<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-16"?> <html> <head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="data:text/css;base64,77u/Ym9keSB7IA0KCWZvbnQtZmFtaWx5OnNlcmlmOyANCgltYXJnaW46MCBhdXRvOyANCgl3aWR0aDo5NjBweDsgDQp9DQp0YWJsZSB7IA0KCXdpZHRoOjEwMCU7IA0KCWJvcmRlci1ib3R0b206MnB4IHNvbGlkICMwMDA7IA0KfQ0KdGFibGUgdHI6Zmlyc3QtY2hpbGQgdGQgeyANCglib3JkZXItYm90dG9tOjFweCBzb2xpZCAjMDAwOyANCn0NCmRpdi5jb250ZW50IHsgDQoJd2lkdGg6ODAwcHg7IA0KCW1hcmdpbjoyMHB4IGF1dG8gMCBhdXRvOyANCn0NCmRpdi5jb250ZW50IHRhYmxlLCBkaXYuY29udGVudCB0YWJsZSB0ZCB7DQoJYm9yZGVyOm5vbmU7DQp9" /> </head> <body> <div class="content"> <p>1I0O @5:><5=40F8O ! 35 > 35=45@=>< =0A8;88 2>B=>H5=88 65=I8=, ?@54=07=0G5==0O 4;O >1=>2;5=8O >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 19</p> <p>I.2545=85</p> <h3>K@065=85 ?@87=0B5;L=>AB8</h3> <p>><8B5B A ?@87=0B5;L=>ABLN >B<5G05B F5==K9 2:;04 2 ?>43>B>2:C =0AB>OI59 >1I59 @5:><5=40F88, A45;0==K9 1>;55 G5< 100 >@30=870F8O<8 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20 8 65=A:8<8 >@30=870F8O<8, 3>AC40@AB20<8-CG0AB=8:0<8 >=25=F88, ?@54AB028B5;O<8 =0CG=KE :@C3>2, CG@5645=8O<8 @30=870F88 1J548=5==KE 0F89 8 4@C38<8 708=B5@5A>20==K<8 AB>@>=0<8, :>B>@K5 ?@54AB028;8 A2>8 <=5=8O 8 70<5G0=8O 2 E>45 55 @07@01>B:8. ><8B5B B0:65 1;03>40@8B !?5F80;L=>3> 4>:;04G8:0 ?> 2>?@>AC > =0A8;88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 53> ?@8G8=0E 8 ?>A;54AB28OE 70 55 @01>BC ?> >ACI5AB2;5=8N A2>53> <0=40B0 8 70 2:;04 2 ?>43>B>2:C =0AB>OI59 >1I59 @5:><5=40F88.</p> <p>1. >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 19 > =0A8;88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, ?@8=OB>9 =0 >48==04F0B>9 A5AA88 ><8B5B0 2 1992 3>4C, ><8B5B CB>G=8;, GB> ?>=OB85 48A:@8<8=0F88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, >?@545;5=85 :>B>@>3> A>45@68BAO 2 AB0BL5 1 >=25=F88, 2:;NG05B 8 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 (B.5. =0A8;85, A>25@H05<>5 =04 65=I8=>9 2 A8;C B>3>, GB> >=0 - 65=I8=0, 8;8 =0A8;85, :>B>@>5 >:07K205B =0 65=I8= =5A>@07<5@=>5 2>7459AB285) 8 GB> B0:0O 48A:@8<8=0F8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =0@CH5=85 ?@02 G5;>25:0 65=I8=.</p> <p>2.0 ?@>BO65=88 1>;55 25 ;5B ?@0:B8:0 3>AC40@AB2-CG0AB=8:>2 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> >=8 >4>1@ONB 40==>5 ><8B5B>< B>;:>20=85. @0:B8:0 3>AC40@AB2 8 <span style="font-style:italic;">opinio juris</span> 40NB >A=>20=8O ?>;030BL, GB> :>=F5?F8O =54>?CAB8<>AB8 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= ?>AB5?5==> ?@8>1@5B05B AB0BCA >4=>3> 87 ?@8=F8?>2 <564C=0@>4=>3> >1KG=>3> ?@020. 1I0O @5:><5=40F8O !19 ?>A;C68;0 >4=8< 87 :;NG52KE :0B0;870B>@>2 MB>3> ?@>F5AA0.</p> <p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p> <p>4.><8B5B >B405B 4>;6=>5 >@30=870F8O< 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20, >A>15==> 65=A:8< =5?@028B5;LAB25==K< >@30=870F8O<, :>B>@K5 C45;ONB ?5@2>AB5?5==>5 2=8<0=85 ;8:2840F88 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 1;03>40@O A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 >:07K20NB ACI5AB25==>5 2;8O=85 =0 A>F80;L=CN 8 ?>;8B8G5A:CN AD5@K 8 A?>A>1AB2C5B ?@87=0=8N 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= >4=8< 87 284>2 =0@CH5=8O ?@02 G5;>25:0 8 ?@8=OB8N 70:>=>2 8 AB@0B5389 ?> 1>@L15 A =8<.</p> <p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p> <p>6.5A<>B@O =0 2KH587;>65==>5, 0:BK 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= (=57028A8<> >B B>3>, :B> 8E A>25@H05B,  1C4L B> 3>AC40@AB25==K5 AB@C:BC@K, <56?@028B5;LAB25==K5 >@30=870F88 8;8 =53>AC40@AB25==K5 AC1J5:BK, 2 B>< G8A;5 G0AB=K5 ;8F0 8 2>>@C65==K5 3@C??K) ?>-?@56=5<C H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 2> 2A5E AB@0=0E 8 >AB0NBAO 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 157=0:070==K<8. 5=45@=>5 =0A8;85  MB> ?>2A5<5AB=>5 O2;5=85, :>B>@>5 ?@8=8<05B <=>65AB2> 2708<>A2O70==KE 8 ?>2B>@ONI8EAO D>@<, ?@8G5< 2 CA;>28OE :0: G0AB=>3>, B0: 8 3>AC40@AB25==>3> A5:B>@0, 8, 2 B>< G8A;5, 2 CA;>28OE B5E=>;>38G5A:>3> ?@>B82>459AB28O 5<C, 8 2 A>2@5<5==>< <8@5 3;>10;870F88 >=> 2KE>48B 70 ?@545;K =0F8>=0;L=KE 3@0=8F.</p> <p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p> <h2>II.!D5@0 >E20B0</h2> <p>8.0AB>OI0O >1I0O @5:><5=40F8O 4>?>;=O5B 8 >1=>2;O5B @C:>2>4OI85 C:070=8O 4;O 3>AC40@AB2-CG0AB=8:>2, 87;>65==K5 2 >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 19, 8 MB8 425 @5:><5=40F88 A;54C5B @0AA<0B@820BL 2 A>2>:C?=>AB8.</p> <p>9. ?>=OB88 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, >?@545;5=85 :>B>@><C 40=> 2 >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 19 8 2 4@C38E <564C=0@>4=KE 4>3>2>@0E 8 4>:C<5=B0E, ?>4G5@:8205BAO B>, GB> @5GL 845B > =0A8;88, A>25@H05<>< ?> ?@87=0:C ?>;0. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 =0AB>OI59 @5:><5=40F88 D>@<C;8@>2:0 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2 :0G5AB25 1>;55 B>G=>3> B5@<8=0, :>B>@K9 G5B:> C:07K205B =0 35=45@=K5 ?@8G8=K 8 ?>A;54AB28O B0:>3> =0A8;8O. -B>B B5@<8= B0:65 C:@5?;O5B ?>=8<0=85 B>3>, GB> =0A8;85  MB> ?@>1;5<0 >1I5AB25==0O, 0 =5 ;8G=0O, 8 GB> 55 @5H5=85 B@51C5B ?@8=OB8O :><?;5:A=KE <5@, 0 =5 B>;L:> <5@, A2O70==KE A :>=:@5B=K<8 A>1KB8O<8, >B45;L=K<8 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O<8 8 65@B20<8 =0A8;8O 8;8 ;8F0<8, ?5@5682H8<8 =0A8;85.</p> <p>10.><8B5B AG8B05B, GB> 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 >4=> 87 3;02=KE A>F80;L=KE, ?>;8B8G5A:8E 8 M:>=><8G5A:8E A@54AB2, ?@8 ?><>I8 :>B>@KE C25:>25G820NBAO AB5@5>B8?=K5 @>;8 65=I8= 8 8E ?>4G8=5==>5 ?>;>65=85 ?> >B=>H5=8N : <C6G8=0<. A59 A2>59 45OB5;L=>ABLN ><8B5B OA=> 405B ?>=OBL, GB> B0:>5 =0A8;85  MB> >4=> 87 3;02=KE ?@5?OBAB289 =0 ?CB8 : 4>AB865=8N @50;L=>3> @025=AB20 <564C 65=I8=0<8 8 <C6G8=0<8 8 >15A?5G5=8N >ACI5AB2;5=8O 65=I8=0<8 A2>8E ?@02 G5;>25:0 8 >A=>2=KE A2>1>4, 70:@5?;5==KE 2 >=25=F88.</p> <p>11. >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 28 (2010), :0A0NI59AO >A=>2=KE >1O70B5;LAB2 3>AC40@AB2-CG0AB=8:>2 ?> AB0BL5 2 >=25=F88, C:07K205BAO, GB> 87 =55 2KB5:0NB >1O70B5;LAB20 3>AC40@AB2 2 ?;0=5 C2065=8O, 70I8BK 8 >ACI5AB2;5=8O ?@020 65=I8= =0 =548A:@8<8=0F8N 8 =0 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>;L7>20BLAO @025=AB2>< 45-N@5 8 45-D0:B>. !D5@0 >E20B0 MB8E >1O70B5;LAB2 2 A2O78 A 35=45@=K< =0A8;85< 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 8<5NI8< <5AB> 2 >?@545;5==KE :>=B5:AB0E, @0AA<0B@8205BAO 2 >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 28 8 2 4@C38E >1I8E @5:><5=40F8OE, 2:;NG0O >1ICN @5:><5=40F8N ! 26 (2008) 2 >B=>H5=88 B@C4OI8EAO 65=I8=-<83@0=B>2; >1ICN @5:><5=40F8N ! 27 (2010) >B=>A8B5;L=> ?>68;KE 65=I8= 8 70I8BK 8E ?@02 G5;>25:0; >1ICN @5:><5=40F8N ! 30 (2013), :0A0NICNAO ?>;>65=8O 65=I8= 2 CA;>28OE ?@54>B2@0I5=8O :>=D;8:B>2, 2 :>=D;8:B=KE 8 ?>AB:>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F8OE; A>2<5AB=K5 >1ICN @5:><5=40F8N ! 31 ><8B5B0 ?> ;8:2840F88 48A:@8<8=0F88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=/>1I55 70<5G0=85 ! 18 ><8B5B0 ?> ?@020< @515=:0 (2014), :0A0NI85AO 2@54=KE 284>2 ?@0:B8:8; >1ICN @5:><5=40F8N ! 32 (2014), :0A0NICNAO 35=45@=KE 0A?5:B>2 C1568I0, AB0BCA0 1565=F0, 3@0640=AB20 8 1573@0640=AB20 65=I8=; >1ICN @5:><5=40F8N ! 33 (2015), :0A0NICNAO 4>ABC?0 65=I8= : ?@02>AC48N; 8 >1ICN @5:><5=40F8N ! 34 (2016), :0A0NICNAO ?@02 A5;LA:8E 65=I8=. >;55 ?>4@>1=> A A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 M;5<5=B0<8 >1I8E @5:><5=40F89, C?><8=05<KE 2 =0AB>OI5< 4>:C<5=B5, <>6=> >7=0:><8BLAO 87CG82 MB8 @5:><5=40F88.</p> <p>12. >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 28 8 >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 33 ><8B5B ?>4B25@48;, GB> 48A:@8<8=0F8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= =5@07@K2=> A2O70=0 A 4@C38<8 D0:B>@0<8, :>B>@K5 2;8ONB =0 687=L 65=I8=. ><8B5B 2 A2>59 ?@02>2>9 ?@0:B8:5 =5>4=>:@0B=> ?>4G5@:820; B>, GB> : G8A;C D0:B>@>2, 2;8ONI8E =0 687=L 65=I8=, >B=>AOBAO 8E MB=8G5A:>5/@0A>2>5 ?@>8AE>645=85, ?@8=04;56=>ABL : :>@5==K< =0@>40< 8;8 <5=LH8=AB20<, F25B :>68, A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:>5 ?>;>65=85 8/8;8 :0AB>20O ?@8=04;56=>ABL, O7K:, 25@>8A?>2540=85 8;8 C15645=8O, ?>;8B8G5A:85 273;O4K, =0F8>=0;L=>5 ?@>8AE>645=85, A5<59=>5 ?>;>65=85, <0B5@8=AB2>, @>48B5;LA:89 AB0BCA, 2>7@0AB, ?@>6820=85 2 3>@>4A:>9/A5;LA:>9 <5AB=>AB8, A>AB>O=85 74>@>2LO, 8=20;84=>ABL, 8<CI5AB25==>5 ?>;>65=85, ?@8=04;56=>ABL : A>>1I5AB2C ;5A18O=>:, 18A5:AC0;>2, 65=I8=-B@0=AA5:AC0;>2 8;8 8=B5@A5:AC0;>2, =53@0<>B=>ABL, ?>8A: C1568I0, 1565=AB2>, AB0BCA 2=CB@5==5 ?5@5<5I5==>3> ;8F0 8;8 ;8F0 157 3@0640=AB20, 24>2AB2>, <83@0F8>==K9 AB0BCA, 2K?>;=5=85 65=I8=>9 @>;8 3;02K 4><>E>7O9AB20, 8=D8F8@>20=85 '/!><, ;8H5=85 A2>1>4K 8 2>2;5G5=85 2 ?@>AB8BCF8N, 0 B0:65 B>@3>2;O 65=I8=0<8, =0E>645=85 2 A8BC0F8OE 2>>@C65==KE :>=D;8:B>2, ?@>6820=85 2 35>3@0D8G5A:8 C40;5==KE @09>=0E 8 AB83<0B870F8O 65=I8=, :>B>@K5 1>@NBAO 70 A2>8 ?@020, 2 B>< G8A;5 65=I8=-?@02>70I8B=8:>2. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 A8;C B>3>, GB> 65=I8=K AB0;:820NBAO A @07=K<8 8 ?5@5:@5AB=K<8 D>@<0<8 48A:@8<8=0F88, 2 @57C;LB0B5 G53> =530B82=K5 ?>A;54AB28O ;8HL CAC3C1;ONBAO, ><8B5B ?@87=05B, GB> 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 <>65B ?>-@07=><C 8 2 @07=>9 AB5?5=8 70B@03820BL @07=KE 65=I8=, 0 MB> >7=0G05B, GB> A>>B25BAB2CNI85 N@848G5A:85 8 ?>;8B8G5A:85 <5@K 4>;6=K >E20BK20BL H8@>:89 A?5:B@ AF5=0@852.</p> <p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p> <p>14.5=45@=>5 =0A8;85 70B@038205B 65=I8= =0 2A5E MB0?0E 8E 687=8 8, B0:8< >1@07><, ;N1K5 C?><8=0=8O > 65=I8=0E 2 =0AB>OI5< 4>:C<5=B5 >B=>AOBAO B0:65 8 : 452>G:0<. "0:>5 =0A8;85 ?@8=8<05B @07=>>1@07=K5 D>@<K, 2 B>< G8A;5 D>@<C 459AB289 8;8 157459AB28O, :>B>@K5 ;81> =>AOB ?@54=0<5@5==K9 E0@0:B5@, ;81> A 1>;LH>9 AB5?5=LN 25@>OB=>AB8 <>3CB ?@825AB8 : 3815;8 65=I8= 8;8 ?@8G8=8BL 65=I8=0< AB@040=8O 8;8 CI5@1 D878G5A:>3>, ?A8E8G5A:>3>, ?>;>2>3> 8;8 M:>=><8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0, 0 B0:65 D>@<C C3@>7K A>25@H5=8O B0:8E 459AB289 8;8 157459AB28O, ?@5A;54>20=8O, ?@8=C645=8O 8 ?@>872>;L=>3> CI5<;5=8O A2>1>4K. 5=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= >?@545;ONBAO 8 70G0ABCN CAC3C1;O5BAO :C;LBC@=K<8, M:>=><8G5A:8<8, 845>;>38G5A:8<8, B5E=>;>38G5A:8<8, ?>;8B8G5A:8<8, @5;838>7=K<8, A>F80;L=K<8 8 M:>;>38G5A:8<8 D0:B>@0<8, > G5<, A@548 ?@>G53>, A2845B5;LAB2CNB ?>A;54AB28O 4;O 65=I8=, 2>7=8:0NI85 2 :>=B5:AB5 ?5@5<5I5=8O, <83@0F88, @0AH8@5=8O 3;>10;870F88 M:>=><8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2:;NG0O 3;>10;870F8N <8@>2KE ?@>872>4AB25==>-A1KB>2KE F5?>G5:, 45OB5;L=>AB8 4>1K20NI59 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 2K2>40 ?@>872>4AB2 70 @C156, <8;8B0@870F88, 8=>AB@0==>9 >::C?0F88, 2>>@C65==KE :>=D;8:B>2, 2>8=AB2CNI53> M:AB@5<87<0 8 B5@@>@87<0. 5=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= B0:65 A2O70=> A ?>A;54AB28O<8 ?>;8B8G5A:8E, M:>=><8G5A:8E 8 A>F80;L=KE :@878A>2, 3@0640=A:8E 15A?>@O4:>2, G@572KG09=KE 3C<0=8B0@=KE A8BC0F89, AB8E89=KE 154AB289 8 @07@CH5=8O 8;8 8AB>I5=8O ?@8@>4=KE @5AC@A>2. @0:B8:0 2@54=KE >1KG052 8 B@048F89 8 ?@5ABC?;5=8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=-?@02>70I8B=8:>2, ?>;8B8G5A:8E 45OB5;59, 0:B828AB>2 8 6C@=0;8AB>2 B0:65 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 D>@<K 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, A2O70==K5 A B0:8<8 :C;LBC@=K<8, 845>;>38G5A:8<8 8 ?>;8B8G5A:8<8 D0:B>@0<8.</p> <p>15.@02> 65=I8= =0 687=L, A2>1>4=CN >B 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O, =5@07@K2=> A2O70=> A 4@C38<8 ?@020<8 G5;>25:0, B0:8<8, :0: ?@02> =0 687=L, 74>@>2L5, A2>1>4C 8 ;8G=CN =5?@8:>A=>25==>ABL, @025=AB2> 8 @02=CN 70I8BC 2 A5<L5, A2>1>4C >B ?KB>:, 65AB>:>3>, 15AG5;>25G=>3> 8;8 C=860NI53> 4>AB>8=AB2> >1@0I5=8O, 0 B0:65 ?@02> =0 A2>1>4C 2K@065=8O <=5=89 8 ?5@542865=8O, CG0AB8O, A>1@0=89 8 0AA>F80F89, 8 =5>B45;8<> >B MB8E ?@02.</p> <p>16.@8 >?@545;5==KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= <>65B ?@8@02=820BLAO : ?KB:0< 8;8 65AB>:><C, 15AG5;>25G=><C 8;8 C=860NI5<C 4>AB>8=AB2> >1@0I5=8N, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 A;CG0OE 87=0A8;>20=8O, 1KB>2>3> =0A8;8O 8;8 ?@0:B8:8 2@54=KE >1KG052 8 B@048F89.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE >B45;L=K5 D>@<K 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= B0:65 <>3CB @0AF5=820BLAO 8 :0: <564C=0@>4=K5 ?@5ABC?;5=8O.</p> <p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p> <p>18.>AO30B5;LAB20 =0 A5:AC0;L=>5 8 @5?@>4C:B82=>5 74>@>2L5 65=I8= 8 CI5<;5=85 8E A>>B25BAB2CNI8E ?@02, =0?@8<5@, ?@8=C48B5;L=0O AB5@8;870F8O, ?@8=C48B5;L=K5 01>@BK, ?@8=C48B5;L=0O 15@5<5==>ABL, :@8<8=0;870F8O 01>@B>2, >B:07 2 CA;C30E ?> 157>?0A=><C ?@5@K20=8N 15@5<5==>AB8 8/8;8 ?> CE>4C ?>A;5 01>@B0 8;8 7045@6:8 A ?@54>AB02;5=85< B0:8E CA;C3, ?>=C645=85 : ?@>4>;65=8N 15@5<5==>AB8, 0 B0:65 >A:>@1;5=85 65=I8= 8 452>G5: 8 =5=04;560I55 >1@0I5=85 A =8<8, :>340 >=8 8=B5@5ACNBAO 8=D>@<0F859, B>20@0<8 8 CA;C30<8, A2O70==K<8 A A5:AC0;L=K< 8 @5?@>4C:B82=K< 74>@>2L5<, ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 D>@<K 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O, :>B>@K5, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B >1AB>OB5;LAB2, <>3CB ?@8@02=820BLAO : ?KB:0< 8;8 65AB>:><C, 15AG5;>25G=><C 8;8 C=860NI5<C 4>AB>8=AB2> >1@0I5=8N.</p> <p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p> <p>20.5=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8<55B <5AB> =57028A8<> >B <5AB0 8 AD5@K 2708<>459AB28O ;N459, :0: 2 >1I5AB25==>9, B0: 8 2 ;8G=>9 687=8, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 :>=B5:AB5 A5<L8, >1I5AB20, >1I5AB25==KE <5AB, @01>BK, 4>AC30, ?>;8B8:8, A?>@B0, 74@02>>E@0=5=8O 8 CG51=KE 702545=89, 0 B0:65 2 =>2>< :>=B5:AB5 >1I5AB25==>3> 8 G0AB=>3> 2708<>459AB28O, @53C;8@C5<>3> ?@8 ?><>I8 B5E=>;>389 (=0?@8<5@, =>2K5 D>@<K =0A8;8O 8<5NB <5AB> 2 =B5@=5B5 8 2 4@C38E 2840E F8D@>2>9 A@54K). > 2A5E MB8E A;CG0OE 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= <>65B 1KBL @57C;LB0B>< 459AB289 8;8 157459AB28O 3>AC40@AB25==KE 8;8 =53>AC40@AB25==KE AC1J5:B>2, >ACI5AB2;ONI8E 45OB5;L=>ABL 2=CB@8 3>AC40@AB2 8;8 70 8E ?@545;0<8, 2 B>< G8A;5 M:AB5@@8B>@80;L=KE 2>5==KE 459AB289, >ACI5AB2;O5<KE 3>AC40@AB20<8 8=48284C0;L=> 8;8 2 A>AB025 <564C=0@>4=KE 8;8 <56?@028B5;LAB25==KE >@30=870F89 8;8 :>0;8F89, 8;8 M:AB5@@8B>@80;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G0AB=KE :>@?>@0F89.</p> <h2>III.1O70B5;LAB20 3>AC40@AB2-CG0AB=8:>2 2 A2O78 A35=45@=K< =0A8;85< 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=</h2> <p>21. A>>B25BAB288 A> AB0BL59 1 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 48A:@8<8=0F8N 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, =0 =53> @0A?@>AB@0=ONBAO 2A5 >1O70B5;LAB20 ?> >=25=F88.  AB0BL5 2 ?@54CA<0B@8205BAO, GB> 2A5>1J5<;NI55 >1O70B5;LAB2> 3>AC40@AB2-CG0AB=8:>2 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K 157>B;030B5;L=> 8 2A5<8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 A?>A>10<8 ?@>2>48BL ?>;8B8:C ;8:2840F88 48A:@8<8=0F88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=. -B> >1O70B5;LAB2> 4>;6=> 2K?>;=OBLAO 157 ?@><54;5=89; >BA@>G:0 53> 2K?>;=5=8O =5 <>65B 1KBL >?@0240=0 =8:0:8<8 ?@8G8=0<8, 2:;NG0O >1AB>OB5;LAB20 M:>=><8G5A:>3>, :C;LBC@=>3> 8;8 @5;838>7=>3> ?;0=0.  >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 19 >B<5G05BAO, GB> ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : 35=45@=><C =0A8;8N 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= MB> >1O70B5;LAB2> 2:;NG05B 2 A51O 420 0A?5:B0 3>AC40@AB25==>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 B0:>5 =0A8;85: >B25BAB25==>ABL, 2>7=8:0NI0O 2 @57C;LB0B5 459AB289 8;8 157459AB28O A0<>3> 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:0 8;8 53> AC1J5:B>2 A >4=>9 AB>@>=K 8 =53>AC40@AB25==KE AC1J5:B>2  A 4@C3>9.</p> <h3>A.B25BAB25==>ABL 70 459AB28O 8;8 157459AB285 3>AC40@AB25==KE AC1J5:B>2</h3> <p>22. A>>B25BAB288 A >=25=F859 8 =>@<0<8 <564C=0@>4=>3> >1I53> ?@020 3>AC40@AB2>-CG0AB=8: =5A5B >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 B0:85 459AB28O 8;8 157459AB285 A2>8E >@30=>2 8 ?@54AB028B5;59, :>B>@K5 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 70 459AB28O 8;8 157459AB285 4>;6=>AB=KE ;8F, A;C60I8E 2 >@30=0E 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9, 70:>=>40B5;L=>9 8 AC451=>9 2;0AB8.  ?C=:B5 (d) AB0BL8 2 >=25=F88 ?@54CA<0B@8205BAO, GB> 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 8 8E =0F8>=0;L=K5 >@30=K 8 ?@54AB028B5;8 4>;6=K 2>745@6820BLAO >B A>25@H5=8O ;N1KE ?@O<KE 8;8 :>A25==KE 48A:@8<8=0F8>==KE 0:B>2 8;8 459AB289 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 30@0=B8@>20BL, GB> 3>AC40@AB25==K5 >@30=K 8 CG@5645=8O 1C4CB 459AB2>20BL 2 A>>B25BAB288 A MB8< >1O70B5;LAB2><. ><8<> >15A?5G5=8O B>3>, GB>1K 70:>=K, AB@0B5388, ?@>3@0<<K 8 ?@>F54C@K =5 4>?CA:0;8 48A:@8<8=0F88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?C=:B0<8 (c) 8 (g) AB0BL8 2, 4;O 1>@L1K A> 2A5<8 D>@<0<8 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, A>25@H05<>3> 3>AC40@AB25==K<8 4>;6=>AB=K<8 ;8F0<8, 1C4L B> =0 8E B5@@8B>@88 8;8 70 55 ?@545;0<8, 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 4>;6=K >1;040BL MDD5:B82=>9 8 4>ABC?=>9 ?@02>2>9 107>9 8 A8AB5<>9 N@848G5A:8E CA;C3.</p> <p>23.>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 >1O70=K ?@54C?@5640BL B0:85 459AB28O 8;8 157459AB285 A2>8E >@30=>2 8 ?@54AB028B5;59, 2 G0AB=>AB8, ?CB5< ?@>2545=8O CG51=KE <5@>?@8OB89 8 ?@8=OB8O 8 2=54@5=8O ?@02>2KE =>@<, 04<8=8AB@0B82=KE ?@028; 8 :>45:A>2 ?>2545=8O 8 :>=B@>;O 70 8E A>1;N45=85<, 0 B0:65 ?@>2>48BL @0AA;54>20=8O, >ACI5AB2;OBL AC451=>5 ?@5A;54>20=85 8 ?@8<5=OBL =04;560I85 N@848G5A:85 8;8 48AF8?;8=0@=K5 <5@K, 0 B0:65 >15A?5G820BL 2>7<5I5=85 CI5@10 2> 2A5E A;CG0OE, :>340 8<55B <5AB> 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 B0:>5 =0A8;85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 <564C=0@>4=>5 ?@5ABC?;5=85, 0 B0:65 2 A;CG0OE =0@CH5=89, E0;0B=>AB8 8;8 157459AB28O, 4>?CA:05<KE 3>AC40@AB25==K<8 >@30=0<8. @8 MB>< A;54C5B ?@8=8<0BL 2> 2=8<0=85 @07;8G8O <564C 65=I8=0<8 8 @8A:8, >1CA;>2;5==K5 2708<>A2O70==K<8 D>@<0<8 48A:@8<8=0F88.</p> <h3>B.B25BAB25==>ABL 70 459AB28O 8;8 157459AB285 =53>AC40@AB25==KE AC1J5:B>2</h3> <p>24. A>>B25BAB288 A =>@<0<8 <564C=0@>4=>3> >1I53> ?@020, 0 B0:65 2 A>>B25BAB288 A <564C=0@>4=K<8 4>3>2>@0<8, 459AB28O 8;8 157459AB285 G0AB=>3> AC1J5:B0 <>3CB 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE ?>2;5GL 70 A>1>9 <564C=0@>4=CN >B25BAB25==>ABL 3>AC40@AB20.  8E G8A;C >B=>AOBAO A;54CNI85:</p> <h3>1.59AB28O 8;8 157459AB285 =53>AC40@AB25==KE AC1J5:B>2, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL ?@8A2>5=K 3>AC40@AB2C</h3> <p>a)459AB28O 8;8 157459AB285 G0AB=KE AC1J5:B>2, C?>;=><>G5==KE ?> 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C A>>B25BAB2CNI53> 3>AC40@AB20 >ACI5AB2;OBL >?@545;5==K5 DC=:F88 3>AC40@AB25==>9 2;0AB8, 2 B>< G8A;5 G0AB=KE >@30=870F89, 70=8<0NI8EAO ?@54>AB02;5=85< 3>AC40@AB25==KE CA;C3 (=0?@8<5@, 74@02>>E@0=8B5;L=KE 8 >1@07>20B5;L=KE CG@5645=89) 8;8 459AB2CNI8E 2 <5AB0E A>45@60=8O ?>4 AB@0659, AG8B0NBAO >ACI5AB2;O5<K<8 A0<8< 3>AC40@AB2><, @02=> :0: 8 459AB28O 8;8 157459AB285 G0AB=KE AC1J5:B>2, 459AB2CNI8E ?> C:070=8N MB>3> 3>AC40@AB20 8;8 ?>4 53> @C:>2>4AB2>< 8;8 :>=B@>;5<, 2 B>< G8A;5 70 @C156><;</p> <h3>2.1O70B5;LAB20 ?> A>1;N45=8N 4>;6=>9 >A<>B@8B5;L=>AB8 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : 459AB28O< 8;8 157459AB28N =53>AC40@AB25==KE AC1J5:B>2</h3> <p>b)2 ?C=:B5 (e) AB0BL8 2 >=25=F88 3>AC40@AB20<-CG0AB=8:0< :>=:@5B=> ?@54?8AK205BAO ?@8=8<0BL 2A5 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 <5@K 4;O ;8:2840F88 48A:@8<8=0F88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= A> AB>@>=K :0:>3>-;81> ;8F0, >@30=870F88 8;8 ?@54?@8OB8O. -B> >1O70B5;LAB2>, :>B>@>5 G0AB> C?><8=05BAO 2 :0G5AB25 >1O70B5;LAB20 ?@>O2;OBL 4>;6=CN >A<>B@8B5;L=>ABL, ;568B 2 >A=>25 >=25=F88 2 F5;>< 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 =5ACB >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 =5?@8=OB85 2A5E =04;560I8E <5@ 2 F5;OE =54>?CI5=8O, B0:8E 459AB289 8;8 157459AB28O =53>AC40@AB25==KE AC1J5:B>2, :>B>@K5 254CB : 35=45@=><C =0A8;8N 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 459AB289 :>@?>@0F89, >ACI5AB2;O5<KE 2 @0<:0E 8E M:AB5@@8B>@80;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0 B0:65 2 F5;OE ?@>2545=8O @0AA;54>20=89, >ACI5AB2;5=8O AC451=>3> ?@5A;54>20=8O 8 =0:070=8O 28=>2=KE 8 >15A?5G5=8O 2>7<5I5=8O CI5@10 ?>AB@0402H8<.  G0AB=>AB8, 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 >1O70=K ?@8=8<0BL =5>1E>48<K5 <5@K 4;O ?@54C?@5645=8O =0@CH5=8O ?@02 G5;>25:0 70 @C156>< :>@?>@0F8O<8, =0 :>B>@K5 >=8 <>3CB >:07K20BL 2;8O=85, 1C4L B> ?CB5< ?@8<5=5=8O =>@<0B82=KE <5E0=87<>2 8;8 AB8<C;>2, 2:;NG0O M:>=><8G5A:85 AB8<C;K.  @0<:0E >1O70B5;LAB20 ?@>O2;OBL 4>;6=CN >A<>B@8B5;L=>ABL 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 4>;6=K @07@010BK20BL 8 >ACI5AB2;OBL @07;8G=K5 <5@K ?> 1>@L15 A 35=45@=K< =0A8;85< 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, A>25@H05<K< =53>AC40@AB25==K<8 AC1J5:B0<8, 2:;NG0O ?@8=OB85 70:>=>2 8 A>740=85 CG@5645=89 8 A8AB5<K 4;O 1>@L1K A B0:8< =0A8;85<, 0 B0:65 >15A?5G5=85 8E @50;L=>9 MDD5:B82=>AB8 8 8E ?>445@6:8 A> AB>@>=K 2A5E >15A?5G820NI8E =04;560I55 A>1;N45=85 70:>=>2 3>AC40@AB25==KE 4>;6=>AB=KE ;8F 8 >@30=>2. A;8 3>AC40@AB2>-CG0AB=8: =5 ?@8=8<05B 2A5 =5>1E>48<K5 <5@K 4;O ?@54>B2@0I5=8O 0:B>2 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 53> 2;0AB8 7=0NB 8;8 4>;6=K 7=0BL > ACI5AB2>20=88 @8A:0 B0:>3> =0A8;8O, 8;8 =5 ?@>2>48B @0AA;54>20=8O, =5 ?@82;5:05B : >B25BAB25==>AB8 8 =5 =0:07K205B 28=>2=KE 8 =5 2>7<5I05B CI5@1 65@B20</?>AB@0402H8<, B> >=> B5< A0<K< 405B <>;G0;82>5 A>3;0A85 =0 A>25@H5=85 0:B>2 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 ?>>I@O5B 8E. "0:85 ?0AA82=>ABL 8 157459AB285 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 =0@CH5=85 ?@02 G5;>25:0.</p> <p>25.@><5 B>3>, =>@<K <564C=0@>4=>3> 3C<0=8B0@=>3> ?@020 8 <564C=0@>4=>3> ?@020 ?@02 G5;>25:0 CAB0=02;820NB ACI5AB2>20=85 ?@O<KE >1O70B5;LAB2 =53>AC40@AB25==KE AC1J5:B>2 2 :>=:@5B=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E, 2 B>< G8A;5, :>340 >=8 O2;ONBAO AB>@>=0<8 2 2>>@C65==>< :>=D;8:B5.  G8A;> B0:8E >1O70B5;LAB2 2E>48B >1O70B5;LAB2> > =54>?CI5=88 ?KB>:, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO G0ABLN <564C=0@>4=>3> >1KG=>3> ?@020 8 ?@8>1@5;> AB0BCA 8<?5@0B82=>9 =>@<K (<span style="font-style:italic;">jus cogens</span>).</p> <p>26.?8A0==K5 2KH5 >1O70B5;LAB20 >1I53> E0@0:B5@0 >E20BK20NB 2A5 >1;0AB8 3>AC40@AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2 B>< G8A;5 =0 C@>2=5 70:>=>40B5;L=>9, 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 8 AC451=>9 25B259 2;0AB8 8 =0 D545@0;L=><, =0F8>=0;L=><, AC1=0F8>=0;L=><, <5AB=>< 8 45F5=B@0;87>20==>< C@>2=OE, 0 B0:65 45OB5;L=>ABL G0AB=KE AC1J5:B>2, C?>;=><>G5==KE ?@54>AB02;OBL 3>AC40@AB25==K5 CA;C38. ;O >15A?5G5=8O 2K?>;=5=8O B0:8E >1O70B5;LAB2 =5>1E>48<>, GB>1K 1K;8 AD>@<C;8@>20=K ?@02>2K5 =>@<K, 2 B>< G8A;5 =0 :>=AB8BCF8>==>< C@>2=5, 0 B0:65 @07@01>B0=K 3>AC40@AB25==K5 AB@0B5388, ?@>3@0<<K, 8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=K5 @0<:8 8 <5E0=87<K :>=B@>;O, ?@54=07=0G5==K5 4;O ;8:2840F88 2A5E D>@< 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, A>25@H05BAO ;8 B0:>5 =0A8;85 3>AC40@AB25==K<8 8;8 =53>AC40@AB25==K<8 AC1J5:B0<8.  A>>B25BAB288 A ?C=:B>< (f) AB0BL8 2 8 ?C=:B>< (a) AB0BL8 5 >=25=F88 4;O MB>3> B0:65 B@51C5BAO, GB>1K 1K;8 @07@01>B0=K 8 @50;87>20=K <5@K, =0?@02;5==K5 =0 8A:>@5=5=85 ?@54@0AAC4:>2, AB5@5>B8?>2 8 ?@0:B8:8, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO :>@5==K<8 ?@8G8=0<8 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=.  >1I8E G5@B0E 8 157 CI5@10 4;O :>=:@5B=KE @5:><5=40F89, 87;>65==KE 2 A;54CNI5< @0745;5, 2 G8A;> MB8E >1O70B5;LAB2 2E>4OB A;54CNI85:</p> <h3>0 C@>2=5 70:>=>40B5;L=>9 2;0AB8</h3> <p>a)2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?C=:B0<8 (b), (c), (e), (f) 8 (g) AB0BL8 2 8 ?C=:B><(a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p> <h3>0 C@>2=5 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8</h3> <p>b)2 ?C=:B0E (c), (d) 8 (f) AB0BL8 2 8 2 ?C=:B5 (a) AB0BL8 5 ?@54CA<0B@8205BAO, GB> 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 4>;6=K A ?><>ILN A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 3>AC40@AB25==KE >@30=>2 ?@8=OBL @O4 8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=KE <5@ 8 >15A?5G8BL =04;560I55 D8=0=A8@>20=85 8E >ACI5AB2;5=8O; B0:85 <5@K 4>;6=K 2:;NG0BL @07@01>B:C F5;5=0?@02;5==>9 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>;8B8:8, A>740=85 8 2=54@5=85 <5E0=87<>2 :>=B@>;O 8 CG@5645=85 8/8;8 D8=0=A8@>20=85 :><?5B5=B=KE =0F8>=0;L=KE B@81C=0;>2; 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 4>;6=K >15A?5G8BL =0;8G85 4>ABC?=KE, =54>@>38E 8 045:20B=KE CA;C3 4;O 70I8BK 65=I8= >B 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O, =5 4>?CA:0BL ?>2B>@5=8O A;CG052 =0A8;8O 8 >ACI5AB2;OBL 8;8 30@0=B8@>20BL 2>7<5I5=85 CI5@10 2A5< 65@B20</?>AB@0402H8<; 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 B0:65 4>;6=K ?@8=8<0BL <5@K ?> 8A:>@5=5=8N 8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>9 ?@0:B8:8 8 8=48284C0;L=KE 459AB289 8 ?>2545=8O 3>AC40@AB25==KE 4>;6=>AB=KE ;8F, :>B>@K5 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8;8 2K@060NBAO 2 B5@?8<>AB8 : B0:><C =0A8;8N 8 A>740NB :>=B5:AB 4;O 157459AB28O ?5@54 ;8F>< 0:B>2 =0A8;8O 8;8 4;O E0;0B=>3> >B=>H5=8O : =8<; : G8A;C B0:8E <5@ >B=>AOBAO =04;560I55 @0AA;54>20=85 8 ?@8<5=5=85 A0=:F89 2 A;CG0OE =5MDD5:B82=>AB8, E0;0B=>AB8 8 ?>B0:0=8O 0:B0< =0A8;8O A> AB>@>=K 3>AC40@AB25==KE 2;0AB59, >B25BAB25==KE 70 @538AB@0F8N, ?@54C?@5645=85 8 @0AA;54>20=85 B0:8E 0:B>2 =0A8;8O 8;8 70 ?@54>AB02;5=85 CA;C3 65@B20</?>AB@0402H8<; =0 C@>2=5 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 B0:65 4>;6=K ?@8=8<0BLAO A>>B25BAB2CNI85 <5@K 4;O 87<5=5=8O 8;8 8A:>@5=5=8O >1KG052 8 ?@0:B8:8, :>B>@K5 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 48A:@8<8=0F8N 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 B5, :>B>@K5 >?@024K20NB 8;8 ?>>I@ONB 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=;</p> <h3>0 C@>2=5 AC451=>9 2;0AB8</h3> <p>c)2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?C=:B0<8 (d) 8 (f) AB0BL8 2 8 ?C=:B>< (a) AB0BL8 5 2A5 AC451=K5 >@30=K >1O70=K 2>745@6820BLAO >B ;N1KE 48A:@8<8=0F8>==KE 459AB289 8 ?@0:B8:8 8;8 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 AB@>3> ?@8<5=OBL 2A5 ?>;>65=8O C3>;>2=>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20, ?@54CA<0B@820NI85 =0:070=85 70 B0:>5 =0A8;85, ?@8 MB>< >15A?5G820O, GB>1K 2A5 N@848G5A:85 ?@>F54C@K 2 A2O78 A 45;0<8, :0A0NI8<8AO 70O2;5=89 > 35=45@=>< =0A8;88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, >ACI5AB2;O;8AL =0 >A=>25 ?@8=F8?>2 15A?@8AB@0AB=>AB8 8 A?@0254;82>AB8 8 =5 1K;8 ?>425@65=K 2;8O=8N 35=45@=KE AB5@5>B8?>2 8;8 48A:@8<8=0F8>==>3> B>;:>20=8O ?@02>2KE =>@<, 2:;NG0O =>@<K <564C=0@>4=>3> ?@020; ?@5427OB>ABL <=5=89 8 AB5@5>B8?=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O > B><, GB> O2;O5BAO =0A8;85< 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, :0: 65=I8=K 4>;6=K @5038@>20BL =0 B0:>5 =0A8;85 8 :0:>2K 4>:070B5;L=K5 AB0=40@BK, A>1;N45=85 :>B>@KE =5>1E>48<> 4;O ?>4B25@645=8O A;CG052 =0A8;8O <>3CB ?@825AB8 : =0@CH5=8N ?@02 65=I8= =0 @025=AB2> ?5@54 70:>=><, =0 A?@0254;82>5 AC451=>5 @0718@0B5;LAB2> 8 =0 MDD5:B82=K5 A@54AB20 ?@02>2>9 70I8BK, ?@54CA<>B@5==KE 2 AB0BLOE 2 8 15 >=25=F88.</p> <h2>IV. 5:><5=40F88</h2> <p>27.A=>2K20OAL =0 >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 19 8 @57C;LB0B0E A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 70 ?5@8>4, ?@>H54H89 A <><5=B0 ?@8=OB8O MB>9 @5:><5=40F88, ><8B5B =0AB>OB5;L=> ?@87K205B 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 0:B82878@>20BL 45OB5;L=>ABL, =0?@02;5==CN =0 2K?>;=5=85 8E >1O70B5;LAB2, :0A0NI8EAO 0:B>2 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, A>25@H05<KE :0: =0 8E A>1AB25==>9 B5@@8B>@88, B0: 8 70 55 ?@545;0<8. ><8B5B 2=>2L ?@87K205B 3>AC40@AB20-CG0AB=8:8 @0B8D8F8@>20BL $0:C;LB0B82=K9 ?@>B>:>; : >=25=F88 8 ?5@5A<>B@5BL 2A5 >AB02H85AO >3>2>@:8 : >=25=F88 2 F5;OE 8E A=OB8O.</p> <p>28.'B>1K CA:>@8BL ?@>F5AA 8A:>@5=5=8O 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, ><8B5B B0:65 @5:><5=4C5B 3>AC40@AB20<-CG0AB=8:0< ?@8=OBL ?5@5G8A;5==K5 =865 <5@K 2 B0:8E >1;0ABOE, :0: ?@54C?@5645=85 =0A8;8O, 70I8B0 >B =0A8;8O, AC451=>5 ?@5A;54>20=85 8 =0:070=85 28=>2=KE, 2>7<5I5=85 CI5@10, A1>@ 40==KE 8 ?@>2545=85 <>=8B>@8=30 8 <564C=0@>4=>5 A>B@C4=8G5AB2>. A5 ?@8=8<05<K5 <5@K 4>;6=K >ACI5AB2;OBLAO =0 >A=>25 CG5B0 8=B5@5A>2 65@B2/?>AB@0402H8E, ?@87=0=8O 65=I8= 2 :0G5AB25 ?@02>>1;040B5;59 8 ?>>I@5=8O 8E A2>1>4K 2>;587JO2;5=8O 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, 2:;NG0O @0728B85 ?>B5=F80;0 452>G5:, 2ABC?0NI8E 2 ?>4@>AB:>2K9 2>7@0AB. @><5 B>3>, MB8 <5@K A;54C5B @07@010BK20BL 8 >ACI5AB2;OBL ?@8 CG0AB88 65=I8= 8 A CG5B>< >A>1>3> ?>;>65=8O 65=I8=, AB@040NI8E >B ?5@5:@5AB=KE D>@< 48A:@8<8=0F88.</p> <h3>A.0:>=>40B5;L=K5 <5@K >1I53> E0@0:B5@0</h3> <p>29.><8B5B @5:><5=4C5B 3>AC40@AB20<-CG0AB=8:0< ?@8=OBL A;54CNI85 70:>=>40B5;L=K5 <5@K:</p> <p>a)>15A?5G8BL, GB>1K 2A5< D>@<0< 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 2> 2A5E AD5@0E, :>B>@K5 2K@060NBAO 2 =0@CH5=88 D878G5A:>3>, A5:AC0;L=>3> 8;8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO 65=I8=, 1K; ?@840= AB0BCA C3>;>2=>3> ?@5ABC?;5=8O, 8 =570<54;8B5;L=> 225AB8 8;8 C65AB>G8BL ?@02>2K5 A0=:F88 A>@07<5@=K5 A BO65ABLN ?@02>=0@CH5=89, 0 B0:65 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2K5 A@54AB20 70I8BK;</p> <p>b)>15A?5G8BL B0:65, GB>1K 2A5 ?@02>2K5 A8AB5<K, 2 B>< G8A;5 <=>65AB25==K5 ?@02>2K5 A8AB5<K, >15A?5G820;8 70I8BC 65@B2 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 ?>AB@0402H8E 2 @57C;LB0B5 B0:>3> =0A8;8O, 8 30@0=B8@>20BL 65=I8=0< 4>ABC? : ?@02>AC48N 8 : MDD5:B82=K< A@54AB20< ?@02>2>9 70I8BK 2 A>>B25BAB288 A @C:>2>4OI8<8 C:070=8O<8, A>45@60I8<8AO 2 >1I59 @5:><5=40F88 ! 33;</p> <p>c)>B<5=8BL, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 A8AB5<0E B@048F8>==>3> 8 @5;838>7=>3> ?@020 8 ?@020 :>@5==KE =0@>4>2, 2A5 ?@02>2K5 ?>;>65=8O, :>B>@K5 =>AOB 48A:@8<8=0F8>==K9 E0@0:B5@ 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 B5< A0<K< C25:>25G820NB, ?>>I@ONB, >?@024K20NB 8;8 4>?CA:0NB :0:85-;81> D>@<K 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 8;8 ?>B0:0NB 5<C.  G0AB=>AB8, >B<5=8BL A;54CNI85 ?>;>65=8O:</p> <p>i)?>;>65=8O, :>B>@K5 @07@5H0NB, 4>?CA:0NB 8;8 >?@024K20NB D>@<K 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 45BA:85 8;8 ?@8=C48B5;L=K5 1@0:8 8 4@C385 2@54=K5 284K ?@0:B8:8, ?>;>65=8O, @07@5H0NI85 ?@>2545=85 <548F8=A:8E ?@>F54C@ 2 A;CG05 65=I8=-8=20;84>2 157 8E >A>7=0==>3> A>3;0A8O =0 B0:85 ?@>F54C@K, 0 B0:65 ?>;>65=8O, CAB0=02;820NI85 C3>;>2=CN >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 01>@BK, ?@8=04;56=>ABL : ;5A18O=:0<, 18A5:AC0;0< 8;8 B@0=A35=45@0<, 70=OB85 ?@>AB8BCF859 8 ?@5;N1>45O=85, 8 ;N1K5 4@C385 ?>;>65=8O C3>;>2=>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20, :>B>@K5 70B@03820NB 65=I8= 2 =5?@>?>@F8>=0;L=> 2KA>:>9 AB5?5=8, 2 B>< G8A;5 B5 ?>;>65=8O, >ACI5AB2;5=85 :>B>@KE ?@82>48B : 48A:@8<8=0F8>==><C ?@8<5=5=8N A<5@B=>9 :07=8 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=;</p> <p>ii)48A:@8<8=0F8>==K5 ?@028;0 8 ?@>F54C@K 4>:07K20=8O, 2:;NG0O ?@>F54C@K, ?@54CA<0B@820NI85 ;8H5=85 65=I8= A2>1>4K 2 F5;OE 70I8BK 8E >B =0A8;8O, ?@0:B8:C, >@85=B8@>20==CN =0 A>E@0=5=85 452AB25==>AB8, 8 ?@0:B8:C N@848G5A:>9 70I8BK 8;8 A<O3G0NI8E D0:B>@>2, 2 >A=>25 :>B>@>9 ;560B :C;LBC@0, @5;838O 8;8 B@048F8O ?@828;538@>20==>3> AB0BCA0 <C6G8=, =0?@8<5@, =>@<K, >B=>AOI85AO : B0: =07K205<>9 70I8B5 G5AB8, B@048F8>==K5 <5B>4K ?@8=5A5=8O 8728=5=89, ?@0:B8:C ?@>I5=8O 28=>2=KE A5<LO<8 65@B2/?>AB@0402H8E 8;8 ?>A;54CNI53> 2ABC?;5=8O 65@B2K/65=I8=K, ?5@5682H59 =0A8;85 A5:AC0;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0, 2 1@0: A ;8F><, A>25@H82H8< 0:B B0:>3> =0A8;8O, ?@028;0, :>B>@K5 ?@54CA<0B@820NB G0AB> @0A?@>AB@0=ONI85AO B>;L:> =0 65=I8= A0<K5 65AB>:85 =0:070=8O, 2:;NG0O 701@0AK20=85 :0<=O<8, ?>@:C 8 A<5@BL, 8 AC451=CN ?@0:B8:C, 2 @0<:0E :>B>@>9 2 CI5@1 65=I8=0<->128=O5<K< 83=>@8@C5BAO E@>=>;>38O A;CG052 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 =8E;</p> <p>iii)2A5 70:>=K, :>B>@K5 =5 ?>72>;ONB 65=I8=0< A>>1I0BL > 35=45@=>< =0A8;88 8;8 ?@5?OBAB2CNB MB><C, =0?@8<5@ 70:>=K >1 >?5:C=AB25, :>B>@K5 ;8H0NB 65=I8= ?@02>A?>A>1=>AB8 8;8 >3@0=8G820NB 2>7<>6=>AB8 65=I8=-8=20;84>2 ?> 40G5 ?>:070=89 2 AC45, ?@0:B8:0 B0: =07K205<>3> ?@54C?@548B5;L=>3> 70:;NG5=8O, >3@0=8G8B5;L=K5 8<<83@0F8>==K5 70:>=K, :>B>@K5 2K=C640NB 65=I8=, 2:;NG0O B@C4OI8EAO 65=I8=-<83@0=B>2, 70=OBKE 2 :0G5AB25 4><0H=59 ?@8A;C38, 2>745@6820BLAO >B A>>1I5=8O > A;CG0OE B0:>3> =0A8;8O, 0 B0:65 70:>=K, 4>?CA:0NI85 42>9=K5 0@5ABK 2 A;CG0OE 1KB>2>3> =0A8;8O 8;8 AC451=>5 ?@5A;54>20=85 65=I8=, :>340 2 >B=>H5=88 >128=O5<>3> 2 A>25@H5=88 =0A8;8O 2K=5A5= >?@0240B5;L=K9 ?@83>2>@;</p> <p>d)=0 >A=>25 0=0;870 C1548BLAO, GB> 35=45@=> =59B@0;L=K5 70:>=K 8 <5@K 2 >1;0AB8 ?>;8B8:8 =5 254CB : ?>O2;5=8N =>2KE 8;8 A>E@0=5=8N ACI5AB2CNI8E D0:B>@>2 =5@025=AB20 8, 5A;8 254CB, B> >B<5=8BL 8;8 87<5=8BL 8E;</p> <p>e)>15A?5G8BL, GB>1K A5:AC0;L=>5 =0A8;85, 2:;NG0O 87=0A8;>20=85, :20;8D8F8@>20;>AL :0: ?@5ABC?;5=85 ?@>B82 ?@020 =0 ;8G=CN 157>?0A=>ABL 8 D878G5A:CN, A5:AC0;L=CN 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN =5?@8:>A=>25==>ABL, GB>1K >?@545;5=8O A5:AC0;L=KE ?@5ABC?;5=89, 2 B>< G8A;5 87=0A8;>20=8O AC?@C3>< 8;8 7=0:><K< 8 87=0A8;>20=8O =0 A2840=88, >A=>2K20;8AL =0 D0:B5 >BACBAB28O 4>1@>2>;L=>3> A>3;0A8O 8 CG8BK20;8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 ?@8=C645=8O 8 GB>1K ;N1K5 >3@0=8G5=8O A@>:0 402=>AB8, 5A;8 >=8 ACI5AB2CNB, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L CG8BK20;8 8=B5@5AK 65@B2/?>AB@0402H8E, 0 B0:65 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, ?>4@K20NI85 8E A?>A>1=>ABL A>>1I0BL > =0A8;88, :>B>@><C >=8 ?>425@30NBAO, 2 :><?5B5=B=K5 A;C61K 8;8 >@30=K.</p> <h3>B.@525=B82=K5 <5@K</h3> <p>30.><8B5B @5:><5=4C5B 3>AC40@AB20<-CG0AB=8:0< ?@8=OBL A;54CNI85 ?@525=B82=K5 <5@K:</p> <p>a)?@8=OBL 8 >ACI5AB2;OBL MDD5:B82=K5 70:>=>40B5;L=K5 8 8=K5 =04;560I85 ?@525=B82=K5 <5@K 4;O ;8:2840F88 :>@5==KE ?@8G8= 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 B0:8E, :0: ?0B@80@E0;L=K5 273;O4K 8 AB5@5>B8?K, =5@025=AB2> 2 A5<L5 8 83=>@8@>20=85 3@0640=A:8E, ?>;8B8G5A:8E, M:>=><8G5A:8E, A>F80;L=KE 8 :C;LBC@=KE ?@02 65=I8= 8;8 >B:07 8< 2 MB8E ?@020E, 0 B0:65 A>459AB2>20BL @0AH8@5=8N ?@02 8 2>7<>6=>AB59 65=I8= 8 C:@5?;5=8N 8E A2>1>4K 2>;587JO2;5=8O 8 ?@020 3>;>A0;</p> <p>b)@07@01>B0BL 8 >ACI5AB2;OBL ?@8 0:B82=>< CG0AB88 2A5E A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 708=B5@5A>20==KE AB>@>=, B0:8E, :0: ?@54AB028B5;8 65=A:8E >@30=870F89 8 <0@38=0;878@>20==KE 3@C?? 65=I8= 8 452>G5:, MDD5:B82=K5 <5@K ?> 2KO2;5=8N 8 8A:>@5=5=8N AB5@5>B8?>2, ?@54@0AAC4:>2, >1KG052 8 ?@0:B8:8, > :>B>@KE 3>2>@8BAO 2 AB0BL5 5 >=25=F88 8 :>B>@K5 >?@024K20NB 8;8 ?>>I@ONB 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 ;560B 2 >A=>25 AB@C:BC@=>3> =5@025=AB20 65=I8= 8 <C6G8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 A;54CNI85 <5@K:</p> <p>i)2:;NG5=85 <0B5@80;>2 ?> 2>?@>A0< 35=45@=>3> @025=AB20 2 CG51=K5 ?@>3@0<<K =0 2A5E C@>2=OE >1@07>20=8O, :0: 2 3>AC40@AB25==KE, B0: 8 2 G0AB=KE CG51=KE 702545=8OE, 8 =0 2A5E MB0?0E >1CG5=8O, =0G8=0O A A0<>3> @0==53> 45BAB20, 0 B0:65 2 >1@07>20B5;L=K5 ?@>3@0<<K, A2O70==K5 A ?@>1;5<0B8:>9 70I8BK ?@02 G5;>25:0, ?@8G5< A>45@60=85 B0:8E ?@>3@0<< 4>;6=> 1KBL >@85=B8@>20=> =0 8A:>@5=5=85 AB5@5>B8?=KE ?@54AB02;5=89 > 35=45@=KE @>;OE 8 =0 ?>>I@5=85 B0:8E 8450;>2, :0: 35=45@=>5 @025=AB2> 8 =548A:@8<8=0F8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 =5=0A8;LAB25==0O 45<>=AB@0F8O <C65AB25==>AB8, 8 >15A?5G820BL A>>B25BAB2CNI55 2>7@0AB=K< :@8B5@8O<, >A=>20==>5 =0 D0:B0E 8 =0CG=> 4>AB>25@=>5 2A5AB>@>==55 ?>;>2>5 ?@>A25I5=85 8 4;O 452>G5: 8 4;O <0;LG8:>2;</p> <p>ii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p> <p>c)@07@01>B0BL 8 >ACI5AB2;OBL MDD5:B82=K5 <5@K 4;O >15A?5G5=8O 157>?0A=>AB8 8 4>ABC?=>AB8 <5AB >1I5AB25==>3> ?>;L7>20=8O 4;O 2A5E 65=I8= 8 452>G5:, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?CB5< ?>>I@5=8O 8 ?>445@6:8 <5@, ?@8=8<05<KE =0 C@>2=5 >1I8= ?@8 CG0AB88 65=A:8E 3@C??, ?@8G5< 2 G8A;> B0:8E <5@ 4>;6=> 2E>48BL A>740=85 =04;560I59 D878G5A:>9 8=D@0AB@C:BC@K, 2:;NG0O >A25I5=85 (:0: 2 3>@>4A:8E, B0: 8 2 A5;LA:8E @09>=0E), =0?@8<5@, 2 H:>;0E 8 2 ?@8;530NI8E : =8< 7>=0E;</p> <p>d)?@8=OBL 8 >ACI5AB2;OBL MDD5:B82=K5 <5@K 2 F5;OE ?>>I@5=8O A@54AB2 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 : CG0AB8N 2 8A:>@5=5=88 48A:@8<8=0F88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?CB5< ;8:2840F88 B0:8E M;5<5=B>2 8E 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@0:B8:8 8 :>=B5=B0 (2 B>< G8A;5 2 >1;0AB8 @5:;0<K, 2 =B5@=5B5 8 4@C3>9 F8D@>2>9 A@545), :0: ?@8G8=ONI55 2@54 8 C:@5?;ONI55 AB5@5>B8?K ?@54AB02;5=85 65=I8= 8;8 :>=:@5B=KE 3@C?? 65=I8=, B0:8E, :0: 65=I8=K-?@02>70I8B=8:8 2 4C@=>< A25B5, 8 2 G8A;> B0:8E <5@ 4>;6=K 2E>48BL A;54CNI85:</p> <p>i)?>>I@5=85 A>740=8O 8;8 C:@5?;5=8O A@54AB20<8 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 (2 B>< G8A;5 >=;09=>2K<8 >@30=870F8O<8 8 A>F80;L=K<8 A5BO<8 2 =B5@=5B5) <5E0=87<>2 A0<>@53C;8@>20=8O 2 F5;OE 8A:>@5=5=8O 35=45@=KE AB5@5>B8?>2 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 <C6G8= 8;8 :>=:@5B=KE 3@C?? 65=I8= 8 ?@>B82>459AB28O 35=45@=><C =0A8;8N 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, :>B>@>5 8<55B <5AB> 2 @0<:0E ?@54>AB02;O5<KE 8<8 CA;C3 8 ?;0BD>@<;</p> <p>ii)?@8=OB85 @C:>2>4OI8E ?@8=F8?>2 =04;560I53> >A25I5=8O A@54AB20<8 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 45;, :0A0NI8EAO 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=;</p> <p>iii)A>740=85 8;8 C:@5?;5=85 ?>B5=F80;0 =0F8>=0;L=KE ?@02>70I8B=KE CG@5645=89 ?> >BA;56820=8N 8 @0AA<>B@5=8N 60;>1 2 >B=>H5=88 ;N1KE A@54AB2 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88, ?C1;8:CNI8E 48A:@8<8=0F8>==K5 87>1@065=8O 8;8 :>=B5=B, :>B>@K5 C=860NB 4>AB>8=AB2> 65=I8= 8;8 ?@>?030=48@CNB =0A8;LAB25==CN 45<>=AB@0F8N <C65AB25==>AB8 8;8 2 :>B>@KE 65=I8=K @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: ?@54<5B;</p> <p>e)>@30=87>20BL >1O70B5;L=K5, @53C;O@=K5 8 MDD5:B82=K5 ?@>3@0<<K ?>2KH5=8O :20;8D8:0F88, >1CG5=8O 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 ?>43>B>2:8 4;O A>B@C4=8:>2 AC451=KE >@30=>2, N@8AB>2 8 A>B@C4=8:>2 ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=KE >@30=>2, 2:;NG0O AC451=>-<548F8=A:89 ?5@A>=0;, 70:>=>40B5;59 8 <548F8=A:8E A?5F80;8AB>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 >1;0AB8 A5:AC0;L=>3> 8 @5?@>4C:B82=>3> 74>@>2LO (2 G0AB=>AB8 ?@>3@0<< ?> ?@>1;5<0B8:5 ?@>D8;0:B8:8 8 ;5G5=8O ?5@540205<KE ?>;>2K< ?CB5< 8=D5:F89 8 '), 0 B0:65 4;O 2A5E @01>B=8:>2 AD5@ >1@07>20=8O, A>F80;L=>3> >15A?5G5=8O 8 A>F80;L=>9 70I8BK, 2:;NG0O B5E, :>B>@K5 @01>B0NB A 65=I8=0<8 2 A?5F80;L=KE CG@5645=8OE, B0:8E, :0: 4><0-8=B5@=0BK, F5=B@K 4;O 1565=F52 8 BN@L<K, 2 F5;OE >15A?5G5=8O 8E =04;560I8<8 7=0=8O<8, ?>72>;ONI8<8 8< MDD5:B82=> 1>@>BLAO A 35=45@=K< =0A8;85< 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 8 B0:85 >1@07>20B5;L=K5 8 CG51=K5 ?@>3@0<<K 4>;6=K A?>A>1AB2>20BL ?>=8<0=8N B>3>, </p> <p>i):0: 35=45@=K5 AB5@5>B8?K 8 ?@54C15645=8O ?@82>4OB : 35=45@=><C =0A8;8N 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 >BACBAB28N =04;560I53> @5038@>20=8O =0 =53>;</p> <p>ii):0: =0 65=I8= 2;8ONB B@02<K 8 8E ?>A;54AB28O, 48=0<8:0 ?@>B82>AB>O=8O ?>;>2, :>B>@>9 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO =0A8;85 A> AB>@>=K 8=B8<=>3> ?0@B=5@0, 0 B0:65 @07;8G8O 2 ?>;>65=88 65=I8=, AB02H8E 65@B20<8 @07;8G=KE D>@< 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?5@5:@5AB=K5 D>@<K 48A:@8<8=0F88, 70B@03820NI85 :>=:@5B=K5 3@C??K 65=I8=, 0 B0:65 =04;560I55 >1@0I5=85 A 65=I8=0<8 2 :>=B5:AB5 8E @01>BK 8 CAB@0=5=85 D0:B>@>2, 254CI8E : 8E ?>2B>@=>9 28:B8<870F88 8 ?>4@K2C 8E 4>25@8O : 3>AC40@AB25==K< CG@5645=8O< 8 254><AB20<;</p> <p>iii)0 B0:65 ?>=8<0=8N ?>;>65=89 =0F8>=0;L=>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0F8>=0;L=KE 8=AB8BCB>2 ?> 1>@L15 A 35=45@=K< =0A8;85< 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, N@848G5A:8E ?@02 65@B2 =0A8;8O/;8F, ?5@5682H8E =0A8;85, <564C=0@>4=KE AB0=40@B>2 8 A2O70==KE A =8<8 <5E0=87<>2 8 8E DC=:F89 2 :>=B5:AB5 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O, 2 G8A;> :>B>@KE 4>;6=K 2E>48BL =04;560I0O :>>@48=0F8O 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 2708<>459AB285 <564C @07;8G=K<8 >@30=0<8 8 2545=85 =04;560I59 4>:C<5=B0F88, >B=>AOI59AO : A;CG0O< B0:>3> =0A8;8O, ?@8 4>;6=>< C2065=88 ?@020 65=I8= =0 =5?@8:>A=>25==>ABL G0AB=>9 687=8 8 :>=D845=F80;L=>ABL 8 ?@8 =0;8G88 A2>1>4=>3> 8 >A>7=0==>3> A>3;0A8O A> AB>@>=K 65@B2/?>AB@0402H8E;</p> <p>f)?>>I@OBL ?@8 ?><>I8 AB8<C;>2 8 <>45;59 :>@?>@0B82=>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8 8 4@C38E <5E0=87<>2 2>2;5G5=85 AC1J5:B>2 G0AB=>3> A5:B>@0 (2 B>< G8A;5 :><<5@G5A:8E ?@54?@8OB89 8 B@0=A=0F8>=0;L=KE :>@?>@0F89) 2 CA8;8O ?> 8A:>@5=5=8N 2A5E D>@< 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 ?>2KH5=8N C@>2=O 8E >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 B0:>5 =0A8;85 2 AD5@0E 8E 45OB5;L=>AB8, GB> 4>;6=> ?>4@07C<520BL =0;8G85 ?@>B>:>;>2 8 ?@>F54C@ ?> 1>@L15 A> 2A5<8 D>@<0<8 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O, :>B>@K5 <>3CB ?@>O2;OBLAO ?> <5ABC @01>BK 8;8 70B@03820BL 65=I8=-B@C4OI8EAO, 2 B>< G8A;5 MDD5:B82=KE 8 4>ABC?=KE 2=CB@5==8E ?@>F54C@ ?>40G8 60;>1, ?>;L7>20=85 :>B>@K<8 =5 4>;6=> 8A:;NG0BL 2>7<>6=>AB8 >1@0I5=8O 2 ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=K5 >@30=K, 0 B0:65 @5H5=85 2>?@>A>2, A2O70==KE A 2>7<5I5=85< CI5@10 65@B20</?>AB@0402H8< ?> <5ABC 8E @01>BK.</p> <h3>C.15A?5G5=85 70I8BK</h3> <p>31.><8B5B @5:><5=4C5B 3>AC40@AB20<-CG0AB=8:0< ?@8=OBL A;54CNI85 <5@K 70I8BK:</p> <p>a)?@8=OBL 8 >ACI5AB2;OBL MDD5:B82=K5 <5@K ?> ?>445@6:5 8 70I8B5 65=I8=-8ABF>2 8 A2845B5;59 ?> 45;0<, A2O70==K< A 35=45@=K< =0A8;85<, 4>, 2> 2@5<O 8 ?>A;5 AC451=KE @0718@0B5;LAB2, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?CB5<:</p> <p>i)>15A?5G5=8O 30@0=B89 =5?@8:>A=>25==>AB8 8E G0AB=>9 687=8 8 157>?0A=>AB8 (2 A>>B25BAB288 A >1I59 @5:><5=40F859 ! 33), 2 B>< G8A;5 ?>A@54AB2>< ?@8<5=5=8O CG8BK20NI8E 35=45@=CN ?@>1;5<0B8:C AC451=KE ?@>F54C@ 8 <5@, ?@8=8<0O 2> 2=8<0=85 ?@>F5AAC0;L=K5 ?@020 65@B2/?>AB@0402H8E, A2845B5;59 8 >128=O5<KE;</p> <p>ii)2=54@5=8O 2 F5;OE ?@54>B2@0I5=8O =>2KE 8 ?>B5=F80;L=KE 0:B>2 =0A8;8O =04;560I8E 8 4>ABC?=KE <5E0=87<>2 70I8BK, :>B>@K5 459AB2CNB =57028A8<> >B B>3>, 2>71C645=> ;8 AC451=>5 @0718@0B5;LAB2> 65@B2>9/?>AB@0402H8< ;8F><, 0 B0:65 CAB@0=5=8O :><<C=8:0F8>==KE 10@L5@>2 4;O 65@B2 87 G8A;0 8=20;84>2, ?@8G5< B0:85 <5E0=87<K 4>;6=K >1;040BL A8AB5<>9 =5?>A@54AB25==>9 >F5=:8 @8A:>2 8 >15A?5G5=8O 70I8BK, 2:;NG0NI59 H8@>:89 A?5:B@ MDD5:B82=KE <5@, 8, ?@8 =5>1E>48<>AB8, >=8 4>;6=K 1KBL =045;5=K ?>;=><>G8O<8 ?> 2K40G5 >@45@>2 =0 2KA5;5=85 8 ?> ?@54>AB02;5=8N 70I8BK, ?> 8740=8N >3@0=8G8B5;L=KE 8 G@572KG09=KE 70?@5B8B5;L=KE ?@8:07>2 2 >B=>H5=88 ?@54?>;0305<KE ?@02>=0@CH8B5;59 8 ?> =01;N45=8N 70 =8<8, 0 B0:65 ?> =0;>65=8N =0 ?>A;54=8E =04;560I8E A0=:F89 2 A;CG05 =58A?>;=5=8O 8<8 B0:8E ?@8:07>2 8 >@45@>2, 8 ?@8 MB>< ?@8<5=5=85 <5@ 70I8BK =5 4>;6=> 1KBL A>?@O65=> A 2>7;>65=85< =0 65=I8=, :>B>@K5 AB0;8 65@B20<8 =0A8;8O 8;8 ?>AB@040;8 2 @57C;LB0B5 =0A8;8O, G@57<5@=>3> 1@5<5=8 D8=0=A>2>3>, 1N@>:@0B8G5A:>3> 8;8 ;8G=>3> E0@0:B5@0, B>340 :0: ?@020 8 B@51>20=8O 28=>2=KE 8;8 ?>4>7@5205<KE, > :>B>@KE 70O2;O5BAO 2> 2@5<O 8 ?>A;5 AC451=KE @0718@0B5;LAB2, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?@020 8 B@51>20=8O, :0A0NI85AO 2>?@>A>2 A>1AB25==>AB8, =5?@8:>A=>25==>AB8 G0AB=>9 687=8, >?5:C=AB20 =04 45BL<8, 4>ABC?0 : 45BO<, :>=B0:B>2 A 45BL<8 8 ?>A5I5=8O 45B59, 4>;6=K @0AA<0B@820BLAO A CG5B>< ?@020 65=I8= 8 45B59 =0 687=L 8 =0 D878G5A:CN, A5:AC0;L=CN 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN =5?@8:>A=>25==>ABL 8 =0 >A=>25 ?@8=F8?0 =08;CGH53> >15A?5G5=8O 8=B5@5A>2 @515=:0;</p> <p>iii)>15A?5G5=8O 65=I8=0<, AB02H8< 65@B20<8 =0A8;8O, 8 ;8F0<, ?5@5682H8< =0A8;85, 0 B0:65 G;5=0< 8E A5<59 4>ABC?0 : D8=0=A>2>9 ?><>I8 8 15A?;0B=>9 8;8 =54>@>3>AB>OI59 2KA>:>:0G5AB25==>9 N@848G5A:>9 ?><>I8, <548F8=A:8<, ?A8E>A>F80;L=K< 8 :>=AC;LB0F8>==K< CA;C30<, >1@07>20=8N, =54>@>3><C 68;LN, 75<;5, CG@5645=8O< ?> CE>4C 70 45BL<8, ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 ?>43>B>2:5 8 2>7<>6=>ABO< B@C4>CAB@>9AB20; >15A?5G5=8O ?>B5=F80;0 A5:B>@0 <548:>-A0=8B0@=KE CA;C3 ?> @5H5=8N ?@>1;5<, A2O70==KE A ?>;CG5==K<8 B@02<0<8, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?CB5< A2>52@5<5==>3> ?@54>AB02;5=8O 2A5>1J5<;NI8E CA;C3, :0A0NI8EAO ?A8E8G5A:>3>, A5:AC0;L=>3> 8 @5?@>4C:B82=>3> 74>@>2LO, 2:;NG0O M:AB@5==CN :>=B@0F5?F8N 8 ?>AB:>=B0:B=CN ?@>D8;0:B8:C ?@>B82 '; ?@54>AB02;5=8O 3>AC40@AB20<8 A?5F80;878@>20==KE 65=A:8E 2A?><>30B5;L=KE CA;C3, =0?@8<5@ 2>7<>6=>AB8 :@C3;>ACB>G=> ?>;L7>20BLAO 15A?;0B=K< B5;5D>=>< A;C61K 4>25@8O, 8 4>AB0B>G=>3> G8A;0 157>?0A=KE 8 =04;560I8< >1@07>< >A=0I5==KE :@878A=KE, 2A?><>30B5;L=KE 8 A?@02>G=KE F5=B@>2, 0 B0:65 =04;560I8E ?@8NB>2 4;O 65=I8=, 8E 45B59 8 4@C38E G;5=>2 8E A5<L8, ?> <5@5 =5>1E>48<>AB8.</p> <p>iv)>15A?5G5=8O 4;O 65=I8=, =0E>4OI8EAO 2 A?5F80;L=KE CG@5645=8OE, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 4><0E-8=B5@=0B0E, F5=B@0E 4;O 1565=F52 8 <5AB0E ;8H5=8O A2>1>4K, <5@ 70I8BK 8 ?>445@6:8, 2 B>< GB> :0A05BAO 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O;</p> <p>v)A>740=8O 8 2=54@5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E <56A5:B>@0;L=KE :>>@48=0F8>==KE <5E0=87<>2 A F5;LN 30@0=B8@>20BL ;8F0<, ?5@5682H8< 35=45@=>5 =0A8;85, @50;L=K9 4>ABC? : 2A5>1J5<;NI8< CA;C30<, ?@8 >15A?5G5=88 2A5AB>@>==53> 2>2;5G5=8O =5?@028B5;LAB25==KE 65=A:8E >@30=870F89 8 2708<>459AB28O A =8<8;</p> <p>b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p> <p>c)CAB@0=8BL D0:B>@K, CA8;820NI85 @8A: B>3>, GB> 65=I8=K 1C4CB ?>425@65=K A5@L57=K D>@<0< 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O, =0?@8<5@, B0:85, :0: ;53:>4>ABC?=>ABL 8 A2>1>4=>5 >1@0I5=85 >3=5AB@5;L=>3> >@C68O (2:;NG0O 53> M:A?>@B), 2KA>:89 C@>25=L ?@5ABC?=>AB8 8 ?>2A5<5AB=0O 157=0:070==>ABL, :>B>@0O <>65B AB0BL 5I5 1>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==>9 2 A8BC0F8OE 2>>@C65==>3> :>=D;8:B0 8 CEC4H5=8O >1AB0=>2:8 2 ?;0=5 157>?0A=>AB8, 0 B0:65 ?@54?@8=OBL CA8;8O ?> :>=B@>;N 70 =0;8G85< 8 4>ABC?=>ABLN :8A;>B 8 4@C38E 25I5AB2, 8A?>;L7C5<KE 4;O A>25@H5=8O =0?045=89 =0 65=I8=;</p> <p>d)?>43>B>28BL 8 @0A?@>AB@0=OBL G5@57 2A52>7<>6=K5 A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 8 ?>A@54AB2>< 480;>30 A >1I8=0<8 ?@>ABCN 4;O ?>=8<0=8O 8=D>@<0F8N, >@85=B8@>20==CN =0 65=I8=, 2 G0AB=>AB8 =0 B5E 65=I8=, :>B>@K5 70B@>=CBK ?5@5:@5AB=K<8 D>@<0<8 48A:@8<8=0F88 (=0?@8<5@, =53@0<>B=KE 65=I8=, 65=I8=-8=20;84>2, 8;8 B5E 65=I8=, :>B>@K5 =5 2;045NB 8;8 ?;>E> 2;045NB >D8F80;L=K< 3>AC40@AB25==K< O7K:><), > ?@02>2KE 8 A>F80;L=KE @5AC@A0E, 8<5NI8EAO 2 @0A?>@O65=88 65@B2 =0A8;8O/;8F, ?5@5682H8E =0A8;85, 2 B>< G8A;5 > A8AB5<5 2>7<5I5=8O CI5@10.</p> <h3>D.#3>;>2=>5 ?@5A;54>20=85 8 =0:070=85 28=>2=KE</h3> <p>32.><8B5B @5:><5=4C5B 3>AC40@AB20<-CG0AB=8:0< ?@8=OBL A;54CNI85 <5@K 2 >B=>H5=88 AC451=>3> ?@5A;54>20=8O 8 =0:070=8O 28=>2=KE 2 A>25@H5=88 0:B>2 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=:</p> <p>a)>15A?5G8BL @50;L=K9 4>ABC? 65@B2 : A8AB5<5 ?@02>AC48O 8 B@81C=0;0< 8 =04;560I55 @5038@>20=85 2;0AB59 =0 2A5 A;CG08 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?CB5< ?@8<5=5=8O =>@< C3>;>2=>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 8, 5A;8 =5>1E>48<>, <span style="font-style:italic;">ex officio</span> ?@5A;54>20=8O ?@54?>;0305<KE 28=>2=KE 2 F5;OE ?@82;5G5=8O 8E : AC4C =0 >A=>25 ?@8=F8?>2 A?@0254;82>AB8, 15A?@8AB@0AB=>AB8, A2>52@5<5==>AB8 8 >?5@0B82=>AB8 8 ?@8<5=5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI53> =0:070=8O, ?@8 MB>< 65@B2K/?>AB@0402H85 4>;6=K >A2>1>640BLAO >B C?;0BK A>>B25BAB2CNI8E ?>H;8= 8 AC451=KE A1>@>2;</p> <p>b)>15A?5G8BL, GB>1K ?5@540G0 45;, :0A0NI8EAO 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 0;LB5@=0B82=K5 8=AB0=F88, 70=8<0NI85AO C@53C;8@>20=85< A?>@>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 =0 >A=>25 ?@>F54C@ ?>A@54=8G5AB20 8 ?@8<8@5=8O, =5 =>A8;0 >1O70B5;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0, ?>A:>;L:C 8A?>;L7>20=85 B0:8E ?@>F54C@ 4>;6=> 65AB:> @53C;8@>20BLAO 8 >1@0I5=85 : =8< <>65B 1KBL @07@5H5=> B>;L:> 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 @57C;LB0BK >F5=:8 A8BC0F88, ?@>2545==>9 @0=55 3@C??>9 A?5F80;L=> ?>43>B>2;5==KE M:A?5@B>2, ?>4B25@640NB, GB> 65@B2K/?>AB@0402H85 4>1@>2>;L=> 40;8 =0 MB> >A>7=0==>5 A>3;0A85 8 GB> =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8:0:8E C:070=89 =0 B>, GB> >=8 8;8 G;5=K 8E A5<59 <>3CB 1KBL ?>425@3=CBK 4>?>;=8B5;L=K< @8A:0<; B0:85 ?@>F54C@K 4>;6=K A?>A>1AB2>20BL @0AH8@5=8N ?@02 8 2>7<>6=>AB59 65@B2/?>AB@0402H8E 8 ?@>2>48BLAO A?5F80;8AB0<8, ?@>H54H8<8 A?5F80;L=CN ?>43>B>2:C, ?>72>;ONICN 8< @07>1@0BLAO 2 45;0E, :0A0NI8EAO 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 8 2KABC?0BL 2 @>;8 =04;560I8E ?>A@54=8:>2, >15A?5G820BL 4>;6=CN 70I8BC ?@02 65=I8= 8 45B59 8 =5 4>?CA:0BL, GB>1K 2 @0<:0E B0:8E ?@>F54C@ 8<5;8 <5AB> ?@8<5=5=85 AB5@5>B8?>2 8;8 ?>2B>@=0O 28:B8<870F8O 65=I8=, 8 ?@8 MB>< ?@8<5=5=85 0;LB5@=0B82=KE ?@>F54C@ C@53C;8@>20=8O A?>@>2 =5 4>;6=> ?@5?OBAB2>20BL >1@0I5=8N 65=I8= 2 >D8F80;L=K5 >@30=K ?@02>AC48O.</p> <h3>E.>7<5I5=85 CI5@10</h3> <p>33.><8B5B @5:><5=4C5B 3>AC40@AB20<-CG0AB=8:0< ?@8=OBL A;54CNI85 <5@K, >B=>AOI85AO : 2>7<5I5=8N CI5@10:</p> <p>a)>15A?5G8BL @50;L=>5 2>7<5I5=85 CI5@10 65@B20< 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 ?>AB@0402H8< 2 @57C;LB0B5 B0:>3> =0A8;8O. >7<5I5=85 CI5@10 4>;6=> 2:;NG0BL 2 A51O ?@8=OB85 @07;8G=KE <5@, B0:8E :0: 2K?;0B0 45=56=KE :><?5=A0F89, ?@54>AB02;5=85 N@848G5A:8E, A>F80;L=KE 8 <548:>-A0=8B0@=KE CA;C3, 2 B>< G8A;5 CA;C3 2 >1;0AB8 A5:AC0;L=>3>, @5?@>4C:B82=>3> 8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO 4;O 4>AB865=8O ?>;=>3> 2K74>@>2;5=8O 65@B2/?>AB@0402H8E, 0 B0:65 (2 A>>B25BAB288 A >1I59 @5:><5=40F859 ! 28, >1I59 @5:><5=40F859 ! 30 8 >1I59 @5:><5=40F859 !33) A0B8AD0:F88 8 30@0=B88 =5?>2B>@5=8O 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O. "0:85 @5?0@0F88 4>;6=K 1KBL 045:20B=K<8, >?5@0B82=K<8, 2A5>E20B=K<8 8 A>@07<5@=K<8 A BO65ABLN ?@8G8=5==>3> CI5@10;</p> <p>b)A>740BL F5;52K5 D>=4K 2>7<5I5=8O CI5@10 8;8 2:;NG8BL A>>B25BAB2CNI85 AB0BL8 2 1N465B=K5 A<5BK C65 ACI5AB2CNI8E D>=4>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 @0<:0E <5E0=87<>2 ?@02>AC48O ?5@5E>4=>3> ?5@8>40, 4;O F5;59 2>7<5I5=8O CI5@10 65@B20< 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=. >AC40@AB20<-CG0AB=8:0< A;54C5B, ?@8=8<0O 2> 2=8<0=85 8=48284C0;L=K5, 8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=K5 8 AB@C:BC@=K5 0A?5:BK, 225AB8 2 459AB285 04<8=8AB@0B82=K5 :><?5=A0F8>==K5 A8AB5<K, :>B>@K5 =5 ?@5?OBAB2CNB 65@B20</?>AB@0402H8< 2 @50;870F88 8E ?@020 =0 >1@0I5=85 2 AC4, 8 @07@01>B0BL ?@5>1@07>20B5;L=K5 ?@>3@0<<K 2>7<5I5=8O CI5@10, A?>A>1AB2CNI85 @5H5=8N ?@>1;5<K 48A:@8<8=0F88 8 CI5<;5=8O ?@02 65=I8=, :>B>@0O ;81> O2;O5BAO =5?>A@54AB25==>9 ?@8G8=>9 =0A8;8O, ;81> 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 ?>>I@O5B 53>. 5@2>>G5@54=>5 2=8<0=85 A;54C5B C45;OBL ?@>1;5<0B8:5 A2>1>4=>3> 2>;587JO2;5=8O, ?>65;0=89, @5H5=89, 157>?0A=>AB8, G5;>25G5A:>3> 4>AB>8=AB20 8 =5?@8:>A=>25==>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 65@B2/?>AB@0402H8E.</p> <h3>F.>>@48=0F8O, :>=B@>;L 8 A1>@ 40==KE</h3> <p>34.><8B5B @5:><5=4C5B 3>AC40@AB20<-CG0AB=8:0< ?@8=OBL A;54CNI85 <5@K 2 >B=>H5=88 :>>@48=0F88 45OB5;L=>AB8, :>=B@>;O 8 A1>@0 40==KE 2 A2O78 A 0:B0<8 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=:</p> <p>a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p> <p>b)A>740BL A8AB5<C 4;O @53C;O@=>3> A1>@0, 0=0;870 8 ?C1;8:0F88 AB0B8AB8G5A:8E 40==KE > :>;8G5AB25 60;>1 2 A2O78 A ;N1K<8 D>@<0<8 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 A2O78 A D>@<0<8 =0A8;8O 2 F8D@>2>9 A@545, :>;8G5AB25 8 B8?0E 2K40==KE >E@0==KE >@45@>2, AB0B8AB8:5 >B:;>=5=8O 8 >B7K20 60;>1, A;CG052 AC451=>3> ?@5A;54>20=8O 8 2K=5A5=8O >128=8B5;L=KE ?@83>2>@>2 8 >1 >1J5<5 2@5<5=8, :>B>@>5 70B@0G8205BAO =0 @0AA<>B@5=85 45;. -B0 A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 A>45@60BL 8=D>@<0F8N > ?@83>2>@0E, 2K=5A5==KE 2 >B=>H5=88 28=>2=KE, 8 > 2>7<5I5=88 CI5@10 65@B20</?>AB@0402H8<, 2 B>< G8A;5 > :><?5=A0F8>==KE 2K?;0B0E. A5 40==K5 4>;6=K ?@54AB02;OBLAO 2 @07182:5 ?> B0:8< :0B53>@8O<, :0: D>@<0 =0A8;8O, E0@0:B5@ >B=>H5=89 <564C 65@B2>9 8 ;8F><, A>25@H82H8< 0:B =0A8;8O, 0 B0:65 A CG5B>< ?5@5:@5AB=KE D>@< 48A:@8<8=0F88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8 4@C38E A>>B25BAB2CNI8E A>F80;L=>-45<>3@0D8G5A:8E ?>:070B5;59, 2:;NG0O 2>7@0AB 65@B2/?>AB@0402H8E. =0;87 B0:8E 40==KE 4>;65= ?>72>;8BL 2KO2;OBL A1>8 2 <5E0=87<0E 70I8BK 8 A?>A>1AB2>20BL ?>2KH5=8N :0G5AB20 8 40;L=59H5<C @0728B8N <5@ ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0, :>B>@K5 4>;6=K, 2 A;CG05 =5>1E>48<>AB8, 2:;NG0BL A>740=85 8;8 =07=0G5=85 F5=B@>2 =01;N45=8O, ?@54=07=0G5==KE 4;O A1>@0 04<8=8AB@0B82=KE 40==KE AB0B8AB8:8 35=45@=> <>B828@>20==KE C189AB2 65=I8=, :>B>@K5 B0:65 8<5=CNBAO D5<8F84 8;8 D5<8=8F84, 8 ?>:CH5=89 =0 C189AB2> 65=I8=;</p> <p>c)>@30=87>20BL ?@>2545=85 >1A;54>20=89 8 87KA:0=89 8 >ACI5AB2;5=85 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E ?@>3@0<< ?> 2>?@>AC > 35=45@=>< =0A8;88 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= 8;8 ?>445@6820BL 8E, A B5< GB>1K, 2 G0AB=>AB8, >F5=8BL <0AHB01K @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, 0 B0:65 A>F80;L=KE 8 :C;LBC@=KE C15645=89, CAC3C1;ONI8E ?@>1;5<C B0:>3> =0A8;8O 8 2;8ONI8E =0 D>@<8@>20=85 35=45@=KE >B=>H5=89. @8 ?@>2545=88 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 8AA;54>20=89 8 >1A;54>20=89 A;54C5B ?@8=8<0BL 2> 2=8<0=85 ?5@5:@5AB=K5 D>@<K 48A:@8<8=0F88, >A=>2K20OAL =0 ?@8=F8?5 A0<>845=B8D8:0F88;</p> <p>d)>15A?5G8BL, GB>1K ?@>F5AA A1>@0 8 E@0=5=8O 40==KE > A;CG0OE 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8= A>>B25BAB2>20; CAB0=>2;5==K< <564C=0@>4=K< AB0=40@B0< 8 B@51>20=8O<, ?@54JO2;O5<K< : 8=D>@<0F8>==>9 157>?0A=>AB8, 2 B>< G8A;5 70:>=>40B5;L=K< =>@<0<, >B=>AOI8<AO : 70I8B5 40==KE. 5B>4K A1>@0 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 8=D>@<0F88 8 AB0B8AB8G5A:8E 40==KE 4>;6=K A>>B25BAB2>20BL <564C=0@>4=> ?@87=0==K< =>@<0< 2 >1;0AB8 70I8BK ?@02 G5;>25:0 8 >A=>2=KE A2>1>4, 0 B0:65 MB8G5A:8< ?@8=F8?0<;</p> <p>e)A>740BL <5E0=87< 8;8 >@30= (8;8 =045;8BL A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 ?>;=><>G8O<8 ACI5AB2CNI89 <5E0=87< 8;8 >@30=), ?@54=07=0G5==K9 4;O @53C;O@=>9 :>>@48=0F88, <>=8B>@8=30 8 >F5=:8 E>40 @50;870F88 8 MDD5:B82=>AB8 <5@, ?@8=8<05<KE =0 =0F8>=0;L=><, @538>=0;L=>< 8 <5AB=>< C@>2=OE, 2 B>< G8A;5 <5@, ?@54;0305<KE 2 =0AB>OI59 @5:><5=40F88, 8 ?@8<5=5=8O 8 MDD5:B82=>AB8 4@C38E A>>B25BAB2CNI8E @538>=0;L=KE 8 <564C=0@>4=KE AB0=40@B>2 8 @C:>2>4OI8E ?@8=F8?>2 2 F5;OE ?@>D8;0:B8:8 8 8A:>@5=5=8O 2A5E D>@< 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=;</p> <p>f)2K45;OBL 4>AB0B>G=K5 ;N4A:85 8 D8=0=A>2K5 @5AC@AK =0 =0F8>=0;L=><, @538>=0;L=>< 8 <5AB=>< C@>2=OE 4;O >15A?5G5=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 70:>=>2 8 AB@0B5389, @07@01>B0==KE 2 F5;OE ?@54>B2@0I5=8O 2A5E D>@< 35=45@=>3> =0A8;8O 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=, >15A?5G5=8O 70I8BK 8 ?>445@6:8 65@B2/?>AB@0402H8E, ?@>2545=8O @0AA;54>20=89, AC451=>3> ?@5A;54>20=8O 28=>2=KE 8 2K?;0BK :><?5=A0F89 65@B20</?>AB@0402H8<, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 F5;OE >:070=8O ?>445@6:8 65=A:8< >@30=870F8O<.</p> <h3>G.564C=0@>4=>5 A>B@C4=8G5AB2></h3> <p>35.><8B5B @5:><5=4C5B 3>AC40@AB20<-CG0AB=8:0< ?@8=OBL A;54CNI85 <5@K 2 >1;0AB8 <564C=0@>4=>3> A>B@C4=8G5AB20 2 8=B5@5A0E 1>@L1K A 35=45@=K< =0A8;85< 2 >B=>H5=88 65=I8=:</p> <p>a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p> <p>b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p> </div> </body> </html>