Concluding observations on the eighth periodic report of the Russian Federation *
* Adopted by the Committee at its sixty-second session (26 October-20 November 2015).
1.The Committee considered the eighth periodic report of the Russian Federation (CEDAW/C/RUS/8) at its 1335th and 1336th meetings, on 27 October 2015 (see CEDAW/C/SR.1335 and 1336). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/RUS/Q/8 and the responses of the Russian Federation are contained in CEDAW/C/RUS/Q/8/Add.1.
2.The Committee appreciates the submission by the State party of its eighth periodic report. It also appreciates the State party’s written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by the pre-sessional working group and welcomes the oral presentation by the delegation and the further clarifications provided in response to the questions posed orally by the Committee during the dialogue.
3.The Committee commends the State party on its delegation, which was headed by the Deputy Minister of Labour and Social Protection, Alexey Vovchenko, and included representatives of the State Duma, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Economic Development, the Committee on the Issues of Family, Women and Children, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Education and Science, the Office of the Prosecutor General, the Military University of the Ministry of Defence, the Federal Migration Service, the Central Electoral Commission, the Federal Penitentiary Service and the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva.
4.The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2010 of the State party’s combined sixth and seventh periodic reports (CEDAW/C/USR/7) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of a federal law on free legal assistance, in 2011, and a federal law on employment, which prohibits job advertisements containing requirements of gender, age and marital status, in 2013, and the adoption of a number of measures aimed at assisting pregnant women and women on maternity leave.
5.The Committee welcomes the fact that, in the period since the consideration of the State party’s combined sixth and seventh periodic reports, in 2010, the State party has acceded to the following international instruments:
(a)Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, in 2013;
(b)Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in 2012.
C.Principal areas of concern and recommendations
6. The Committee stresses the crucial role of the legislative power in ensuring the full implementation of the Convention (see the statement by the Committee on its relationship with parliamentarians, adopted at the forty-fifth session, in 2010). It invites the parliament (State Duma and Federation Council) to take the necessary steps regarding the implementation of the present concluding observations between now and the next reporting period under the Convention.
Visibility of the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and the Committee’s general recommendations
7.The Committee notes with concern that there is insufficient knowledge among the branches of government on the rights of women under the Convention and the Optional Protocol thereto, the concept of substantive equality of women and men and the Committee’s general recommendations. It is also concerned that women themselves, especially those in rural areas, are unaware of their rights under the Convention and thus lack the information necessary to claim those rights.
8. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Ensure that the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and the Committee ’ s general recommendations are sufficiently known and applied by all branches of government, including the judiciary, as a framework for laws, court decisions and policies on gender equality and the advancement of women;
(b) Enhance women ’ s awareness of their rights and the remedies available to them to claim their rights under the Convention, and ensure that information on the Convention, the Optional Protocol and the Committee ’ s general recommendations is provided to all women, including those in rural and remote areas.
Definition of discrimination against women and discriminatory laws
9.The Committee notes that article 5.62 of the Code of Administrative Offences prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, but is concerned at the absence of a comprehensive anti-discrimination law addressing all aspects of direct and indirect discrimination, as well as intersecting forms of discrimination, against women, in line with the Convention.
10. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation that prohibits discrimination on all grounds and encompasses direct and indirect discrimination in both the public and private spheres, as well as intersecting forms of discrimination, against women, in line with article 1 of the Convention and its general recommendation No. 28 (2010) on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention.
Access to justice and legal complaint mechanisms
11.The Committee notes the adoption in 2011 of a federal law on free legal assistance, but notes with concern the absence of an effective complaint mechanism for women to claim their rights and of information on the number of court cases of discrimination against women. It remains concerned that, since the consideration of the State party’s previous reports, in 2010, the Office of the Ombudsman has received no complaints of gender-based discrimination. It is further concerned about reported barriers that women are facing when they seek justice, including social stigma and negative stereotypes, lack of awareness of their rights and about limited knowledge of the Convention, the Optional Protocol and the Committee’s general recommendations regarding the part of law enforcement officials on the strict application of legislation prohibiting gender-based discrimination against women.
12. In line with its general recommendation No. 33 (2015) on women ’ s access to justice, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Enhance women ’ s awareness of their rights under the Convention and the remedies available to them to claim those rights under national legislation and the Optional Protocol, and ensure that information on the Convention, the Optional Protocol and the Committee ’ s general recommendations is disseminated widely;
(b) Address the barriers preventing women from bringing complaints about discrimination to the Office of the Ombudsman, and ensure the strict application by law enforcement officials of legislation prohibiting sex and gender-based discrimination, including through systematic training of judges, prosecutors and lawyers and dissemination of information about women ’ s rights;
(c) Establish a separate division on gender equality within the Office of the Ombudsman and collect gender-disaggregated statistics .
National machinery for the advancement of women
13.The Committee notes that the national machinery for gender equality includes the State Duma Committee for Family, Women and Children and executive agencies and that the Coordination Council under the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection coordinates the promotion of gender equality by other mechanisms and civil society. While noting the information provided by the delegation during the dialogue, i.e. that the State party is planning to establish a high-level commission on women’s rights and for the implementation of the Convention, the Committee reiterates its previous concern about the lack of a separate government mechanism in the State party responsible exclusively for gender equality policies and the implementation of the Convention. The Committee is further concerned about the delays in adopting the bill on gender equality and in developing a national action plan on gender equality.
14. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Proceed, within a clear time frame, with the establishment of a high-level commission on women ’ s rights and provide it with a clear mandate, adequate and sustainable financial resources and staff with the necessary technical capacity to fully enable it to implement programmes and projects to promote gender equality and the advancement of women;
(b) Ensure effective coordination and develop a gender mainstreaming strategy that includes gender-responsive budgeting and that can be applied in all policies and programmes at all levels to address various aspects of women ’ s lives;
(c) Adopt the law on gender equality and ensure that it fully complies with the State party ’ s obligations under the Convention, and develop a national action plan on gender equality.
Civil society and non-governmental organizations
15.The Committee is concerned about the amendments introduced in 2012 to Federal Law No. 121-FZ on Non-Commercial Organizations, upheld by the Constitutional Court in April 2014, requiring non-commercial organizations receiving foreign funding and engaging in “political activities” to register as “foreign agents”, and about the adverse impact of the amendments on women’s rights organizations. The Committee regrets that the amendments resulted in restrictions on the activities of non-governmental organizations and the suspension or closure of some such organizations working in the field of women’s rights.
16. The Committee calls upon the State party to review the legislation requiring non-commercial organizations that receive foreign funding to register as “foreign agents” and to ensure an environment in which women ’ s associations and non-governmental organizations working on gender equality and women ’ s empowerment may freely operate and raise funds.
Temporary special measures
17.The Committee is concerned about the limited use by the State party of temporary special measures and the absence of a comprehensive strategy for implementing such measures, within the meaning of article 4 (1)of the Convention, aimed at achieving substantive equality of women and men in the State party in all areas of the Convention in which women are underrepresented or disadvantaged.
18. Recalling its general recommendation No. 25 (2004) on temporary special measures, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Familiarize all relevant State officials and policymakers with the concept of temporary special measures, and adopt and implement temporary special measures, including time-bound goals and quotas, directed towards the achievement of de facto or substantive equality between women and men in all areas in which women are underrepresented or disadvantaged, including in political and public life, decision-making, education and employment;
(b) Develop a comprehensive strategy for instituting and implementing temporary special measures aimed at achieving substantive equality of women and men in the State party in all areas of the Convention in which women are underrepresented or disadvantaged.
Stereotypes and harmful practices
19.The Committee remains concerned at the persistence of patriarchal attitudes and stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society, which consider women primarily to be mothers and caregivers, discriminate against women and perpetuate their subordination within the family and society, restrict women’s educational and professional choices and their participation in political and public life and in the labour market, and perpetuate their unequal status in family relations. The Committee recalls that such stereotypes are among the root causes of violence against women and expresses its concern that, to date, the State party has not taken sustained measures to modify or eliminate discriminatory stereotypes and negative traditional attitudes. The Committee notes with concern that the media persistently convey stereotyped and sometimes degrading images of women and that there is not a sufficient overview of such representation.
20. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To put in place a comprehensive strategy with proactive and sustained measures, targeting women and men at all levels of society, including religious leaders, to eliminate stereotypes and patriarchal attitudes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society;
(b) To take all appropriate measures to raise the awareness of the media of the need to eliminate gender stereotypes by promoting positive images of women actively participating in social, economic and political life and to encourage the media to institute an effective self-regulatory mechanism for addressing the degrading representation of women, and use the education system to enhance positive and non-stereotypical portrayals of women.
Violence against women
21.The Committee remains concerned at the high prevalence of violence against women, in particular domestic and sexual violence, in the State party and the lack of statistics disaggregated by age, nationality and relationship between the victim and the perpetrator and of studies on its causes and consequences. While noting the information provided by the delegation during the dialogue that the bill on domestic violence is currently undergoing a second reading in the parliament, the Committee is concerned that cases of violence against women are underreported, given that they are considered a private matter, and that victim protection services, such as crisis centres and shelters, are insufficient.
22. Recalling its general recommendation No. 19 (1992) on violence against women, the Committee urges the State party:
(a) To adopt comprehensive legislation to prevent and address violence against women, including domestic violence, introduce ex officio prosecution of domestic and sexual violence and ensure that women and girls who are victims of violence have access to immediate means of redress and protection and that perpetrators are prosecuted and adequately punished;
(b) To provide mandatory training for judges, prosecutors, police officers and other law enforcement officials on the strict application of criminal law provisions on violence against women and on gender-sensitive procedures to deal with women who are victims of violence;
(c) To provide adequate assistance and protection to women who are victims of violence, including sexual violence, by establishing shelters in both urban and rural areas and enhancing cooperation with non-governmental organizations providing assistance to victims;
(d) To collect statistical data on domestic and sexual violence disaggregated by sex, age, nationality and relationship between the victim and the perpetrator.
Harmful practices and violence against women in the northern Caucasus
23.The Committee remains concerned at the increasing prevalence of violence against women in the northern Caucasus, as well as of harmful practices, such as child and/or forced marriage, abduction of women and girls for forced marriage, crimes in the name of so-called honour, female genital mutilation and polygamy, notwithstanding the criminalization of such practices by federal law. The Committee is concerned that such harmful practices appear to be socially legitimized and surrounded by a culture of silence and impunity. The Committee reiterates its previous concern (see CEDAW/C/USR/CO/7, para. 10) that the federal Government may lack the will and an efficient mechanism to ensure the application of federal legislation in the regions and autonomous entities to fully implement the Convention coherently and consistently.
24. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To conduct research on the extent of harmful practices in the northern Caucasus and develop a comprehensive strategy to eliminate them, including through education and awareness-raising campaigns for community and religious leaders and the general public to ensure the effective prosecution and conviction of perpetrators as well as the provision of remedies and support services for victims, in particular shelters;
(b) To strengthen the capacity of law enforcement authorities to protect women and girls from violence, adopt standardized procedures for the police in all regions of the State party on gender-sensitive investigations and the treatment of victims, and encourage women to file complaints without having to fear retribution or stigma;
(c) To provide systematic training to legal professionals, law enforcement officials and medical personnel in addressing effectively the criminal nature of child and/or forced marriage, abduction of women, crimes in the name of so-called honour, female genital mutilation and polygamy and their adverse effects on women ’ s rights;
(d) To ensure that women who are victims of abduction for forced marriage, crimes in the name of so-called honour, female genital mutilation and polygamy can report cases without having to fear retribution or stigma and can have access to legal, social, medical and psychological support.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
25.The Committee notes the State party’s efforts at the regional and international levels to combat trafficking in persons, including through the conclusion of bilateral and multilateral agreements, but is concerned at:
(a)The absence of a national action plan on trafficking, as well as of a coordinating body and the lack of coordination among the relevant State structures;
(b)The lack of information on the number of complaints, investigations, prosecutions and convictions relating to trafficking in women and girls and on support and rehabilitation programmes for victims;
(c)The reports of widespread violence and discrimination against women in prostitution, enabled by the penalization of prostitution as an administrative offence under article 6.11 of the Code of Administrative Offences, which results in various forms of abuse, including extortion, beatings, rape and even killing of women in prostitution, the limited assistance available to them and the absence of exit and reintegration programmes for women who wish to leave prostitution.
26. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Adopt a comprehensive national action plan to combat trafficking in persons and establish a coordinating body responsible for the implementation of programmes and action plans to combat trafficking in persons and for the coordination of relevant State structures;
(b) Collect data, disaggregated by sex, ethnicity and age, on trafficking in women and girls and exploitation of prostitution and include such data in its next periodic report;
(c) Repeal article 6.11 of the Code of Administrative Offences and establish an oversight mechanism allowing the monitoring of violence against women involved in prostitution, including by the police;
(d) Provide specific shelters and crisis centres, exit and reintegration programmes and alternative income-generating opportunities for women who are victims of trafficking and for women who wish to leave prostitution, and take measures to reduce demand for prostitution.
Participation in political and public life
27.The Committee is concerned at the low representation of women in political and public life, in decision-making positions, in particular in the State Duma and the Federal Council, in ministerial positions and in the diplomatic service, owing to persistent traditional and patriarchal attitudes, the lack of adequate measures, including temporary special measures, and insufficient capacity-building and campaign funding for potential women candidates, which impede the effective participation of women in political life.
28. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To take measures such as setting statutory quotas to increase the participation of women in political and public life at all levels, including by adopting temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee ’ s general recommendation No. 25;
(b) To build the capacity of and enhance access to campaign financing for women politicians to enable them to compete effectively with their male counterparts;
(c) To conduct awareness-raising activities for politicians, community leaders, journalists and the general public on the importance of women ’ s participation in decision-making to enhance the understanding that the full, equal, free and democratic participation of women on an equal basis with men in political and public life is a requirement for the full implementation of the Convention.
Women and peace and security
29.The Committee notes that the Russian Federation is a party to the Minsk peace agreements and to the protocol to the first Minsk agreement, which are aimed at the cessation of hostilities between Ukraine and the self-proclaimed “Donetsk people’s republic” and “Luhansk people’s republic”. While the Committee has taken into account the explanations provided by the State party during the dialogue, it remains concerned about:
(a)Reports of sexual and gender-based violence, including rape, murder, torture and ill-treatment of women, perpetrated by armed groups in the self-proclaimed “Donetsk people’s republic” and “Luhansk people’s republic”;
(b)Reports of acts of violence and discrimination against women and allegations of reprisals against women human rights defenders on the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, which is under the de facto authority of the Russian Federation;
(c)The exacerbation of the already difficult living conditions of internally displaced and refugee women, as well as the protection concerns of the affected population in the conflict areas in Abkhazia, Georgia, and the Tskhinvali region/South Ossetia, Georgia.
30. The Committee calls upon the State party:
(a) To make use of its influence in the context of the Minsk peace agreements to ensure that women are not subjected to sexual and gender-based violence in the self-proclaimed “Donetsk people ’ s republic” and “Luhansk people ’ s republic”;
(b) To ensure the respect and fulfilment of the rights guaranteed under the Convention in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea;
(c) To take all measures necessary to promote the meaningful inclusion and participation of women in peace negotiations and in the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts, in line with Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on women and peace and security and subsequent resolutions on the subject, as well as the Committee ’ s general recommendation No. 30 (2013) on women in conflict prevention, conflict and post-conflict situations, in particular with regard to the extraterritorial obligation of States parties.
31.The Committee commends the State party on the high numbers of women in academic institutions, but is concerned at the absence of age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health and rights education with a gender perspective in the curricula of basic and secondary schools. The Committee is also concerned at the persistence of negative stereotypes of women and girls in the school curricula and textbooks.
32. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Introduce comprehensive, gender-sensitive and age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health and rights education, incorporating a gender perspective for girls and boys, in the curricula at the basic and secondary levels of the education system;
(b) Intensify its efforts to review school curricula and textbooks to eliminate negative stereotypes of women and girls.
33.The Committee remains concerned at the persistence of the gender pay gap, with the average income of women being 74.2 per cent of the average income of men across the country in 2013. It is further concerned about the overprotective list of more than 450 occupations and almost 40 branches in which women are precluded from access to the labour market, although procedures have been introduced that, under certain conditions, exceptionally can provide access for women to those occupations. It is also concerned about the persistent horizontal and vertical segregation in the labour market and that women are concentrated in low-paid jobs. The Committee is also concerned at the absence of specific legislation prohibiting sexual harassment in the workplace. The Committee is further concerned that the concept of the new family policy of 2014states that the family policy of the Russian Federation for the period until 2025 has as a goal the renewal and increase of traditional family values focusing on women only as mothers, without any reference to individual women, and that the policy does not include gender equality issues.
34. The Committee calls upon the State party:
(a) To intensify its efforts to create an enabling environment for women to become economically more independent, including by raising the awareness of employers in the public and private sectors of the prohibition of discrimination against women in employment, and intensify its efforts to promote the entry of women into the formal economy through the provision of vocational and technical training for women and by promoting the equal sharing of family responsibilities between women and men;
(b) To review the list of restricted occupations and sectors to ensure that it covers only restrictions necessary for the protection of maternity in the strict sense, and promote and facilitate women ’ s entry into previously listed jobs by improving working conditions and adopting appropriate temporary special measures;
(c) To adopt comprehensive legislation to combat discrimination and sexual harassment in the workplace;
(d) To adopt and effectively apply legislation, including temporary special measures, to narrow and close the gender wage gap and eliminate gender segregation in the labour market;
(e) To carry out a gender assessment of all measures set out in the new family policy and include the principle of gender equality in national social policy.
35.The Committee notes the State party’s efforts to further reduce the high abortion rate by reinforcing barriers to access to safe abortion services and the “Give me life” campaign. It remains concerned that abortion continues to be used as a method of birth control owing to the lack or insufficient availability of modern contraceptives. The Committee is also concerned about:
(a)The limited access of women and girls to health care in rural and remote areas, the lack of trained personnel and obstetric health services for women and women’s limited access to adequate sexual and reproductive health services;
(b)Recently adopted legislative and policy measures aimed at restricting women’s access to abortion, namely the pre-abortion counselling and mandatory waiting periods of between 48 hours and 7 days before abortion services can be provided;
(c)Limited access to modern contraceptives for women and girls, in particular in rural and remote areas, and the lack of accurate, evidence-based information on the types and effects of contraceptives available to the public;
(d)The absence of substitution therapy programmes for women who use drugs, which also contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS;
(e)The steady increase in the proportion of women among early-stage HIV patients.
36. In line with its general recommendation No. 24 (1999) on women and health, the Committee calls upon the State party:
(a) To increase access for all women and girls, in particular rural women and girls, to basic health-care services and remove the recently adopted legal and policy measures aimed at restricting women ’ s access to abortion;
(b) To increase the availability, accessibility and affordability of a wide range of modern contraceptive methods and increase access to accurate and evidence-based information on family planning for women, men, girls and boys throughout the State party;
(c) To develop programmes of substitution therapy, in line with the recommendations of the World Health Organization, for women drug users, and intensify the implementation of strategies to combat HIV/AIDS, in particular preventive strategies, including by increasing efforts to prevent sexual and mother-to-child transmission;
(d) To reduce the high rate of HIV/AIDS among women and improve the availability of and access to HIV/AIDS services, including antiretroviral treatment, especially in rural and remote areas.
37.While recognizing the new development programmes in rural areas, the Committee expresses concern at the disadvantaged situation of women in such areas. It regrets the lack of disaggregated data on rural women, as well as the lack of measures to address poverty among and discrimination against rural women and to ensure their access to justice, education, health, housing, safe drinking water, sanitation, formal employment, skills development and training opportunities, income-generating opportunities and microcredit, ownership and use of land and their participation in decision-making processes at the community level.
38. The Committee calls upon the State party:
(a) To expand and implement specific measures to combat poverty among rural women, including effective measures to ensure their access to justice, education, housing, safe drinking water, sanitation, formal employment, skills development and training opportunities, income-generating opportunities and microcredit and ownership and use of land, taking into account their specific needs;
(b) To ensure the participation of rural women in decision-making processes at the community level on an equal basis with men;
(c) To study the impact of the economic and social strategy of rural development on women ’ s human rights and collect specific disaggregated statistics and data.
Disadvantaged groups of women
39.The Committee is concerned about the situation of indigenous women and girls, in particular the restrictions that indigenous women face with regard to their access to traditional lands and livelihoods, food, water and health, as well as at their limited representation in local, regional and federal decision-making bodies and the lack of disaggregated data on their situation.
40. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Ensure that indigenous women are represented in decision-making bodies at the local, regional and federal levels, and adopt measures to ensure the full and effective participation of indigenous women in all decision-making processes that may affect their rights;
(b) Guarantee that indigenous women have full and unrestricted access to their traditional lands and the resources on which they depend for food, water, health and to maintain and develop their distinct cultures and identities as peoples;
(c) Regularly collect disaggregated data on indigenous women and girls, using specific health and social indicators.
41.The Committee notes that the laws adopted at the regional and federal levels banning the “promotion of non-traditional sexual relations to minors” have been upheld by the Constitutional Court (rulings Nos. 151-O-O of 19 January 2010 and 24-P of 23 September 2014) and may reinforce homophobia. It is concerned at reports of discrimination, harassment and hate speech, based on negative stereotypes, against lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women, including by the police. The Committee is also concerned at reported cases of unjustified dismissals of teachers belonging to the lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex community.
42. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To provide necessary protection against discrimination and violence against lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women, in particular through the adoption of anti-discrimination legislation and the revision of the existing discriminatory laws that prohibit intersecting forms of discrimination;
(b) To provide training to the police and law enforcement officials, as well as awareness-raising campaigns aimed at the general public;
(c) To ensure that lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women do not face discrimination in their professional life.
43.The Committee is concerned about the situation of undocumented migrant women, especially pregnant women and women with small children, in detention centres.
44. The Committee urges the State party to ensure that undocumented migrant women, in particular pregnant women and women with small children, receive adequate assistance, are not subjected to prolonged administrative detention and benefit from integration policies and family reunification measures.
Marriage and family relations
45.The Committee notes that the State party has a community property regime. It is concerned, however, that intangible assets, including work-related benefits, accrued pension rights and savings, in addition to future earning capacity, are not considered to be a part of the joint property to be divided upon the dissolution of a marriage and there is no other mechanism to compensate for the lack of their distribution. The Committee notes with concern that the economic rights of women in de facto unions are not recognized, including upon the dissolution of their relationship. The Committee also notes with concern that gender-based violence against women in the domestic sphere is not taken into consideration by courts when ruling in cases of child custody and visitation. The Committee is further deeply concerned at the regulation of family relations in the northern Caucasus, where the concept of "ownership" of the father over his children continues to reign, leading in practice to situations in which women lose any contact with their children after divorce.
46. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Revise the definition of matrimonial property to include pension rights and other work-related benefits, as well as future earnings, or adopt another tool such as post-divorce periodic payments;
(b) Consider the situation of women in de facto unions, and of the children resulting from them, and take the legislative measures necessary to ensure the protection of their economic rights, including upon the dissolution of relationships, in line with the Committee ’ s general recommendation No. 29 (2013) on article 16 of the Convention (economic consequences of marriage, family relations and their dissolution);
(c) Adopt legislation requiring that gender-based violence against women in the domestic sphere be taken into account in child custody or visitation decisions, and raise the awareness of the judiciary of the relationship between such violence and a child ’ s development;
(d) Take the legislative measures necessary to eliminate the concept of “ownership” of the father over his children in the northern Caucasus, and ensure equal parental rights to women in all cases.
47.The Committee is concerned at the general lack of updated statistical data, disaggregated by sex, age, ethnicity, geographical location and socioeconomic background, which are necessary for an accurate assessment of the situation of women, to determine whether they suffer from discrimination, for informed and targeted policymaking and for systematic monitoring and evaluation of the progress achieved towards the realization of women’s substantive equality in all areas covered by the Convention.
48. The Committee calls upon the State party to develop a system of gender indicators to improve the collection of data disaggregated by sex and other relevant factors necessary to assess the impact and effectiveness of policies and programmes aimed at mainstreaming gender equality and enhancing women ’ s enjoyment of their human rights. In this regard, the Committee draws the State party ’ s attention to its general recommendation No. 9 (1989) on statistical data concerning the situation of women and encourages the State party to seek technical assistance from relevant agencies of the United Nations system and to enhance its collaboration with women ’ s associations that could assist in securing the collection of accurate data.
Amendment to article 20 (1) of the Convention
49. The Committee encourages the State party to accept, as soon as possible, the amendment to article 20 (1) of the Convention concerning the meeting time of the Committee.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
50. The Committee calls upon the State party to use the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in its efforts to implement the provisions of the Convention.
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
51. The Committee calls for the realization of substantive gender equality, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, throughout the process of implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
52. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement the provisions of the Convention, which implies that the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and the Committee ’ s general recommendations are known and applied by all branches of government, including the judiciary, as a framework for laws, court decisions and policies on gender equality, non-discrimination and the advancement of women. It urges the State party to give priority attention to the implementation of the present concluding observations and recommendations between now and the submission of the next periodic report. The Committee therefore requests that the present concluding observations be disseminated in a timely manner, in the official language of the State party, to the relevant State institutions at all levels (national, regional and local), in particular to the federal Government, the ministries, the parliament and the judiciary, to enable their full implementation. It encourages the State party to collaborate with all stakeholders concerned, such as employers ’ associations, trade unions, human rights and women ’ s organizations, universities, research institutions and the media. It recommends that the present concluding observations be disseminated in an appropriate form at the local community level to enable their implementation. In addition, the Committee requests the State party to continue to disseminate the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and relevant jurisprudence, in addition to the Committee ’ s general recommendations, to all stakeholders.
Ratification of other treaties
53. The Committee notes that the adherence of the State party to the nine major international human rights instruments would enhance the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee therefore encourages the State party to consider ratifying the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance and the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, to which it is not yet a party.
Follow-up to the concluding observations
54. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps taken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 14 (a), 14 (b) and 22 (a) above.
Preparation of the next report
55. The Committee invites the State party to submit its ninth periodic report in November 2019.
56. The Committee requests the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents ( HRI/GEN/2/Rev.6 , chap. I).