing legislation is not adequately implemented.
42. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure the sufficient implementation of relevant legislation and increase efforts to raise awareness among women of their economic and property rights in marriage and family relations with a view to protecting the property rights of women upon breakdown of marriage, in line with general recommendation No. 29 on the economic consequences of marriage, family relations and their dissolution and article 16 of the Convention. The Committee also requests the State party to undertake research on the economic consequences of divorce on both spouses and to include information on the outcome of such research in its next periodic report.
Data collection and analysis
43.The Committee welcomes the national system of gender indicators launched in 2013. It reiterates its concern, however, that statistical information disaggregated by sex, rural and urban areas and ethnicity in many aspects covered by the Convention is not available, which may constitute an obstacle to designing and implementing targeted policies and programmes and in monitoring their effectiveness with regard to the implementation of the Convention.
44. The Committee reiterates its recommendation ( CEDAW/C/PER/CO/6 , para. 11) that the State party include in its next periodic report statistical data and analysis, disaggregated by sex, rural and urban areas and ethnicity, indicating the impact of measures taken and results achieved in order to illustrate the situation of women in all areas covered by the Convention, in particular with regard to the issue of violence against women.
Amendment to article 20 (1) of the Convention
45. The Committee encourages the State party to accept, as soon as possible, the amendment to article 20 (1) of the Convention concerning the meeting time of the Committee.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
46. The Committee calls upon the State party to use the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in its efforts to implement the provisions of the Convention.
47. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement the provisions of the Convention. It urges the State party to give priority attention to the implementation of the present concluding observations and recommendations between now and the submission of the next periodic report. The Committee therefore requests the timely dissemination of the concluding observations, in the official languages of the State party, to the relevant State institutions at all levels (national, regional and local), in particular to the Government, the ministries, Congress and the judiciary, to enable their full implementation. It encourages the State party to collaborate with all stakeholders concerned, such as employers ’ associations, trade unions, human rights and women ’ s organizations, universities, research institutions and the media. It recommends that the present concluding observations be disseminated in an appropriate form at the local community level to enable their implementation. In addition, the Committee requests the State party to continue to disseminate the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and relevant jurisprudence, in addition to the Committee ’ s general recommendations, to all stakeholders.
48. The Committee recommends that the State party link the implementation of the Convention to its development efforts and that it avail itself of regional or international technical assistance in this respect.
Follow-up to the concluding observations
49. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps taken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 18 and 36 (a), (b), (c) and (g) above.
Preparation of the next report
50. The Committee invites the State party to submit its ninth periodic report in July 2018.
51. The Committee requests the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents ( HRI/MC/2 0 06 / 3 and C o rr.1 ).