Pre-session working group
15 January-2 February 2007
* The page numbering in this list of issues and questions refers to the English version of the report.
List of issues and questions with regard to the considerationof the sixth periodic report *
1.The pre-session working group examined the sixth periodic report of Greece (CEDAW/C/GRC/6).
2.The report does not provide information on developments in the implementation of articles 13, 15 and 16 of the Convention since the consideration of the State party’s combined fourth and fifth periodic reports. In accordance with the reporting guidelines of the Committee, please provide information on progress made and the current implementation of each of these articles or, alternatively, please indicate whether there is nothing new to report under these articles since the consideration of the last report.
Constitution, legislation and national machinery
3.The report indicates that the new article 116, paragraph 2, of the revised Constitution “explicitly stipulates that the State is obliged to take specific positive measures for the elimination of discriminations mainly against women” (p. 15). Please clarify what is meant by the term “specific positive measures” and whether it is used as a synonym for the temporary special measures called for in article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation 25. Also elaborate on how this provision is implemented in practice.
4.The report does not detail the remedies available to women for alleged violations of the gender equality principle in the Constitution. Please provide information as to whether any court cases have been filed by women who faced discrimination, their outcomes and what administrative or other remedies are available to women victims of discrimination.
5.The report indicates that following the change of Government in March 2004, “Greece has begun developing an integrated and cohesive strategic intervention, aiming to stress both the national importance and the supra-national dimension of gender equality issues” (p. 11). Please indicate whether such an intervention has been finalized and, if so, the specific content and planned implementation of the intervention as well as the impact of the intervention so far.
6.Please indicate whether the proposal for the formation of a new national mechanism, the National Committee for the Equality between Men and Women, has proceeded and, if so, provide details on the composition and functions of this Committee (p. 4).
7.The report indicates the creation of new institutional mechanisms — the Interministerial Committee for Gender Equality (2000), the Permanent Parliamentary Committee for Equality and Human Rights (2002) and the Office for Gender Equality in the Ministry of National Defence (2004). Please provide an indication of the functions of each of these bodies, as well as for the General Secretariat for Gender Equality. Please also indicate coordination among these bodies and their relationship to the proposed National Committee for the Equality between Men and Women, referred to in question 5.
Stereotypes and education
8.In its previous concluding comments, the Committee recommended that the State party “intensify its efforts, inter alia, by strengthening specific programmes targeting men and boys, to change stereotypical roles and discriminatory attitudes and perceptions about the roles and responsibilities of women and girls and men and boys in the family and in society” (A/57/38, para. 274). Please provide details on the implementation of this recommendation and results achieved.
9.The report indicates the findings of two surveys regarding the susceptibility of the Greek mass media to gender stereotypes. One of the surveys found that “the dominant social representation through the mass media has in its core the traditional models and roles of the sexes” (p. 26) while the other showed “that stereotypic and preconceived ideas are still promoted” (p. 28). Please describe any current or planned actions that aim to change the stereotyped roles of the sexes within the mass media, including in cooperation with women’s non-governmental organizations.
10.Please provide further information on the “plan of coordinated actions to combat discriminations and to ensure equal rights for men and women during school training and life-long education” (p. 69), including any targets established in the plan and specific measures or actions taken to achieve them.
11.The report indicates that in tertiary education, “[w]omen usually staff lower levels and are promoted at a slower pace than men.” (p. 122). Please provide specific information regarding the distribution of women at different levels of tertiary education staffing, including the numbers of women at the professor, associate-professor, senior-lecturer and lecturer levels. In addition, please indicate what the causes are of this concentration of women in lower levels of staff. Furthermore, please provide information on the representation of Roma and immigrant women in tertiary institutions.
Participation of women in public life and decision-making
12.The report indicates that, despite the introduction of Law No. 2910/2001, which provides for the one-third participation of each gender as candidates in the prefectural and municipal elections, the percentage of female candidates elected at the prefectural and municipal levels in 2002 was 12 per cent and 18 per cent, respectively. Please indicate the causes and what actions are being taken to implement Law No. 2910/2001, and whether any further measures are foreseen to ensure greater participation of women in prefectural and municipal politics. Please indicate what special measures are put in place to ensure the participation of Roma women.
13.The statistics provided in the report indicate that women remain underrepresented in Parliament (p. 57) and in higher levels of the judiciary (p. 61) and that the “percentage of women’s participation … is particularly low in higher ranks” of the diplomatic field (p. 66). Please indicate what the fundamental causes are for this situation and whether any specific measures, including temporary special measures and timetables, have been put in place to increase the number of women in all areas of decision-making, including in the foreign service.
Violence against women
14.The Committee in its previous concluding comments, the Committee Against Torture (CAT/C/CR/33/2, para. 5(k)), the Human Rights Committee (CCPR/CO/93/GRC, para. 7) and the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (R/C.12/1/Add.97, para. 37) have all expressed concern regarding the State party’s lack of specific legislation regarding violence against women and specifically the absence of domestic violence and marital rape provisions. Please indicate whether the Working Committee formed by the General Secretariat for Gender Equality has proposed “proper legislative measures” (p. 4). Moreover, if any such proposal/s exists, please provide detailed information regarding the contents of any proposal.
15.Please describe any measures taken by the Government to address the issue of violence against Roma women and girls.
16.In its previous concluding comments, the Committee urged the State party to “take all necessary measures, including introducing specific legislation, in order to empower women to take action with regard to sexual harassment”. Please indicate whether any action has been taken in regard to this request and provide details of any such action, and results achieved.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
17.The report indicates that the Ministry of Justice intended to take action to enhance the legislative framework for victim support and assistance (see p. 43). Please indicate whether this action has been completed, the details of the amendment and the practical impact of the amendment.
18.Kindly provide information about the implementation, and any evaluation of the impact, of Law No. 3064/2002 for the elimination of human trafficking, crimes against sexual freedom, child pornography and, in general, financial exploitation of sexual life and assistance to victims of such crimes, and Presidential Decree No. 233/2003 regarding the provision of assistance to victims of human trafficking (p. 37).
19.Please indicate whether the national database for the monitoring of trafficking through data assembled from all ministries, mentioned on page 39 of the report, has been developed. Please also provide available data on trafficking in Greece and updated information on the situation and number of foreign women who are victims of trafficking, including the number of suspended deportation orders under article 34, paragraph 7, of Law No. 3247/2004 (p. 37).
20.The report describes a number of measures concerning parental leave and family leave contained in the National Collective Labour Agreements of the year 2002-2003 and the National Collective Labour Agreements of the year 2003-2004 (pp. 15-16). Please provide data disaggregated by sex regarding the utilization of these measures by employees.
21.Please indicate whether the proposals of the General Secretariat for Gender Equality concerning parental leave for civil servants, accepted by the Committee of the Ministry of the Interior, Public Administration and Decentralization, have been implemented for all civil servants, and if so, what the practical results are. Please also provide details regarding the relevant revision of the Code of Civil Servants (Law No. 2683/1989) (p. 6).
22.In its previous concluding comments, the Committee requested that the State party “introduce individualized paid paternal leave for childcare” (A/57/38, para. 286). Please indicate any action taken in response to this recommendation, and the impact of such action.
23.The report indicates that under Law No. 3173/2003, regarding part time employment in bodies of a social character, “a quota of up to 60 per cent of the various categories of unemployed ... who benefit from such employment positions will be covered by women as long as relative interest on their side is expressed, by submission of applications” (p. 75). Please provide data disaggregated by sex regarding the implementation of this law. Are there any measures in place to advertise this law to women and to encourage its use?
24.The report notes that “although women’s unemployment decreases, the gap remains prominent” (p. 75). Please provide a statistical update and an analysis of trends in women’s participation in the labour market. The response should include an assessment of the impact of any measures in place to enhance women’s participation in the labour market, especially in full employment, as well as measures taken to reduce women’s unemployment.
25.In its previous concluding comments, the Committee requested that the State party “provide more information in its next periodic report on measures taken to eliminate the wage gap” (A/57/38). Kindly provide such information.
26.The report indicates that the “target of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, through the institution of Family Planning (Law 1036/80) and of the National Health System (article 22 of Law 1397/83), for the development of a network for the provision of Family Planning services in Greece, is progressing satisfactorily, despite any organizational operational weaknesses which include necessary staffing” (p. 79). Please indicate what measures have been taken to address such “organizational operational weaknesses”, the current status of the network and any assessment of its effectiveness.
27.Please indicate what steps have been taken by the Government to achieve the targets of the Mediterranean Network for Women Who Face HIV Infection programme, as referred to on pages 80 and 81 of the report, and how progress is monitored and evaluated.
28.The report provides limited data and information about the situation of Roma women and girls or about measures in place to enhance their employment, health, housing, educational situation and participation in decision-making and to ensure their protection from violence (pp. 82, 85, 88, 93). Kindly provide further information regarding the situation of Roma women and girls, including any measures taken, such as awareness-raising programmes, to sensitize public opinion at large, and particularly the police, about the situation of Roma women and girls.
29.In its previous concluding comments, the Committee urged the State party to accelerate its efforts aimed at improving Muslim women’s education and employment opportunities (A/57/38, para. 296). The report indicates that two studies have been undertaken by the General Secretariat for Gender Equality and the Research Centre for Gender Equality (K.E.T.H.I.): Family Legal Relations of Greek Muslims, Thessaloniki 2001, and Muslim Women: a study and recording of needs, working out of proposals. Please provide information on the findings of these studies and indicate whether any action has been taken in response to the findings.
30.Please provide information about steps taken to publicize the Optional Protocol, which Greece ratified in 2002.