Concluding observations on the seventh periodic reportof Finland *
* Adopted by the Committee at its fifty-seventh session (10 - 28 February 2014).
1.The Committee considered the seventh periodic report of Finland (CEDAW/C/FIN/7) at its 1201st and 1202nd meetings (see CEDAW/C/SR.1201 and 1202), on 20 February 2014. The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/FIN/Q/7 and the responses of the Government of Finland are contained in CEDAW/C/FIN/Q/7/Add.1.
2.The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for its seventh periodic report, which generally follows the Committee’s guidelines for the preparation of periodic reports, including page limitations, and takes into account the Committee’s previous concluding observations. The Committee also expresses its appreciation to the State party for its written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by its pre-sessional working group. It welcomes the oral presentation by the delegation and the further clarifications provided in response to the questions posed orally by the Committee.
3.The Committee commends the State party for its delegation, which was headed by the Director of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Arto Kosonen, and included a parliamentarian and several representatives of relevant ministries and the Permanent Mission of Finland to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. The Committee appreciates the constructive dialogue that took place between the Committee and the delegation.
4.The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2007 of the State party’s fifth and sixth periodic reports (CEDAW/C/FIN/5 and CEDAW/C/FIN/6) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption in 2008 and 2009 of amendments to the Act on Equality between Women and Men, which now imposes efficient sanctions on suppliers of goods and services who are responsible for discrimination prohibited under the Act.
5.The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, through the adoption of the following:
(a)The Government Action Plan for Gender Equality 2012-2015, adopted in June 2012;
(b)The National Action Plan to Reduce Violence against Women 2010-2015;
(c)The Action Plan for the Prevention of Circumcision of Girls and Women 2012-2016.
6.The Committee welcomes the fact that, in the period since the consideration of the previous report, the State party has ratified or acceded to the following international instruments:
(a)The Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;
(b)The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.
C.Principal areas of concern and recommendations
7. The Committee stresses the crucial role of the legislative power in ensuring the full implementation of the Convention (see the statement by the Committee on its relationship with parliamentarians, adopted at the forty-fifth session, in 2010). It invites the parliament, in line with its mandate, to take the necessary steps regarding the implementation of the present concluding observations between now and the next reporting period under the Convention.
Visibility of the Convention, the Optional Protocol and the Committee’s general recommendations
8.The Committee notes that information on the Convention and the Optional Protocol thereto is available on the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and that the Committee’s concluding observations are circulated to the relevant ministries, authorities and non-governmental organizations. The Committee is nonetheless concerned at the lack of awareness of the Convention in general and its limited invocation or application in court proceedings, of the procedures aimed at addressing violations of women’s rights through the Optional Protocol to the Convention, of the Committee’s general recommendations, which provide an authoritative interpretation of the Convention, and of views and recommendations of the Committee on individual communications and inquiries.
9. The Committee recommends that the State party, in line with its obligation under article 13 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention, take specific measures to make widely known and give publicity to the Convention and the Optional Protocol thereto, as well as to facilitate access to information about the general recommendations and the views and recommendations of the Committee on individual communications and inquiries, including through training for lawyers, judges, prosecutors, police and other law enforcement officials.
Definition of equality and non-discrimination
10.The Committee welcomes the proposed amendment to the Act on Equality between Women and Men, which expands the definition of sex and gender-based discrimination to include discrimination based on gender identity and gender expression. The Committee notes with concern, however, that the Act on Equality between Women and Men and the Non-Discrimination Act do not currently provide adequate protection to women against multiple or intersecting forms of discrimination.
11. The Committee urges the State party to ensure that reforms explicitly affording protection to women against multiple or intersecting forms of discrimination in all national gender equality and anti-discrimination laws are adopted in a harmonized manner.
National machinery for the advancement of women and gender mainstreaming
12.The Committee welcomes the Government Action Plan for Gender Equality 2012-2015, which is coordinated by the Gender Equality Unit of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, and the State party’s efforts to strengthen the management structures of gender mainstreaming within the Government, including through the development of a handbook to support gender equality work within Finnish ministries and the introduction of several training projects and briefings on gender mainstreaming for civil servants. The Committee is, however, concerned about budgetary and human resource constraints that hinder measures and policies for the advancement of women and effective use of gender mainstreaming in the State party, such as gender impact assessments in the drafting of laws in ministries, which are still not common practice. The Committee is also concerned about the lack of coordination, effective follow-up and monitoring of such measures through a high-level coordinating mechanism. Furthermore, while noting the draft law that proposes to replace the Ombudsman for Minorities with a new ombudsman for equal treatment, the Committee is concerned about the lack of specific institutions for the advancement of women and gender equality, in addition to the insufficient resources allocated to existing mechanisms, such as the Ombudsman for Equality which monitors and supervises the Act on Equality between Women and Men.
13. In line with its general recommendation No. 6 on effective national machinery and publicity, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Provide its existing and new national institutions and bodies for the advancement of women and gender equality with adequate human, technical and budgetary resources;
(b) Recalling the Committee ’ s previous recommendations ( CEDAW/C/FIN/CO/6 , para. 12), consider establishing a high-level coordination mechanism within the Government, with adequate resources, and with the responsibility and authority to ensure effective gender mainstreaming in all government policies, comprehensively monitor the situation of women, formulate new policies and effectively carry out strategies and measures to eliminat e discrimination against women;
(c) Take specific budgetary steps to ensure that gender impact assessments become common practice when drafting laws, policy programmes and action plans in all ministries.
Stereotypes and harmful practices
14.While noting the State party’s efforts to address gender stereotyping in the media, including through the Principles on Good Marketing of the Council of Ethics in Advertising, which prohibit advertisements containing the sexual objectification of women and gender stereotypes that are degrading, patronizing or derogatory, the Committee reiterates its concern (CEDAW/C/FIN/CO/6, para. 19) that the media and advertisements in the State party are becoming increasingly pornographic, focus on idealized body shape and portray women as sex objects, which may also contribute to the increasing problem of eating disorders among young women and girls. The Committee is also concerned about the increase in hate speech against women and girls in Internet forums and social media, in particular against women from ethnic minorities.
15. The Commit tee calls upon the State party:
(a) To develop gender-sensitive counselling for girls and women s uffering from eating disorders;
(b) To engage with the media with the aim of eliminating stereotypical imaging of women, especially when it affects women ’ s health;
(c) To strengthen measures to tackle hate speech against ethnic minority and other women and girls, in the media, including on Internet discuss ion boards and in social media.
16.While welcoming the adoption of the Action Plan for the Prevention of Circumcision of Girls and Women 2012-2016, which was published by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in August 2012, the Committee is concerned about the lack of an explicit provision in national legislation criminalizing the practice of female genital mutilation. The Committee notes the lack of identified cases of female genital mutilation practices within the State party and the fact that no non-refoulement claims based on a risk of female genital mutilation upon return to the country of origin have been granted, which may indicate that low priority is accorded to this issue.
17. The Committee recommends that the State party undertake efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation, including by raising awareness of its harmful effects for girls and women in the communities known to engage in this practice and by incorporating an explicit provision criminalizing female genital mutilation into its legislation.
Violence against women
18.The Committee expresses appreciation for the efforts of the State party to prevent intimate partner violence and domestic violence, including through the adoption of the Action Plan to Reduce Violence against Women 2010-2015, and the assurance provided by the State party to the Committee during the constructive dialogue that it would shortly ratify the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence. The Committee is, however, concerned:
(a)That insufficient resources have been allocated to the implementation of the Action Plan to Reduce Violence against Women 2010-2015 and that the incidence of violence against women remains high;
(b)That there is no effective institutional mechanism to coordinate, monitor and assess measures at the government level to prevent and tackle violence against women;
(c)That public discourse on domestic violence is couched in gender-neutral language, which undermines the notion that such violence is a clear and disproportionate manifestation of discrimination against women;
(d)That mediation and conciliation procedures are increasingly employed in domestic violence cases, notwithstanding recommendations in the Government Programme and the Government Action Plan for Gender Equality 2012-2015 to limit its use, and notwithstanding the previous concerns of the Committee (CEDAW/C/FIN/CO/6, para. 15) that such procedures may lead to the revictimization of women who have suffered violence;
(e)That the Penal Code continues to define rape according to the degree of violence of the perpetrator and does not place the lack of consent of the victim at the centre of the definition; the draft amendment to the Penal Code continues to define abuse of authority leading to sexual intercourse as sexual abuse rather than rape, resulting, among other things, in lenient sentences for acts committed by perpetrators in institutional settings against disadvantaged persons, in particular women with disabilities; and conviction rates in cases of rape are proportionally lower (17.5 per cent) than those in relation to other crimes such as assault (49.5 per cent);
(f)That the number and services of shelters, many of which have been established and are operating on the initiative of non-governmental organizations, are insufficient to meet the needs of women victims of violence;
(g)That other services available for victims of gender-based violence, including rape crisis centres, 24-hour helpline services and walk-in centres, are lacking.
19. Recalling its general recommendation No. 19 on violence against women, the Commit tee calls upon the State party:
(a) To allocate adequate financial resources to the national action plan and strategies aimed at elim inating violence against women;
(b) To establish an effective and adequately funded institutional mechanism at the government level to coordinate, monitor and assess the e ffectiveness of measures taken;
(c) To take specific measures to promote the use of gender-sensitive language in public discourse on the issue of domestic violence and provide info rmation on its gendered nature;
(d) To take the legislative and other measures necessary to prohibit mandatory mediation and conciliation in cases of intimate partner and other forms of domestic violence;
(e) To review the legislation on rape so as to remove any requirement that sexual assault be committed by force or threat and place the lack of consent at the centre of its definition; amend the Penal Code, chapter 20, section 1.2, on rape and section 5.1, containing provisions on sexual abuse, to ensure that the definition of rape also covers cases of non-consensual sexual acts where there is an abuse of authority, such as in cases of rape committed against women who are residents in closed institutions, and align the sanctions for such acts from a fine to the minimum sentence of imprisonment as is the case for the commission of such acts; and take specific measures to fully investigate, prosecute and punish perpetrators of rape in order to increase the conviction rates in cases of rape;
(f) To ensure that a sufficient number of shelters, staffed by qualified personnel and provided with adequate financial resources, are available to women victims of violence, including those from disadvantaged grou ps who require special support;
(g) To open rape crisis centres, walk-in centres and 24-hour, free-of-charge helplines that provide protection and assistance to all women victims of violence, including migrant women, women with disabilities and women b elonging to sexual minorities;
(h) To ratify the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence within the time frame indicated by the State party.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
20.The Committee acknowledges the State party’s efforts to assess the current status of legislation on trafficking and the assistance afforded to victims. The Committee is nonetheless concerned that the definitions of trafficking and pandering remain unclear and may result in the misidentification of victims of trafficking and related protection gaps. It is also concerned that victims of trafficking and exploitation of prostitution may be reluctant to report such exploitation to the authorities for fear of being deported under the State party’s Aliens Act. The Committee also notes that the State party remains an exception in the region because neighbouring States have criminalized the demand for prostitution. The Committee further regrets the lack of information and data on the extent of prostitution and the lack of measures taken by the State party to reduce the demand for prostitution and provide alternative income-generating opportunities to women who wish to leave prostitution.
21. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Review its legislation on human trafficking and provide clear definitions of trafficking and pandering to ensure that victims are properly identified and provided with adequate protection and assistance;
(b) Assess the risk of deportation for victims of trafficking under the Aliens Act and introduce amendme nts to the Act where necessary;
(c) Ensure that women and girls who are victims of trafficking have access to medical care, legal and psychosocial counselling, adequate housing, education, income-generating opportunities and rehabilitation and reintegration programmes, regardless of their ability or willingness to testify against traffickers;
(d) Pursue steps to criminalize the demand for prostitution and take measures to discourage such demand;
(e) Collect disaggregated data on women engaged in prostitution, with a view to formulating strategies and programmes to prevent women from entering prostitution and to assist women and girls who wish to leave prostitution, including through alternative income-generating opportunities.
Participation in political and public life
22.The Committee commends the State party for the high percentage of women in the State party’s parliament (43 per cent), Government (47 per cent) and among the State party’s representatives in the European Parliament (62 per cent). The Committee remains concerned, however, at the low number of women in decision-making positions in the private sector. The Committee is also concerned that migrant women, women with disabilities, women from ethnic minorities and Roma women are underrepresented in political and public life and notes the lack of statistical data on their situation. The Committee is further concerned that the legislation on data collection prohibiting the collection of information on certain grounds may impede the State party’s efforts to address the discrimination affecting certain groups of women.
23. In line with its general recommendation No. 23 on women in public life, the Committee encourages the State party to adopt temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and with the Committee ’ s general recommendation No. 25 on temporary special measures, so as:
(a) To ensure that the representation of women in leadership positions in the private sector reflects the full diversity of the population;
(b) To ensure the representation of women from disadvantaged groups, such as women with disabilities, women from ethnic minorities, Roma women and migrant women in political and public life;
(c) To consider amending its legislation to enable the collection of statistical data needed for programmes and policies aimed at overcoming discrimination against women belonging to the groups mentioned above;
(d) To provide disaggregated information on the representation of women in political and public life in its next periodic report, including on the women belonging to the groups mentioned above.
24.The Committee acknowledges the reforms to the national core curricula for basic compulsory education and the reform of the law on early childhood education, which both include measures to advance gender equality. The Committee nonetheless remains concerned about the continued presence of traditional values and gender stereotypes in the curricula for different subjects. The Committee is also concerned that the number of women in professorship positions remains low, with women accounting for only 25.5 per cent of full-time professors in the State party.
25. The Committee recommends that the State party raise awareness of the important role of the education system in overcoming differentiated professional choices and potentially unequal future prospects of women and men. To this end, it calls upon the State party:
(a) To eliminate gender stereotypes and structural barriers that potentially deter girls ’ and boys ’ enrolment in non-traditional educational and occupational fields at all levels of the education system;
(b) To consider adopting temporary special measures to accelerate the appointment of women in academic institutions, through women-specific grants and other affirmative action measures, such as setting clear targets and time frames for promoting the recruitment of women as full-time professors.
26.The Committee notes the Equal Pay Programme, which aims at reducing the gender pay gap to 15 per cent by 2015, and the strengthening of the practice of pay surveys within the context of the equality plan. The Committee, however, remains concerned, however, about the persistence of a gender pay gap of 17 per cent in the State party. The Committee is also concerned about the high unemployment rate and low wages among migrant and Roma women, single mothers, older women and women with disabilities. The Committee also reiterates its concern, expressed in its previous concluding observations (CEDAW/C/FIN/CO/6, para. 25) concerning illegal dismissals of women owing to pregnancy, childbirth and maternity leave. It further regrets that the percentage of men who take parental leave remains low and that family leave available to men and single parents remains considerably low.
27. The Committee r ecommends that the State party:
(a) Take immediate measures to meet the target set by the Equal Pay Programme of a gender-based wage gap of 15 per cent by 2015, with a view to closing the wage gap between men and women in accordance with the Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100) of the Inter national Labour Organization;
(b) Adopt temporary special measures to accelerate the equal participation of women from disadvantaged groups, including migrant women, Roma women, single mothers, older women and women with disabilities in the labour market, and undertake comprehensive studies on the employment and working conditions of those groups of women, with recommendations for enhancing their effective part icipation in the labour market;
(c) Amend legislation to specifically prohibit employers from not renewing fixed-term employment contracts based on family leave and from limiting their duration on that basis;
(d) Continue efforts to ensure the reconciliation of family and professional responsibilities and promote the equal sharing of domestic and family tasks between women and men, including by developing incentives to encourage more men to avail themselves of parental leave.
28.The Committee notes with concern the increase in cases of depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, alcohol-related diseases and suicide among women and girls in the State party. The Committee is also concerned about the obligation on transgender persons to prove infertility or undergo sterilization for the legal recognition of their gender under the Law on Legal Recognition of the Gender of Transsexuals of 2002. The Committee is further concerned about the legal provisions that allow sterilization and contraception treatments for women with mental disabilities upon consent of a third party (legal representative) if a woman is deemed incapable of giving her consent.
29. The Committee r ecommends that the State party:
(a) Take the measures necessary to address the deteriorating mental health situation of young women and girls and to prevent and address the abuse of alcohol and drugs, in addition to suicide, including through awareness-raising and educational campaigns targeted at adolescent girls, in particular in the media;
(b) Expeditiously amend the Law on Legal Recognition of the Gender of Transsexuals to ensure that gender recognition is carried out without requiring transgender persons to conform to stereotypical ideas of masculine or feminine appearance or behaviour and that it does not require individuals to consent to sterilization;
(c) Take immediate steps to repeal section 2 of the Sterilization Act, which permits the sterilization of women with disabilities who have limited legal capacity or who have been deprived of their legal capacity without their consent.
Disadvantaged groups of women
30.The Committee welcomes the State party’s Government Integration Programme and numerous inclusion and integration projects aimed at promoting equal opportunities for migrant women, including in the labour market. The Committee nevertheless remains concerned that migrant women have only limited access to employment and health services. It is also concerned that migrant women are particularly vulnerable to various forms of violence, including domestic violence, female genital mutilation and so-called honour killing, and may encounter difficulties in gaining access to social and protection services against such forms of violence owing to legal illiteracy or fear of losing their residence permit or of being deported if they are in an irregular situation.
31. The Committee r ecommends that the State party:
(a) Strengthen measures to eliminate discrimination against migrant women, both in society at larg e and within their communities;
(b) Develop targeted programmes and strategies to increase the awareness of migrant women of their rights and access to education, professional training, employment, health care and other basic services, as well as to free legal aid and effective remedies if their rights have been violated;
(c) Conduct comprehensive studies on discrimination against migrant women and collect statistics in employment, health care and on forms of violence that they may experience, with a view to identifying gaps and establishing policies directed at addressing multiple or intersecting forms of discri mination against migrant women.
Women with disabilities
32.The Committee reiterates its previous concern (CEDAW/C/FIN/CO/6, para. 35) that women with disabilities suffer from multiple forms of discrimination, including with regard to access to education, employment, health care and participation in political life. The Committee is also concerned that the scope of the Non-Discrimination Act is wider for discrimination based on ethnic origin than for discrimination based on disability with regard to housing, social welfare, social security, health care and other public services. The Committee is further concerned about the high rate of sexual violence against women with disabilities and the lack of specialized services for victims, in particular shelters and 24-hour helplines accessible to women with disabilities. The Committee regrets the absence of sufficient information and data on the situation of women with disabilities in the State party, in particular their socioeconomic status and living conditions, as well as concerning violence against women with disabilities.
33. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To take steps to review its anti-discrimination legislation to ensure that discrimination on the basis of disability is prohibited in the public and private spheres and that remedies, sanctions and complaints mechanisms are available to women with disabilities, including in cases of multiple or intersecting forms of discrimination;
(b) To take specific measures to address violence against women with disabilities through the provision of accessible shelters and 24-hour victim support hotlines, and police training and awareness-r aising regarding such violence;
(c) To conduct regular and comprehensive studies on discrimination against women with disabilities and collect disaggregated statistical data on their situation in employment, education, health and on all forms of violence that they may experience.
34.The Committee notes the measures taken by the State party to enhance the prevention of discrimination against Roma women and girls, including through the adoption of a national policy on Roma, in 2009. The Committee is concerned, however, that such measures lack sufficient gender perspective and do not adequately tackle the multiple or intersecting forms of discrimination faced by Roma women. The Committee is also concerned about the general lack of data on Roma women, their high unemployment rate and the difficulties that they face in gaining access to basic services and protection, including shelters for victims of domestic violence.
35. The Committee r ecommends that the State party:
(a) Incorporate a gender perspective into all policies adopted to address discrimination against Roma and adopt effective measures that take into account the multiple forms of discrim ination suffered by Roma women;
(b) Adopt proactive measures to prevent discrimination against Roma women, both in their communities and in society at large, combat violence against them and increase their access to social services and legal remedies, and educate Roma women and girls about their rights to equality and non ‑ disc rimination;
(c) Collect data on access by Roma women to education, employment, health care and shelters for Roma victims of violence, on the impact of the measures taken to enhance such access and on the results achieved.
36.The Committee is concerned about the low representation of Sami women in the Sami parliament and in other political decision-making bodies. It also notes that maternity clinics, hospitals and day-care and educational institutions rarely provide services in Sami languages. The Committee is further concerned at the lack of shelters in northern Finland for Sami women who are victims of domestic violence.
37. The Committee r ecommends that the State party:
(a) Ensure that a gender perspective is mainstreamed in all policies and progra mmes regarding the Sami people;
(b) Adopt specific measures with the aim of increasing the representation of Sami women in the political and public life of both their community and the State party ’ s society at large;
(c) Take steps to ensure that all Sami women are provided with adequate social and health services, including maternal health care;
(d) Ensure that Sami women who are victims of domestic violence have access to shelters and ser vices that address their needs.
Marriage and family relations
38.The Committee is concerned that the current property system that encourages entering into marriage settlements stipulating the separation of property may result in compromising the economic situation of women following divorce. It is further concerned that pension rights and other work-related benefits, in addition to future earning capacity, are not considered to be part of the matrimonial property when marital right is being claimed, which may further lead to a disadvantaged economic position for women following separation or divorce. The Committee is also concerned that the issue of domestic violence is not taken into consideration when deciding on the custody of children upon divorce.
39. In line with article 16 of the Convention and its general recommendation No. 29 on the economic consequences of marriage, family relations and their dissolution, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Undertake research on the economic consequences of divorce on both spouses, giving specific attention to the gender disparity regarding future earning capacity, pension rights and work-related benefits, and re-examine the matrimonial system that enc ourages separation of property;
(b) Consider revising the definition of matrimonial property so that a marital right would include pension rights and other work-related benefits, in addition to future earnings;
(c) Adopt measures to ensure that domestic violence is a factor to be systematically considered in child custody decisions.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
40. The Committee calls upon the State party to use the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in its efforts to implement the provisions of the Convention.
Millennium Development Goals and the post-2015 development framework
41. The Committee calls for the integration of a gender perspective, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, into all efforts aimed at the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and in relation to the post-2015 development framework.
42. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement the provisions of the Convention. It urges the State party to give priority attention to the implementation of the present concluding observations and recommendations between now and the submission of the next periodic report. The Committee therefore requests that the present concluding observations be disseminated in a timely manner, in the official languages of the State party, to the relevant State institutions at all levels (national, regional, local), in particular to the Government, the ministries, the parliament and the judiciary, to enable their full implementation. It encourages the State party to collaborate with all stakeholders concerned, such as employers ’ associations, trade unions, human rights and women ’ s organizations, universities, research institutions and media. It further recommends that its concluding observations be disseminated in an appropriate form at the local community level, so as to enable their implementation. In addition, the Committee requests the State party to continue to disseminate the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and relevant jurisprudence, as well as the Committee ’ s general recommendations, to all stakeholders.
Ratification of other treaties
43. The Committee notes that the adherence of the State party to the nine major international human rights instruments would enhance the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee therefore encourages the State party to consider ratifying the treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.
Follow-up to the concluding observations
44. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps taken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 19 (a), (b), (d ), (e), (f), (g) and (h) above.
Preparation of the next report
45. The Committee invites the State party to submit its eighth periodic report in Februar y 2018.
46. The Committee requests the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents ( HRI/MC/2006/3 and Corr.1).