UNITED

NATIONS

CERD

International Convention on

the Elimination

of all Forms of

Racial Discrimination

Distr.

GENERAL

CERD/C/338/Add.11

26 May 2000

ENGLISH

Original: FRENCH/ ENGLISH

COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION

OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES

UNDER ARTICLE 9 OF THE CONVENTION

Fifteenth periodic reports of States parties due in 1998

Addendum

Holy See *

[20 August 1999]

______________

* This document contains the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth periodic reports of the Holy See, due on 31 May 1994, 1996 and 1999, respectively (consolidated document). For the eleventh and twelfth periodic reports of the Holy See (consolidated document) and the summary records of the meetings at which the Committee considered those reports, see documents CERD/C/226/Add.6 and CERD/C/SR.991-992.

The annexes submitted by the Holy See may be consulted in the Secretariat's files.

GE.00-42493

CONTENTS

Paragraphs

Pages

Introduction

1 – 2

3

Part One

General

I. NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE HOLY SEE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

3 – 4

3

II. STATISTICS RELATING TO ECCLESIASTICAL TERRITORY, POPULATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

5

4

Part Two

Information relating to articles 2 to 7 of the Convention

I. GENERAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK PROHIBITING AND ELIMINATING RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

6 – 15

22

A. General remarks

7 – 10

23

B. Doctrine underlying canonical law

11 - 15

23

II. IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLES 2,3,5 AND 7

16 - 91

23

Article 2

16 - 17

23

Information on legislative, judicial, administrative or other measures

16 - 17

23

Article 3

18 - 33

24

Condemnation of racial segregation

18 - 30

24

Diplomatic relations with South Africa

31 - 33

26

Article 5

34 - 44

27

Equal treatment before the courts

34 - 36

27

Participation of the faithful in the apostolic mission and responsibilities of the Church

37 - 44

27

Article 7

45 - 91

28

Education and teaching

45 - 87

28

Information

88 - 91

55

III. INITIATIVES TAKEN BY THE HOLY SEE IN ETHNIC CONFLICTS

92 - 107

60

A. The Balkans

92 - 98

60

B. Rwanda

99 - 107

62

INTRODUCTION

1. In this document, the Holy See submits its fifteenth report on the implementation of the provisions of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination in accordance with article 9, paragraph 1, of the Convention. The consolidated document also includes the thirteenth and fourteenth reports, due in 1994 and 1996. The last report of the Holy See (CERD/C/226/Add.6) was considered by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination on 5 August 1993 (CERD/C/SR.991 and 992).

2. In the preparation of the report account was taken, as far as possible, of the guidelines regarding the form and contents of reports (CERD/C/70/Rev.3) as well as of the recommendations and comments made by members of the Committee during the consideration of the previous report and the conclusions adopted by the Committee on 17 August 1993 (see document A/48/18, paragraphs 276-305). Several documents are attached to this report with a view to supplementing the information it contains; these documents may be consulted in the Secretariat's files.

PART ONE

General

I. NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE HOLY SEE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

3. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 1965 was signed by the Holy See on 21 November 1966 and ratified on 1 May 1969. No declaration or reservation was made by the Holy See at the time of ratification. The Holy See has not declared that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider individual communications in accordance with article 14, paragraph 1, of the Convention.

4. The Holy See has undertaken, under article 9, paragraph 1, to submit a report on the measures taken to give effect to the Convention. In that connection, the Holy See wishes to remind the Committee of the following points concerning its specific nature as a subject of international law:

(a) In international law, the Holy See is a sovereign subject having an original, non-derived legal personality independent of any authority or jurisdiction.

(b) In the internal law of the Catholic Church, the Holy See is defined as the Government of the universal Church composed of the Sovereign Pontiff and of the institutions which proceed from him (Code of Canon Law, can. 361).

(c) The Holy See is also the sovereign of the State of Vatican City. That State has all the characteristics of a State; it does not contain a civil society but a working community placed temporarily in the service of the Holy See.

(d) Historically, the international personality of the Holy See has never been confused with that of the territories over which it has exercised State sovereignty, e.g. the Patrimony of St. Peter (or Church States) from 754 to 1870 and Vatican City since 1929.

(e) The international personality of the Holy See takes precedence over any territorial personality, as is borne out, for example, by the years 1870-1929 which lay between the loss of the traditional Church States and the establishment of the State of Vatican City. During those sixty years the Holy See continued to act as a subject of international law by concluding concordats and international treaties with a great number of States, participating in international conferences, conducting mediation and arbitration missions, and maintaining both active and passive diplomatic relations.

(f) As stated in article 24, paragraph 2 of the Lateran Treaty of 1929, the Holy See does not desire to participate in "temporal contests between States", while declaring itself ready make its contribution when the parties to a dispute "unanimously appeal for its mission of peace, while reserving the right to exercise its moral and spiritual authority in each case".

(g) The Holy See has the status of observer to the United Nations and several specialized agencies. It has been a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency since 1956.

(h) The Holy See signs and ratifies international treaties in order to manifest the support of its moral authority and thereby to encourage States to adhere to the treaty. For example, in acceding to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1979, it clearly stated that "by this act, dictated by the conviction that the objectives of disarmament and international détente w…..which inspire this treaty correspond to its own mission of peace, the Holy See wishes to give its support and its moral encouragement to the provisions of the treaty".

( i ) The Holy See, as the supreme organ of the Catholic Church, disseminates teachings which are not addressed to Catholic believers alone but also concern human, personal, social and international ethics. In the tradition of the Catholic Church, ethical principles are founded upon reason and address themselves to the whole of mankind.

(j) As the development of human rights demonstrates, international life cannot dispense with common moral values of an objective nature. The Holy See, for its part, is doing all it can towards the advancement of moral principles and of the conditions for ensuring peace, justice and social progress in a context of ever more effective respect of human rights.

(k) So far as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is concerned, the Holy See takes special pleasure in reiterating its support of the Convention as the Catholic Church considers it its duty to preach the equal dignity of all human beings, created by God in His image.

II.STATISTICS RELATING TO ECCLESIASTICAL TERRITORY, POPULATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

5. Data showing the "population" and structure of the Roman Catholic Church by the world's principal regions and by country, drawn from the statistical reference work entitled Annuario statistico della Chiesa 1995, are reproduced below.

STATISTICS ON CHURCH POPULATION AND STRUCTURE

(As at 31st December 1995)

AFRICA

Country

Area in sq. km

Total population (thousands)

Catholics (thousands)

Administrative divisions of the Catholic church

Pastoral centres

Parishes or equivalent

Missions with a resident priest

Missions without a resident priest

Other pastoral centres

Total

Algeria

2 381 741

28 550

3

4

40

--

--

11

51

Angola

1 246 700

11 070

6 523

15

255

37

2 625

15

2 932

Benin

112 622

5 560

1 198

9

141

27

1 541

18

1 727

Botswana

581 730

1 460

55

1

26

--

97

--

123

Burkina Faso

274 200

10 200

1 109

9

108

--

1 822

2

1 732

Burundi

27 834

5 980

3 594

7

118

--

1 291

--

1 409

Cameroon

475 442

13 280

3 431

22

554

--

3 623

36

4 213

Cape Verde

4 033

405

390

1

31

--

18

--

49

Central African Republic

622 984

3 310

622

7

112

--

1 587

4

1 703

Chad

1 284 000

6 360

433

5

98

16

115

1

230

Comoros

2 235

650

5

1

3

3

1

--

7

Congo

342 000

2 590

1 259

6

102

88

45

55

290

Côte d'Ivoire

322 463

14 230

1 989

14

214

--

2 230

7

2 451

Djibouti

23 200

580

8

1

5

3

3

--

11

Egypt

1 001 419

59 230

213

13

221

--

--

64

285

Eritrea

134 700

3 582

126

3

94

--

--

50

144

Ethiopia

1 087 200

53 098

346

8

171

--

89

17

277

Gabon

267 667

1 320

655

4

65

--

21

--

86

Gambia

11 295

1 120

27

1

14

--

37

2

53

Ghana

238 537

17 450

2 109

15

244

--

2 833

22

3 099

Guinea

245 857

6 700

129

3

35

--

28

33

96

Guinea-Bissau

36 125

1 070

126

1

28

--

--

--

28

Guinea, Equatorial

28 051

400

364

3

48

--

409

--

457

Kenya

580 367

30 520

6 367

22

548

--

5 227

47

5 822

Lesotho

30 355

2 050

726

4

76

--

360

--

436

Liberia

111 369

2 760

99

3

50

--

120

4

174

Libyan Arab

Jamahiriya

1 759 540

5 410

40

4

2

--

28

--

30

Madagascar

587 041

14 760

3 134

18

279

16

6 599

12

6 906

Malawi

118 484

9 790

2 350

7

145

--

994

5

1 144

Mali

1 240 192

10 790

110

6

39

--

309

--

348

Mauritania

1 025 520

2 280

4

1

6

--

--

1

7

Mauritius

1 865

1 090

285

1

49

--

--

--

49

Morocco

446 550

27 110

24

2

46

--

3

--

49

Mozambique

801 590

17 420

2 767

12

279

--

3 291

5

3 575

Namibia

824 292

1 540

269

3

67

--

93

34

194

Niger

1 267 000

9 150

19

1

21

--

--

--

21

Nigeria

923 768

111 720

12 412

44

1 298

94

8 562

109

10 063

Réunion

2 510

650

574

1

76

--

60

--

136

Rwanda

26 338

7 950

3 642

9

127

--

236

123

486

Sahara, Western

266 000

350

--

1

1

--

--

--

1

Saint Helena

314

7

--

1

1

--

--

2

3

Sao Tomé and Principe

964

121

101

1

12

--

--

1

13

Senegal

196 722

8 350

396

6

89

242

37

--

368

Seychelles

358

77

69

1

17

--

--

--

17

Sierra Leone

71 740

4 510

135

3

37

15

901

6

959

Somalia

637 657

9 250

--

1

1

--

--

--

1

South Africa

1 221 037

41 240

3 030

27

731

48

2 400

49

3 228

Sudan

2 505 813

28 100

2 279

9

103

--

607

47

757

Swaziland

17 364

910

48

1

14

--

150

--

164

Tanzania, United Republic of

945 087

30 340

7 355

29

771

5

5 098

136

6 010

Togo

56 785

4 410

956

7

111

--

1 313

2

1 426

Tunisia

163 610

8 900

20

1

14

--

--

--

14

Uganda

235 880

21 300

9 143

20

367

--

3 283

4

3 654

Zaire

2 345 409

43 900

22 310

47

1 191

56

8 909

37

10 193

Zambia

752 614

9 370

2 677

9

257

13

2 286

--

2 556

Zimbabwe

390 580

11 530

1 022

7

140

31

2 467

--

2 638

TOTAL AFRICA

30 306 780

725 850

107 077

462

9 692

694

71 548

961

82 895

STATISTICS ON CHURCH POPULATION AND STRUCTURE

(As at 31st December 1995)

NORTH AMERICA

Country

Area in sq. km

Total population (thousands)

Catholics (thousands)

Administrative divisions of the Catholic church

Pastoral centres

Parishes or equivalent

Missions with a resident priest

Missions without a resident priest

Other pastoral centres

Total

Bermuda

53

60

10

1

6

--

--

--

6

Canada

9 976 139

29 610

12 551

74

5 167

20

73

754

6 014

Greenland

2 175 600

56

--

--

1

--

--

--

1

S. Pierre and Miquelon

242

6

6

1

3

--

--

6

9

United States

9 372 614

263 030

57 047

191

19 587

--

--

1 802

21 389

TOTAL NORTH AMERICA

21 524 648

292 762

69 614

267

24 764

20

73

2 562

27 419

STATISTICS ON CHURCH POPULATION AND STRUCTURE

(As at 31st December 1995)

CENTRAL AMERICA/MAINLAND

Country

Area in sq. km

Total population (thousands)

Catholics (thousands)

Administrative divisions of the Catholic church

Pastoral centres

Parishes or equivalent

Missions with a resident priest

Missions without a resident priest

Other pastoral centres

Total

Belize

22 965

211

123

1

13

--

117

--

130

Costa Rica

51 100

3 330

3 009

6

249

--

--

537

786

El Salvador

21 041

5 770

5 399

9

292

--

--

54

346

Guatemala

108 889

10 620

9 045

15

407

--

1 126

1 072

2 605

Honduras

112 088

5 950

5 517

7

144

--

5

732

881

Mexico

1 958 201

90 490

86 305

82

5 260

--

--

4 419

9 679

Nicaragua

130 000

4 540

4 047

8

205

--

685

69

959

Panama

77 082

2 630

2 276

8

172

9

108

96

385

TOTAL CENTR. AMERICA/ MAINLAND

2 481 366

123 541

115 721

136

6 742

9

2 041

6 979

15 771

STATISTICS ON CHURCH POPULATION AND STRUCTURE

(As at 31st December 1995)

CENTRAL AMERICA/ANTILLES

Country

Area in sq. km

Total population (thousands)

Catholics (thousands)

Administrative divisions of the Catholic church

Pastoral centres

Parishes or equivalent

Missions with a resident priest

Missions without a resident priest

Other pastoral centres

Total

Anguilla

96

7

--

--

1

--

--

--

1

Antigua and Barbuda

442

64

8

1

2

--

1

--

3

Aruba

193

70

56

--

8

--

--

5

13

Bahamas

13 878

280

47

1

29

--

41

22

92

Barbados

430

260

10

1

6

--

--

--

6

Cayman Islands

259

29

4

--

1

--

--

--

1

Cuba

110 861

11 040

4 701

10

252

--

--

418

670

Dominica

751

72

57

1

17

--

39

--

56

Dominican Republic

48 734

7 910

7 162

11

320

--

--

1 257

1 577

Grenada

344

91

54

1

20

--

35

--

55

Guadeloupe

1 705

408

391

1

43

--

60

--

103

Haiti

27 750

7 180

6 255

9

237

--

--

941

1 178

Jamaica

10 990

2 530

107

3

78

--

--

1

79

Martinique

1 102

397

351

1

47

--

--

2

49

Montserrat

98

12

1

--

1

--

--

--

1

Netherlands Antilles

800

200

152

1

29

--

--

18

47

Puerto Rico

8 897

3 670

3 034

5

353

--

--

536

889

Saint Kitts and Nevis

261

46

5

--

4

--

1

--

5

Saint Lucia

622

140

109

1

23

--

33

--

56

St. Vincent and the Grenadines

388

110

10

1

6

--

12

--

18

Trinidad and Tobago

5 130

1 250

395

1

62

--

--

--

62

Turks and Caicos Islands

430

11

1

1

2

--

--

--

2

Virgin Islands (G.B.)

153

11

1

--

2

--

1

--

3

Virgin Islands (USA)

342

102

30

1

8

--

--

2

10

TOTAL CENTR. AMERICA/ ANTILLES

234 656

35 890

22 941

51

1 551

--

223

3 202

4 976

STATISTICS ON CHURCH POPULATION AND STRUCTURE

(As at 31st December 1995)

SOUTH AMERICA

Country

Area in sq. km

Total population (thousands)

Catholics (thousands)

Administrative divisions of the Catholic church

Pastoral centres

Parishes or equivalent

Missions with a resident priest

Missions without a resident priest

Other pastoral centres

Total

Argentina

2 766 889

34 770

31 546

68

2 480

--

--

6 514

8 994

Bolivia

1 098 581

7 410

6 636

18

520

--

--

259

779

Brazil

8 511 965

155 820

134 818

256

7 997

--

--

26 997

34 994

Chile

756 945

14 200

11 330

27

892

--

26

3 323

4 241

Colombia

1 138 914

35 100

32 260

69

2 955

3

476

814

4 248

Ecuador

283 561

11 460

10 729

24

1 123

--

1 280

1 590

3 993

Falkland Islands (Malvinas)

12 173

4

1

1

1

--

1

--

2

French Guiana

98 000

150

120

1

26

--

--

--

26

Guyana

214 969

830

88

1

30

--

57

--

87

Paraguay

406 752

4 830

4 531

14

293

5

40

1 155

1 493

Peru

1 285 216

23 530

21 545

45

1 388

3

507

2 495

4 393

Suriname

163 265

420

91

1

30

--

116

--

146

Uruguay

177 414

3 190

2 473

10

229

--

--

557

786

Venezuela

912 050

21 640

19 922

35

1 101

--

210

1 499

2 810

TOTAL SOUTH AMERICA

17 818 694

313 354

276 090

570

19 065

11

2 713

45 203

66 992

TOTAL AMERICA

42 059 364

765 547

484 366

1 024

52 122

40

5 050

57 946

115 158

STATISTICS ON CHURCH POPULATION AND STRUCTURE

(As at 31st December 1995)

ASIA/MIDDLE EAST

Country

Area in sq. km

Total population (thousands)

Catholics (thousands)

Administrative divisions of the Catholic church

Pastoral centres

Parishes or equivalent

Missions with a resident priest

Missions without a resident priest

Other pastoral centres

Total

Afghanistan

652 090

20 140

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Cyprus

9 251

740

11

1

13

--

--

1

14

Iran (Islamic Rep. of)

1 648 000

67 280

13

6

18

--

--

10

28

Iraq

438 317

20 450

621

17

92

--

--

7

99

Israel

20 770

5 540

90

9

74

--

--

5

79

Jordan

97 740

5 440

66

1

62

--

--

1

63

Lebanon

10 400

3 010

2 026

24

1 032

--

--

46

1 078

Syrian Arab Republic

185 180

14 190

295

18

200

--

--

34

234

Turkey

780 576

61 640

30

7

50

--

--

5

55

TOTAL ASIA/MIDDLE-EAST

3 842 324

198 430

3 152

83

1 541

--

--

109

1 650

STATISTICS ON CHURCH POPULATION AND STRUCTURE

(As at 31st December 1995)

ASIA SOUTH EAST, FAR EAST

Country

Area in sq. km

Total population (thousands)

Catholics (thousands)

Administrative divisions of the Catholic church

Pastoral centres

Parishes or equivalent

Missions with a resident priest

Missions without a resident priest

Other pastoral centres

Total

Armenia

29 800

3 760

141

1

18

--

--

--

18

Azerbaijan

86 600

750

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Bahrain

678

590

30

--

1

--

1

--

2

Bangladesh

143 998

120 430

231

6

73

--

349

30

452

Bhutan

47 000

1 640

1

--

1

--

--

--

1

Brunei Darussalam

5 765

280

8

--

3

--

--

--

3

Cambodia

181 035

9 840

20

3

--

--

35

--

35

China, Mainland

9 560 175

1 199 074

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

China, Taiwan

35 961

22 426

300

8

446

--

304

17

767

Georgia

69 700

5 460

100

1

25

--

--

--

25

Hong Kong

1 045

6 190

237

1

62

--

--

35

97

India

3 287 590

935 740

16 016

133

7 247

128

16 443

1 503

25 321

Indonesia

1 904 569

193 750

5 380

35

991

24

7 218

85

8 318

Japan

377 801

125 200

447

17

854

--

41

48

943

Kazakhstan

2 717 300

16 590

300

1

--

--

--

--

--

Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of

120 538

23 920

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Korea, Republic of

99 016

44 850

3 402

15

948

--

892

237

2 077

Kuwait

17 818

1 690

155

2

5

--

--

--

5

Kyrgyzstan

198 500

4 670

26

--

--

--

--

--

--

Lao Peoples Dem. Rep.

236 800

4 880

36

4

31

--

84

--

115

Macau

16

420

22

1

9

--

--

4

13

Malaysia

329 749

20 140

637

8

148

--

973

--

1 121

Maldives

298

250

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Mongolia

1 565 000

2 410

1

1

--

--

--

--

--

Myanmar

676 552

46 530

538

12

252

--

246

2

500

Nepal

140 797

21 920

5

1

20

--

36

--

56

Oman

212 457

2 160

50

--

4

--

18

--

22

Pakistan

796 095

129 810

1 009

6

93

--

517

51

661

Philippines

300 000

70 270

58 735

80

2 525

--

1 489

4 742

8 756

Qatar

11 000

550

45

--

1

--

6

--

7

Russian Federation (in Asia)

12 650 900

18 050

1 000

2

152

--

--

52

204

Saudi Arabia

2 149 690

17 880

645

--

5

--

15

--

20

Singapore

618

2 990

132

1

30

--

--

--

30

Sri Lanka

65 610

18 350

1 210

11

373

--

755

89

1 217

Tajikistan

143 100

5 840

32

--

--

--

--

--

--

Thailand

513 115

59 400

247

10

312

25

433

15

785

Timor, East

14 874

860

732

2

30

--

--

89

119

Turkmenistan

488 100

4 100

22

--

--

--

--

--

--

United Arab Emirates

83 600

2 310

122

1

6

--

8

--

14

Uzbekistan

447 000

22 840

120

--

--

--

--

1

1

VietNam

329 556

74 540

5 921

25

2 122

--

1 954

433

4 509

Yemen

527 968

14 500

3

--

4

--

2

--

6

TOTAL ASIA SUD‑E, FAR E

40 567 784

3 257 850

98 058

388

16 791

177

31 819

7 433

56 220

TOTAL ASIA

44 410 108

3 456 280

101 210

471

18 332

177

31 819

7 542

57 870

STATISTICS ON CHURCH POPULATION AND STRUCTURE

(As at 31st December 1995)

EUROPE

Country

Area in sq. km

Total population (thousands)

Catholics (thousands)

Administrative divisions of the Catholic church

Pastoral centres

Parishes or equivalent

Missions with a resident priest

Missions without a resident priest

Other pastoral centres

Other

Albania

28 748

3 440

541

7

99

--

--

--

99

Andorra

453

70

59

--

7

--

--

--

7

Austria

83 853

8 530

6 677

12

3 037

--

--

1 244

4 281

Belarus

207 600

10 140

1 245

3

338

--

--

--

338

Belgium

30 514

10 110

8 462

9

3 962

--

--

528

4 490

Bosnia and Herzegovina

51 087

4 480

769

3

284

--

--

10

294

Bulgaria

110 912

8 400

91

3

45

--

--

1

46

Croatia

62 206

4 490

3 726

11

1 535

--

--

9

1 544

Czech Republic

78 426

10 330

7 322

9

3 119

--

--

25

3 144

Denmark

43 077

5 230

32

1

50

--

--

--

50

Estonia

45 215

1 530

4

1

5

--

--

--

5

Faeroe Islands

1 399

47

--

--

1

--

--

--

1

Finland

338 127

5 110

6

1

7

--

--

5

12

France

551 500

58 150

47 773

98

32 086

--

--

1 587

33 673

Germany

356 910

81 640

28 403

29

12 507

--

--

1 571

14 078

Gibraltar

6

27

23

1

5

--

--

3

8

Great Britain

230 762

55 881

5 176

32

3 176

--

--

475

3 651

Greece

131 990

10 460

61

11

65

--

--

35

100

Hungary

93 032

10 220

6 602

16

2 175

--

--

98

2 273

Iceland

103 000

270

3

1

4

--

--

7

11

Ireland

84 405

5 959

4 474

26

1 359

--

--

35

1 394

Italy

301 268

57 190

55 599

228

25 769

--

--

6 013

31 782

Latvia

63 700

2 510

500

4

175

--

--

42

217

Liechtenstein

160

29

22

--

9

--

--

3

12

Lithuania

65 200

3 710

3 119

6

666

--

--

80

746

Luxembourg

2 586

410

386

1

275

--

--

--

275

Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Rep)

40 887

4 400

63

1

25

--

2

--

27

Malta

316

378

347

2

80

--

--

2

82

Moldova, Republic of

33 700

4 340

15

2

7

--

--

--

7

Monaco

1

30

27

1

6

--

--

2

8

Netherlands

40 844

15 450

5 709

8

1 718

--

--

108

1 826

Norway

323 895

4 360

41

3

33

--

--

--

33

Poland

312 677

38 590

36 853

43

9 514

--

--

777

10 291

Portugal

92 389

10 800

9 948

21

4 346

--

--

2 516

6 862

Romania

237 500

22 680

2 654

12

1 799

--

--

14

1 813

Russian Fed. (in Europe)

4 551 885

130 090

306

2

86

--

--

--

86

San Marino

61

25

24

--

12

--

--

--

12

Slovakia

49 450

5 360

3 652

7

1 415

--

--

35

1 450

Slovenia

20 248

1 980

1 654

3

797

--

--

53

850

Spain

504 782

39 210

36 956

68

21 641

--

--

4 312

25 953

Svalbard and Jan Mayen Is.

62 422

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Sweden

440 945

8 830

165

1

40

--

--

--

40

Switzerland

41 293

7 040

3 266

8

1 668

--

--

270

1 938

Ukraine

603 700

51 640

5 752

14

3 323

--

--

141

3 464

Yugoslavia

81 376

7 931

446

5

214

--

--

5

219

TOTAL EUROPE

10 504 507

711 497

288 953

714

137 484

--

2

20 006

157 492

STATISTICS ON CHURCH POPULATION AND STRUCTURE

(As at 31st December 1995)

OCEANIA

Country

Area in sq. km

Total population (thousands)

Catholics (thousands)

Administrative divisions of the Catholic church

Pastoral centres

Parishes or equivalent

Missions with a resident priest

Missions without a resident priest

Other pastoral centres

Other

Australia

7 687 033

18 050

5 102

32

1 426

--

--

112

1 538

Canton and Enderbury Is.

70

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Cook Islands

236

20

3

1

15

8

7

--

30

Fiji

18 274

796

79

1

34

--

--

3

37

Guam

541

136

115

1

23

--

3

--

26

Kiribati

728

74

39

1

22

--

--

--

22

Marianas

476

63

56

1

10

2

--

--

12

Marshall Islands

181

50

4

1

4

--

7

--

11

Micronesia, Fed. S.

784

107

56

1

20

--

2

6

28

Nauru

21

7

3

--

1

--

--

--

1

New Caledonia

19 079

165

106

1

38

--

131

--

169

New Zealand

268 676

3 540

501

7

282

--

54

23

359

Nive

260

3

--

--

1

1

--

--

2

Palau

459

16

8

--

2

--

1

6

9

Papua New Guinea

462 840

4 070

1 425

18

380

--

1 783

72

2 235

Polynesia, French

4 000

220

89

2

85

--

23

--

108

Samoa

2 831

166

37

1

27

--

--

--

27

Samoa, American

199

56

9

1

8

--

25

1

34

Solomon Islands

28 896

380

72

3

28

--

47

2

77

Tokelau Islands

12

2

1

1

2

--

--

--

2

Tonga

750

96

14

1

13

--

--

--

13

Tuvalu Islands

26

9

--

1

1

--

--

--

1

Vanuatu

12 189

159

26

1

18

--

--

--

18

Wake Island

8

--

--

--

2

--

--

--

2

Wallis and Futuna Islands

200

15

15

1

5

--

--

11

16

TOTAL OCEANIA

8 508 769

28 200

7 760

77

2 447

11

2 083

236

4 777

TOTAL WORLD

135 789 528

5 687 374

989 366

2 748

220 077

922

110 502

86 691

418 192

STATISTICS ON CHURCH POPULATION AND STRUCTURE

(As at 31st December 1995)

TOTAL WORLD

Country

Area in sq. km

Total population (thousands)

Catholics (thousands)

Administrative divisions of the Catholic church

Pastoral centres

Parishes or equivalent

Missions with a resident priest

Missions without a resident priest

Other pastoral centres

Other

TOTAL AFRICA

30 306 780

725 850

107 077

462

9 692

694

71 548

961

82 895

TOTAL AMERICA NORTH

21 524 648

292 762

69 614

267

24 764

20

73

2 562

27 419

TOTAL CENT. AMER. MAINLAND

2 481 366

123 541

115 721

136

6 742

9

2 041

6 979

15 771

TOTAL CENT. AMER. ANTILLES

234 656

35 890

22 941

51

1 551

223

3 202

4 976

TOTAL AMERICA SOUTH

17 818 694

313 354

276 090

570

19 065

11

2 713

45 203

66 992

TOTAL AMERIQUE

42 059 364

765 547

484 366

1 024

52 122

40

5 050

57 946

115 158

TOTAL ASIA MIDDLE-EAST

3 842 324

198 430

3 152

83

1 541

109

1 650

TOTAL ASIA SOUTH-EAST, FAR EAST

40 567 784

3 257 850

98 058

388

16 791

177

31 819

7 433

56 220

TOTAL ASIA

44 410 108

3 456 280

101 210

471

18 332

177

31 819

7 542

57 870

TOTAL EUROPE

10 504 507

711 497

288 953

714

137 484

2

20 006

157 492

TOTAL OCEANIA

8 508 769

28 200

7 760

77

2 447

11

2 083

236

4 777

TOTAL WORLD

135 789 528

5 687 374

989 366

2 748

220 077

922

110 502

86 691

418 192

PART TWO

Information relating to articles 2 to 7 of the Convention

I. GENERAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK PROHIBITING AND ELIMINATING RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

6. Before reporting on the implementation of articles 2,3,5 and 7 of the Convention, we will briefly analyse the general legal framework which makes it evident that racial discrimination is prohibited and eliminated, and that the promotion, enjoyment and exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms are encouraged and confirmed in the political, economic, social and cultural fields and in all sectors of public life.

A. General remarks

7. As regards information concerning legislative measures taken by the Holy See in connection with the elimination of racial discrimination, we wish to explain that while we are not in a position to answer all the questions pertaining to law which are contained in the "Guidelines" (CERD/C/70/Rev.3), it is evident from the very nature of the Catholic Church and from the spirit of its laws that the Church rejects and condemns racial discrimination and that it has a positive attitude aimed at promoting multiracial integration.

8. In this context we wish to recall a factor of great legal importance, namely the fact that the Catholic Church is, by its nature and in reality, universal and that it is therefore "the obligation and inherent right of the Church […] to preach the Gospel to all peoples" (can. 747, para . 1). Its laws concern peoples from all continents and races; it establishes, in an absolute manner, the equality of all the faithful; and it effectively and positively protects friendly coexistence and multiracial integration, implicitly condemning all forms of racism.

9. On the basis of this principle of fundamental equality, the faithful (in the Church, the concept of faithful coincides with that of "subject in law" [can.96]) have the same rights and the same duties and possess the same legal capacity. In canon law, diversity does not result from differences in the legal status of persons in their being (principle of legal equality between subjects) but from the legal status proper to each, determined by the diversity of vocations and the difference between roles.

10. In its own legislation, the Catholic Church clearly confirms two fundamental principles which should be seen as measures designed to safeguard the principles set out in paragraph 10, subparagraphs 1 to 5 of the "Guidelines", viz. :

(a) First, the Catholic Church affirms its right to defend fundamental values and rights (which naturally include multiracial non-discrimination): "The Church has the right always and everywhere to proclaim moral principles, even in respect of the social order, and to make judgements about any human matter in so far as this is required by fundamental human rights or the salvation of souls" (can.747, para.2);

Second, it explicitly establishes the primacy of international obligations contracted under treaties into which the Apostolic See has entered with States or other political entities. In particular, conventions to which the Holy See is a party are placed on a level higher than ordinary laws, subject to full respect of those areas of its own legislation "which are essentially within [its] domestic jurisdiction" (cf. Article 2, paragraph 7, of the Charter of the United Nations). Such conventions assume the quality of standards in the law of the Holy See: "The canons of the Code do not abrogate, nor do they derogate from, agreements entered into by the Apostolic See with […] civil entities; such agreements therefore remain in force notwithstanding any contrary provisions of this Code" (can.3).

B . Doctrine underlying canonical law

11. Canon 748, paragraph 2, enshrines the freedom of conscience and of religion which is the precondition, principle and foundation of all other freedoms, human and civil, individual and communal: "No one is ever permitted to oblige others by constraint to adhere to the Catholic faith against their conscience."

12. Canon 219 proclaims the right to the choice of one's state in life within the Catholic Church, resulting from a free choice and a conscious decision. This right includes the guarantee of immunity from all coercion: in order to choose their state in life within the Church, the faithful have the right not to have undue obstacles placed in the way of their carrying the decision taken: "All Christ's faithful have the right to immunity from any kind of coercion in choosing a state in life."

13. Canon 215 grants to all the faithful the right to the natural right of association, based directly upon the social nature of the human person and the social nature of the Church, as well as the right of assembly, which is defined as the freedom of the faithful to meet for purposes consistent with their Christian vocation in the world: "Christ's faithful may freely establish and direct associations which serve charitable or pious purposes or which foster the Christian vocation in the world, and they may hold meetings to pursue these purposes by common consent."

14. The fundamental right of human beings, deriving from natural law itself, to have their good reputation respected, and the correlated duty to respect the right of persons to protect their privacy, are set forth in Canon 220. Accordingly, no individual may be subjected to arbitrary interference in his or her private life, family, home or correspondence: "No one may unlawfully harm the good reputation which a person enjoys, or violate the right of every person to protect his or her privacy."

15. Canon 223, paragraph 1, imposes some intrinsic limits upon the exercise of rights, namely, the common good of the Church, the rights of others and duties to others. These limits must be respected by the faithful themselves:

"In exercising their rights, Christ's faithful, both individually and in associations, must take account of the common good of the Church, as well as of the rights of others and their own duties to others."

Paragraph 2 indicates the extrinsic limits to the exercise of these rights which ecclesiastical authority may set with a view to safeguarding the common good:

"Ecclesiastical authority is entitled to regulate, in view of the common good, the exercise of rights which are proper to Christ's faithful."

In conformity with the general principles of international human rights law, the limits set in both cases apply to "the exercise of rights" and not to the rights themselves.

II. IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLES 2, 3, 5 AND 7

Article 2

A . Information on legislative, judicial, administrative or other measures

16. Canon 204, paragraph 1, which reproduces the definition of the concept of "Christ's faithful", the equivalent of the concept of "subject of law" within the Church, set forth in Canon 96: "By baptism one is incorporated into the Church of Christ and constituted a person in it, with the duties and rights which […] are proper to Christians […]", thus firmly underscoring the radical equality of all members of the Church, recognizes in the element of "communion" the basic concept upon which this radical equality is founded and which links all the faithful with the work the Church is called upon to do in the world:

"1. Christ's faithful are those who, since they are incorporated into Christ through baptism, are constituted the people of God. For this reason they participate in their own way in the priestly, prophetic and kingly office of Christ. They are called, each according to his or her particular condition, to exercise the mission which God entrusted to the Church to fulfil in the world."

17. On the basis of the principle set forth in canon 204, canon 208 proclaims the full equality of all the faithful in terms of both "dignity" and "action": "Flowing from their rebirth in Christ, there is a genuine equality of dignity and action among all of Christ's faithful […]". Even if the rights enumerated in Title I are not formally described as "fundamental" or "original", canonical doctrine generally admits that they have the nature of authentic "primary" or "constitutional" rights, that is to say of rights which form an integral part of the very constitution of the Church. These rights relating to the state of freedom and dignity of the faithful are intrinsic - iura nativa - and they take precedence over any formulation in positive law.

Article 3

Subparagraph A. Condemnation of racial segregation

18. Extracts from speeches with a bearing on racism and xenophobia made by the Holy Father in 1992 and 1993 will be found in the 12 paragraphs below.

To the regional council of Lazio (3 February 1992)

19. " Lazio is known to have the largest number of immigrants from outside the European Union, and no one is unaware of the problems which this phenomenon entails or of the urgency of the need to remedy it. The harsh reality of immigration demands that it be given a great deal of attention, for the phenomenon is tending to become more serious as new situations arise in different countries. We are confronted with an event of vast proportions such as has occurred at other times in the history of mankind. It is therefore necessary to face the many needs that arise with courage and confidence, so that today's society may avoid all forms of racial discrimination, and to promote a sense of justice and of human solidarity."

To representatives of other religions at Ziguinchor , Senegal (20 February 1992)

20. "Man's origin and his divine destiny are the foundations of his dignity. No one has the right to despise another human being, least of all one weaker than oneself. There is no justification whatever for discrimination based on race, religion, gender or social status: every person is to be respected."

On the occasion of the 27 th anniversary of the Nostra aetate declaration of the Vatican Council (28 October 1992)

21. "More generally, in face of the episodes of xenophobia, the racial tensions and the extremist and fanatical forms of nationalism common today, I feel it my duty to repeat that every form of racism is a sin against God and man, for every human person carries the divine image imprinted upon him or her."

To bishops from the Federal Republic of Germany on a visit ad limina (14 November 1992)

22. "Everything must be done to prevent the spread of racism and nationalism."

To bishops from the Federal Republic of Germany on a visit ad limina (4 December 1992)

23. "The teaching of religion can ward off the danger of false idols, such as nationalism and racism."

To clients and voluntary helpers at the Colle Oppio popular restaurant in Rome (20 December 1992)

24 . "Rome must refuse all forms of racism and xenophobia. And in this respect there are three principles to which the diocese must commit itself: to reaffirm the ancient tradition of Rome as a city of welcome and openness to all, in harmony with its Christian history; to refuse any form of racism and xenophobia and permanently to transmit a message of respect and welcome to people from different cultures and nations; to mobilize voluntary forces, so numerous and plentiful, by orienting them towards the service of those called "foreigners" according to their legal status but not from the viewpoint of faith and common humanity. I would go even further by saying that Christian Rome wants to adopt a cultural line that regards immigrants not only as the poor whom we are called upon to receive, nor merely as citizens whose rights we must respect, but as potential members to be integrated in our society, to which they can contribute new energies and original inputs."

To Hungarian bishops on a visit ad limina (28 January 1993)

25. "A constructive collaboration must urgently be established against the awakening of racism and anti-Semitism in Europe."

Letter to the Bishop of Bielsko-Zywiec on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the first transport of Gypsies to the Auschwitz- Birkenau concentration camp (7 April 1993)

26. "For us, men of the 20 th century, Auschwitz is a warning that has lost none of its timeliness; it is a dramatic cry for respect of the dignity and the inalienable rights both of single individuals and of whole nations. We must not allow this to be forgotten, especially today when new centres of discrimination and hatred based on ethnic factors are erupting in the very heart of Europe, engendering abuses of power, violence and the shedding of innocent blood […] On this occasion I wish to pronounce words of Christian solidarity with the whole Roma people, so sorely tried during the Second World War, a people which, unfortunately, forms to this day the object of prejudice, acts of intolerance and even open discrimination in many countries although it possesses an inalienable right to a fitting place in social life and a socio -cultural identity of its own."

To the President of the Republic of the Sudan, Khartoum (10 February 1993)

27. In a multiracial and multicultural country, a strategy of confrontation can never bring peace and progress. Only respect of human rights, guaranteed by law within a system of justice and equality for all, can create the right conditions for peaceful coexistence and cooperation in the service of the common good. My hope for your country can therefore be expressed more concretely as a profound desire to see all its citizens - without any discrimination founded upon ethnic origin, cultural or social status or religious convictions - take a responsible part in the life of the nation, contributing by their diversity to the wealth of the national community as a whole […] The Church approaches this question essentially from a humanitarian and moral point of view. The universal obligation to understand and respect the variety and rich diversity of other peoples, societies, cultures and religions rests upon two fundamental principles. The first is the inalienable dignity of every individual, irrespective of his or her national, cultural, ethnic or racial origin or religious belief; that dignity means that when human beings join into groups, they have the right to enjoy a collective identity. Accordingly, minorities have the right to exist within a country with their own language, culture and traditions, and the State is morally obliged to provide a living space for these identities and these particular forms of expression. The second principle is the fundamental unity of the human race, which derives its origin from God, the Creator of all things; this unity implies that no group has the right to feel superior to another. It also implies that integration can be built upon an effective solidarity free from all discrimination."

To representatives of Jewish communities on the occasion of a concert in commemoration of the Shoah (7 April 1994)

28. "Today we are witnessing many new manifestations of anti-Semitism, xenophobia and racial hatred which sowed the seeds of such unspeakable crimes. Mankind cannot allow this to happen again […] In face of the dangers threatening the sons and daughters of the present generation, Christians and Jews have much to offer to a world which is struggling to distinguish good from evil, which is called by the Creator to defend and protect life, but which also finds itself powerless against voices spreading ideas that can only lead to death and destruction."

Message for World Migrants Day (6 August 1993)

29. "It is the task of the State to ensure that immigrant families, their particular requirements being duly taken into account, are not deprived of what is normally provided for the families of its own citizens. In particular, it is up to the State to protect immigrant families against all attempts at exclusion and racism by fostering a convinced and effective culture of solidarity."

To bishops from California, Nevada and Hawaii (United States) on a visit ad limina (4 December 1993)

30."In your pastoral ministry you are often faced with manifestations of a persistent racism which undermines the foundations of a just and democratic society. Racism is an intolerable injustice because of the conflicts it provokes, and even more because of the way in which it debases the inalienable dignity of all human beings, whatever their racial or ethnic origin. Your frequent declarations on these subjects, and the great diversity of your pastoral activities on behalf of various ethnic groups present in your dioceses, far from endorsing the separation or isolation of groups and communities, are designed to comply with the Church's vocation as the expression and instrument of the greatest unit in the entire human family. Addressing another group of bishops, I have spoken of the needs of the numerous Hispanic communities in your dioceses and of their special contribution to the life of the Church. By your backing of a national pastoral plan for Black Catholics you have demonstrated your esteem and support for believers who want to be "true Blacks and true Catholics". I also express my satisfaction with your commitment to the promotion of solidarity with the Native American community, especially as regards social justice in the fields of health, housing, employment and education. Success in all these endeavours depends largely on efforts to foster the revival of family life and parish schools, to minister to young people on the margins of society, and to promote vocations within all groups."

Subparagraph B. Diplomatic relations with South Africa

31. The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the Republic of South Africa was announced on Saturday, 5 March 1994, several weeks after the appointment of the "Transitional Executive Council" and the approval of the Provisional Constitution in that country. The Holy See's decision to accept the South African Government's request for diplomatic relations had a twofold significance: first, that of a just recognition of the persistent efforts of the main parties involved in the negotiating process to achieve a peaceful transition towards the "new South African State"; and, second, that of reassuring all South African Catholics and encouraging them to continue making a constructive contribution towards genuine reconciliation in their country. On 25 June 1994, the Apostolic Delegate to Pretoria was appointed Apostolic Nuncio.

32. The Holy See has taken every opportunity, in particular through the Apostolic Delegation instituted in 1922, to give its support to, and express its approval of, episcopal action on behalf of the cause of peace and the defence of fundamental human rights in South Africa. Over the years the Holy See has repeatedly taken steps to strengthen the possibilities for dialogue and for the initiation of a process of peace and reconciliation among all components of South African society. We may recall, inter alia , the audience granted by the Holy Father to the then President of South Africa, P.W.Botha , twelve years ago; the missions performed by Cardinal Roger Etchegaray in 1988 and 1991; the pontifical audience granted to Mr. Nelson Mandela , leader of the ANC, in June 1990; and, lastly, the visit to the Vatican by President F.W. De Klerk on 13 December 1993.

33. On 17 and 18 September 1995 the Holy Father made a pastoral visit to South Africa, where he presided over the celebration phase of the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops. Before 500 000 persons, including President Mandela and Vice-Presidents De Klerk and Nbeki , assembled at the Germiston racecourse in Johannesburg, the Pope spoke of the great challenges facing the African continent and affirmed that "solidarity is, above all else, the response that is needed in order to overcome the utter moral bankruptcy of racial prejudice and ethnic rivalry".

Article 5

Subparagraph A. Right to equal treatment before the courts

34. The three paragraphs of Canon 221 serve a twofold purpose: to proclaim the rights of the faithful in connection with the administration of justice within the Church and to provide a series of legal guarantees for the protection of other individual rights with a view to avoiding, inter alia , possible abuses arising from arbitrary conduct by authority. To that end, three fundamental rights are set forth for the legal protection of persons who are subject to the jurisdiction of the Church:

(a) The right to defend their rights before the courts: "1. Christ's faithful may lawfully vindicate and defend the rights they enjoy in the Church, before the competent ecclesiastical forum in accordance with the law";

(b) The right to be judged in a fair trial: "2. If any members of Christ's faithful are summoned to trial by the competent authority, they have the right to be judged according to the provisions of the law, to be applied with equity";

(c) The principle of legality in penal matters: "3. Christ's faithful have the right not to have any canonical penalties imposed upon them except in accordance with the law".

35. Canon 1321 protects the individual from arbitrary action by defining the objective and subjective elements of the offence and the principle of legality in penal matters, as follows:

"1. No one shall be punished unless the external violation of the law or precept through malice or culpability be gravely imputable to him.

"2. A person who deliberately violates the law or precept shall suffer the penalty established by law; but a person who does so due to lack of due diligence shall not be punished, unless the law or precept provides otherwise."

36. Canon 1347, paragraph 1, as well as Canon 1395, paragraph 1, stipulate that no heavy penalty may be imposed if the culprit has not received at least one warning and has not been allowed reasonable time to reform:

"No censure can be validly imposed unless the guilty person has been warned at least once to desist from the offence and granted a suitable period of time to mend his ways."

Subparagraph C. Participation of the faithful in the apostolic mission and in the duties of the Church

37. Canon 208, after proclaiming the equality of all Christ's faithful, states that, because of their equality, "they all contribute, each according to his or her own condition and office, towards the construction of the edifice of the Body of Christ".

38. Canon 211 confirms the right to participate in the apostolic mission. This inherent right is not bestowed by any authority but derives from the vocation proper to all faithful by virtue of baptism and confirmation. It is a genuine right because the apostolic mission has an external dimension and because it bestows upon the faithful the erga omnes right to be respected in the lawful accomplishment of their apostolic activities: "All Christ's faithful have the obligation and the right to strive to make the divine message of salvation heard increasingly by all peoples at all times".

39. By virtue of the provisions of Canon 212, all Christ's faithful have the right to address themselves to the Church authorities in order not only to submit requests requiring a specific response but also to express opinions and to formulate objections, in written or oral form, individually or collectively, in connection with Church activities to which they wish to draw particular attention:

"2. Christ's faithful are at liberty to make known their needs […] and their wishes to the Pastors of the Church".

"3. They have the right, indeed at times the duty […] to manifest to the sacred Pastors their views on matters which concern the good of the Church. They also have the right to make their views known to others of Christ's faithful […] taking into account both the common good and the dignity of individuals."

40. Canon 222, paragraph 2, requires the faithful "to promote social justice and […] to help the poor from their own resources". In this way the canon lays down the obligation - which thus becomes a right - of individual members of the community of Christ to promote genuine social justice, which also includes multiracial equality. The specific method used to promote social justice will depend, in practice, on the attitude, possibilities and status of each of the faithful.

41. Canon 227 bestows upon lay members of the community of Christ a twofold freedom in the sphere of secular interests and activities: in relation to the civil authorities, through acknowledgement of the fundamental and inalienable rights of all citizens, and in relation to the Church authorities, through recognition of their lawful autonomy: "To lay members of Christ's faithful belongs the right to have acknowledged as theirs the freedom in secular affairs which is common to all citizens".

42. Canon 228 does not, strictly speaking, formulate a right; rather, it speaks of the capacity of all faithful to be appointed by the lawful authorities to ecclesiastical offices and functions in accordance with the law, and also to participate in collegiate bodies and to serve as "experts" or "advisers":

"1. Lay people […] are capable of being admitted by the sacred Pastors to those ecclesiastical offices and functions which, in accordance with the provisions of the law, they can discharge.

"2. Lay people […] are capable of being experts or advisers, even in councils in accordance with the law".

43. Canon 231 concerns lay people who pledge themselves, permanently or for a time, to a particular service of the Church. An appropriate remuneration enabling them to provide for their families is due to them as a matter of justice. In addition, they are entitled to all the social and civil benefits provided by civil law:

"2.[…] they (i.e., lay people so pledged) have the right to reasonable remuneration befitting their condition, whereby, with due regard also to the provisions of civil law, they can decently provide for their own needs and the needs of their families. Likewise, they have the right to have their insurance, social security and medical benefits duly safeguarded."

44. Ordination to the ministry is not a provision of a legal nature; it is governed by the fundamental constitution of the Church. Consequently, since it is not a "function", it cannot be regarded as a "right".

Article 7

Subparagraph A. Education and teaching

Canonical doctrine

45. Canon 217 acknowledges the right of the faithful to a Christian education, a right that derives from the vocation, common to all the baptised , to take part in the Church's mission of evangelization. Christian education is not confined to the transmission of purely theoretical knowledge; it also includes the right to such training as is necessary in order to achieve maturity as a human being: "Christ's faithful […] have the right to a Christian education which genuinely teaches them to strive for the maturity of the human person […]."

46. Canon 218 formally proclaims, as a corollary of the foregoing right to a Christian education, the right to research and to expression of those who engage in the study of the sacred sciences, in other words the right to obtain information and to disseminate their ideas: "Those who are engaged in fields of sacred study have a just freedom to research matters in which they are expert and to express themselves prudently concerning them […]".

47. Canon 229 defines the right and the duty of lay faithful to engage in studies that will enable them to receive the doctrinal training necessary for the full exercise of their Christian calling. It also specifies that this right includes the possibility for the faithful to receive higher education. Lastly, as a consequence of these provisions, the canon proclaims the fundamental right of lay people, once they have acquired the necessary training, to teach the sacred sciences:

"1. Lay people have […] the right to acquire the knowledge of Christian teaching which is appropriate to each one's capacity and condition […].

"2. They also have the right to acquire that fuller knowledge of the sacred sciences which is taught in ecclesiastical universities or faculties or in institutes of religious sciences, attending lectures there and acquiring academic degrees.

"3. Likewise, {…] they are capable of receiving […] a mandate to teach the sacred sciences."

48. In accordance with Canons 226, 793 and 1136, parents have a solemn legal obligation to give their children a Christian education, making use of all possibilities offered by the educational system. This obligation is, of course, accompanied by the primary right of parents to "bring up their children", to "do all in their power to ensure their children's physical, social, cultural, moral and religious upbringing", and "to choose those means and institutions which […] can best promote the Catholic education of their children".

Catholic educational institutions

49. There are approximately 170 000 Catholic schools of all kinds and at all levels world-wide, with over 42 million pupils. In Europe there are over 30 000 such schools, with around 8 million pupils (data supplied to the congress of the European Committee for Catholic Teaching held at Augsburg , Germany, from 31 October to 3 November 1996).

50. In certain Western countries where parity exists between State and private education, the number of pupils at Catholic schools is steadily increasing. In Germany, according to the German Bishops' Conference, it has risen by 8.2% over the past three years, 25 000 new enrolments being registered in the year 1998 alone. In the United States, too, Catholic schools enjoy great prestige, as demonstrated by the steady progression of American Catholic institutions, the number of enrolments having risen by 20 000 every year since 1990.

51. In the countries of Eastern Europe, Catholic education is coming back to life slowly and with difficulty in view of the extremely adverse economic conditions. The difficulties are also due to a certain ambiguity in the legal set-up and to the shortage of competent trained staff, especially teachers. For example, Romania, which had 300 Catholic schools before the advent of communism, now has only a few tens of such schools.

52. In many countries of the Middle East and Asia, the activities of Catholic schools largely outstrip the size of the Catholic population; often they not only represent the only possibility of bearing evangelical witness, but also make a high-quality contribution to the cultural and educational life of the countries concerned.

Special activities

53. The intensive training of both teachers and students provided by the Centro Educazione alla Mondialita of the Xaverian Centre for Missionary Activities at Parma (Italy) deserves special mention. In Germany, certain dioceses, such as Hildesheim , organize meetings of young people of different nationalities and origins with a view to promoting the integration of foreigners in that country.

54. Bosnia is giving a remarkable example in terms of education for tolerance. The arch-diocese of Sarajevo has recently founded three schools, called "Schools for Europe", with the intention of educating students of different religious creeds, as well as some students who do not profess any religion, in a spirit of dialogue and peace. These schools are at present attended by approximately 1 600 Serb, Bosnian and Croat students. The arch-diocese of Sarajevo plans to open other "Schools for Europe" in eleven other Bosnian cities in the near future.

55. In Jerusalem, "Schmidt's Girls' College", founded in 1886 and directed by the Maria Ward Sisters, has about 480 pupils aged between 4 and 19. Two-thirds of these girls are Muslims and one-third are Christians. The teachers are Palestinians or belong to other nationalities. This school stands in the front rank of education for tolerance; above all, it provides a concrete example of the possibility of peaceful and convivial relations between individuals of different religions and nationalities.

Statistics on Catholic educational establishments

56. Statistical and other information relating to education will be found in sections 1 and 2, below. Section 1 gives the world-wide picture and Section 2 deals specifically with Australia, Canada and the Holy Land.

1. World-wide statistics

57. The tables below give the 1995 figures for pre-school establishments, primary schools, secondary schools, higher educational establishments and universities published by the Statistical Office of the Church.

58. The Congregation for Catholic Education, the Holy See's office in charge of matters pertaining to education and schools, has supplied the following information on the activities of Catholic schools and the composition of the student population:

(a) In the United States of America, Catholics accounted for 12.8% of students in the school year 1993-1994; in the same year, more than 24% of all school children came from ethnic minorities. Integration of minorities is one of the objectives pursued by Catholic schools;

(b) In Lebanon, some 32% of all schoolchildren attend Catholic schools, which try to educate all citizens - not only Christians - for peace and freedom;

(c) In India, a large proportion of pupils of Catholic schools are not Christians;

(d) In Tunisia, Catholic schools - far from being reserved for Catholic children - are open to all and are promoting tolerance. They have 5 000 pupils, a large number compared with the size of the Catholic population, which totals only 18 000 persons;

(e) In Germany, the student population of Catholic schools is composed of about 40% Catholics, 20% Protestants and 40% children who have not been baptised (members of other religions or non-believers).

59. It should also be pointed out that in many countries where the majority of the population is non-Christian, Catholic schools are often the only place where children and young people of different faiths, cultures, social classes or ethnic backgrounds come into contact with each other. The Catholic International Education Office (CIEO) is promoting literacy projects in Haiti, Bolivia, Senegal and Cameroon while endeavouring to protect the local cultures and to combat discriminatory practices affecting rural or underprivileged populations.

CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1995

AFRICA

Country

Pre-school establishments

Primary or elementary schools

Secondary schools

Higher education establishments and universities

Students registered in universities

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Students registered in higher education establishments

Ecclesiastical studies

Other

Algeria

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Angola

--

--

73

26 403

32

28 075

--

--

--

Benin

4

455

25

3 662

18

3 982

--

--

--

Botswana

9

350

9

4 900

4

2 714

--

--

--

Burkina Faso

13

330

34

769

19

4 957

1 609

--

--

Burundi

2

220

323

85 554

21

8 671

--

--

--

Cameroon

201

13 329

962

256 892

111

48 134

124

381

302

Cape Verde

25

2 023

14

1 759

20

1 733

--

--

--

Central African Republic

40

2 868

31

5 336

14

1 758

--

--

--

Chad

17

1 163

41

14 831

7

2 299

--

--

--

Comoros

3

165

1

80

--

--

--

--

--

Congo

11

750

10

675

2

336

--

--

--

Côte d'Ivoire

53

3 444

285

72 971

33

14 051

132

205

--

Djibouti

1

80

9

2 000

1

195

--

--

--

Egypt

174

25 961

153

82 254

54

20 033

--

--

--

Eritrea

25

2 324

46

7 315

5

2 300

--

--

--

Ethiopia

85

10 560

147

50 357

38

12 108

--

29

--

Gabon

26

6 123

216

41 458

19

8 473

--

--

--

Gambia

6

1 550

41

9 005

11

7 050

--

--

--

Ghana

815

58 579

1 776

352 517

762

107 793

1 200

--

--

Guinea

40

3 406

13

2 250

6

1 105

--

--

--

Guinea‑Bissau

--

--

4

1 100

3

600

--

--

--

Guinea, Equatorial

10

862

34

6 803

6

3734

--

--

--

Kenya

1 969

104 832

5 202

1 589 033

921

237 981

250

1 625

20 000

Lesotho

79

6 866

486

154 016

83

25 204

--

--

--

Liberia

30

5 177

36

13 089

26

10 233

--

--

570

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Madagascar

281

36 409

2 019

298 729

187

88 892

1 048

--

--

Malawi

11

1 015

987

700 890

49

17 298

--

--

--

Mali

6

1 213

45

15 992

28

8 460

--

--

--

Mauritania

4

380

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Mauritius

5

155

52

22 641

20

23 550

--

--

--

Morocco

23

4 406

28

8 979

32

3 753

--

--

--

Mozambique

14

1 319

73

19 163

16

3 681

--

--

--

Namibia

19

1 056

20

8 088

6

1 593

--

--

--

Niger

4

1 300

7

4 500

2

1 450

--

--

--

Nigeria

1 380

150 818

1 246

380 403

208

187 170

2 734

577

--

Réunion

25

1 400

30

10 000

9

4 000

--

--

--

Rwanda

39

2 304

1 013

583 713

93

31 243

124

--

--

Sahara, Western

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Saint Helena

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Sao Tome and Principe

1

520

--

--

1

90

--

--

--

Senegal

75

5 954

118

41 254

42

16 012

205

--

--

Seychelles

--

--

5

2 800

--

--

--

--

--

Sierra Leone

19

3 393

381

85 766

37

15 545

400

--

--

Somalia

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

South Africa

230

17 367

256

72 881

94

27 732

605

--

5

Sudan

293

25 283

188

71 357

21

8 661

273

--

--

Swaziland

14

900

45

18 500

12

5 800

--

--

--

Tanzania, United Republic of

512

61 474

77

146 365

159

31 191

--

--

--

Togo

74

2 741

373

120 331

35

14 135

--

112

20

Tunisia

6

982

9

4 070

9

1 268

--

--

--

Uganda

506

45 418

4 428

1 629 840

450

161 853

230

66

192

Zaire

186

24 271

6 238

2 273 926

1 789

450 720

3 444

885

2 682

Zambia

16

1 880

9

1 881

38

14 573

--

200

--

Zimbabwe

55

2 845

70

49 262

58

29 516

772

--

--

TOTAL AFRICA – AFRIQUE

7 436

646 220

27 688

9 356 360

5 611

1 701 705

13 150

4 080

23 711

CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1995

AMERICA NORTH

Country

Pre-school establishments

Primary or elementary schools

Secondary schools

Higher education establishments and universities

Students registered in universities

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Students registered in higher education establishments

Ecclesiastical studies

Other

Bermuda

1

35

1

317

1

165

--

--

--

Canada

473

15 943

1 271

418 756

328

216 323

7 350

4 223

26 267

Greenland

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

St. Pierre and Miquelon

3

174

2

254

1

194

--

--

--

United States

5 668

218 122

6 964

1 815 281

1 280

638 440

335 558

43 128

338 292

TOTAL AMERICA NORTH –

6 145

234 274

8 238

2 234 608

1 610

855 122

342 908

47 351

364 559

CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1995

CENTRAL AMERICA MAINLAND

Country

Pre-school establishments

Primary or elementary schools

Secondary schools

Higher education establishments and universities

Students registered in universities

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Students registered in higher education establishments

Ecclesiastical studies

Other

Belize

--

--

130

29 828

6

6 017

--

--

--

Costa Rica

40

2 555

38

13 035

36

17 732

--

--

--

El Salvador

75

7 492

83

45 425

34

12 805

78

7 009

2 656

Guatemala

38

2 185

516

85 272

91

30 726

100

340

2 129

Honduras

35

2 297

29

11 057

30

22 602

136

2

226

Mexico

1 158

83 280

1 900

629 420

1 118

297 526

18 977

744

64 170

Nicaragua

57

9 023

333

44 654

78

27 425

400

225

223

Panama

77

3 235

38

25 187

38

14 033

28

291

5 765

TOTAL CENTR. AMER/MAINL –

1 480

110 067

3 067

883 878

1 431

428 866

19 719

8 611

75 169

CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1995

CENTRAL AMERICA ANTILLES

Country

Pre-school establishments

Primary or elementary schools

Secondary schools

Higher education establishments and universities

Students registered in universities

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Students registered in higher education establishments

Ecclesiastical studies

Other

Anguilla

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Antigua and Barbuda

--

--

1

583

2

562

--

--

--

Aruba

17

2 050

27

6 009

10

2 005

--

--

--

Bahamas

11

887

11

2 709

3

1 879

347

--

--

Barbados

2

312

2

397

2

433

--

--

--

Cayman Islands

--

--

1

350

--

--

--

--

--

Cuba

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Dominica

21

785

5

2 619

3

1 236

--

--

--

Dominican Republic

83

9 543

165

94 435

114

53 812

3 721

695

15 953

Grenada

17

1 175

25

6 488

5

782

--

--

--

Guadeloupe

12

1 709

13

2 830

20

3 442

--

--

--

Haiti

234

10 601

1 162

439 831

149

27 831

602

--

--

Jamaica

39

3 756

51

34 857

16

17 433

306

--

--

Martinique

7

465

8

1 689

4

1 642

--

--

--

Montserrat

--

--

1

132

--

--

--

--

--

Netherlands Antilles

40

4 664

64

15 141

22

7 020

--

--

--

Puerto Rico

108

5 574

131

41 898

105

26 353

1 179

--

23 545

Aint Kitts and Nevis

--

--

2

449

1

156

--

--

--

Saint Lucia

--

--

51

21 500

3

1 800

--

--

--

St. Vincent and the Grenadines

6

366

2

665

3

1 116

--

--

--

Trinidad and Tobago

11

350

122

50 000

24

13 000

--

--

--

Turks and Caicos Islands

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Virgin Islands (Great Brit.)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Virgin Islands (USA)

3

89

3

713

2

382

--

--

--

TOTAL CENTR. AMER/ANTIL –

611

42 326

1 847

723 295

488

160 884

6 155

695

39 498

CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1995

AMERICA SOUTH

Country

Pre-school establishments

Primary or elementary schools

Secondary schools

Higher education establishments and universities

Students registered in universities

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Students registered in higher education establishments

Ecclesiastical studies

Other

Argentina

1 436

150 991

1 584

667 724

1 322

380 112

36 276

609

31 692

Bolivia

142

11 895

610

186 609

217

84 535

3 445

580

10 884

Brazil

2 091

272 684

2 635

918 587

1 063

368 728

15 007

1 455

266 404

Chile

459

30 984

740

306 124

454

116 178

581

125

32 337

Colombia

730

91 771

1 554

506 809

997

666 484

12 418

2 146

106 658

Ecuador

275

21 056

870

212 736

458

135 126

4 436

79

29 636

Falkland Islands (Malvinas)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

French Guiana

5

617

5

1 206

4

1 336

--

--

--

Guyana

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Paraguay

172

4 968

680

50 636

220

21 007

688

--

16 696

Peru

192

19 905

471

209 064

401

215 856

24 008

437

144 690

Suriname

55

3 413

63

14 948

11

2 951

--

--

--

Uruguay

165

10 351

167

43 045

89

27 784

639

--

1 230

Venezuela

364

36 794

590

239 040

361

138 771

4 262

325

24 620

TOTAL AMERICA SOUTH

6 086

655 429

9 969

3 356 528

5 597

2 158 868

101 760

5 756

664 847

TOTAL AMÉRICA

14 322

1 042 096

23 121

7 198 309

9 126

3 603 740

470 542

62 413

1 144 073

CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL ESTABISHMENTS IN 1995

ASIA MIDDLE EAST

Country

Pre-school establishments

Primary or elementary schools

Secondary schools

Higher education establishments and universities

Students registered in universities

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Students registered in higher education establishments

Ecclesiastical studies

Other

Afghanistan

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Cyprus

3

428

3

404

3

600

--

--

--

Iran (Islamic Rep. of)

3

301

8

2 107

4

898

--

--

2 025

Iraq

--

--

--

--

--

--

482

--

--

Israel

59

11 464

51

12 844

37

11 481

--

259

3 000

Jordan

38

6 644

40

10 920

24

4 740

--

--

--

Lebanon

132

38 924

254

126 665

212

192 284

2 643

687

13 411

Syrian Arab Republic

44

5 658

21

9 194

7

2 340

--

--

--

Turkey

7

215

7

704

12

7 307

--

--

--

TOTAL ASIA MIDDLE‑EAST

286

63 634

384

162 838

299

219 650

3 125

946

18 436

CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1995

ASIA SOUTH EAST, FAR EAST

Country

Pre-school establishments

Primary or elementary schools

Secondary schools

Higher education establishments and universities

Students registered in universities

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Students registered in higher education establishments

Ecclesiastical studies

Other

Armenia

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Azerbaijan

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Bahrain

1

151

1

938

1

425

--

--

--

Bangladesh

52

4 476

424

49 905

53

28 473

1 600

--

494

Bhutan

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Brunei Darussalam

2

--

3

--

1

--

--

--

--

Cambodia

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

--

--

China, Mainland

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

China, Taiwan

216

29 310

10

8 022

36

81 822

2 750

108

28 935

Georgia

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Hong Kong

39

14 062

154

118 030

126

156 860

652

--

--

India

4 933

687 998

8 207

2 775 137

4 111

2 063 153

235 733

4 362

70 638

Indonésia

1 044

87 367

2 682

545 334

1 407

395 643

38 811

2 513

61 815

Japan

576

91 342

58

24 344

159

84 060

34 018

--

36 249

Kazakhstan

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Korea, Republic of

210

23 537

6

4 732

63

70 134

7 283

14 341

10 696

Kuwait

2

910

2

2 618

2

1 517

541

--

--

Kyrgyzstan

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Lao Peoples Dem. Rep.

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Macau

22

8 578

30

21 488

18

11 145

154

112

--

Malaysia

90

11 947

186

90 638

90

102 002

--

--

--

Maldives

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Mongolia

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Myanmar

65

3 356

46

1 570

1

67

--

--

--

Nepal

1

68

6

3 200

6

2 507

449

--

--

Oman

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Pakistan

124

6 959

203

53 784

139

66750

1 416

55

--

Philippines

682

193 671

494

423 564

1 026

704 111

348 829

15 699

172 485

Qatar

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Russian Federation (in Asia)

--

--

2

--

--

--

--

--

--

Saudi Arabia

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Singapore

10

2 406

20

25 992

17

19 780

2 211

--

--

Sri Lanka

307

17 278

34

29 474

44

38 051

530

195

7 046

Tajikistan

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Thailand

155

68 066

183

180 610

140

79 102

--

242

15 224

Timor, East

8

647

114

9 407

46

7 076

290

--

--

Turkmenistan

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

United Arab Emirates

6

2 005

6

7 154

6

2 171

--

--

Uzbekistan

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

VietNam

110

9 232

15

792

--

--

--

--

--

Yemen

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

TOTAL ASIA SOUTH EAST, FAR EAST

8 655

1 263 366

12 887

4 376 733

7 492

3 914 849

675 267

37 627

403 582

TOTAL ASIA

8 941

1 327 000

13 271

4 539 571

7 791

4 134 499

678 392

38 573

422 018

CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1995

EUROPE

Country

Pre-school establishments

Primary or elementary schools

Secondary schools

Higher education establishments and universities

Students registered in universities

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Students registered in higher education establishments

Ecclesiastical studies

Other

Albania

1

100

1

446

1

100

52

--

--

Andorra

--

--

1

1 200

1

450

--

--

--

Austria

656

49 040

165

35 289

155

33 606

1 724

4 360

774

Belarus

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Belgium

1 658

224 157

2 221

398 526

1 112

533 823

85 144

89

66 132

Bosnia and Herzegovina

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Bulgaria

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Croatia

--

--

--

--

4

330

231

--

--

Czech Republic

21

871

15

2 095

31

7 087

293

855

--

Denmark

11

400

23

800

1

100

--

--

--

Estonia

1

20

1

18

--

--

--

--

--

Faeroe Islands

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

--

--

Finland

2

104

1

255

1

91

--

--

--

France

1 628

278 598

5 178

720 046

2 732

1 069 872

41 368

7 548

16 555

Germany

9 365

643 932

196

34 896

1 069

279 784

6 705

8 979

1 375

Gibraltar

1

75

1

177

--

--

--

--

--

Great Britain

270

11 652

2 133

480 310

514

356 362

9 724

140

1 672

Greece

5

207

12

3 628

10

4 974

--

--

--

Hungary

35

1 746

61

14 981

35

9 668

649

1 420

2 098

Iceland

1

87

1

148

--

--

--

--

--

Ireland

72

19 591

3 240

511 037

728

338 625

3 444

341

3 904

Italy

6 997

399 658

1 523

176 736

1 726

213 345

11 831

11 264

46 248

Latvia

1

138

1

108

1

60

250

--

--

Liechtenstein

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

10

Lithuania

1

--

6

607

10

3 664

--

310

--

Luxembourg

8

500

2

2 000

5

2 400

--

--

--

Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Rep.)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Malta

46

1 841

31

8 977

18

6 593

522

--

--

Moldova, Republic of

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Monaco

2

255

4

647

1

707

--

--

--

Netherlands

80

12 920

685

107 694

158

70 000

--

--

--

Norway

2

90

3

545

2

290

--

--

--

Poland

158

7 422

257

114 156

171

80 057

9 605

23 995

675

Portugal

505

38 536

160

21 831

99

32 376

2 856

965

9 539

Romanie

14

764

1

96

14

1 485

505

913

270

Russian Fed. (in Europe)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

350

--

San Marino

4

297

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Slovakia

3

120

84

20 334

38

7 655

156

--

413

Slovenia

4

222

--

--

3

756

--

547

--

Spain

2 068

207 458

2 431

948 822

1 454

400 282

18 270

7 253

67 482

Svalbard and Jan Mayen Is.

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Sweden

9

278

3

518

--

--

--

--

490

Switzerland

18

235

12

650

38

4 660

134

157

--

Ukraine

1

25

--

--

--

--

93

391

--

Yugoslavia

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

TOTAL EUROPE

23 648

1 901 339

18 454

3 607 573

10 132

3 459 202

193 556

69 877

217 637

CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1995

OCEANIA

Country

Pre-school establishments

Primary or elementary schools

Secondary schools

Higher education establishments and universities

Students registered in universities

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Students registered in higher education establishments

Ecclesiastical studies

Other

Australia

267

17 950

1 284

342 080

449

263 031

3 331

2 691

1 687

Canton and Enderbury Is.

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Cook Islands

2

49

2

319

1

201

--

--

--

Fiji

2

92

44

12 010

18

6 846

--

--

--

Guam

4

471

6

2 623

3

1 006

--

--

--

Kiribati

--

--

1

--

3

1 220

20

--

--

Marianas

2

175

2

496

1

155

--

--

--

Marshall Islands

--

--

6

1 125

2

245

--

--

--

Micronesia, Fed. S.

2

110

4

1 331

4

575

--

--

--

Nauru

--

--

--

240

1

240

--

--

--

New Caledonia

44

3 233

38

5 245

30

6 464

48

--

--

New Zealand

2

60

190

33 954

47

23 179

1 724

104

--

Niue

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Palau

1

28

1

262

1

175

--

--

--

Papua New Guinea

133

5 768

830

126 403

79

16 662

592

69

--

Polynesia, French

10

2 103

11

4 335

11

5 126

12

--

--

Samoa

6

202

7

2 977

8

2 493

--

--

--

Samoa, American

2

260

2

410

2

330

--

--

--

Solomon Islands

9

375

9

1 680

7

840

--

--

--

Tokelau Islands

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Tonga

--

--

--

--

6

2 350

--

--

--

Tuvalu Islands

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Vanuatu

56

1 200

53

6 400

8

900

--

--

--

Wake Island

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Wallis and Futuna Islands

11

1 800

19

2 197

8

1 250

--

--

--

TOTAL OCEANIA

553

33 876

2 509

544 087

689

333 288

5 727

2 864

1 687

TOTAL WORLD

54 900

4 950 531

85 043

25 245 900

33 349

13 232 434

1 361 367

177 807

1 809 186

CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1995

TOTAL WORLD

Country

Pre-school establishments

Primary or elementary schools

Secondary schools

Higher education establishments and universities

Students registered in universities

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Number

Pupils registered

Students registered in higher education establishments

Ecclesiastical studies

Other

TOTAL AFRICA

7 436

646 220

27 688

9 356 360

5 611

1 701 705

13 150

4 080

23 771

TOTAL AMERICA NORTH

6 145

234 274

8 238

2 234 608

1 610

855 122

342 908

47 351

364 559

TOTAL CENT. AMER. MAINLAND

1 480

110 067

3 067

883 878

1 431

428 866

19 719

8 611

75 169

TOTAL CENT. AMER. ANTILLES

611

42 326

1 847

723 295

488

160 884

6 155

695

39 498

TOTAL AMERICA SOUTH

6 886

655 429

9 969

3 356 528

5 597

2 158 868

101 760

5 756

664 847

TOTAL AMÉRIQUE

14 322

1 042 096

23 121

7 198 309

9 126

3 603 740

470 542

62 413

1 144 073

TOTAL ASIA MIDDLE‑EAST

286

63 634

384

162 838

299

219 650

3 125

946

18 436

TOTAL ASIA SOUTH‑EAST, FAR EAST

8 655

1 263 366

12 887

4 376 733

7 492

3 914 849

675 267

37 627

403 582

TOTAL ASIA

8 941

1 327 000

13 271

4 539 571

7 791

4 134 499

678 392

38 573

422 018

TOTAL EUROPE

23 648

1 901 339

18 454

3 607 573

10 132

3 459 202

193 556

69 877

217 637

TOTAL OCEANIA

553

33 876

2 509

544 087

689

332 288

5 727

2 864

1 687

TOTAL WORLD

54 900

4 950 531

85 043

25 245 900

33 349

13 232 434

1 361 367

177 807

1 809 186

2. Statistics relating to specific countries

60. The table below gives figures for Catholic primary and secondary schools in Australia, disaggregated according to the student's birthplace, religion and language spoken at home.

Australia

Infants/Primary Catholic

Secondary Catholic

TOTAL

Aboriginal

5 580

2 574

8 154

Student's Birthplace

Infants/Primary Catholic

Secondary Catholic

TOTAL

Australia

305 381

215 716

521 097

United Kingdom

2 146

2 849

4 995

Ireland

634

863

1 497

New Zealand

1 479

1 559

3 038

North America

813

709

1 522

Italy

186

290

476

Malta

52

142

194

Former Yugoslavia

400

300

700

Poland

497

1 026

1 523

Other Eastern Europe & Former USSR

255

354

609

Netherlands

45

92

137

Germany

137

227

364

Other Europe NEI

605

923

1 528

Mauritius

186

412

598

North East Asia

2 181

3 918

6 099

Vietnam

880

2 470

3 350

Philippines

2 883

3 297

6 180

South East Asia

1 397

2 875

4 272

Lebanon

556

739

1 295

Middle East NEI & North Africa

933

1 032

1 965

Chile

367

633

1 000

Central America &. Sth America NEI

963

1 275

2 238

India

873

813

1 686

Sri Lanka & Other Southern Asia

803

858

1 661

Other

1 318

2 504

3 822

ID/At Sea/NEI/NS

6 539

4 102

10 641

Total

332 509

249 978

582 487

NEI: Not Elsewhere Indicated

ID: Inadequately Described

NS: Not Stated

Religion

Infants/Primary Catholic

Secondary Catholic

TOTAL

Religion

274 634

192 005

466 639

Western Catholic

1 527

1 458

2 985

Maronite Catholic

42

42

84

Ukrainian Catholic

141

147

288

Total Catholic

276 344

193 652

469 996

Anglican

13 526

14 757

28 283

Orthodox

6 585

5 661

12 246

Other Christian

11 824

13 000

24 824

Non-Christian

4 044

3 916

7 960

No Religion

11 808

11 522

23 330

NS/ID

8 939

7 211

16 150

TOTAL

333 070

249 719

582 789

Languages spoken at home

Infants/Primary Catholic

Secondary Catholic

TOTAL

Italian

9 271

9 079

18 350

Maltese

725

866

1 591

Vietnamese

5 361

4 184

9 545

Arabic (including Lebanese)

7 870

6 884

14 754

Spanish

3 345

3 449

6 794

Filipino

2 925

2 484

5 409

Croatian

1 921

2 030

3 951

Czech

78

81

159

Polish

2 072

1 820

3 892

Dutch

120

141

261

Australian Indigenous Languages

877

477

1 354

Chinese Languages

5 523

5 160

10 683

French

677

767

1 444

German

408

423

831

Portuguese

852

963

1 815

Hungarian

310

308

618

Greek

2 826

2 922

5 748

Slovene

39

63

102

Indonesian & Malay

415

830

1 245

Ukrainian

154

148

302

Oceania & Papuan Languages

833

889

1 722

Eastern European Languages NEI

1 129

1 223

2 352

Other European Languages NEI

75

60

135

Southern Asian Languages

1 552

1 068

2 620

SW Asian and Nth Affican Languages (Excluding Arabic)

556

517

1 073

Other Asian Languages

1 203

1 557

2 760

Other Languages NEI

168

141

309

English only

278 352

199 408

477 760

ID/non-verbal/NS

2 685

1 295

4 480

TOTAL

332 322

249 737

582 059

NEI: Not Elsewhere indicated

ID: Inadequately Described

NS: Not Stated

Canada

61. The following figures relate to Catholic schools in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec.

Aboriginal

Ethnic and racial minorities:

not available

Linguistic minorities

not available

Religious minorities

95 000 (estimate)

Number of all students enrolled:

1 544 145

Catholic schools in the Holy Land

62. For four centuries, the Catholic Church in the Holy Land has shown a close interest in the peoples of the Holy Land - Christians, Moslems and Jews - by offering them possibilities to learn, acquire an education and consolidate their human and religious culture. In Palestine, a first school was opened at Bethlehem in 1598 and a second one at Nazareth in 1640, followed by many others from 1843 onwards. On the West Bank, the very first school of the Hashemite Emirate was inaugurated at Salt in 1866 by missionaries of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem as a result of a decision one on which the very life or death of a people living under Ottoman domination depended.

63. Today, the presence of the Catholic Church in the educational sphere is important in terms of numbers and much appreciated at the cultural level. Catholic schools are open to all religions and cultures; their aim is to form the individual personality as a whole.

64. Here we should explain that in using the commonly accepted term "Holy Land" we refer to the following three geopolitical regions: the State of Israel (Israel), the Autonomous Territories under the control of the Palestinian Authority (Palestine), and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Jordan). Four statistical tables relating to Catholic schools in these three regions are reproduced below.

65. The total population of the Holy Land (11 million) includes 280 000 Christians, 140 000 of whom are Catholics.

Number of establishments

Number of students

Christians

Non- Christianss

Number

 %

Number

 %

Israel

Schools

39

19 910

13 144

66,0

6 766

34,0

Children's homes

8

598

69

11,5

529

88,5

Total

47

20 508

13 213

64,4

7 295

35,6

Palestine

Schools

39

15 752

7 212

45,8

8 540

54,2

Children's homes

5

236

176

74,6

60

25,4

University

1

2 058

609

29,6

1 449

70,4

Total

45

18 046

7 997

46,2

10 049

53,8

Jordan

Schools

44

25 994

13 490

51,9

12 504

48,1

Children's homes

1

26

23

88,5

3

11,5

Total

45

26 020

13 513

51,9

12 507

48,1

Grand Total

Schools

123

63 714

34 455

54,1

29 259

45,9

Children's homes

14

860

268

31,2

592

68,8

Total

137

64 574

34 723

53,8

29 851

46,2

66.The "educational levels" table below shows the number of schools and of students between the ages of 6 and 15 in compulsory education or receiving vocational training.

Israel

Palestine

Jordan

Total

Pre-school establishments (age 3-6)

EstablishmentsStudents

294 654

373 920

373 971

10312 545

Elementary schools (compulsory)(age 6-12)

EstablishmentsStudents

247 762

278 024

4014 739

9130 525

Junior secondary schools (age 12-16)

EstablishmentsStudents

225 115

242 875

305 462

7613 452

Senior secondary schools (age 16-18)

EstablishmentsStudents

162 201

171 032

131 647

464 880

Vocational schools

EstablishmentsStudents

4776

1137

2201

71 114

Universities

EstablishmentsStudents

12 058

12 058

67. The composition of the school population is influenced to a certain extent by the students' socio -geographical or socio -professional background.

Locality

Schools

Students

Socio-professional background

Israël

Tel Aviv

3

1 668

White-collar/shopkeepers/diplomatic staff

Haïfa

7

4 050

White-collar/shopkeepers/liberal professions

Nazareth

13

7 491

Blue-collar/tourism/liberal professions

Autres

24

7 299

Blue-collar

Palestine

Jérusalem

14

4 518

White-collar/tourism/liberal professions

Bethléem

15

7 160

White-collar/tourism/liberal professions

Ramallah

3

1 795

White-collar/liberal professions

Autres

12

4 573

Blue-collar/peasants/shopkeepers

Jordanie

Amman

18

12 281

White-collar/liberal professions/blue-collar

Zerka

6

2 992

White-collar/blue-collar

Madaba

1

1 952

White-collar/liberal professions/shopkeepers

Autres

19

8 795

.Peasants/white-collar

68. We also consider it worthwhile to indicate the dioceses to which the students belong.

Schools

Total

Number of Christian pupils and students

Christians, per cent

Diocese of the Latin Patriarchate

40

18 696

11 677

62,5

Custody of the Holy Land

14

6 548

3 875

59,2

Religious

51

23 735

10 625

44,8

Bethlehem Univ.

1

2 058

609

29,6

Diocese of the Melchite Achbishopric of Galilee

10

4 067

2 686

66,0

Religious

3

2 163

1 877

86,8

Diocese of the Melchite Archbishopric of Jordan

9

3 000

1 022

34,1

Religious

3

2 852

1 353

47,4

Melchite Exarchate of Jerusalem

3

1 260

902

71,6

Maronite Archbishopric in Israel

1

23

19

82,6

Syrian Catholic Exarchate

1

58

35

60,3

Armenian Catholic Exarchate

114

43

37,7

TOTAL

137

64 574

34 723

53.8

69. Educational project of the Assembly of Catholic Ordinaries of the Holy Land (ACOHL): in the past five years a commission of ACOHL has prepared a first draft of en educational project which has now been examined by the headmasters' conference and approved by the Assembly itself. In this educational project for Catholic schools, the Catholic Ordinaries, while taking due account of the particular features of the three countries forming the Holy Land, emphasize a number of common principles, namely:

(a) Development of the person by means of a sound human, scientific and cultural education aimed at the construction of society;

(b) A balanced Christian religious education in which faith is harmonized with the way of life;

(c) Collaboration with the family, primarily responsible for the child's education;

(d) Promotion of mutual respect and cooperation in a pluralistic society ;

(e) Training for responsible, conscious and loyal citizenship .

70. Activities of National Catholic Schools Bureaux : these Bureaux have organized various meetings, symposia and informal encounters for teachers in Israel, Palestine and Jordan. These events are a means of getting teachers to know each other, developing awareness of their role and mission as educators, and providing them with additional professional and scientific training. Other activities, such as meetings with other schools (Christian, Muslim or Jewish) aimed at promoting knowledge and respect of others, are under consideration.

71. Separate educational projects: several schools run by religious congregations have drawn up educational projects of their own which take account of the spirit and the charismatic powers of the religious family. The "Educational Projects" of Custody of the Holy Land, the teaching order of the Christian Brothers, the Religious of Nazareth and the Sisters of Saint Dorothy specially emphasize the following points:

(a) Doing one's work in a spirit of faithfulness to the Gospels;

(b) Primacy of the individual as the object of education;

(c) Equal rights of individuals (Christian, Muslim or Druze ) to receive the same education and instruction;

(d) Pre-eminence of religious and moral values: knowledge of one's own religion, consistency of religious beliefs with the way of life, sense of responsibility, honesty, loyalty, having the courage of one's convictions, generosity, making sacrifices for the good of others, peace, acceptance of religious and ethnic diversity;

(e) Primacy of the family's responsibility in educational matters.

Schools and pluralistic society

72. The Catholic Church has made an important choice: its schools must be open to all. Pluralism depends on the location of the school itself, e.g. whether it is located in an environment where the majority of people are Christian or Muslim, or where there are several Catholic schools. In Israel, Muslim pupils account for 35.6% of the student population of Catholic schools because the instruction is provided in Arabic; there are a few Jews at the Christian Brothers School of Jaffa -Tel Aviv, where instruction is provided in French, and at the Prophet Elias College, Ibillin (instruction in Arabic, Hebrew and English). At Gaza, where Christians account for 0.04% of the population, the Catholic school has 1 132 pupils, 86.6% of whom are Muslims. In Jordan, 48.1% of the 26 020 students attending Catholic schools are Muslims.

73. The chief motive behind this policy of openness is to enable the students gradually to acquire the habit of accepting the differences between themselves and others, to learn about divergencies between religions, to talk to each other and to respect one another despite some conflicting opinions, to become accustomed to living together in an atmosphere of mutual respect and love.

74. Oriental Semitic man has three great values: (a) Allah, Adonai , God: the religious dimension of life; (b) Al- malek , tribe, family, clan: the social dimension; and (c) Al- Watan , Eretz -Israel, the home country: the political dimension. Oriental man identifies his life with all three - religion, social life and politics.

75. Ever since the Catholic Church began to introduce the Catholic faith into the culture of the peoples of the Holy Land and to assume a place of its own in that culture, new generations have been discovering a new sense of belonging to their family, homeland and religion. Previously, the religious congregations in the Holy Land had adopted their language of origin as the teaching languages in their schools. Without wanting to do so, they had created a sense of uprootedness among Christians by inculcating in them the feeling that they were strangers in their own land and belonged to a different people from the Muslims or the Jews. Today, the Catholic Ordinaries of the Holy Land lay particular stress on conveying a sense of belonging to new generations of young Christians:

(a) The Christian must be proud of his/her Arab-Christian culture;

(b) The Christian is Arab/Jewish or Israeli/Palestinian/Jordanian;

(c) The Christian is a citizen, not a resident foreigner;

(d) The Christian must collaborate in the construction of society and the preservation of its culture.

Declaration against discrimination

76. A lively sense of belonging to the same homeland is the best way to fight discrimination. Catholic schools are committed to promoting such feelings by providing religious education to Muslims as well as Christians; by sharing the joy of each other's feast days; by visiting each other's holy places; by participating in the other's sufferings, whatever their nature; by organizing visits of discovery and exchanges between Christian, Muslim and Jewish schools; by participating in regional cultural and sports contests; and by jointly preparing - Christians, Jews, Muslims and Druzes together - marches or demonstrations for peace and understanding among peoples of the same Semitic origin.

The contribution of the Pontifical Commission for Interreligious Dialogue (PCID)

77. The activities of PCID, designed to promote meetings and exchanges between religions, cultures and ethnic groups, take the form of messages on festive occasions, the holding of colloquia, the setting up of standing contact committees, visits and declarations.

1. Messages on major feast-days of other religions

78. Such messages not only assure the believers of other religions of the positive attitude of the Holy See authority responsible for relations with them; they also give Christians living alongside those other religions an opportunity to visit their friends who belong to them, thus strengthening existing links of friendship and creating new ones. Moreover, these messages always develop a theme which encourages reflection among their immediate addressees as well as among Christians. They always include exhortations to forgiveness, reconciliation, mutual acceptance, co-operation and bearing witness before non-believers.

(a) Message for the end of Ramadan ('Id Al- Fitr ) . This is the thirtieth consecutive year in which the Commission has sent a message to Muslims for the end of the month of Ramadan (month of fasting for Muslims, concluded by the "Feast of Breaking the Fast", 'Id al- Fitr ) . The message is signed by the Cardinal President of the PCID. In this connection it is significant to recall the 1995 message entitled Christians and Muslims: going further than tolerance (see annex 1, available for consultation in the Secretariat).

(b) Message to the Hindus. This message is sent to the Hindus on the occasion of the feast of Diwali . In 1996, the subject of the message was "Going beyond tolerance" (for annex 2, see the Secretariat).

(c) Message to Buddhists : This message is sent on the occasion of the feast of Vesakh . The theme of the last message was tolerance and respect of differences (for annex 3, see the Secretariat).

2. Colloquia

79. Colloquia are important features of interreligious dialogue. At the same time, they provide an occasion for meeting and getting to know one another, making friends and sharing experiences.

(a) The Royal Academy for Islamic Civilization Research - Al Alhaf Foundation (Amman, Jordan) is one of the important and assiduous partners in this endeavour . One of the five colloquia held with the members of the Academy was devoted to the subject of "Nationalism today: problems and challenges" (Amman, 18-20 January 1994). The participants considered the subject, both in history and in the present-day world, from the Christian and Muslim points of view. The final communique distinguishes between a natural and healthy love of one's country and "a destructive, chauvinist nationalism which seeks to exclude, demean and subjugate those who do not belong to one's nation". According to Christianity as well as Islam, "no nation or race or people is superior to any other in the sight of God. The human person will be judged before God according to faith and obedience". After a restatement of the positive values of a healthy nationalism, Christians and Muslims are exhorted "to condemn and oppose nationalistic impulses being turned into tools for dominating or destroying other nations or peoples, as can be seen happening in various regions of the world today".

(b) The World Islamic Call Society (Tripoli, Libya) is another of the Commission's partners. A seminar on "The Media and Presentation of Religion" was held in Tripoli in October 1993 (see annex 4). It was followed up by a Workshop on "Religion and the Media", which took place in Vienna in October 1994. The influence of the media on the image of other people or religions does not need to be emphasized. The final declaration of the Workshop is significant in this respect (see annex 5). A colloquium on the subject of "Harmony Among Believers of the Living Faiths. Christians and Muslims in S.E.Asia " was held at Pattaya (Thailand) from 1 to 5 August 1994 (annex 6).

3. Joint committees with international Islamic organizations and institutes

80. An Islamo -Catholic Liaison Committee was established in June 1995. Its object is to promote dialogue on topics of general interest and to exchange ideas on the situation of Christians and Muslims facing difficulties in countries with, respectively, a Christian and a Muslim majority. The Committee meets once a year or several times a year if necessary. Another joint committee has been established between PCID and Al Azhar , the most important institute in the Islamic world, but its statute is yet to be finalized.

4. Statements of position

81. The recrudescence of violence by Islamic extremists, especially against Christians, makes it easy to amalgamate violence with Islam. This encourages people to make unjust generalizations and feeds resentment against Muslims. In an interview on Vatican Radio on 27 May 1996 following the assassination of several Trappist monks in Algeria (see annex 7), Cardinal Arinze said: "We are sure that the majority of Muslims agree with what the Pope said on his visit to Tunisia: 'No one has the right kill in the name of God, no one has the right to inflict death on his brother.' We know that many Muslims have already expressed their firm refusal to interpret violence in religious terms or, worse still, to justify violence in the name of religion".

The contribution of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant Peoples

82. The Pontifical Council's contribution towards the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination within the meaning of the Convention consists in efforts to encourage ecclesiastical as well as civil structures to strive for the eradication of the causes which make millions of refugees leave their homes. These efforts take the form, in particular, of declarations and programmes of action developed at international meetings organized by the Council, such as:

(a) "The path of solidarity": seminar on refugees (Gregorian Pontifical University, 29 April 1993);

(b) Seminar on illegal migrants: appeal for the primacy of charity (Munich, 29 September - 1 October 1996);

(c) Two consultations on the pastoral care of refugees in Africa (Zambia, 1993, and Cote d'Ivoire, 1994);

(d) Two consultations on the pastoral care of migrants and refugees in Asia (Philippines, 1992 and 1996).

83. A basic document prepared by the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants together with the Pontifical Council " Cor Unum" bears the title "Refugees, a challenge to solidarity" (1992). This document, already commented upon in the context of the United Nations and widely disseminated, expresses the Church's solicitude for persecuted ethnic groups and for victims of abuses of power. It stresses the responsibility of each country to "respect and ensure respect of the rights of refugees in the same way as it guarantees the rights of its own citizens".

84. Referring to the imbalances existing in the world of today, the document states: "The Church offers its love and its assistance to all refugees without distinction as to religion and race. It respects in each of them the inalienable dignity of the human person created in the image of God. Christians […] must demonstrate that when the dignity of the human person with all that it implies is given first place, the barriers created by injustice will begin to fall".

85. Referring to the primary responsibility of the local Church towards refugees, the Council states: "The local Church must respond to the demands of the Gospels by extending its help to refugees, without distinction, when they need it and when they are alone. Its task takes different forms - personal contacts, defence of the rights of individuals and groups, denunciation of the injustices which are at the root of the evil, […] education against xenophobia […] ".

86. The Council has also sought to promote the amendment of certain discriminatory policies found to exist within the European Union on the occasion of meetings of European Ministers for Migration. For example, at its latest meeting held in Warsaw from 16 to 18 June 1996, the Council adopted the suggestion of its group on migration policies "that States should examine their national laws with a view to the elimination of discriminatory provisions".

87. Pastoral care of Gypsies is another field in which the Council endeavours to induce society to overcome discriminatory feelings against brothers who are different (meeting held in Rome on 6-8 June 1995). Speaking on the occasion of the 4 th International Congress on Pastoral Care of Gypsies, the President, H.E. Monsignor Cheli , said: "The Church does not offer specific pastoral care to the poor. It does, on the other hand, offer specific pastoral care to persons who belong to different ethnic groups, languages and cultures, recognizing not only their right to exist but also their right to a living space and to respect within civil and religious society. That is the raison d'etre of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant Peoples, among whom Gypsies are included".

Subparagraph C. Information

Vatican Radio

88. Vatican Radio (founded in 1931; daily broadcasting time, 54 hrs. 50 mins .; broadcasting networks, 5; regularly used languages, 37) constantly concerns itself with topics which form the subject of the Convention. These topics are covered from many different angles and on many occasions, especially in connection with the presentation of documents and statements emanating from the Holy Father (messages on the occasion of World Peace Day, addresses to the diplomatic corps and to international organizations, etc.). But the subject of racial discrimination has also been dealt with directly in news bulletins, reports and talks.

89. A list of the occasions on which the subject has been mentioned in the 2 p.m. news bulletin ( Radiogiornale ) will be found below. This is the main and most comprehensive news broadcast of the day, and its contents are also issued in print. Apart from news bulletins, Vatican Radio also deals with the subject in other ways; for example, a cycle of ten programmes on the subject of discrimination as treated in contemporary films was scheduled for broadcasting as part of the cultural and educational programme Orizzonti cristiani (Christian Horizons) in 1997. Issues of a more specific nature, such as anti-Semitism and its eradication or the problems of immigrant workers and discrimination against them, have been dealt with on numerous occasions in Vatican Radio's German-language and French-language programmes .

INFORMATION ITEMS CONCERNING RACIAL DISCRIMINATION INCLUDED

IN THE 2 P.M. RADIOGIORNALE

90. The search was based on the terms "racism", "anti-Semitism" and "intolerance".

Year: 1993

1 January International Year for the World's Indigenous People

3 " Human chain against anti-Semitism and xenophobia in Bonn

9 " Message of the Italian Bishops' Conference on the occasion of the annual Day for the development of dialogue between Jews and Christians

10 " Report of sermon at a Mass for Peace in Former Yugoslavia celebrated by the Pope at Assisi

14 " Lecture by Cardinal Willebrands on the dialogue between Jews and Christians

18 " Public demonstrations against racism in Germany

24 " Demonstrations against racism in Vienna

3 February Anti-racism campaign of Amnesty International

5 " Presentation of a European anti-racism plan to the Council of Europe

17 " Special issue on racism of the review Popoli e missioni

2 8 " Torchlight procession against racism organized by European trade unionists in Rome

15 March European forum on migrants

21 " International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

21 " Demonstrations in Belgium in connection with International Day against Racism

25 " The struggle against racism: a new subject taught in Australian schools

28 " Interview with Mgr. Tabet , Permanent Observer to the United Nations and the specialized agencies at Geneva

4 April Commemoration of Martin Luther King on the 25th anniversary of his death

7 " Introduction of an anti-racist telephone card in Germany

16 " The Pope's message to Polish Jews on the anniversary of the Rising of the Warsaw Ghetto

19 " International conference against racism organized in Australia by the United Nations and the Australian Government

6 June Demonstration against racism organized by the diocesan branch of Caritas in Rome

9 " Interview with Mgr. Di Liegro , director of the Rome branch of Caritas

14-25 " World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna

2 July The Pope addresses young members of the International Council of Christians and Jews

15 " Document of the bishops of the province of Campagna directed against racism

23 " Interview with Fernanda Contri , Italy's Minister for Social Affairs, on her Government' commitment to the struggle against racism

26 November Interview with Mgr. Cheli in connection with the Athens conference of European Ministers in charge of migration

4 December The Pope addresses a group of American bishops on a visit ad limina

5 " Videocassette against racism produced by UNHCR

6 " European conference to launch the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education

11 " Munich: meeting on migrations and racism organized by the European bishops

Year: 1994

21 January Presentation of Council of Europe campaign against racism and xenophobia

29 " European Union project for combating racism

2 March Seminar on racism and intolerance organized by the Council of Europe at Strasbourg; Cardinal Koenig opens the work of the seminar

11 " Resolution condemning racism adopted by United Nations Commission on Human Rights

20 " Demonstration against racism in London

21 " Note on the occasion of International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

7 April The Pope addresses representatives of American Jewry on the occasion of the anniversary of the Holocaust

8 " The Pope makes a speech at the end of a concert marking the fiftieth anniversary of the Holocaust

17 " Declaration against racism made by the bishops of England and Wales at the conclusion of their plenary assembly

25 " Interview with Patrick Quentin, general secretary of the International League against Racism and Anti-Semitism

27 " Interview with the Archbishop of Johannesburg on apartheid in South Africa

12 May Launching of the "European Passport" initiative against racism

18 " Joint declaration against racism by representatives of various Christian confessions

5 June Declaration by bishops of the twelve member countries of the European Union

10 " Interview with Mgr. Dante Bernini

22 " Declaration by the Catholic and Protestant Churches of Switzerland

24 " Interview with Mgr. Luigi Di Liegro , director of the Roman Caritas

24 September Referendum in Switzerland against racism

12 October Statement by Mgr. Lebeaupin at a meeting of the CSCE

4 November Interview with Elio Toaff on anti-Semitism and the Judaeo -Christian dialogue

11 " Switzerland signs the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

23 " Colloquium in Milan on the topic of "Education after Auschwitz" with the participation of Cardinal Martini and Tullia Zevi

Year: 1995

25 January Declaration by German bishops and the Polish episcopal commission for dialogue with Judaism on the fiftieth anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz

26 " Interview with Cardinal Martini on the subject of the Holocaust

28 " Auschwitz appeal for tolerance and respect of human rights by representatives of 29 countries and Nobel prize-winners

29 " Angelus by Pope John-Paul II on the anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp

19 February Jewish-American organizations denounce the revival of anti-semitism in the United States

25 " Interview with Franco Passuello , president of ACLI, on the occasion of a demonstration against racism held in Rome

5 March 6 th meeting of Jews and Christians at Ferrara

21 " Interview with the journalist Ettore Masina on the occasion of International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

19 June Debate on racism

4 July Warsaw: departure of "anti-racist train"

8 " Interview with Franco Marziale , director of the European Youth Centre , on the campaign against racism launched by the Council of Europe

10 July European Youth Against Racism Week

22 " Interview with Franco Marziale on the conclusion of European Youth Against Racism Week

25 August Italian schools against racism

31 " A new subject, "anti-racism", introduced into the Italian secondary school syllabus

18 September UNICEF campaign in Italian secondary schools

26 " Joint declaration by Evangelical, Jewish and Muslim religious leaders in France

10 October Proposal by the United Nations for an international conference against intolerance

15 " Colloquium in Rome on human rights in Europe

19 " Solemn session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York on the fiftieth anniversary of the end of the Second World War

29 " Interview with Tullia Zevi

22 November Japan ratifies the International Convention against Racial Discrimination

Year: 1996

12 January USA: week against violence and racism

18 " Declaration of Italian bishops on the occasion of Judaeo -Christian Dialogue Day

12 March Youth against racism week

17 " Presentation of a book containing a survey on racism

19 " The Council of Europe and the struggle against racism

21 " International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: interview with Franco Marziale of the European Youth Centre

13 April Report of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights on the rise of racism in Europe

19 " The European Parliament denounces the revival of racism in Europe

28 " Interview with Tullia Zevi on anti-Semitism and racism

23 August International youth meeting against racism

29 " European anti-racist meeting at Livorno

31 October United Nations report on racism

28 November European Monitoring Centre for Racism and Xenophobia established in Brussels

30 " The struggle against racism as one of the projects to be taken up at the Second World Youth Forum

18 December Pastoral letter of Australian bishops on the incompatibility of racial intolerance with Christian faith

22 " Bilateral meeting of delegations representing the Holy See and the Moscow Patriarchate ; subjects discussed include racism and religious intolerance.

Osservatore Romano

The Vatican's daily newspaper (founded in 1861, published in Italian with weekly editions for the following language areas: French (1949), English (1968), Spanish (1969), Portuguese (1970), German (1971) and Polish (1980)) has devoted topical items, extensive reportages and background articles to the subjects covered by the Convention. A list of 312 articles concerning racism, the treatment of refugees and interreligious dialogue appearing in the Italian edition, many of which were also published in other editions, is annexed.

III. INITIATIVES TAKEN BY THE HOLY SEE IN CONNECTION WITH ETHNIC CONFLICTS

A. The Balkans

92. In its conclusions adopted on 17 August 1993 (A/48/18), the Committee recommended, inter alia ( para . 304), that the State party should become more active in conflict prevention and resolution efforts, should undertake further measures to promote interreligious dialogue, especially in ethnic conflict situations displaying a religious component, and should try to exercise an ameliorating effect in that respect.

93. In this context, attention is drawn to the range of activities undertaken by the Holy Father and the Holy See to promote peace in the Balkans and in the region of the Great Lakes. Full documentation concerning action taken by the Holy See to promote peace in the Balkans will be found in the following documents attached to this report:

"La crisi jugoslava -Posizione ed azione della Santa Sede nel 1991-1994". Osservatore Romano , issue No. 18.

"L'action du Saint Siege dans le conflit bosniaque, 1993-1994". Osservatore Romano , issue No.25.

"L'engagement du Saint-Siege pour la paix dans les Balkans, 1994-1995". Osservatore Romano , issue No.33.

94. It will suffice here to recall that from the outset of the conflict in Bosnia the Holy See made incessant efforts to end it, placing special emphasis on the following lines of action:

(a) Denouncing the atrocities committed, especially so-called "ethnic cleansing";

(b) Distinguishing between the aggressors and the victims of aggression, while at the same time deploring the evil deeds committed by either side;

(c) Insisting upon the international community's duty to "disarm the aggressor" in order to save the victim populations and their religious and cultural heritage;

(d) Recalling the standards of international law which rule out the recognition of territorial conquests achieved by force;

(e) Supporting all humanitarian initiatives undertaken with a view to mitigating the sufferings caused by war;

(f) Backing the international community's efforts to establish an effective dialogue between the conflicting parties and to achieve a lasting peace.

95. In his appeals and addresses, especially those to the diplomatic corps and to the United Nations in New York on the occasion of his visit on 5 October 1995, the Holy Father recalled the fundamental principles to which reference must be made in peace negotiations. Without such reference, it is difficult to achieve more than a fragile and uncertain truce which, while it constitutes a first step towards peace, does not guarantee it.

96. Having in mind the reconstruction of the war-ravaged Balkan countries, the Pope and his collaborators have always endeavoured to ensure that useful lessons for the future are drawn from the bitter experiences of the past and, in particular, have stressed the need to:

(a) Resist the temptations of rivalry and mistrust;

(b) Respect the human rights of all persons, whatever group they belong to;

(c) Promote the return of refugees and displaced persons, avoiding arbitrary population removals based on ethnic criteria;

(d) Give greater attention to the dignity and rights of national minorities.

97. The peace process initiated by the Dayton Accords (21 November 1995) confronted the international community with new challenges arising from the duty to reconstruct a region torn apart by violence and suffering. The Church, for its part, wished to shoulder its responsibilities in this regard. In order to reflect upon this duty, the Holy Father convened in Rome on 17 October 1995 all the bishops from the countries directly involved in the conflict. Conscious of their mission as Pastors of the Mother Church, the bishops, united with the Pope who is responsible for the care of all local Churches, having attentively studied the situation, formulated the following questions:

(a) What acts of pardon and reconciliation to propose at the personal and community levels?

(b) How to promote a healthy patriotism in place of the destructive nationalism which has prevailed in the last few years?

(c) How to prevent the possible ill-effects of the reconstruction effort - lust for material goods, jealousy of the well-to-do, discouragement in face of the magnitude of tasks to be achieved?

(d) How to conduct a constructive dialogue with Orthodox Christians and Muslims with a view to carrying out specific projects?

98. During the meeting, the participants accepted a number of commitments for their future ministry as part of pastoral programmes for a new mission of evangelization on the eve of the third millennium. They undertook, in particular:

(a) To intensify the work of reconciliation between individuals and ethnic groups by inviting everyone to reject the myths of exacerbated nationalism and to cultivate a healthy love of their own country that will foster open-mindedness and conviviality;

(b) To teach everyone to practise Christian forgiveness so as to heal the wounds caused by ancient and recent hatreds;

(c) To launch new prayer initiatives in the hope of obtaining from the Lord the grace of conversion of hearts, an essential precondition for a genuine spiritual revival;

(d) To intensify the dialogue with Orthodox brothers at the local as well as the national and regional levels, showing readiness to meet their bishops in the spirit of fraternal charity and Christian action advocated in the recent encyclical " Ut unum sint ";

(e) To pursue contacts with Muslims in a spirit of mutual respect in order to ensure a worthy future for all;

(f) To devote special attention to refugees, whatever their origin, in the interests of reconstituting the social fabric in the diversity proper to each country and to the relationship between countries, the watchword being not so much to tolerate one's brother as to love him;

(g) To support the twinning of dioceses and parishes of the more favoured churches with less fortunate ones in the same regions, and to undertake without delay the reconstruction of places of worship destroyed by war, such actions being signs of hope and means of communion. With this purpose in view, the Holy Father has decided to set up a fund to be endowed with the royalties from his book Enter into Hope ;

(h) To promote greater awareness among the media, so that they may provide more objective information about the realities of life in their countries, and particularly the presence, trials and work of the Catholic Church;

( i ) To disseminate with greater accuracy the pontifical message and social doctrine of the Church, especially as regards the pernicious effects of nationalism and the obligation to respect the rights of minorities.

B. Rwanda

99. The actions taken by the Holy Father and the Holy See during the tragic events of the massacres and genocide in Rwanda were acknowledged by Mr. Denis Polisi , the Ambassador of Rwanda, in person when presenting his letters of credence, in the following terms: " … to thank you, Holy Father, on behalf of my Government and my people, for the tireless support you gave to the people of Rwanda during those tragic moments of massacre and genocide" (26 March 1995).

100. While we cannot retrace the full history of pontifical interventions in support of human rights, the democratic process and the Arusha negotiations over the past three years, we would like to mention here the most significant of the Pope's messages. When the massacres of Tutsis were taking place at Bugesera , the Holy Father was the first to make his voice heard (4 March 1992); and the same is true of the massacres at Kibuye-Gisenyi (22 February 1993 and 17 February 1994). In his addresses to the diplomatic corps, he invariably mentioned Rwanda. While the genocide was taking place, the Pope spoke of it every week; we refer, in particular, to the Message published in the earliest days of the massacres (and never, incidentally, disseminated in Rwanda) and the Angelus of 27 April and 15 May 1994, when His Holiness was the first eminent figure to speak publicly of "genocide".

101. As for the Arusha negotiations, the Rwandan Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Ngurinzira , paid a visit to the Vatican (2-3 July 1992) on the eve of their commencement. The Holy Father followed the main stages of the negotiations and, at crucial moments, made public appeals such as that of 29 November 1993. On 21 June 1993, the Holy Father received the Prime Minister, Mr. Dismas Nsengiyaremye , who had come to Rome to thank him for the mission entrusted to Cardinal Etchegaray and to acquaint him with the contents of the Arusha Accords, then on the point of being concluded.

102. Intensive action was taken by the Cor Unum and Justice and Peace Pontifical Councils . Cor unum regularly sent humanitarian aid on behalf of the Holy Father, and after the September 1992 message to the Episcopal Conference on the Church's commitments in the cause of human rights, justice, peace and the ethnic problem, Cardinal Etchegaray made an important visit to Rwanda from 6 to 11 May 1993, concluding it with a message to the Rwandan people which attracted a great deal of attention. On that occasion the Cardinal made visits to the President of the Republic and to the Government, but he also met with representatives of human rights organizations and political parties and, in addition, travelled to Rubaya to meet leading members of the FPR. After the murder of the three bishops, the Cardinal returned to Rwanda in July 1994.

103. The local Church and the episcopate never missed an opportunity to make every possible material and human contribution. We must point out that many parishes and religious houses became places of asylum for thousands of refugees ( Nyamata-Rikina-Kibuye ); some hundreds of persons remained in the parish of Nyundo for more than a year. At the beginning of 1994, it was the turn of the parish of Gikondo and Nyamirambo in Kigali.

104. Numerous messages and pastoral letters were sent out by the episcopate. Extracts from five of the most important messages concerning Rwanda are reproduced below.

1. MESSAGE FROM THE CATHOLIC BISHOPS OF RWANDA FOR LENT 1992

Convert and believe in the Gospel (11 March 1992)

“A short while ago the Rwandans learned of their Government's decision to change over to multi-party rule. The Catholic church, for its part, has unreservedly expressed its satisfaction and given its support to this system. However, many Rwandans deplore the obstacles still being placed in the way of democratization. Certain party leaders are behaving in a markedly anti-democratic fashion. Why are they manoeuvring to reject any collaboration, any flexibility that could make the transitional government strong enough to carry out its priority tasks? It is clear that some people are promoting their ideologies and their special interests to the detriment of the general interest of the people. Let us remember the old adage: "Two persons working together are worth eight shooting at each other"! The developments taking place at the negotiations have not escaped your notice: the selfishness and stubbornness are there for all to see. If things go on like this, if no one is prepared to call himself into question, no government will last longer than twenty-four hours. The politicians must discern the true values, they must become convinced that the salvation of Rwanda in the present parlous situation lies in tolerance and solidarity. That is the essential precondition if hostilities are to be brought to a rapid close and a viable policy for the nation is to be adopted.

"As long as Hutus , Tutsis and Twas fail to understand each other and to accept one another on an equal footing in running the country and preserving the nation's heritage without any monopolization of power, Rwanda will never know peace. The present period of spiritual conversion ought to help us to change our attitudes and become truly new men in this respect. Any programme that bears within it the seeds of discord between Hutus and Tutsis will take Rwanda to the abyss and plunge it in permanent conflict. The only effective programme is one that will help Hutus and Tutsis to fraternize with one another and will facilitate the rehabilitation of everyone living in this country.

"We therefore call on all of you to become truly converted. Let every man, and in particular every Christian, root out the selfishness and exclusiveness within him, for such leanings lead to the discord and violence rife in this country today. The present divisions, whether of ethnic, political or regional origin, are caused by selfishness and the refusal to recognize the abilities and patriotism of others, to grant them the right to act in accordance with the same ideals as ourselves. It behoves us all to realize that Rwanda is at a crossroads. Its future is being forged today by specific actions of its children as they grapple with the problems of the hour. "In the period of transition we are living through, the one-party system is gradually being replaced by multi- party rule. This changeover must be skilfully negotiated. There must be a change of mentalities, and above all a change of heart. We must learn to live with everyone - those who do not share our political opinions as well as those who come from a different ethnic group or a different region. We exhort you insistently to practise forgiveness and reconciliation."

2. PASTORAL LETTER FROM THE CATHOLIC BISHOPS OF RWANDA FOR ADVENT 1993

" The path of peace: Truth, Justice, Charity"

" The conduct of the new Rwandan

"This war, which has lasted for nearly three years, must be a serious warning to us. In order that we may not, later, suffer misfortunes similar to or even worse than those of today, we must abandon everything that tears us apart or creates divisions between us. It is no secret that one of the reasons for our national tragedy is the desire to grab everything for the benefit of one region or one ethnic group. The inevitable consequences of this have been an unequal distribution of positions of power and contempt of human rights and human dignity. In order that peace and social concord may become established in the life of Rwandans, we must all firmly understand that this country belong to all of us. Seizing privileges and countenancing exclusion on ethnic or regional grounds belongs to another age. Rwandans! we are all equal before God and the Law, and we all have the same rights. Therefore no ethnic group or region or coterie has the right to monopolize the entire country, its economy or its administration. As we said earlier on, let us get it firmly into our heads that all persons deserve respect, consideration and observance of their rights regardless of their ethnic and regional origins."

3. PASTORAL LETTER OF THE CATHOLIC BISHOPS OF RWANDA FOR LENT 1993

Peace and reconciliation among Rwandans

"Dear Christians, there are many interrelated reasons for the current war and insecurity - too many for all of them to be mentioned here. Let us point only to the most important among them, so that the road to peace and reconciliation, so badly needed today, may become clearer in our minds. Let us stress the lack of unity at crucial moments in Rwanda's history, especially when there is a change of government or when appointments to leading posts in the administration are made. Let us also speak of the injustices, the ethnic and regional discriminations, that have often characterized power-sharing in our country. Finally, let us mention the breakdown of respect of the human person - a process which goes as far as shedding blood, often the blood of the innocent. "Although no one can rejoice in the misfortunes Rwanda is suffering, we may yet learn from them that peace is not possible without unity. Our ethnic groups and regions are Rwanda's wealth. They must not be a source of discord between us. Complementarity and mutual respect are the characteristics of living together. The hallmark of genuine peace is the acceptance of our neighbour as he is, acceptance of the contribution by which he can enrich us, even if his ethnic group, his region, his political party or indeed his religion are not the same as ours. "We aspire to peace, but we are reluctant to pay the price of peace, which is mutual respect, tolerance and sharing, even if this requires a measure of self-sacrifice. We want peace, but we cannot make up our minds to break with that within us which disdains peace. No one who lies, intrigues, quarrels and murders can build peace, because he himself lacks peace. If we remain passive while insecurity reigns all around us, we shall never achieve peace. Thus, for example, the Arusha negotiations, from which all Rwandans expect so much, are being paralysed by people jockeying for political posts. It is lamentable and deeply sad to see a few people promote their personal interests to the detriment of the cooperation and unity needed for the construction of peace.

"Dear Christians, it is high time to put an end to antagonisms of ethnic, regional or party origin. Only then will we Rwandans live together in harmony with a single goal - that of building our motherland. Above all, we must change our mentality and our way of conducting ourselves. As we have often pointed out before, although our nation is made up of three different ethnic components, we are all equal in terms of our rights. This must be reflected in the whole of social life, and especially in education, both private and State-funded, in the armed forces, and in the administration.

"Christians, let us be the first to give an example of national unity, let us defend the oppressed and denounce the killings, let us be a model to all Rwandans! Verily, for those who belong to Christ there is neither Jew nor Greek, nor Hutu nor Tutsi nor Twa nor Mukiga nor Munyaduga , for we are all one in Jesus Christ (Galatians 3, 27-28).

"Dear fellow-citizens, you must be clear in your minds about where your true interests lie; you must refuse to lend your ears to those who want to involve you in violence and murder. Those who claim that the massacre of a particular ethnic group or persecutions in a region will bring peace and stability to Rwanda are deceiving you. You must stop increasing poverty and famine by wasting your time in useless street demonstrations instead of working for your families. To destroy public property built up with so much effort is to harm yourselves, for it is you, before anyone else, benefit from such property. Do not listen to the politician or party activist who presents a programme based on ethnic or regional enmity and division. His ambition is to destroy the country and to create violence. Rather, follow those who preach national concord: then every Rwandan will be able to live in safety in his motherland.

"Today, conflicts between political parties are one of the causes of insecurity. Let us say it again: everyone has the right to join the political party of his choice or to refuse to join any party. Therefor the fact of not belonging to the same party ought not to lead to quarrels or conflicts. Not to share the same ideas ought not to be a reason for fighting - on the contrary, it is a source of wealth for those of us who want to build our country in all its diversity, so that all Gods children may live in freedom and mutual respect. Party leaders should espouse this idea and inculcate it in all their followers. Thus the parties in which we place our hopes for the good management of our country will not become tools in the hands of enemies of the Rwanda's unity."

4. MESSAGE TO CHRISTIANS ON THE OCCASION OF CHRISTMAS

AND NEW YEAR

Love Thy Neighbour (21 December 1994)

" We have suffered a great trial; after so many disasters, Rwanda is still in a state of mourning and dire uncertainty. In recalling the tragic events of the recent past, we do not mean to twist the knife in the wound; rather, our intention is to draw a lesson from these misfortunes and to reprove them vigorously, so that our country may never again fall into such grave sinfulness.

"We all know that people have been killed, one after the other, simply on account of their ethnic origin, the region they came from, or their political opinions. Little children, old people and the sick have been killed without pity. Many Rwandans have been put to death, so that every Rwandan today has lost at least one member of his family. Some families have disappeared altogether.

"The dignity of the human individual has been violated. People have been ignominiously massacred on the doorstep of their homes, on the road and even outside the countray ; many have not received a burial. The survivors have undergone humiliations and torture of many kinds. People have behaved like savage beasts; they have boasted of their misdeeds; there are even some who refuse to stop the killing to this day.

"The sanctity of human life has been flouted. Under the pretext of rightful anger, certain people have arrogated to themselves the right to designate who is to be killed, allegedly in order to defend the country or to avenge other deaths. Yet they know God's commandment: "Thou shalt not kill" (Deuteronomy 5,17). Thus were ill-intentioned men given an opportunity to betray the unity of Rwanda's people. Persons with malevolent hearts have sown suspicion and calumny in e hearts of the people, creating resentment and a thirst for vengeance; some still refuse to cohabit in this country of ours that belongs to us all.

"Several factors have contributed to the deadlock in which our country finds itself today. While we cannot try to enumerate them all, we must not fail to denounce the two main causes which have nurtured the evil in Rwanda: the desire to get rich quick and the policy of monopolizing power.

"As a result of conspiracy, people have been killed together with their heirs so that others might seize their land, their houses, shops and vehicles. Those who covet things that are not the fruit of their own labours are the same as those who set populations, militias, armies and young people at loggerheads with one another until, in the end, they tear each other to pieces.

"In this country there are always some authorities and politicians who sow the evil seed of ethnic and regional segregation among our people; they imagine that this is the means to hoist themselves into power and to stay there. It is this that causes interminable strife and conflicts among the population: simple people who normally lead a peaceful existence next to each other, sharing the little they have got, are set at each other's throats by the competing interests of a few. As a result of such policies, the national army starts massacring people instead of watching over their safety. Such policies use lies, favouritism and corruption, nepotism and despotism, in order to blind those who ought to be the watchful eyes of society. The same policies prevent the young from living in concord with one another; they are responsible for an education stamped with mistrust and mutual suspicion. What will become of us if this situation becomes the hallmark of our society?

"Once again, we urge all those who have been ordained to conduct themselves in an exemplary manner; we tell them again that neither a bishop, nor a priest, nor a deacon, nor a friar, nor a nun may allow themselves to be won over by a group, whatever it may be, especially one founded upon ethnic and political segregation."

5. MESSAGE TO CHRISTIANS ON THE OCCASION OF CHRISTMAS AND NEW YEAR

"Let us build our Church" (15 December 1995)

"Dear brothers, the tragedy of genocide and the massacres in Rwanda have been extensively commented upon and written about.

"The followig causes are specially pinpointed:

Ethnic problems;

The jockeying for power and the desire to monopolize power which have concentrated wealth and know-how in the hands of a few small groups;

The poverty and ignorance of many people who unthinkingly fall for the lure of profit;

It is even being alleged that the Gospels have not been well preached, so that some Christians have participated in the genocide and the massacres.

"In this letter we do not propose to examine in detail the truthfulness and gravity of these assertions. That job should be entrusted to people who have time and competence in such areas as history and law. We enjoin those who will undertake this work to proceed with wisdom and perspicacity and to pursue no goal other than that of finding out the truth and making it known.

"We for our part believe that it is necessary to speak about the real problems behind the tragedy of Rwanda and to seek real solutions in the light of the Gospels. The fact that some people affirm that the Church has participated in the genocide and the massacres prompts us to undertake a serious investigation in order to establish what, in these allegation, is true and what is false or exaggerated.

"Let us recall first of all that the mission of the Church, the People of God in Rwanda, is to preach the Good News of love. The Church has never had another goal. Writings attesting to this are there for anyone to read. Thus anyone can find our the truth about the allegations being made by those who want to deceive him.

"Whoever teaches discord is in flagrant contradiction with the Gospel of Jesus Christ, a Gospel of love which it is the mission of the Church to proclaim. St.Paul puts it this way: "But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed" (Galatians 1.8).

"Therefor let ourselves be neither abused nor discouraged by those who affirm that the Church has preached the ideology of genocide and massacres.

"Secondly, we remnd you that the Church is a community of believers led by men w